The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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ROTROU, JEAN DE, French poet, born at Dreux; was a contemporary of Corneille and a rival, wrote a number of plays, almost all tragedies, on romantic and classical subjects, some of which have kept the stage till now (1609-1650).

ROTTERDAM (223), the chief port and second city of Holland, situated at the junction of the Rotte with the Maas, 19 m. from the North Sea and 45 m. SW. of Amsterdam; the town is cut in many parts by handsome canals, which communicate with the river and serve to facilitate the enormous foreign commerce; the quaint old houses, the stately public buildings, broad tree-lined streets, canals alive with fleets of trim barges, combine to give the town a picturesque and animated appearance. Boymans' Museum has a fine collection of Dutch and modern paintings, and the Groote Kerk is a Gothic church of imposing appearance; there is also a large zoological garden; shipbuilding, distilling, sugar-refining, machine and tobacco factories are the chief industries.

ROTTI (60), a fertile hilly island in the Indian Archipelago, SW. of Timor, a Dutch possession.

ROUBAIX (115), a busy town in the department of Nord, N. of France; situated on a canal 6 m. NE. of Lille; is of modern growth; actively engaged in the manufacture of all kinds of textiles, in brewing, &c.

ROUBILLIAC, LOUIS FRANCOIS, sculptor, born at Lyons; studied in Paris, came to London; executed there statues of Shakespeare in the British Museum, Sir Isaac Newton at Cambridge, and Haendel at London (1693-1762).

ROUBLE, a silver coin of the value of 3s. 2d.; the unit of the Russian monetary system; a much depreciated paper rouble is also in circulation; the rouble is divided into 100 copecks.

ROUEN (112), the ancient capital of Normandy, a busy manufacturing town on the Seine, 87 m. NW of Paris; a good portion of the old, crowded, picturesque town has given place to more spacious streets and dwellings; the old ramparts have been converted into handsome boulevards; has several Gothic churches unrivalled in beauty, a cathedral (the seat of an archbishop), &c.; the river affords an excellent waterway to the sea, and as a port Rouen ranks fourth in France; is famed for its cotton and other textiles; Joan of Arc was burned here in 1431.

ROUGET DE LISLE, officer of the Engineers, born at Lons-le-Saulnier; immortalised himself as the author of the "MARSEILLAISE" (q. v.); was thrown into prison by the extreme party at the Revolution, but was released on the fall of Robespierre; fell into straitened circumstances, but was pensioned by Louis Philippe (1760-1836).

ROUGE-ET-NOIR (i. e. red and black), a gambling game of chance with cards, so called because it is played on a table marked with two red and two black diamond-shaped spots, and arranged alternately in four different sections of the table.

ROUHER, EUGENE, French Bonapartist statesman, born at Riom, where he became a barrister; entered the Constituent Assembly in 1848, and in the following year became Minister of Justice; was more or less in office during the next 20 years; he became President of the Senate in 1869; fled to England on the fall of the Empire; later on re-entered the National Assembly, and vigorously defended the ex-emperor Napoleon III. (1814-1884).

ROULERS (20), a manufacturing town in West Flanders, 19 m. SW. of Bruges; engaged in manufacturing cottons, lace, &c.; scene of a French victory over the Austrians in 1794.

ROULETTE, a game of chance, very popular in France last century, now at Monaco; played with a revolving disc and a ball.

ROUMANIA (5,800), a kingdom of SE. Europe, wedged in between Russia (N.) and Bulgaria (S.), with an eastern shore on the Black Sea; the Carpathians on the W. divide it from Austro-Hungary; comprises the old principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which, long subject to Turkey, united under one ruler in 1859, and received their independence in 1878, in which year the province of Dobrudja was ceded by Russia; in 1881 the combined provinces were recognised as a kingdom; forms a fertile and well-watered plain sloping N. to S., which grows immense quantities of grain, the chief export; salt-mining and petroleum-making are also important industries; the bulk of the people belong to the Greek Church; peasant proprietorship on a large scale is a feature of the national life; government is vested in a hereditary limited monarch, a council of ministers, a senate, and a chamber of deputies; BUCHAREST (q. v.) is the capital, and GALATZ (q. v.) the chief port.

ROUMELIA, a former name for a district which embraced ancient Thrace and a portion of Macedonia; the territory known as East Roumelia was incorporated with Bulgaria in 1885.

ROUND TABLE, THE, the name given to the knighthood of King Arthur: a larger, from including as many as 150 knights; and a smaller, from including only 12 of the highest order.

ROUND TOWERS, ancient towers, found chiefly in Ireland, of a tall, round, more or less tapering structure, divided into storeys, and with a conical top, erected in the neighbourhood of some church or monastery, and presumably of Christian origin, and probably used as strongholds in times of danger; of these there are 118 in Ireland, and three in Scotland—at Abernethy, Brechin, and Eglishay (Orkney).

ROUNDHEADS, the name of contempt given by the Cavaliers to the Puritans or Parliamentary party during the Civil War, on account of their wearing their hair close crept.

ROUS, FRANCIS, provost of Eton, born in Cornwall; sat in the Westminster Assembly, and was the author of the metrical version of the Psalms, as used in Presbyterian churches (1579-1659).

ROUSSEAU, JEAN BAPTISTE, French lyric poet, born in Paris, the son of a shoemaker; gave offence by certain lampoons ascribed to him which to the last he protested were forgeries, and was banished; his satires were certainly superior to his lyrics, which were cold and formal; died at Brussels in exile (1670-1741).

ROUSSEAU, JEAN JACQUES, a celebrated French philosopher, and one or the great prose writers of French literature, born in Geneva, the son of a watchmaker and dancing-master; was apprenticed to an engraver, whose inhuman treatment drove him at the age of 16 into running away; for three years led a vagrant life, acting as footman, lackey, secretary, &c.; during this period was converted to Catholicism largely through the efforts of Madame de Warens, a spritely married lady living apart from her husband; in 1731 he took up residence in his patroness's house, where he lived for nine years a life of ease and sentiment in the ambiguous capacity of general factotum, and subsequently of lover; supplanted in the affections of his mistress, he took himself off, and landed in Paris in 1741; supported himself by music-copying, an occupation which was his steadiest means of livelihood throughout his troubled career; formed a liaison with an illiterate dull servant-girl by whom he had five children, all of whom he callously handed over to the foundling hospital; acquaintance with Diderot brought him work on the famous Encyclopedie, but the true foundation of his literary fame was laid in 1749 by "A Discourse on Arts and Sciences," in which he audaciously negatives the theory that morality has been favoured by the progress of science and the arts; followed this up in 1753 by a "Discourse on the Origin of Inequality," in which he makes a wholesale attack upon the cherished institutions and ideals of society; morosely rejected the flattering advances of society, and from his retreat at Montlouis issued "The New Heloise" (1760), "The Social Contract" (1762), and "Emile" (1762); these lifted him into the widest fame, but precipitated upon him the enmity and persecution of Church (for his Deism) and State; fled to Switzerland, where after his aggressive "Letters from the Mountains," he wandered about, the victim of his own suspicious, hypochondriacal nature; found for some time a retreat in Staffordshire under the patronage of Hume; returned to France, where his only persecutors were his own morbid hallucinations; died, not without suspicion of suicide, at Ermenonville; his "Confessions" and other autobiographical writings, although unreliable in facts, reflect his strange and wayward personality with wonderful truth; was one of the precursive influences which brought on the revolutionary movement (1712-1778).

ROUSSEAU, PIERRE ETIENNE THEODORE, an eminent French artist, born in Paris; at 19 exhibited in the Salon; slowly won his way to the front as the greatest French landscape painter; in 1848 settled down in Barbizon, in the Forest of Fontainebleau, his favourite sketching ground; his pictures (e. g. "The Alley of Chestnut Trees," "Early Summer Morning") fetch immense prices now (1812-1867).

ROVEREDO (10), an Austrian town in the Tyrol, pleasantly situated on the Leno, in the Laegerthal; is the centre of the Tyrolese silk trade.

ROW, JOHN, a Scottish reformer; graduated LL.D. in Padua; came over from the Catholic Church in 1558, and two years later helped to compile the "First Book of Discipline"; settled as a minister in Perth, and was four times Moderator of the General Assembly (1525-1580). His son, John Row, was minister of Carnock, near Dunfermline, and author of an authoritative "History of the Kirk of Scotland" (1568-1646).

ROWE, NICHOLAS, dramatist and poet-laureate, born at Barford, Bedfordshire; was trained for the law, but took to literature, and made his mark as a dramatist, "The Fair Penitent," "Jane Shore," &c., long maintaining their popularity; translated Lucan's "Pharsalia," which won Dr. Johnson's commendation; edited Shakespeare; became poet-laureate in 1715; held some government posts; was buried at Westminster Abbey (1674-1718).

ROWLANDSON, THOMAS, caricaturist, born in London; studied art in Paris; gambled and lived extravagantly; led a roving life in England and Wales; displayed great versatility and strength in his artistic work, e. g. in "Imitations of Modern Drawings," illustrations to Sterne's "Sentimental Journey," "Munchausen's Travels," &c.; ridiculed Napoleon in many cartoons (1756-1827).

ROWLEY REGIS (31), a flourishing town of Staffordshire, 3 m. SE. of Dudley; has large iron-works, potteries, &c.

ROWTON HEATH, in the vicinity of Chester, scene of a great Parliamentary victory over the forces of Charles I. in September 1645.

ROXBURGHSHIRE (54), in Border pastoral county of Scotland, between Berwick (NE.) and Dumfries (SW.); the Cheviots form its southern boundary; lies almost wholly within the basin of the Tweed, which winds along its northern border, receiving the Teviot, Jed, &c.; includes the fine pastoral districts of Teviotdale and Liddesdale, where vast flocks of sheep are reared; agriculture and woollen manufactures are important industries; Hawick is the largest town, and Jedburgh the county town; near Kelso stood the royal castle and town of Roxburgh, which gave its name to the county, destroyed in 1460.

ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS, in London; was instituted in 1768 by George III. as a result of a memorial presented to him by 29 members who had seceded from "The Incorporated Society of Artists of Great Britain" (founded 1765); for some years received grants from the privy purse, and was provided with rooms in Somerset House; removed to Trafalgar Square in 1836, and to its present quarters at Burlington House in 1869; receives now no public grant; holds yearly exhibitions, and supports an art school; membership comprises 42 Royal Academicians, besides Associates. The present President is Sir Edward John Poynter. The Royal Hibernian Academy (founded 1823) and the Scottish Academy (1826) are similar institutions.

ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH, THE, was incorporated by royal charter in 1783 through the efforts of Robertson the historian, and superseded the old Philosophical Society; held fortnightly meetings (December till June) in the Royal Institution; receives a grant of L300; publishes Transactions; has a membership of some 550, including foreign and British Fellows.

ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, incorporated by royal charter in 1662, but owing its origin to the informal meetings about 1645 of a group of scientific men headed by Theodore Haak, a German, Dr. Wilkins, and others; in 1665 the first number of their Philosophical Transactions was published which, with the supplementary publication, Proceedings of the Royal Society, begun in 1800, constitute an invaluable record of the progress of science to the present day; encouragement is given to scientific investigation by awards of medals (Copley, Davy, Darwin, &c.), the equipping of scientific expeditions (e. g. the Challenger), &c.; weekly meetings are held at Burlington House (quarters since 1857) during the session (November till June); membership comprises some 500 Fellows, including 40 foreigners; receives a parliamentary grant of L4000 a year, and acts in an informal way as scientific adviser to Government.

ROYAN (6), a pretty seaside town of France, on the estuary of the Gironde, 60 m. NW. of Bordeaux; trebles its population in the summer.

ROYER-COLLARD, PIERRE PAUL, politician and philosopher, born at Sompuis; called to the Paris bar at 20; supported the Revolution, but refused to follow the Jacobins, and during the Reign of Terror sought shelter in his native town; was elected to the Council of the Five Hundred in 1797, retired in 1804, and betook himself to philosophic studies; became professor of Philosophy in Paris 1811, and exercised great influence; re-entered political life in 1815, and was actively engaged in administrative work till his retirement in 1842; was all through his life a doctrinaire and rather unpractical (1763-1842).

ROYTON (13), a busy cotton town in Lancashire, 2 m. NW. of Oldham.

RUABON (18), a mining town in Denbighshire, 41/2 m. SW. of Wrexham; has collieries and iron-works.

RUBENS, PETER PAUL, the greatest of the Flemish painters, born at Siegen, in Westphalia; came with his widowed mother in 1587 to Antwerp, where he sedulously cultivated the painter's art, and early revealed his masterly gift of colouring; went to Italy, and for a number of years was in the service of the Duke of Mantua, who encouraged him in his art, and employed him on a diplomatic mission to Philip III. of Spain; executed at Madrid some of his finest portraits; returned to Antwerp in 1609; completed in 1614 his masterpiece, "The Descent from the Cross," in Antwerp Cathedral; with the aid of assistants he painted the series of 21 pictures, now in the Louvre, illustrating the principal events in the life of Maria de' Medici during 1628-1629; diplomatic missions engaged him at the Spanish and English Courts, where his superabundant energy enabled him to execute many paintings for Charles I.—e. g. "War and Peace," in the National Gallery—and Philip IV.; was knighted by both; in all that pertains to chiaroscuro, colouring, and general technical skill Rubens is unsurpassed, and in expressing particularly the "tumult and energy of human action," but he falls below the great Italian artists in the presentation of the deeper and sublimer human emotions; was a scholarly, refined man, an excellent linguist, and a successful diplomatist; was twice married; died at Antwerp, and was buried in the Church of St. Jacques; his tercentenary was celebrated in 1877 (1577-1640).

RUBICON, a famous river of Italy, associated with Julius Caesar, now identified with the modern Fiumecino, a mountain torrent which springs out of the eastern flank of the Apennines and enters the Adriatic N. of Ariminum; marked the boundary line between Roman Italy and Cisalpine Gaul, a province administered by Caesar; when he crossed it in 49 B.C. it was tantamount to a declaration of war against the Republic, hence the expression "to cross the Rubicon" is applied to the decisive step in any adventurous undertaking.

RUBINSTEIN, ANTON, a famous Russian pianist and composer, born, of Jewish parents, near Jassy, in Moldavia; studied at Moscow, under Liszt in Paris, and afterwards at Berlin and Vienna; established himself at St. Petersburg in 1848 as a music-teacher; became director of the Conservatoire there; toured for many years through Europe and the United States, achieving phenomenal success; resumed his directorship at St. Petersburg in 1887; composed operas (e. g. "The Maccabees," "The Demon"), symphonies (e. g. "Ocean"), sacred operas (e. g. "Paradise Lost"), chamber music, and many exquisite songs; as a pianist he was a master of technique and expression; was ennobled by the Czar in 1869; published an autobiography; his works as well as his performances display both vigour and sensibility (1829-1894).

RUBRICS, a name, as printed originally in red ink, applied to the rules and instructions given in the liturgy of the Prayer-Book for regulating the conduct of divine service, hence applied in a wider significance to any fixed ecclesiastical or other injunction or order; was used to designate the headings or title of chapters of certain old law-books and MSS., formerly but not now necessarily printed in red characters.

RUBY, a gem which in value and hardness ranks next to the diamond; is dichroic, of greater specific gravity than any other gem, and belongs to the hexagonal system of crystals; is a pellucid, ruddy-tinted stone, and, like the sapphire, a variety of corundum, also found (but rarely) in violet, pink, and purple tints; the finest specimens come from Upper Burmah; these are the true Oriental rubies, and when above 5 carats exceed in value, weight for weight, diamonds; the Spinel ruby is the commoner jeweller's stone; is of much less value, specific gravity and hardness, non-dichroic, and forms a cubical crystal.

RUeCKERT, FRIEDRICH, German poet, born at Schweinfurt, in Bavaria; at Wuerzburg University showed his talent for languages, and early devoted himself to philology and poetry; was for 15 years professor of Oriental Languages at Erlangen; introduced German readers, by excellent translations, to Eastern poetry; filled for some time the chair of Oriental Languages in Berlin; takes rank as a lyrist of no mean powers; essayed unsuccessfully dramatic composition (1788-1866).

RUDDIMAN, THOMAS, author of a well-known Latin grammar, a Banffshire man, and graduate of Aberdeen University; was school-mastering at Laurencekirk, where his scholarly attainments won him an assistantship in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh; spent a busy life in that; city in scholarly occupation, editing many learned works, the most notable being Buchanan's works and the "immaculate" edition of Livy; his famous Latin grammar was completed in 1732; in 1730 became principal keeper of the Advocates' Library (1674-1757).

RUDOLF I., of the House of Hapsburg, founder of the Austrian dynasty; born, the son of a count, at Schloss Limburg (Breisgau); greatly increased his father's domain by marriage, inheritance, and conquest, becoming the most powerful prince in S. Germany; acquired a remarkable ascendency among the German princes, and was elevated to the imperial throne in 1273, and by friendly concessions to the Pope, Gregory IX., terminated the long struggle between the Church and the empire; shattered the opposition of Ottocar, king of Bohemia, and brought peace and order to Germany (1218-1291).

RUDOLF II., German Emperor, son of Maximilian II., born at Vienna; became king of Hungary in 1573, and of Bohemia three years later; ascended the imperial throne in 1576; indolent and incapable, he left the empire to the care of worthless ministers; disorder and foreign invasion speedily followed; persecution inflamed the Protestants; by 1611 his brother Matthias, supported by other kinsmen, had wrested Hungary and Bohemia from him; had a taste for astrology and alchemy, and patronised Kepler and Tycho Brahe (1552-1612).

RUDOLF LAKE, in British East Africa, close to the highlands of S. Ethiopia, practically an inland sea, being 160 m. long and 20 broad, and brackish in taste; discovered in 1888.

RUDRA, in the Hindu mythology the old deity of the storm, and father of the Marutz.

RUGBY (11), a town in Warwickshire, at the junction of the Swift and the Avon, 83 m. NW. of London; an important railway centre and seat of a famous public school founded in 1567, of which DR. ARNOLD (q. v.), and Archbishops Tait and Temple were famous head-masters, is one of the first public schools in England, and scholars number about 450.

RUGE, ARNOLD, a German philosophical and political writer, born at Bergen (Ruegen); showed a philosophic bent at Jena; was implicated in the political schemes of the BURSCHENSCHAFT (q. v.), and was imprisoned for six years; taught for some years in Halle University, but got into trouble through the radical tone of his writings in the Halle Review (founded by himself and another), and went to Paris; was prominent during the political agitation of 1848, and subsequently sought refuge in London, where for a short time he acted in consort with Mazzini and others; retired to Brighton, and ultimately received a pension from the Prussian Government; his numerous plays, novels, translations, &c., including a lengthy autobiography, reveal a mind scarcely gifted enough to grasp firmly and deeply the complicated problems of sociology and politics; is characterised by Dr. Stirling as the "bold and brilliant Ruge"; began, he says, as an expounder of Hegel, and "finished off as translator into German of that 'hollow make-believe of windy conceit,' he calls it, Buckle's 'Civilisation in England'" (1802-1880).

RUeGEN (45), a deeply-indented island of Germany, in the Baltic, separated from the Pomeranian coast by a channel (Strela Sund) about a mile broad; the soil is fertile, and fishing is actively engaged in. Bergen (4) is the capital.

RUHR, an affluent of the Rhine, which joins it at Ruhrort after a course of 142 m.; navigable to craft conveying the product of the coal-mines to the Rhine.

RULE OF FAITH, the name given to the ultimate authority or standard in religious belief, such as the Bible alone, as among Protestants; the Bible and the Church, as among Romanists; reason alone, as among rationalists; the inner light of the spirit, as among mystics.

RUM, a mountainous, forest-clad island in one of the Inner Hebrides, lies 15 m. off Ardnamurchan Point; a handful of inhabitants cultivate a very small portion of it; the rest is mountain, wood, and moorland; forms a deer-forest.

RUMFORD, COUNT, Benjamin Thompson, soldier, philanthropist, and physicist, born at Woburn, Massachusetts; a fortunate marriage lifted him into affluence, relieving him from the necessity of teaching; fought on the British side during the American War; became a lieutenant-colonel, and for important services was knighted in 1782 on his return to England; entered the Bavarian service, and carried through a series of remarkable reforms, such as the suppression of mendicity, the amelioration of the poorer classes by the spread of useful knowledge, culinary, agricultural, &c.; was made a Count of the Holy Roman Empire, and placed in charge of the War Department of Bavaria; was a generous patron of science in England and elsewhere; retired from the Bavarian service in 1799, and five years later married the widow of Lavoisier the chemist; his later years were spent in retirement in a village near Paris, where he devoted himself to physical research, especially as regards heat (1753-1814).

RUMP, THE, name of contempt given to the remnant of the Long Parliament in 1659.

RUNCORN (20), a flourishing river-port of Cheshire, on the Mersey, 12 m. SE. of Liverpool, at the terminus of the Bridgewater Canal; is an old place dating back to the 10th century; has excellent docks; industries embrace shipbuilding, iron-founding, &c.

RUNEBERG, JOHAN LUDWIG, the national poet of Finland, born at Jacobstad; educated at, and afterwards lectured in, the university of Abo; published his first volume, "Lyric Poems," in 1830; edited a bi-weekly paper; for forty years (till his death) was Reader of Roman Literature in the College of Borga; his epic idylls, "The Elk Hunters," "Christmas Eve," his epic "King Fjalar," &c., are the finest poems in the Swedish language; are characterised by a repose, simplicity, and artistic finish, yet have withal the warmth of national life in them (1804-1877).

RUNES, a name given to the letters of the alphabet by heathen Teutonic tribes prior to their coming under the influence of Roman civilisation; are formed almost invariably of straight lines, and scarcely exist except in inscriptions dating back to A.D. 1; found chiefly in Scandinavia, also in Britain. There are three runic alphabets (much alike), the oldest being the Gothic of 24 letters or runes. They are now believed to have first come into use among the Goths in the 6th century B.C., and to be a modified form of the old Greek alphabet introduced by traders.

RUNNIMEDE, a meadow on the right bank of the Thames, 36 m. SW. of London, where King John signed the Magna Charta, 15th June 1215.

RUPEE, a silver coin, the monetary unit of India, whose face value is 2s., but which, owing to the depreciation of silver, is now valued in outside markets at about 1s. 21/2d.; a lac of rupees equals 100,000.

RUPERT, PRINCE, son of Frederick V., Elector Palatine, and grandson of James I. of England; received an excellent education; took part in the Thirty Years' War, and suffered three years' imprisonment at Linz; in England, at the outbreak of the Great Rebellion, he was entrusted with a command by Charles I., and by his dash and daring greatly heartened the Royalist cause, taking an active part in all the great battles; finally surrendered to Fairfax at Oxford in 1646; but two years later took command of the Royalist ships and kept up a gallant struggle till his defeat by Blake in 1651; escaped to the West Indies, where he kept up a privateering attack upon English merchantmen; came in for many honours after the Restoration, and distinguished himself in the Dutch War; the closing years of his life were quietly spent in scientific research (physical, chemical, mechanical), for which he had a distinct aptitude (1619-1682).

RUPERT'S LAND, a name given by Prince Rupert to territory the drainage of which flows into Hudson Bay or Strait.

RUSH, BENJAMIN, a noted American physician and professor, born at Byberry, near Philadelphia; studied medicine at Princeton and Edinburgh; became professor of chemistry at Philadelphia in 1769; sat in Congress, and signed the Declaration of Independence (1776); held important medical posts in the army; resigned, and assumed medical professorship in Philadelphia; won a European reputation as a lecturer, philanthropist, and medical investigator; published several treatises, and from 1799 acted as treasurer of the U.S. Mint (1745-1813).

RUSHWORTH, JOHN, historian and politician, born at Warkworth, Northumberland; although a barrister he never practised, but set himself to compile elaborate notes of proceedings at the Star Chamber and other courts, which grew into an invaluable work of 7 vols., entitled "Historical Collections"; acted as assistant-clerk to the Long Parliament; sat as a member in several Parliaments, and was for some years secretary to Fairfax and the Lord-Keeper; fell into disfavour after the Restoration, and in 1684 was arrested for debt and died in prison; is an authority whom Carlyle abuses as a Dry-as-dust (1607-1690).

RUSKIN, JOHN, art-critic and social reformer, born in London, son of an honourable and a successful wine-merchant; educated with some severity at home under the eye of his parents, and particularly his mother, who trained him well into familiarity with the Bible, and did not object to his study of "Robinson Crusoe" along with the "Pilgrim's Progress" on Sundays, while, left to his own choice he read Homer, Scott, and Byron on week days; entered Christ's Church, Oxford, as a gentleman Commoner in 1837, gained the Newdigate Prize in 1839, produced in 1843, under the name of "A Graduate of Oxford," the first volume of "Modern Painters," mainly in defence of the painter Turner and his art, which soon extended to five considerable volumes, and in 1849 "The Seven Lamps of Architecture," in definition of the qualities of good art in that line, under the heads of the Lamps of Sacrifice, of Truth, of Power, of Beauty, of Life, of Memory, and Obedience, pleading in particular for the Gothic style; these were followed in 1851 by "PRE-RAPHAELITISM" (q. v.), and 1851-53 by the "Stones of Venice," in further exposition of his views in the "Seven Lamps," and others on the same and kindred arts. Not till 1862 did he appear in the role of social reformer, and that was by the publication of "Unto this Last," in the Cornhill Magazine, on the first principles of political economy, the doctrines in which were further expounded in "Munera Pulveris," "Time and Tide," and "FORS CLAVIGERA" (q. v.), the principles in which he endeavoured to give practical effect to by the Institution of St. George's Guild, with the view of commending "the rational organisation of country life independent of that of cities." His writings are numerous, several of them originally lectures, and nearly all on matters of vital account, besides many others on subjects equally so which he began, but has had, to the grief of his admirers, to leave unfinished from failing health, among these his "Praeterita," or memories from his past life. The most popular of his recent writings is "Sesame and Lilies," with perhaps the "Crown of Wild Olive," and the most useful that of the series beginning with "Unto this Last," and culminating in "Time and Tide." He began his career as an admirer of Turner, and finished as a disciple of Thomas Carlyle, but neither slavishly nor with the surrender of his own sense of justice and truth; Justice is the goddess he worships, and except in her return to the earth as sovereign he bodes nothing but disaster to the fortunes of the race; his despair of seeing this seems to have unhinged him, and he is now in a state of fatal collapse; his contemporaries praised his style of writing, but to his disgust they did not believe a word he said; he sits sadly in these days at Brantwood, in utter apathy to everything of passing interest, and if he thinks or speaks at all it would seem his sense of the injustice in things, and the doom it is under, is not yet utterly dead—his sun has not even yet gone down upon his wrath; the keynote of his wrath was, Men do the work of this world and rogues take the pay, selling for money what God has given for nothing, or what others have purchased by their life's blood; b. 1819. He died 20th January 1900.

RUSSELL, JOHN, EARL, known best as LORD JOHN RUSSELL, statesman, youngest son of the Earl of Bedford; travelled in Spain, studied at Edinburgh, entered Parliament in 1813, took up vigorously the cause of parliamentary reform and Catholic Emancipation, joined Earl Grey's ministry in 1830 as Paymaster of the Forces, framed and zealously advocated the Reform Bill (1832), drove Peel from office in 1835, and became, under Lord Melbourne, Home Secretary and leader of the Commons; four years later he was appointed Colonial Secretary, warmly espoused the cause of repeal of the Corn Laws, formed a Ministry on the downfall of Peel in 1846, and dealt with Irish difficulties and Chartism; resigned in 1852, and in the same year became Foreign Secretary under Aberdeen, became unpopular on account of his management of the Crimean War (1855) and conduct at the Vienna Conference; again Foreign Secretary in Palmerston's ministry of 1859, an earl in 1861, and premier a second time in 1865-66; author of various pamphlets, biographies, memoirs, &c.; was twice married; was nicknamed "Finality John" from his regarding his Reform Bill of 1832 as a final measure (1792-1878).

RUSSELL, WILLIAM, LORD, prominent politician in Charles II.'s reign, younger son of the Earl of Bedford; entered the first Restoration Parliament, became a prominent leader in the Country Party in opposition to the CABAL (q. v.) and the Popish schemes of the king; vigorously supported the Exclusion Bill to keep James, Duke of York from the throne in 1683; was charged with complicity in the Rye-house Plot, was found guilty on trumped-up evidence, and beheaded (1639-1683).

RUSSELL, WILLIAM CLARK, a popular writer of nautical novels, born in New York; gained his experience of sea life during eight years' service as a sailor; was a journalist on the staff of the Daily Chronicle before, in 1887, he took to writing novels, which include "John Holdsworth," "The Wreck of the 'Grosvenor,'" &c.; b. 1844.

RUSSELL, SIR WILLIAM HOWARD, a celebrated war correspondent, born near Dublin; was educated at Trinity College, called to the English bar in 1850, had already acted for some years as war correspondent for the Times before his famous letters descriptive of the Crimean War won him a wide celebrity; subsequently acted as correspondent during the Indian Mutiny, American Civil War, Franco-German War, &c.; accompanied the Prince of Wales to India in 1875; knighted in 1895; b. 1821.

RUSSELL OF KILLOWEN, CHARLES RUSSELL, LORD, a distinguished lawyer, born at Newry; educated at Trinity College, Dublin, called to the English bar in 1859, entered Parliament in 1880, became Attorney-General in 1886, receiving also a knighthood; in 1894 was elevated to the Lord Chief-Justiceship and created a life-peer; b. 1832.

RUSSIA (117,562), next to the British empire the most extensive empire in the world, embracing one-sixth of the land-surface of the globe, including one-half of Europe, all Northern and a part of Central Asia; on the N. it fronts the Arctic Ocean from Sweden to the NE. extremity of Asia; its southern limit forms an irregular line from the NW. corner of the Black Sea to the Sea of Japan, skirting Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan, East Turkestan, and the Chinese empire; Behring Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and the Sea of Japan wash its eastern shores; Sweden, the Baltic, Germany, and Austria lie contiguous to it in West Europe. This solid, compact mass is thinly peopled (13 to the sq. m. over all) by some 40 different-speaking races, including, besides the dominant Russians (themselves split into three branches), Poles, Finns, Esthonians, Servians, Bulgarians, Lithuanians, Kurds, Persians, Turco-Tartars, Mongols, &c. Three-fourths of the land-surface, with one-fourth of the population, lies in Asia, and is treated under Siberia, Turkestan, Caucasia, &c. Russia in Europe, embracing FINLAND and POLAND (q. v.), is divided from Asia by the Ural Mountains and River and Caspian Sea; forms an irregular, somewhat elongated, square plain sloping down to the low and dreary coast-lands of the Baltic (W.), White Sea (N.), and Black Sea (S.); is seamed by river valleys and diversified by marshes, vast lakes (e. g. Ladoga, Onega, Peipus, and Ilmen), enormous forests, and in the N. and centre by tablelands, the highest of which being the Valdai Hills (1100 ft.); the SE. plain is called the STEPPES (q. v.). The cold and warm winds which sweep uninterrupted from N. and S. produce extremes of temperature; the rainfall is small. Agriculture is the prevailing industry, engaging 90 per cent. of the people, although in all not more than 21 per cent. of the soil is cultivated; rye is the chief article of food for the peasantry, who comprise four-fifths of the population. The rich plains, known as the "black lands" from their deep, loamy soil, which stretch from the Carpathians to the Urals, are the most productive corn-lands in Europe, and rival in fertility the "yellow lands" of China, and like them need no manure. Timber is an important industry in the NW., and maize and the vine are cultivated in the extreme S.; minerals abound, and include gold, iron (widely distributed), copper (chiefly in middle Urals), and platinum; there are several large coal-fields and rich petroleum wells at Baku. The fisheries, particularly those of the Caspian, are the most productive in Europe. Immense numbers of horses and cattle are reared, e. g. on the Steppes. Wolves, bears, and valuable fur-bearing animals are plentiful in the N. and other parts; the reindeer is still found, also the elk. Want of ports on the Mediterranean and Atlantic hamper commerce, while the great ports in the Baltic are frozen up four or five months in the year; the southern ports are growing in importance, and wheat, timber, flax, and wool are largely exported. There is a vast inland trade, facilitated by the great rivers (Volga, Don, Dnieper, Dniester, Vistula, &c.) and by excellent railway and telegraphic communication. Among its varied races there exists a wide variety of religions—Christianity, Mohammedanism, Buddhism, Shamanism, &c.; but although some 130 sects exist, the bulk of the Russians proper belong to the Greek Church. Education is backward, more than 85 per cent. of the people being illiterate; there are eight universities. Conscription is enforced; the army is the largest in the world. Government is an absolute monarchy, save in FINLAND (q. v.); the ultimate legislative and executive power is in the hands of the czar, but there is a State Council of 60 members nominated by the czar. In the 50 departments a good deal of local self-government is enjoyed through the village communes and their public assemblies, but the imperial power as represented by the police and military is felt in all parts, while governors of departments have wide and ill-defined powers which admit of abuse. The great builders of the empire, the beginnings of which are to be sought in the 9th century, have been Ivan the Great, who in the 15th century drove out the Mongols and established his capital as Moscow; Ivan the Terrible, the first of the czars, who in the 16th century pushed into Asia and down to the Black Sea; and PETER THE GREAT (q. v.). Its restless energies are still unabated, and inspire a persistently aggressive policy in the Far East. Within recent years its literature has become popular in Europe through the powerful writings of Pushkin, Turgenief, and Tolstoi.

RUSTCHUK (27), a town in Bulgaria, on the Danube, 40 m. S. by W. of Bucharest; manufactures gold and silver ware, shoes, cloth, &c.; has a number of interesting mosques; its once important fortifications were reduced in 1877.

RUTEBEUF or RUSTEBEUF, a celebrated trouvere of the 13th century, of whom little is known save that he led a Bohemian life in Paris and was unfortunate in his marriage; his songs, satires, &c., are vigorous and full of colour, and touch a note of seriousness at times which one hardly anticipates.

RUTHENIANS, a hardy Slavonic people, a branch of the Little Russian stock, numbering close upon 31/2 millions, dwelling in Galicia and Northern Hungary.

RUTHERFORD, SAMUEL, a Scottish divine, born at Nisbet, near Jedburgh; studied at Edinburgh University, became professor of Humanity, but had to resign; studied divinity, and became minister of Anworth in 1627, and was a zealous pastor and a fervid preacher; corresponded far and wide with pious friends by letters afterwards published under his name, and much esteemed by pious people; became at length professor of Divinity at St. Andrews, and represented the Scottish Church in the Westminster Assembly in 1643; wrote several works, for one of which he was called to account, but had to answer a summons on his deathbed before a higher bar (1600-1661).

RUTHERGLEN (13), a town of Lanarkshire, on the Clyde, 3 m. SE. of Glasgow, of which it is practically a suburb; a handsome bridge spans the river; has been a royal burgh since 1126, and has interesting historical associations.

RUTHIN (3), an interesting old town of Denbighshire, on the Clwyd, 8 m. SE. of Denbigh.

RUTHVEN, RAID OF, a conspiracy entered into by certain Scottish nobles, headed by William, first Earl of Gowrie, to seize the young king James VI., and break down the influence of his worthless favourites, Lennox and Arran; at Ruthven Castle, or Huntingtower, in Perthshire, on 23rd August 1582, the king was captured and held for 10 months; Arran was imprisoned, and Lennox fled, to die in France; the conduct of the conspirators was applauded by the country, but after the escape of the king from St. Andrews Castle the conspirators were proclaimed guilty of treason, and Gowrie was ultimately executed.

RUTHWELL CROSS, a remarkable sandstone cross, 173/4 ft. high, found in Ruthwell parish, 9 m. SE. of Dumfries; dates back to the 7th century; bears runic and Latin inscriptions, notably some verses of the Saxon poem, "The Dream of the Holy Rood"; was broken down in 1642 by the Covenanters as savouring of idolatry; found and re-erected in 1802.

RUTLAND (21), the smallest county of England, bounded by Lincoln, Northampton, and Leicester; has a pleasant undulating surface, with valleys in the E., and extensive woods; is watered by the Welland; is largely pastoral, and raises fine sheep; dairy produce (especially cheese) and wheat are noted; Oakham is the capital.

RUYSDAEL, JACOB, a famous Dutch landscape-painter, born and died at Haarlem; few particulars of his life are known; his best pictures, to be seen in the galleries of Dresden, Berlin, Paris, &c., display a fine poetic spirit (1628-1682).

RUYTER, MICHAEL DE, a famous Dutch admiral, born of poor parents at Flushing; from a boy of 11 served in the merchant and naval service; commanded a ship under Van Tromp in the war with England 1652-1654; was ennobled in 1660 by the king of Denmark for services rendered in the Dano-Swedish war; for two years fought against Turkish pirates in the Mediterranean; commanded the Dutch fleet in the second war against England, and in 1667 struck terror into London by appearing and burning the shipping in the Thames; held his own against England and France in the war of 1672; co-operated with Spain against France; was routed and mortally wounded off the coast of Sicily; a man of sterling worth (1607-1675).

RYAN, LOCH, an arm of the sea penetrating Wigtownshire in a south-easterly direction, 8 m. long and from 11/2 to 3 broad; at its landward end is STRANRAER (q. v.); forms an excellent anchorage.

RYBINSK (20, 100 in the summer), a busy commercial town in Russia, on the Volga, 48 m. NW. of Yaroslav; connected by canal with St. Petersburg; industries embrace boat-building, brewing, distilling, &c.

RYDE (11), a popular old watering-place on the NE. coast of the Isle of Wight, 41/2 m. SW. of Portsmouth; rises in pretty wooded terraces from the sea; has a fine promenade, park, pier, &c.

RYE (4), an interesting old port in the SE. corner of Sussex, situated on rising ground flanked by two streams, 63 m. SE. from London, one of the CINQUE PORTS (q. v.); the retiral of the sea has left it now 2 m. inland; has a fine Norman and Early English church.

RYE HOUSE PLOT, an abortive conspiracy in 1683 to assassinate Charles II. of England and his brother James, Duke of York, planned by Colonel Rumsey, Lieutenant-Colonel Walcot, the "plotter" Ferguson, and other reckless adherents of the Whig party. The conspirators were to conceal themselves at a farmhouse called Rye House, near Hertford, and to waylay the royal party returning from Newmarket; the plot miscarried owing to the king leaving Newmarket sooner than was expected; the chief conspirators were executed.

RYMER, THOMAS, the learned editor of the "Foedera," an invaluable collection of historical documents dealing with England's relations with foreign powers, born at Northallerton; was a Cambridge man and a barrister; turned to literature and wrote much both in prose and poetry, but to no great purpose; was Historiographer-royal; Macaulay in characteristic fashion calls him "the worst critic that ever lived"; but his "Foedera" is an enduring monument to his unwearied industry (1639-1714).

RYSBRACH, MICHAEL, a well-known sculptor in the 18th century, born at Antwerp; established himself in London and executed busts and statues of the most prominent men of his day, including the monument to Sir Isaac Newton in Westminster Abbey, statue of Marlborough, busts of Walpole, Bolingbroke, Pope, &c. (1694-1770).

RYSWICK, PEACE OF, signed on October 30, 1697, at the village of Ryswick, 2 m. S. of The Hague, by England, Holland, Germany, and Spain on the one hand and France on the other, terminating the sanguinary struggle which had begun In 1688; it lasted till 1702.



SAALE, the name of several German rivers, the most important of which rises in the Fichtelgebirge, near Zell, in Upper Bavaria; flows northward, a course of 226 m., till it joins the Elbe at Barby; has numerous towns on its banks, including Jena, Halle, and Naumburg, to which last it is navigable.

SAARBRUeCK (10), a manufacturing town in Rhenish Prussia, on the French frontier, where the French under Napoleon III. repulsed the Germans, August 2, 1870.

SABADELL (18), a prosperous Spanish town, 14 m. NW. of Barcelona; manufactures cotton and woollen textiles.

SABAEANS, a trading people who before the days of Solomon and for long after inhabited South Arabia, on the shores of the Bed Sea, and who worshipped the sun and moon with other kindred deities; also a religious sect on the Lower Euphrates, with Jewish, Moslem, and Christian rites as well as pagan, called Christians of St. John; the term Sabaeanism designates the worship of the former.

SABAOTH, name given in the Bible, and particularly in the Epistle of James, to the Divine Being as the Lord of all hosts or kinds of creatures.

SABATHAI, LEVI, a Jewish impostor, who gave himself out to be the Messiah and persuaded a number of Jews to forsake all and follow him; the sultan of Turkey forced him to confess the imposture, and he turned Mussulman to save his life (1625-1676).

SABBATH, the seventh day of the week, observed by the Jews as a day of "rest" from all work and "holy to the Lord," as His day, specially in commemoration of His rest from the work of creation, the observance of which by the Christian Church has been transferred to the first of the week in commemoration of Christ's resurrection.

SABELLIANISM, the doctrine of one Sabellius, who, in the third century, denied that there were three persons in the Godhead, and maintained that there was only one person in three functions, aspects, or manifestations, at least this was the form his doctrine assumed in course of time, which is now called by his name, and is accepted by many in the present day.


SABINE, a river of Texas which, rising in the extreme N. of the State, flows SE. and S., forming for 250 m. the boundary between Louisiana and Texas, passes through Sabine Lake into the Gulf of Mexico after a navigable course of 500 in.

SABINE, SIR EDWARD, a noted physicist, born in Dublin; served in artillery in 1803, maintained his connection with it till his retirement in 1874 as general, but owes his celebrity to his important investigations into the nature of terrestrial magnetism; accompanied as a scientist Boss and Parry in their search for the North-West Passage (1819-20); was President both of the Royal Society from 1861 to 1879 and of the British Association in 1853 (1788-1883).

SABINES, an ancient Italian people of the Aryan stock, near neighbours of ancient Borne, a colony of whom is said to have settled on the Quirinal, and contributed to form the moral part of the Roman people. Numa, the second king of the city, was a Sabine. See ROMULUS.

SABLE ISLAND, a low, sandy, barren island in the Atlantic, 110 m. off the E. coast of Nova Scotia; is extremely dangerous to navigation, and is marked by three lighthouses; is gradually being washed away.

SABOTS, a species of wooden shoes extensively worn by the peasants of France, Belgium, &c.; each shoe is hollowed out of a single block of wood (fir, willow, beech, and ash); well adapted for marshy districts.

SACERDOTALISM, a tendency to attach undue importance to the order and the ministry of priests, to the limitation of the operation of Divine grace.

SACHEVEREL, HENRY, an English Church clergyman, born at Maryborough, who became notorious in the reign of Queen Anne for his embittered attack (contained in two sermons in 1700) on the Revolution Settlement and the Act of Toleration; public feeling was turning in favour of the Tories, and the impolitic impeachment of Sacheverel by the Whig Government fanned popular feeling to a great height in his favour; was suspended from preaching for three years, at the expiry of which time the Tories, then in power, received him with ostentatious marks of favour; was soon forgotten; was an Oxford graduate, and a friend of Addison; a man of no real ability (1672-1724).

SACHS, HANS, a noted early German poet, born at Nuernberg; the son of a tailor, by trade a shoemaker; learned "the mystery of song" from a weaver; was a contemporary of Luther, who acknowledged his services in the cause of the Reformation; in his seventy-fourth year (1568), on examining his stock for publication, found that he had written 6048 poetical pieces, among them 208 tragedies and comedies, and this besides having all along kept house, like an honest Nuernberg burgher, by assiduous and sufficient shoemaking; a man standing on his own basis; wrote "Narrenschneiden," a piece in which the doctor cures a bloated and lethargic patient by "cutting out half-a-dozen fools from his interior"; he sunk into oblivion during the 17th century, but his memory was revived by Goethe in the 18th (1494-1576).

SACHS, JULIUS, a German botanist and professor, born at Breslau; has written several works on botany, and experimented on the physiology of plants; b. 1832.

SACKVILLE, THOMAS, EARL OF DORSET, poet and statesman, born at Buckhurst; bred for the bar; entered Parliament in 1558; wrote with Thomas Norton a tragedy called "Gorboduc," contributed to a collection of British legends called the "Mirror of Magistrates" two pieces in noble verse (1536-1608).

SACRAMENT, a ceremonial observance in the Christian Church divinely instituted as either really or symbolically a means, and in any case a pledge, of grace.

SACRAMENTARIAN, a High Churchman who attaches a special sacred virtue to the sacraments of the Church.

SACRAMENTO, largest river of California, rises in the NE. in the Sierra Nevada; follows a south-westerly course, draining the central valley of California; falls into Suisund Bay, on the Pacific coast, after a course of 500 miles, of which 250 are navigable.

SACRAMENTO (29), capital of California, situated at the confluence of the Sacramento and American Rivers, 90 m. NE. of San Francisco; industries embrace flour and planing mills, foundries, potteries, &c.; has an art gallery, court-house, &c.; the tropical climate is tempered at night by cool sea breezes.


SACRIFICE, anything of value given away to secure the possession of something of still higher value, and which is the greater and more meritorious the costlier the gift.

SACRING-BELL, or SANCTUS-BELL, the bell which rings when the Host is elevated at the celebration of High Mass.

SACY, ANTOINE ISAAC, BARON SILVESTRE DE, the greatest of modern Orientalists, born at Paris; by twenty-three was a master of classic, Oriental, and modern European languages; was appointed in 1795 professor of Arabic in the School of Oriental Languages, and in 1806 of Persian in the College de France, besides which he held various other appointments; founded the Asiatic Society in 1822; was created a baron by Napoleon Bonaparte, and entered the Chamber of Peers in 1832; published "Biographies of Persian Poets," a standard Arabic grammar, &c.; his writings gave a stimulus to Oriental research throughout Europe (1758-1838).

SADDA, the name given to a Persian epitome of the Zend-Avesta.

SADDUCEES, a sect of the Jews of high priestly origin that first came into prominence by their opposition to the Pharisees, being the party in power when Pharisaism arose in protestation against their policy as tending to the secularisation of the Jewish faith, or the prostitution of it to mere secular ends. They represented the Tory or Conservative party among the Jews, as the Pharisees did the High Church party among us. The antagonism which thus arose on political grounds gradually extended to religious matters. In regard to religion they were the old orthodox party, and acknowledged the obligation of only the written law, and refused to accept tradition at the hands of the Scribes. They denied the immortality of the soul, the separate existence of spirits, and this they did on strictly Old Testament grounds, but this not from any real respect for the authority of Scripture, only as in accord with the main article of their creed, which attached importance only to what bears upon this present life, and which in modern times goes under the name of secularism. They were at bottom a purely political party, and they went out of sight and disappeared from Jewish history with the fall of the Jewish State, only the Pharisaic party surviving in witness of what Judaism is.

SADE, DONATIEN ALPHONSE FRANCOIS, MARQUIS DE, French novelist, who, after fighting in the Seven Years' War, was sentenced to death for odious crimes, effected his escape, but was caught and imprisoned in the Bastille, where he wrote a number of licentious romances; died a lunatic (1740-1814).

SADI, a celebrated Persian poet, born at Shiraz, of noble lineage, but born poor; bred up in the Moslem faith; made pilgrimages to Mecca no fewer than 15 times; spent years in travel; fell into the hands of the Crusaders; was ransomed by a merchant of Aleppo, who thought him worth ransoming at a cost; retired to a hermitage near Shiraz, where he died and was buried; his works, both in prose and verse, are numerous, but the most celebrated is the "Gulistan" (the rose-gardens), a collection of moral tales interlarded with philosophical reflections and maxims of wisdom, which have made his name famous all over both the East and the West (1184-1291).

SADLER, SIR RALPH, a politician and diplomatist; was employed by Henry VIII. in carrying out the dissolution of the monasteries, and conducted diplomatic negotiations with Scotland; distinguished himself at the battle of Pinkie; enjoyed the favour of Elizabeth; was Queen Mary's keeper in the Castle of Tutbury; was the bearer of the news of Queen Mary's execution to King James (1507-1587).

SADOLETO, JACOPO, cardinal, born in Modena; acted as secretary under Leo X., Clement VII., and Paul III., the latter of whom created him a cardinal in 1536; was a faithful Churchman and an accomplished scholar, and eminent in both capacities (1477-1547).


SAFED (17), a town of Palestine, 12 m. N. of Tiberias, occupied principally by Jews attracted thither in part by the expectation that the Messiah, when He appears, will establish His kingdom there; it spreads in horse-shoe fashion round the foot of a hill 2700 ft. high; is a seat of Hebrew learning.

SAFETY LAMP, name of a variety of lamps for safety in coal-mines against "fire-damp," a highly explosive mixture of natural gas apt to accumulate in them; the best known being the "Davey Lamp," invented by Sir Humphrey Davy; the "Geordie," invented by George Stephenson, both of which, however, have been superseded by the Gray, Muesler, Marsant, and other lamps; all are constructed on the principle discovered by Davy and Stephenson, that a flame enveloped in wire gauze of a certain fineness does not ignite "fire-damp."

SAFFI, or ASFI (9), a decayed seaport of Morocco, on the Mediterranean coast, 120 m. NW. of the city of Morocco; has ruins of a castle of the Sultans and of the old Portuguese fortifications; has still a fair export trade in beans, wool, olive-oil, &c.

SAGAR, a low island at the mouth of the Hugli, a sacred spot and a place of pilgrimage to the Hindus; mostly jungle; sparsely peopled.

SAGAS, a collection of epics in prose embodying the myths and legends of the ancient Scandinavians, originally transmitted from mouth to mouth, and that began to assume a literary form about the 12th century.

SAGASTA, PRAXEDES MATEO, Spanish statesmen of liberal sympathies; took part in the insurrections of 1856 and 1866, and was for some time a fugitive in France; entered Prim's Cabinet, supported the elected King Amadeus, and since his abdication has led the Liberal party; has twice been Prime Minister; b. 1827.

SAGHALIEN (12), a long narrow island belonging to Russia, situated close to the E. coast of Siberia, from which it is separated by the so-called Gulf of Tartary; stretches N. from the island of Yezo, a distance of 670 m.; is mountainous and forest-clad in the interior; has excellent coast fisheries, but a cold, damp climate prevents successful agriculture; rich coal-mines exist, and are wrought by 4000 or 5000 convicts. Ceded by Japan to Russia in 1875.

SAGUENAY, a large and picturesque river of Canada; carries off the surplus waters of Lake St. John, replenished by a number of large streams, and issuing a full-bodied stream, flows SE. through magnificent forest and mountain scenery till it falls into the St. Lawrence, 115 m. below Quebec, after a course of 100 m.; is remarkable for its depth, and is navigable by the largest ships.

SAGUNTUM, a town of ancient Spain, was situated where now stands the town of Murviedro, 18 m. NE. of Valencia; famous in history for its memorable siege by Hannibal in 219 B.C., which led to the Second Punic War.

SAHARA, the largest desert region in the world, stretches E. and W. across Northern Africa, from the Atlantic to the valley of the Nile, a distance of 3000 m., and on the N. is limited by the slopes of the Atlas Mountains, and on the S. by the valleys of the Senegal and Niger Rivers. The surface is diversified by long sweeps of undulating sand-dunes, elevated plateaux, hill and mountain ranges (8000 ft. highest) furrowed by dried-up water-courses, and dotted with fertile oases which yield date-palms, oranges, lemons, figs, &c. The most sterile tract is in the W., stretching in a semicircle between Cape Blanco and Fezzan. Rain falls over the greater part at intervals of from two to five years. Temperature will vary from over 100 deg.F. to below freezing-point in 24 hours. There are a number of definite caravan routes connecting Timbuctoo and the Central Soudan with the Niger and coast-lands. Dates and salt are the chief products; the giraffe, wild ass, lion, ostrich, python, &c., are found; it is chiefly inhabited by nomadic and often warlike Moors, Arabs, Berbers, and various negro races. The greater part is within the sphere of French influence. "When the winds waken, and lift and winnow the immensity of sand, the air itself is a dim sand-air, and dim looming through it, the wonderfullest uncertain colonnades of sand-pillars whirl from this side and from that, like so many spinning dervishes, of a hundred feet of stature, and dance their huge Desert waltz there."

SAHARANPUR (59), a town in the North-West Provinces of India, 125 m. N. of Delhi, in a district formerly malarious, but now drained and healthy; the population principally Mohammedans, who have recently built in it a handsome mosque.

SAHIB (i. e. master), used in India when addressing a European gentleman; Mem Sahib to a lady.

SAIGON (16), capital of French Cochin-China, on the river Saigon, one of the delta streams of the Mekhong, 60 m. from the China Sea; is handsomely laid out with boulevards, &c.; has a fine palace, arsenal, botanical and zoological gardens, &c.; Cholon (40), 4 m. SW., forms a busy trading suburb, exporting rice, cotton, salt, hides, &c.

SAINT, a name applied to a holy or sacred person, especially one canonised; in the plural it is the name assumed by the Mormons.

ST. ALBANS (13), an old historic city of Hertfordshire, on an eminence by the Ver, a small stream, which separates it from the site of the ancient Verulamium; has a splendid ancient abbey church, rebuilt in 1077; industries include brewing, straw-plaiting, silk-throwing, &c.; scene of two famous battles (1455 and 1461) during the Wars of the Roses.

ST. ALOYSIUS, Italian marquis, who renounced his title, became a Jesuit, devoted himself to the care of the plague-stricken in Rome; died of it, and was canonised (1568-1591).

ST. ANDREWS (7), a famous city of Fife, occupies a bold site on St. Andrews Bay, 42 m. NE. of Edinburgh; for long the ecclesiastical metropolis of Scotland, and associated with many stirring events in Scottish history; its many interesting ruins include a 12th-century priory, a cathedral, "robbed" in 1559, a castle or bishop's palace built in the 13th century; has a university (St. Salvator's 1521 and St. Leonard's 1537) the first founded in Scotland, and is still an important educational centre, having several excellent schools (Madras College the chief); since the Reformation its trade has gradually dwindled away; fishing is carried on, but it depends a good deal on its large influx of summer visitors, attracted by the splendid golf links and excellent sea-bathing.

SAINT ARNAUD, JACQUES LEROY DE, a noted French marshal, born at Bordeaux; was already a distinguished soldier when he entered actively into the plans of Louis Napoleon to overthrow the Republic; assisted at the coup d'etat, and was created a marshal in reward; commanded the French forces at the outbreak of the Crimean War, and took part in the battle of the Alma, but died a few days later (1796-1854).

ST. ASAPH (2), a pretty little city in Flintshire, 6 m. SE. of Rhyl; its cathedral, the smallest in the kingdom, was rebuilt after 1284, mainly in the Decorated style.

ST. BEES (1), a village on the Cumberland coast, 4 m. S. of Whitehaven; has a Church of England Theological College, founded in 1816 by Dr. Law, bishop of Chester; designed for students of limited means; a ruined priory church of Henry I.'s time was renovated for the accommodation of the college.

ST. BERNARD, the name of two mountain passes in the Alps: 1, GREAT ST. BERNARD, in the Pennine Alps, leading from Martigny to Aosta, is 8120 ft. high, near the top of which stands a famous hospice, founded in 962, and kept by Augustinian monks, who, with the aid of dogs called of St. Bernard, do noble service in rescuing perishing travellers from the snow; 2, LITTLE ST. BERNARD, in the Graian Alps, crosses the mountains which separate the valleys of Aosta and Tarantaise in Savoy. Hannibal is supposed to have crossed the Alps by this pass.

ST. BRIEUC (16), capital of the dep. of Cotes du Nord, Brittany, on the Gouet, and 2 m. from its mouth; has a 13th-century cathedral, ruins of an interesting tower, lyceum, &c.; at the mouth of the river is the port Le Ligne.

ST. CHRISTOPHER or ST. KITTS (30), one of the Leeward Islands, in the West Indies archipelago, 45 m. NW. of Guadeloupe; a narrow mountainous island, 23 m. long; produces sugar, molasses, rum, &c.; capital is Basse-terre (7).

ST. CLAIR, a river of North America, flowing in a broad navigable stream from Lake Huron into Lake St. Clair, which in turn pours its surplus waters by means of the Detroit River into Lake Erie.

ST. CLOUD (5), a town in the dep. of Seine-et-Oise, France; occupies an elevated site near the Seine, 10 m. W. of Paris; the fine chateau, built by Louis XIV.'s brother, the Duke of Orleans, was for long the favourite residence of the Emperor Napoleon, since destroyed; a part of the park is occupied by the Sevres porcelain factory.

ST. CYR (3), a French village, 2 m. W. of Versailles, where Louis XIV., at the request of Madame de Maintenon, founded an institution for the education of girls of noble birth but poor, which was suppressed at the time of the Revolution, and afterwards converted into a military school by Napoleon.

SAINT-CYR, LAURENT GOUVION, MARQUIS DE, marshal of France, born at Toul; joined the army in 1792, and in six years had risen to the command of the French forces at Rome; fought with distinction in the German and Italian campaigns, and in the Peninsular War; won his marshal's baton during the Russian campaign of 1812; was captured at the capitulation of Dresden in 1813, much to the regret of Napoleon; created a peer after the Restoration, and was for some time Minister of War; wrote some historical works (1764-1830).

ST. DAVIDS (2), an interesting old cathedral town in Pembrokeshire, on the streamlet Alan, and not 2 m. from St. Brides Bay; its cathedral, rebuilt after 1180 in the Transition Norman style, was at one time a famous resort of pilgrims. On the other side of the Alan stand the ruins of Bishop Gower's palace.

ST. DENIS (48), a town of France, on a canal of the same name, 4 m. N. of Paris, noted for its old abbey church, which from the 7th century became the burying-place of the French monarchs. During the Revolution in 1793 the tombs were ruthlessly desecrated; there is also a school for the daughters of officers of the Legion of Honour, founded by Napoleon; manufactures chemicals, printed calicoes, &c.

ST. ELIAS, MOUNT, an isolated, inaccessible volcanic mountain in the extreme NW. of Canada, close to the frontier of Alaska, 18,010 ft. high; has never been scaled.


ST. ETIENNE (133), a busy industrial town of France, capital of department of Loire, on the Furens, 36 m. SW. of Lyons; has been called the "Birmingham of France"; is in the centre of a rich coal district, and produces every kind of hardware; the manufacture of ribbons is also an important industry; there is a school of mines.

SAINT-EVREMOND, CHARLES MARGUETEL DE SAINT-DENIS, SEIGNEUR DE, a celebrated French wit and author; won distinction as a soldier, and rose to be a field-marshal; his turn for satiric writing got him into trouble, and in 1661 he fled to England, where the rest of his life was spent; wrote charming letters to his friend Ninon de l'Enclos; enjoyed the favour of Charles II., and published satires, essays, comedies, &c., which are distinguished by their polished style and genial irony; was buried in Westminster (1613-1703).

ST. GALL (230), a NE. canton of Switzerland, on the Austrian frontier; its splendid lake and mountain scenery and mineral springs render many of its towns popular holiday resorts; the embroidery of cottons and other textiles is an important industry. ST. GALL (28), the capital, is situated on the Steinach, 53 m. E. of Zurich; is a town of great antiquity, and celebrated in past ages for its monastic schools; its magnificent mediaeval cathedral has been restored; the old Benedictine monastery is used now for government purposes, but still contains its famous collection of MSS.; embroidering textiles is the chief industry.

ST. GOTHARD, a noted mountain in the Lepontine Alps, 9850 ft. high, crossed by a pass leading from Lake Lucerne to Lake Maggiore; since 1882 traversed by a railway with a tunnel through from Goeschenen to Airolo, a distance of 91/4 m.

ST. HELENA (4), a precipitous cliff-bound island lying well out in the Atlantic, 1200 m. off the W. coast of Africa; belongs to Britain; celebrated as Napoleon Bonaparte's place of imprisonment from 1815 till his death in 1821. Jamestown (2), the capital, is a second-class coaling station for the navy, and is fortified.

ST. HELENS (71), a thriving manufacturing town of Lancashire, on Sankey Brook, a feeder of the Mersey, 21 m. W. by S. of Manchester; is the chief centre of the manufacture of crown, plate, and sheet glass.

ST. HELIER (29), capital of Jersey Island, on St. Aubin Bay, on the S. side; is well fortified by Fort Regent and Elizabeth Castle, on a rocky islet near the shore; has a college, public library, &c.; fishing and shipbuilding are important industries.

ST. IVES, 1, a town in Cornwall, 8 m. N. of Penzance, the inhabitants of which are chiefly engaged in the pilchard fisheries. 2, A town in Huntingdonshire, on the Ouse, 5 m. E. of Huntingdon, where Cromwell lived and Theodore Watts the artist was born.

ST. JAMES'S PALACE, an old, brick-built palace in Pall Mall, London, originally a hospital, converted into a manor by Henry VIII., and became eventually a royal residence. It gives name to the British court.

ST. JOHN, a river of North America, rises in the highlands of North Maine and crosses the continent in an easterly direction and falls into the Bay of Fundy after a course of 450 m., of which 225 m. are in New Brunswick; is navigable for steamers as far as Fredericton.

ST. JOHN (39), embracing the adjacent town of Portland, chief commercial city of New Brunswick, on the estuary of St. John River, 277 m. NW. of Halifax; has an excellent harbour; shipbuilding, fishing, and timber exporting are the chief industries; has a great variety of prosperous manufactures, such as machine and iron works, cotton and woollen factories, &c.; does a good trade with the West Indies.

ST. JOHNS (26), capital of Newfoundland, situated on a splendid harbour on the peninsula or Avalon, in the E. of the island: is the nearest port of America to the continent of Europe; has oil and tan works, &c.

ST. JOSEPH (103), a city of Missouri, on the Missouri River (here spanned by a fine bridge), 110 m. above Kansas City, is an important railway centre; as capital of Buchanan County it possesses a number of State buildings and Roman Catholic colleges; does a large trade in pork-packing, iron goods, &c.

SAINT-JUST, LOUIS FLORELLE DE, a prominent French Revolutionist, born at Decize, near Nevers; as a youth got into disgrace with his family and fled to Paris, where, being bitten already by the ideas of Rousseau, he flung himself heart and soul into the revolutionary movement, became the faithful henchman of Robespierre, and finally followed his master to the guillotine, having in his zeal previously declared "for Revolutionists there is no rest but in the tomb"; "he was a youth of slight stature, with mild mellow voice, enthusiast olive-complexioned, and long black hair" (1767-1794).


ST. LAWRENCE, one of the great rivers of North America; issues in a noble stream from Lake Ontario, and flowing due NE. discharges into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, forming a broad estuary; is 750 m. long and from 1 to 4 m. broad; the scenery in parts is very grand, notably in the expansion—the Lake of the Thousand Isles; is navigable for large steamers as far as Montreal: the Ottawa is its chief tributary; in winter navigation is suspended on account of the ice.

ST. LO (10), a town in Normandy, on a rocky eminence 60 m. SE. of Cherbourg; has textile manufactures; was the birthplace of Leverrier.

ST. LOUIS, 1, One of the great commercial cities (575) of the United States, capital of Missouri State; situated on the Mississippi (here spanned by two fine bridges), 21 m. below its confluence with the Missouri; is a handsomely built city, and equipped with every modern convenience, entirely lit by electric light, &c.; has spacious parks, two universities, public libraries, &c.; is a centre for 18 railroads, which with the great river-way enables it to carry on a vast trade in grain, cotton, wool, furs, live stock, &c.; its tobacco manufacture is the greatest in the world. 2, Also capital (17) of the French colony of Senegal, in West Africa.

ST. LUCIA (42), a rocky, forest-clad island in the West Indies, the largest of the Windward group; exports sugar, cocoa, logwood, &c.; capital is Castries (8).

ST. MALO (12), a strongly fortified seaport of France, on the Brittany coast (department of Ille-et-Vilaine), at the mouth of the Ranee; the old town is built over the Rocher d'Auron, an islet connected with the mainland by a causeway 215 yards long; there is a good harbour, and a considerable amount of shipping is done; potatoes, dairy-produce, and some cereals are exported. It was the birthplace of several distinguished French authors and sailors.

ST. MICHAEL'S (126), the largest and most fertile of the Azores, 40 m. long by from 5 m. to 10 m. in breadth; is of volcanic origin; yields cereals, oranges, &c.

ST. MICHAEL'S MOUNT, an islet, forming a precipitous granite mass, in Mount's Bay, Cornwall, connected with the mainland by a low causeway passable only at low tides; a fine old castle crowns its rocky height, and a small fishing village lies sheltered on the northern side.

ST. MICHEL, MONT, a remarkable islet in St. Michel Bay, SW. corner of Normandy, 18 m. W. of Avranches; is formed of a single cone of granite, 242 ft. high, crowned by a historic Benedictine monastery; on the lower slopes is built a little fortified town; a causeway 1 m. long joins it to the mainland.

ST. NAZAIRE (26), a flourishing seaport of France, on the Loire, 40 m. W. of Nantes, where large sums have been expended in improving its spacious docks to accommodate an increasing shipping-trade; its exports, brandy, coal, wheat, &c., are mainly from Nantes and the interior.

ST. NEOTS (4), an old market-town of Huntingdonshire, on the Ouse, 8 m. SW. of Huntingdon; has an interesting old parish church, a corn exchange, and iron and paper works.

ST. NICHOLAS, the patron saint of boys, who was fabled to bring presents to good children on Christmas eve; was bishop of Myra in the 4th century, and had taken a special interest in the young.

ST. OMER (20), a fortified town of France, on the Aa, 26 m. SE. of Calais; has a fine old Gothic cathedral, a ruined Benedictine abbey church, a Catholic college, arsenal, &c.; manufactures embrace light textiles, tobacco pipes, &c.

ST. PAUL (168), capital of Minnesota State, finely situated on the Mississippi, a little below the mouth of the Minnesota River; in 1849 a village of 500 inhabitants; is now a beautiful and spacious city, equipped with colleges, libraries, government buildings, electric street-railways, &c.; is a centre for 10 railways, and carries on a large trade in distributing groceries and dry goods throughout the State.

ST. PAUL'S SCHOOL, at West Kensington, London, a famous charity school founded by JOHN COLET (q. v.), dean of St. Paul's, for children of "every nation, country, and class"; originally stood in St. Paul's Churchyard, but was burned out by the Great Fire of 1666; the present building was opened in 1884. The endowment amounts to L10,000 a year, and 1000 boys and 400 girls are provided with education and board. There are a number of Oxford and Cambridge exhibitions.

ST. PETERSBURG (1,036), capital of Russia, an imposing city, occupying a dreary, isolated site at the head of the Gulf of Finland, on the banks and delta islands (100) of the Neva, founded in 1702 by Peter the Great; a large number of bridges span the main stream and its numerous divisions; massive stone quays hold back the waters, but a rise of 12 ft. floods the city (a yearly occurrence in the poorer parts); the river is ice-bound nearly half the year, and is given over to sleighing, &c.; the short summer is hot; covers nearly 48 sq. m.; its palaces and government buildings for number and grandeur are unsurpassed; Neva View is the finest street in Europe; is the centre of Russian political, literary, scientific, and artistic life; has a university, numerous academies, cathedral, technical and training colleges, and libraries (the Imperial Public Library contains 1,200,000 vols.); connected with the Volga basin by a canal, and the centre of four railways, it is the commercial metropolis and chief port of Russia, and carries on half the foreign trade; exports one-fifth of the corn of Russia, besides flax, linseed, leather, petroleum, &c.; imports coal, machinery, &c.; principal manufactures are cotton goods and other textiles, leather, sugar, porcelain goods, &c.

ST. PIERRE, HENRI BERNARDIN DE, French novelist, born at Havre; an engineer by profession, was a disciple of Rousseau both sentimentally and speculatively; his chief work, "PAUL AND VIRGINIA" (q. v.), shows here as in his other writings, says Professor Saintsbury, "a remarkable faculty of word-painting, and also of influencing the feelings" (1737-1814).

ST. QUENTIN (48), a manufacturing town of France, on the Somme, 95 m. NE. of Paris; manufactures all kinds of cotton and woollen goods, machinery, paper, &c.; has a fine old Gothic church and town-hall; here the French were routed by the Spaniards in 1557, and by the Germans in 1871.

ST. REAL, ABBE DE, historian, born at Chambery, where he settled in 1679, and where he died; was historiographer to the Duke of Savoy, and wrote the "History of the Conspiracy of Spain against Venice," a masterpiece of its kind, and modelled on Sallust (1639-1692).

SAINT SAENS, CHARLES CAMILLE, a French musician, born in Paris; for 19 years organist of the Madeleine; composer of a number of operas (e. g. "Henri VIII.") indifferently successful, and of much orchestral and chamber music of a masterly kind; is held to be one of the greatest of living pianists and organists; also noted for his musical critiques; b. 1835.

ST. SIMON, CLAUDE HENRI, COMTE DE, founder of French Socialism, and of a sect called after him St. Simonians, born in Paris, of an old noble family; grand-nephew of the succeeding, but renounced his title and devoted his life and all his means of living to the promotion of his Socialist scheme, reducing himself in the end to utter penury; he made few disciples, though some of them were men of distinction; he is credited by Carlyle with having discovered, "not without amazement, that man is still man, of which forgotten truth," he bids us remark, "he had made a false application"; that is, we presume, by reorganisation from without instead of regeneration from within; his scheme was a reconstruction of society by the abolition of the hereditary principle, and the vesting of the instruments of production in the State and the administration of these for the welfare of all its members (1760-1825).

ST. SIMON, LOUIS DE ROUVROY, DUC DE, French courtier and diplomatist in the reign of Louis XIV.; left "Memoirs" in record of the times he lived in, depicting with remarkable sagacity the manners of the Court and the characters of the courtiers (1676-1755).


ST. TAMMANY, an American-Indian chief, popularly canonised as a saint, and adopted as the tutelary genius by a section of the democratic party in the States; his motto was "Unite in peace for happiness; in war for defence."

ST. THOMAS, 1, an unhealthy volcanic island (20) in the Gulf of Guinea, belonging to Portugal; produces coffee, cocoa, and some spices; chief town, St. Thomas (3), a port on the NE. 2, One of the Virgin Islands (14), 37 m. E. of Porto Rico; belongs to Denmark; since the abolition of slavery its prosperous sugar trade has entirely departed; capital, St. Thomas (12), is now a coaling-station for steamers.

ST. THOMAS'S, a handsome hospital on the S. side of the Thames, opposite Westminster, founded in 1553, and with an annual revenue of L40,000.

SAINT-VICTOR, PAUL DE, an ornate French writer, born in Paris; from 1851 was engaged in dramatic and other criticism, and established his reputation as a stylist of unusual brilliance. "When I read Saint-Victor I put on blue spectacles," said Lamartine; author of several works on historical and aesthetic subjects (e. g. "Anciens et Modernes," "Hommes et Dieux") was for a number of years General Inspector of Fine Arts (1827-1881).

ST. VINCENT (41), one of the Windward Islands, in the West Indies, 105 m. W. of Barbadoes, belongs to Britain; a coaling and cable station; mountainous and volcanic; warm, but healthy climate; exports sugar, rum, spices, &c.; chief town is Kingston (6), a port on the SW. coast.

ST. VINCENT, CAPE, a lofty and rugged headland in the extreme SW. of Portugal, off which have been fought several naval battles, the most memorable being the great victory on February 14, 1797, when Jervis and Nelson annihilated the Franco-Spanish fleet.

ST. VINCENT, JOHN JERVIS, EARL, a noted English admiral, born at Meaford Hill, Staffordshire; ran away to sea when a boy, and by gallantry at Quebec in 1759 and otherwise rose rapidly in the service; commanded the naval attack upon the French West Indies (1793), and four years later, as admiral of the Mediterranean fleet, shared with Nelson the honours of a brilliant victory over the combined fleets of France and Spain off Cape St. Vincent; was created an earl in reward; during 1801-1804 was a successful First Lord of the Admiralty (1734-1823).

SAINTE-BEUVE, CHARLES AUGUSTIN, the greatest of French literary critics, born at Boulogne-sur-Mer; adopted medicine as a profession in deference to the wishes of his widowed mother, and for some years studied at Paris, but even as a student had begun his career as a literary critic by contributions to the Globe newspaper; in 1827 became acquainted with Victor Hugo, whose commanding influence drew him into the Romantic movement, and determined for him a literary career; a critical work on French poetry in the 16th century (1828), two volumes of mediocre poetry (1829-1830), and a psychological novel, "Volupte" (1834), the fruit of spiritual and mental unrest, preceded his lectures at Lausanne on Port-Royal (1837), which, afterwards elaborated and published, contain some of his finest writings; an appointment in the Mazarin Library, Paris (1840), brought him a modest competence, and allowed him during the next 8 years to contribute without strain or stress to the Revue des Deux Mondes; was elected in 1845 to the Academy; three years later lectured for a session at Liege University; during 1849-1869 he contributed a weekly literary article to the Constitutionnel; these form his famous "Causeries du Lundi" and "Nouveaux Lundis," which, for variety of human interest, critical insight, and breadth of sympathy, remain unsurpassed; was appointed professor of Latin in the College de France (1854), but his unpopularity with the students, owing to his support of Napoleon III., led to his resignation; as a senator in 1865 his popularity revived by his eloquent advocacy of freedom of thought, and on his decease some 10,000 people attended his funeral (1804-1869).

SAINTE-CLAIRE DEVILLE, HENRI ETIENNE, a noted French chemist, born in St. Thomas, West Indies; occupied for many years the chair of Chemistry in the Sorbonne, Paris; his important contributions to chemical knowledge include a process for simplifying the extraction of aluminium and platinum (1818-1881).

SAINTES (15), an interesting old town in West France, dep. Charente-Inferieure, on the Charente, 28 m. SE. of Rochefort; known in ancient times as Mediolanum; has some splendid Roman remains, a cathedral, &c.; manufactures copper and iron goods, leather, &c.

SAINTSBURY, GEORGE, literary critic, born at Southampton; graduated at Merton College, Oxford; was engaged in scholastic work for a number of years at Manchester, Guernsey, and Elgin; in 1876 settled in London, and made a reputation for vigorous and scholarly criticism, devoting much of his time to French literature; elected to the Chair of English Literature in Edinburgh University, 1895; is the author of a "Short History of French Literature," a "Short History of English Literature," besides several volumes of essays, &c.; b. 1845.

SAIS, a city of ancient Egypt, on the delta, on the right bank of the W. branch of the Nile; gave name to two Egyptian dynasties founded by natives of it, was a religious centre, and eventually for a time capital, the temple of which was said to contain a veiled statue which became a subject of legend.

SAIVAS, in the Hindu religion the worshippers of Siva, one of the two great sections of the Hindus, the worshippers of Vishnu being the other.

SAKI, a beer of alcoholic quality made in Japan from rice by fermentation. It is drunk hot at meals, and is in a small way intoxicating.

SAKUNTALA, in Hindu mythology a benignant female character, made the subject of a famous drama of KALIDASA (q. v.), translated in 1789 by Sir William Jones.

SAKYAMUNI (i. e. the solitary of the Sakyas), the name given to Buddha, one of the tribe of the Sakyas in Northern India.

SALA, GEORGE AUGUSTUS, a well-known journalist, born in London, of Italian and English parentage; had some training in art before he began writing for Dickens's Household Words, &c.; lived a busy, rambling life; founded and edited Temple Bar; acted as war-correspondent for the Daily Telegraph; author of several popular novels, "Captain Dangerous" and "Quite Alone" among them, and books of travel, "A Trip to Barbary" and "America Revisited" (1828-1895).

SALAAM, an Oriental term of salutation meaning "Peace," especially among the Mohammedans.

SALADIN, sultan of Egypt and Syria, the hero of the third crusade on the Saracen side; a man of noble and chivalrous character; served first as a soldier under Nureddin; rose to be vizier of Egypt, and ultimately sovereign in 1174; distinguished himself by the capture of Damascus, Aleppo, &c., and entering the Holy Land defeated the Christians at Tiberias, thereafter taking Jerusalem and laying siege to Tyre; found in Richard Coeur de Lion a foeman worthy of his steel, concluded a truce in 1192, and died the year after (1137-1193).

SALAMANCA (22), an interesting old city of Spain, capital of a province of the same name, occupies a hilly site on the Tormes, here spanned by a Roman bridge, 110 m. NW. of Madrid, long famous for its university, which in its heyday (16th century) numbered 8000 students, now fallen to 400; holds within its surrounding walls many fine old cathedrals, colleges, and other buildings; its industries are greatly fallen off, and consist mainly of cloth, linen, leather, and pottery manufacturing; in this neighbourhood Wellington won a great victory over the French on July 22, 1812.

SALAMANDER, an elemental spirit conceived in the Middle Ages as an animal that lived in the fire as its proper element.

SALAMIS, a mountainous island of Greece, on the NW. coast of Attica, the strait between which and the mainland was the scene of a naval victory over the armament of Xerxes by the combined fleets of Athens, Sparta, and Corinth in 480 B.C.

SALDANHA OLIVEIRA E DAUN JOAO CARLOS, DUKE OF, Portuguese statesman and soldier, played an honourable and patriotic part in many wars and crises of his country, notably in Brazil in the struggle between Dom Pedro and Dom Miguel, and during his occupancy of the Premiership on three several occasions between 1846-70; proved a mild constitutionalist, and enjoyed the confidence and support of England; was created a duke in 1846 (1790-1876).

SALE, GEORGE, Orientalist, born in Kent, and bred for the bar, contributed to the "Universal History" and the "General Dictionary," but is best known as the translator of the "Koran," with a preliminary dissertation and notes; he left a body of MSS. behind him (1690-1736).

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