The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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RENDSBURG (12), a fortified town in Schleswig-Holstein, on the North Sea and Baltic Canal, 19 m. W. of Kiel; manufactures cotton, chemicals, brandy &c.

RENE I., titular king of Naples, born at Angers, son of Louis II., Duke of Anjou and Count of Provence; on the death of his father-in-law, Duke of Lorraine, he in 1431 claimed the dukedom; was defeated and imprisoned; bought his liberty and the dukedom in 1437, in which year he also made an ineffectual attempt to make good his claim to the throne of Naples and Sicily; settled down in Provence and devoted himself to literature and art and to developing the country (1409-1480).

RENFREW (7), a royal burgh and county-town of Renfrewshire, situated on the Clyde, 6 m. below Glasgow; dates back to the 12th century as a burgh; industries include thread, cotton cloths, shawl factories, and shipbuilding.

RENFREWSHIRE (291), a south-western county of Scotland; faces the Firth of Clyde on the W., between Ayr on the S. and SW., and the river Clyde on the N.; bordered on the E. by Lanark; hilly on the W. and S., flat on the E.; is watered by the Gryfe, the Black Cart, and the White Cart; dairy-farming is carried on in extensive scale, stimulated by the proximity of Glasgow; nearly two-thirds of the county is under cultivation; coal and iron are mined, and in various parts the manufacture of thread, cotton, chemicals, shipbuilding, &c., is actively engaged in.

RENNELL, JAMES, geographer, born near Chudleigh, Devonshire; passed from the navy to the military service of the East India Company; became surveyor-general of Bengal; retired in 1782; author of many works on the topography of India, hydrography, &c.; the "Geographical System of Herodotus Examined and Explained" is his most noted work (1742-1830).

RENNES (65), a prosperous town in Brittany, capital of the department of Ille-et-Vilaine, situated at the junction of the Ille and the Vilaine; consists of a high and low town, separated by the river Vilaine, mostly rebuilt since the disastrous fire in 1720; has handsome buildings, a cathedral, &c.; is the seat of an archbishop, a military centre, and manufactures sail-cloth, linen, shoes, hats, &c.; where the court-martial was held which condemned Captain Dreyfus on a second trial in 1899.

RENNIE, JOHN, civil engineer, born in East Linton, East Lothian; employed by the firm of Messrs. Boulton & Watt at Soho, Birmingham, and entrusted by them to direct in the construction of the Albion Mills, London, he became at once famous for his engineering ability, and was in general request for other works, such as the construction of docks, canals, and bridges, distinguishing himself most in connection with the latter, of which Waterloo, Southwark, and London over the Thames, are perhaps the finest (1761-1821).

RENTE, name given to the French funds, or income derivable from them.

RENTON (5), a town in Dumbartonshire, on the Leven, 2 m. N. of Dumbarton; engaged in calico-printing, dyeing, &c.; has a monument in memory of Tobias Smollett, who was born in the neighbourhood.

RENWICK, JAMES, Scottish martyr, born at Moniaive, Dumfriesshire; educated at Edinburgh University, but was refused his degree for declining to take the oath of allegiance; completed his studies in Holland, and in 1683 was ordained at Groeningen; came to Scotland; was outlawed in 1684 for his "Apologetic Declaration"; refused to recognise James II. as king; was captured after many escapes, and executed at Edinburgh, the last of the martyrs of the Covenant (1662-1688).

REPEALER, an advocate of the repeal of the Union of Great Britain and Ireland.

REPLICA, is properly the copy of an original picture done by the hand of the same master.

REPOUSSE, a name applied to a style of raised ornamentation in metal obtained by beating out from behind a convex design, which is then chased in front; was known to the Greeks, and carried to a high pitch of perfection by Benvenuto Cellini in the 16th century; has been successfully revived, especially in France, in this century.

REPTON (2), a village of Derbyshire, 61/2 m. SW. of Derby, dates back to the 7th century, and is associated with the establishment of Christianity in England; has a fine Public school, founded in 1556.

REPUBLIC, the name given to a State in which the sovereign power is vested in one or more elected by the community, and held answerable to it though in point of fact, both in Rome and the Republic of Venice the community was not free to elect any one outside of a privileged order.

REPUBLICANS, THE, the name given latterly in the United States to the party opposed to the Democrats (q. v.) and in favour of federalism.

REQUIEM, a mass set to music, sung for the repose of the soul of a dead person.

REREDOS, the name given to the decorated portion of the wall or screen behind and rising above a church altar; as a rule it is richly ornamented with niches and figures, and stands out from the east wall of the church, but not unfrequently it is joined to the wall; splendid examples exist at All Souls' College, Oxford, Durham Cathedral, St. Albans, &c.

RESINA (14), a town of South Italy, looks out upon the sea from the base of Vesuvius, 4 m. SE. of Naples, built on the site of ancient Herculaneum; manufactures wine and silk.

RESPONSIONS, the first of the three examinations for a degree at Oxford University, or the Little Go.

RESSAIDAR, in India, a native cavalry officer in command of a Ressalah, or a squadron of native cavalry.

RESTORATION, THE, the name given in English history to the re-establishment of monarchy and the return of Charles II. to the throne, 29th May 1660, after the fall of the Commonwealth.

RESTORATIONISTS, name of a sect in America holding the belief that man will finally recover his original state of purity.

RESURRECTIONIST, one who stealthily exhumed bodies from the grave and sold them for anatomical purposes.

RETFORD, EAST (11), market-town of Nottinghamshire, on the Idle, 24 m. E. by S. of Sheffield; has foundries, paper and flour mills, &c.

RETINA, a retiform expansion of the sensatory nerves, which receives the impression that gives rise to vision, or visual perception.

RETRIBUTIVE JUSTICE, justice which rewards good deeds, and inflicts punishment on offenders.

RETZ, CARDINAL DE, born at Montmirail, of Italian descent, and much given to intrigue, obtained the coadjutorship of the archbishopric of Paris, plotted against Mazarin, played an important part in the troubles of the Fronde, and was in 1652 thrown into prison, from which he escaped; he left "Memoirs" which are valuable as a record of the times, though the readers are puzzled to construe from them the character of the author (1614-1679).

RETZ, GILLES DE, marshal of France, born in Brittany; distinguished himself under Charles VII. against the English; was condemned to be burned alive at Nantes in 1440 for his unnatural crimes and his cruelties.

RETZCH, MORITZ, painter and engraver, born at Dresden, where he became a professor of Painting; is famous for his etchings illustrative of Goethe's "Faust," of certain of Shakespeare's plays, as well as of Fouque's "Tales"; the "Chess-Players" and "Man versus Satan," which is considered his masterpiece (1779-1857).

REUCHLIN, JOHANN, a learned German humanist, born in the Black Forest, devoted himself to the study of Greek and Hebrew, and did much to promote the study of both in Germany, and wrote "Rudiments of the Hebrew Language"; though he did not attach himself to the Reformers, he contributed by his works and labours to advance the cause of the Reformation; his special enemies were the Dominicans, but he was backed up against them by all the scholars of Germany (1455-1522).

REUNION (formerly Ile de Bourbon) (166), mostly Creoles, a French island in the Indian Ocean, 358 m. E. of Madagascar, 38 m. by 28; a volcanic range intersects the island; the scenery is fine; streams plentiful, but small; one-third of the land is uncultivated, and grows fruits, sugar (chief export), coffee, spices, &c. St. Denis (33), on the N. coast, is the capital; has been a French possession since 1649.

REUSS, name of two German principalities stretching between Bavaria on the S. and Prussia on the N.; they belong to the elder and younger branches of the Reuss family. The former is called Reuss-Greiz (63), the latter Reuss-Schleiz-Gera (120); both are hilly, well wooded, and well watered; farming and textile manufacturing are carried on. Both are represented in the Reichstag; the executive is in the hands of the hereditary princes, and the legislative powers are vested in popularly elected assemblies.

REUTER, FRITZ, a German humourist, born in Mecklenburg-Schwerin; when a student at Jena took part in a movement among the students in behalf of German unity; was arrested and condemned, after commutation of sentence of death, to thirty years' imprisonment, but was released, after seven of them, in broken health; and after eleven more took to writing a succession of humorous poems in Low German, which placed him in the front rank of the humourists of Germany (1810-1874).

REUTER, BARON PAUL JULIUS, the organiser of the conveyance of news by telegraph, born at Cassel; commenced with Berlin for centre in 1851; transferred his head-quarters to London, and now the "system," which is in the hands of a limited liability company, has connections with even the remotest corner of the globe; b. 1818.

REUTLINGEN (19), a picturesque old town in Wuertemberg, on the Echatz, 20 m. S. of Stuttgart; formerly one of the free imperial cities of the Swabian League; has a splendid Gothic church; manufactures cloth, cutlery, leather, woollen and cotton yarns, &c.

REVEL or REVAL (52), capital of the government of Esthonia, in Russia, is a flourishing seaport on the S. side of the Gulf of Finland, 232 m. W. of St. Petersburg; has a castle, fortifications, cathedral, mediaeval antiquities, &c.; chiefly engaged in commerce; exports largely oats and other cereals, spirits, flax, &c.

REVELATION, name properly applicable to the knowledge of God, or of divine things, imparted to the mind of man, by the operation of the Divine Spirit in the human soul, and as apprehended by it.

REVELATION, BOOK OF, or THE APOCALYPSE, the book that winds up the accepted canon of Holy Scripture, of the fulfilment of the prophecies of which there are three systems of interpretation: the Praeteritist, which regards them all as fulfilled; the Historical, which regards them as all along fulfilling; and the Futurist, which regards them as still all to be fulfilled. The first is the one which finds favour among modern critics, and which regards it as a forecast of the struggle then impending between the Church under the headship of Christ and the civil power under the emperor of Rome, though this view need not be accepted as excluding the second theory, which regards it as a forecast of the struggle of the Church with the world till the cup of the world's iniquity is full and the day of its doom is come. The book appears to have been written on the occurrence of some fierce persecution at the hands of the civil power, and its object to confirm and strengthen the Church in her faith and patience by a series of visions, culminating in one of the Lamb seated on the throne of the universe as a pledge that all His slain ones would one day share in His glory.

REVELS, MASTER OF THE, also called LORD OF MISRULE, in olden times an official attached to royal and noble households to superintend the amusements, especially at Christmas time; he was a permanent officer at the English court from Henry VIII.'s reign till George III.'s, but during the 18th century the office was a merely nominal one.

REVERBERATORY FURNACE, a furnace with a domed roof, from which the flames of the fire are reflected upon the vessel placed within.

REVERE, PAUL, American patriot, born in Boston, U.S., bred a goldsmith; conspicuous for his zeal against the mother-country, and one of the first actors in the revolt (1735-1818).

REVEREND, a title of respect given to the clergy, Very Reverend to deans, Right Reverend to bishops, and Most Reverend to archbishops.

REVILLE, ALBERT, a distinguished French Protestant theologian, born at Dieppe; was from 1851 to 1872 pastor at Rotterdam, in 1880 became professor of the History of Religions in the College of France, and six years later was made President of the Section des Etudes Religieuses at the Sorbonne, Paris; has been a prolific writer on such subjects as "The Native Religions of Mexico and Peru" (Hibbert Lectures for 1884), "Religions of Non-civilised Peoples," "The Chinese Religion," &c.; b. 1826.

REVIVAL OF LETTERS, revival in Europe in the 15th century of the study of classical, especially Greek, literature, chiefly by the arrival in Italy of certain learned Greeks, fugitives from Constantinople on its capture by the Turks in 1453, and promoted, by the invention of printing, to the gradual extinction of the dry, barren scholasticism previously in vogue. See RENAISSANCE.

REVIVAL OF RELIGION, a reawakening of the religious consciousness after a period of spiritual dormancy, ascribed by many to a special outpouring of the Spirit in answer to prayer, and in connection with evangelical preaching.

REVOLUTION, a sudden change for most part in the constitution of a country in consequence of internal revolt, particularly when a monarchy is superseded by a republic, as in France in 1789, in 1848, and 1870, that in 1830 being merely from one branch of the Bourbon family to another, such as that also in England in 1658. The French Revolution of 1798 is the revolution by pre-eminence, and the years 1848-49 were years of revolutions in Europe.

REVUE DES DEUX MONDES, a celebrated French review, devoted to literature, science, art, politics, &c., established in 1829, and conducted afterwards by Buloz.

REYBAUD, MARIE ROCH LOUIS, a versatile litterateur and politician, born at Marseilles; travelled in India, established himself as a Radical journalist in Paris in 1829, and edited important works of travel, wrote popular novels, published important studies in social science; elected a member of the Academy of Moral Sciences (1850); was an active politcian, investigated for government the agricultural colonies in Algeria; author of "Scenes in Modern Life," "Industry in Europe," &c. (1799-1879).

REYKJAVIK (i. e. reeky town), (3), capital of Iceland, situated in a barren misty region on the SW. coast, practically a village of some 100 wooden houses; has a brick cathedral, and is the see of a bishop.

REYNARD THE FOX, an epic of the Middle Ages, in which animals represent men, "full of broad rustic mirth, inexhaustible in comic devices, a world Saturnalia, where wolves tonsured into monks and nigh starved by short commons, foxes pilgrimaging to Rome for absolution, cocks pleading at the judgment-bar, make strange mummery." The principal characters are Isengrim the wolf and Reynard the fox, the former representing strength incarnated in the baron and the latter representing cunning incarnated in the Church, and the strife for ascendency between the two one in which, though frequently hard pressed, the latter gets the advantage in the end.

REYNOLDS, JOHN FULTON, an American general, born at Lancaster, Pennsylvania; graduated at 21 at West Point, entered the army, distinguished himself during the Civil War, especially at the second battle of Bull Run; was killed at the battle of Gettysburg (1820-1863).

REYNOLDS, SIR JOSHUA, the chief of English portrait-painters, born near Plymouth; went to London in 1740 to study art, and remained three years; visited Italy and the great centres of art there, when he lost his hearing, and settled in London in 1752, where he began to paint portraits, and had as the subjects of his art the most distinguished people, "filled England with the ghosts of her noble squires and dames"; numbered among his friends all the literary notabilities of the day; he was the first President of the Royal Academy, and though it was no part of his duty, delivered a succession of discourses to the students on the principles and practice of painting, 15 of which have been published, and are still held in high esteem (1723-1792).

RHABDOMANCY, a species of divination by means of a hazel rod to trace the presence of minerals or metals under ground.

RHADAMANTHUS, in the Greek mythology a son of Zeus and Europa, and a brother of MINOS (q. v.), was distinguished among men for his strict justice, and was after his death appointed one of the Judges of the dead in the nether world along with AEacus and Minos.

RHAPSODISTS, a class of minstrels who in early times wandered over the Greek cities reciting the poems of Homer, and through whom they became widely known, and came to be translated with such completeness to us.

RHEA, in the Greek mythology a goddess, the daughter of Uranus and Gaia, the wife of Kronos, and mother of the chief Olympian deities, Zeus, Pluto, Poseidon, Hera, Demeter, and Hestia, and identified by the Greeks of Asia Minor with the great earth goddess Cybele, and whose worship as such, like that of all the other earth deities, was accompanied with wild revelry.

RHEA SILVIA, a vestal virgin, the mother of Romulus and Remus, twins, whom she bore to Mars, the god of war, who had violated her.

RHEIMS (104), an important French city in the department of Marne, on the Vesle, 100 m. NE. of Paris; as the former ecclesiastical metropolis of France it has historical associations of peculiar interest; the French monarchs were crowned in the cathedral (a Gothic structure of unique beauty) from 1179 to 1825; has a beautiful 12th-century Romanesque church, an archiepiscopal palace, a Roman triumphal arch, a Lycee, statues, &c.; situated in a rich wine district, it is one of the chief champagne entrepots, and is also one of the main centres of French textiles, especially woollen goods; is strongly fortified.

RHEINGAU, a fruitful wine district in the Rhine Valley, stretching along the right bank of the river in Hesse-Nassau; has a sunny, sheltered situation, and its wines are famed for their quality.

RHENISH PRUSSIA (4,710), the most westerly and most densely populated of the Prussian provinces, lies within the valleys of the Rhine and the Lower Moselle, and borders on Belgium and the Netherlands; is mountainous and forest-clad, except in the fertile plains of the N. and in the rich river valleys, where vines, cereals, and vegetables are extensively cultivated; large quantities of coal, iron, zinc, and lead are mined; as an industrial and manufacturing province it ranks first in Germany. Coblenz (capital), Aix-la-Chapelle, Bonn, and Cologne are among its chief towns; was formed in 1815 out of several smaller duchies.

RHEOCHORD, a wire to measure the resistance or variability of an electric current.

RHEOMETRY, measurement of the force or the velocity of an electric current.

RHESUS, a monkey held sacred in several parts of India.

RHETORIC, the science or art of persuasive or effective speech, written as well as spoken, and that both in theory and practice was cultivated to great perfection among the ancient Greeks and Romans, and to some extent in the Middle Ages and later, but is much less cultivated either as a science or an art to-day.

RHINE, one of the chief rivers of Europe; of several small Alpine head-streams, the Nearer and the Farther Rhine are the two principal, issuing from the eastern flanks of Mount St Gothard; a junction is formed at Reichenau, whence the united stream—the Upper Rhine—flows N. to Lake Constance, and issuing from the NW. corner curves westward to Basel, forming the boundary between Switzerland and Germany. From Basel, as the Middle Rhine, it pursues a northerly course to Mainz, turns sharply to the W. as far as Bingen, and again resumes its northward course. The Rhine-Highland between Bingen and Bonn is the most romantic and picturesque part of its course. As the Lower Rhine it flows in a sluggish, winding stream through the Rhenish Lowlands, enters Holland near Cleves, at Nimeguen bends to the W., and flowing through Holland some 100 m. reaches the German Ocean, splitting in its lowest part into several streams which form a rich delta, one-third of Holland. It is 800 m. in length; receives numerous affluents, e. g. Neckar, Main, Moselle, Lippe; is navigable for ships to Mannheim.

RHINOPLASTIC OPERATION, an operation of repairing destroyed portions of the nose by skin from adjoining parts.

RHODE ISLAND (346), the smallest but most densely populated of the United States, and one of the original 13; faces the Atlantic between Connecticut (W.) and Massachusetts (N. and E.); is split into two portions by Narragansett Bay (30 m. long); hilly in the N., but elsewhere level; enjoys a mild and equable climate, and is greatly resorted to by invalids from the S.; the soil is rather poor, and manufactures form the staple industry; coal, iron, and limestone are found. Providence, Pawtucket, and Newport are the chief towns.

RHODES (10), a Turkish island in the Mediterranean, 12 m. distant from the SW, coast of Asia Minor, area 49 m. by 21 m.; mountainous and woody; has a fine climate and a fertile soil, which produces fruit in abundance, also some grain; it is ill developed, and has a retrogressive population, most of whom are Greeks; sponges, chief export; figures considerably in ancient classic history; was occupied by the Knights Hospitallers of St. John for more than two centuries, and was taken from them by the Turks in 1523.

RHODES, CECIL, statesman, born in Hertfordshire, son of a vicar; went to South Africa; became director of the diamond mines at Kimberley, and amassed a large fortune; entered the Cape Parliament, and became Prime Minister in 1890; he has been active and successful to extend the British territories in South Africa, aiming at destroying the race prejudices that prevail in it, and at establishing among the different colonies a federated union; b. 1853.

RHODESIA, the territory in South Africa occupied and administered by the British South Africa Company, under the leadership of Mr. Cecil Rhodes, and founded by royal charter in 1889, hence the name it goes under, is bounded on the E. by Portuguese East Africa, on the N. by German East Africa and the Congo Free State, on the W. by Angola and German South-West Africa, and on the S. by Bechuanaland and the Transvaal; is traversed by the Zambesi, which divides it into Northern and Southern Rhodesia; the Northern has been little prospected, though the land is being cultivated, crops raised, and cattle-breeding commenced, besides a new industry started in fibre; the Southern is divided into two provinces, MASHONALAND (q. v.) and MATABELELAND (q. v.); in Rhodesia public roads have been made to the extent of 2230 miles, and telegraph lines to the extent of 1856 miles of line and 2583 of wire; it is favourable to the breeding of stock, though the rinderpest raged in it disastrously for a time; the climate is suitable for the cultivation of cereals of all kinds, and vegetables, tobacco, india-rubber, and indigo are indigenous, and well repay cultivation; there are forests of timber, and gold, silver, copper, coal, tin, &c., have been discovered; it is, roughly speaking, as large as the German Empire, and in consequence of the Jameson raid the control of the military forces, formerly under the control of the Company, is now in the hands of the Imperial Government.

RHONE, one of the four great rivers of France, rises on Mount St. Gothard, in the Swiss Alps; passes through the Lake of Geneva, and flowing in a south-westerly course to Lyons, is there joined by its chief affluent, the Saone, hence it flows due S.; at Arles it divides into two streams, which form a rich delta before entering the Gulf of Lyons, in the Mediterranean; length, 504 m.; navigable to Lyons, but the rapid current and shifting sandbanks greatly impede traffic.

RHONE (807), a department of France lying wholly within the western side of the Saone and Rhone basin, hilly and fruitful; wine is produced in large quantities; has an active industrial population; capital, Lyons.

RHUMB LINE, a circle on the earth's surface making a given angle with the meridian; applied to the course of a ship in navigation.

RHYL (6), a popular watering-place of Flintshire, North Wales, situated on the coast at the mouth of the Clwyd, 16 m. E. of Conway; has a fine promenade pier, esplanade, gardens, &c.

RHYMER, THOMAS THE, or TRUE THOMAS, Thomas of Ercildoune, or Earlston, a Berwickshire notability of the 13th century, famous for his rhyming prophecies, who was said, in return for his prophetic gift, to have sold himself to the fairies.

RHYS, JOHN, Celtic scholar, born in Wales; professor of Celtic at Oxford; has written on subjects related to that of the chair; b. 1840.

RIBBONISM, the principles of secret associations among the lower Irish Catholics, organised in opposition to Orangeism, the name being derived from a green ribbon worn as a badge in a button-hole by the members; they were most active between 1835 and 1855.

RIBERA, JUSEPE, a Spanish painter, born near Valencia; indulged in a realism of a gruesome type; had Salvator Rosa and Giordano for pupils (1588-1656).

RICARDO, DAVID, political economist, born in London, of Jewish parentage; realised a large fortune as a member of the Stock Exchange; wrote on political economy on abstract lines, and from a purely mercantile and materialistic standpoint (1772-1823).

RICASOLI, BARON, Italian statesman, born at Florence; devoted to the cultivation of the vine, the olive, and the mulberry; was drawn into political life in 1847 in the interest of Italian unity, succeeded Cavour as Prime Minister, but retired from political life in 1866; his "Letters and Papers," in 5 vols., were published posthumously (1806-1880).

RICCI, LORENZO, last general of the Jesuits, born in Florence; entered the order when 15; became general in 1736; on the suppression of the order retired to the castle of St. Angelo, where he died 1775.

RICCI, MATTEO, founder of the Jesuit mission in China, born in Macerato, Italy; accommodated himself to the manners of the Chinese, and won their confidence (1552-1610).


RICE, JAMES, novelist, born at Northampton, educated at Cambridge; designed for the law, but took to literature; owned and edited Once a Week; best known as the successful collaborateur of WALTER BESANT (q. v.) in such popular novels as "The Golden Butterfly," "Ready-Money Mortiboy," &c. (1844-1882).


RICHARD I., (surnamed Coeur de Lion), king of England from 1189 to 1199, third son and successor of Henry II.; his early years were spent in Poitou and Aquitaine, where he engaged in quarrels with his father; after his accession to the throne he flung himself with characteristic ardour into the Crusade movement; in 1190 joined his forces with Philip Augustus of France in the third crusade; upheld the claims of Tancred in Sicily; captured Cyprus, and won great renown in the Holy Land, particularly by his defeat of Saladin; was captured after shipwreck on the coast on his way home by the Archduke of Austria, and handed over to the Emperor Henry VI. (1193); was ransomed at a heavy price by his subjects, and landed in England in 1194; his later years were spent in his French possessions warring against Philip, and he died of an arrow wound at the siege of Chalus; not more than a year of his life was spent in England, and his reign is barren of constitutional change (1157-1199).

RICHARD II., king of England from 1377 to 1399, son of the Black Prince, born at Bordeaux; succeeded his grandfather, Edward III.; during his minority till 1389 the kingdom was administered by a council; in 1381 the Peasants' Revolt broke out, headed by Wat Tyler, as a result of the discontent occasioned by the Statutes of Labour passed in the previous reign, and more immediately by the heavy taxation made necessary by the expense of the Hundred Years' War still going on with France; a corrupt Church called forth the energetic protests of Wycliffe, which started the LOLLARD (q. v.) movement; an invasion of Scotland (1385), resulting in the capture of Edinburgh, was headed by the young king; coming under French influence, and adopting despotic measures in the later years of his reign, Richard estranged all sections of his people; a rising headed by Henry of Lancaster forced his abdication, and by a decree of Parliament he was imprisoned for life in Pontefract Castle, where he died (probably murdered) soon after (1367-1400).

RICHARD III., king of England from 1483 to 1486, youngest brother of Edward IV., and last of the Plantagenets, born at Fotheringhay Castle; in 1461 was created Duke of Gloucester by his brother for assisting him to win the crown; faithfully supported Edward against Lancastrian attacks; married (1473) Anne, daughter of Warwick, the King-Maker; early in 1483 was appointed Protector of the kingdom and guardian of his young nephew, Edward V.; put to death nobles who stood in the way of his ambitious schemes for the throne; doubts were cast upon the legitimacy of the young king, and Richard's right to the throne was asserted; in July 1483 he assumed the kingly office; almost certainly instigated the murder of Edward and his little brother in the Tower; ruled firmly and well, but without the confidence of the nation; in 1488 Henry, Earl of Richmond, head of the House of Lancaster, invaded England, and at the battle of Bosworth Richard was defeated and slain (1452-1485).

RICHARD OF CIRENCESTER, an English chronicler, born at Cirencester; flourished in the 14th century; was a monk in the Benedictine monastery of St. Peter, Westminster; wrote a History of England from 447 to 1066; for long the reputed author of a remarkable work on Roman Britain, now proved to be a forgery; d. 1401.

RICHARDS, ALFRED BATE, journalist and author; turned from law to literature; author of a number of popular dramas, volumes of poems, essays, &c.; was the first editor of the Daily Telegraph, and afterwards of the Morning Advertiser; took an active interest in the volunteer movement (1820-1876).

RICHARDSON, SIR BENJAMIN WARD, a distinguished physician and author, born at Somerby, Leicestershire; took the diploma of the Royal College of Physicians in 1850, and graduated in medicine at St. Andrews four years later; founded the Journal of Public Health in 1855, and The Asclepiad in 1861, and the Social Science Review in 1862; won the Fothergilian gold medal and the Astley-Cooper prize of 300 guineas; made many valuable medical inventions, and was an active lecturer on sanitary science, &c.; was knighted in 1893 (1828-1896).

RICHARDSON, CHARLES, lexicographer; was trained for the bar, but took to literature and education; pensioned in 1852; his chief works are "Illustrations of English Philology" and the "New Dictionary of the English Language" (1837), according to Trench the best dictionary of his day (1775-1865).

RICHARDSON, SIR JOHN, M.D., naturalist and Arctic explorer, born at Dumfries; graduated at Edinburgh; for some time a navy surgeon; accompanied Franklin on the expeditions in 1819-22 and 1825-27, and later commanded one of the Franklin search expeditions (1848); held government appointments, and was knighted in 1846 (1787-1865).

RICHARDSON, SAMUEL, novelist, born in Derbyshire, the son of a joiner; was apprenticed to a printer in London, whose daughter he married; set up in the business for himself, and from his success in it became Master of the Stationers Company in 1754, and King's Printer in 1761; was 50 before he came out as a novelist; published his "Pamela" in 1740, his masterpiece "Clarissa," written in the form of letters, in 1748, and "Sir Charles Grandison" in 1753; they are all three novels of sentiment, are instinct with a spirit of moral purity, and are more praised than read (1689-1761).

RICHELIEU, ARMAND-JEAN DUPLESSIS, CARDINAL DE, born in Paris, of a noble family; was minister of Louis XIII., and one of the greatest statesmen France ever had; from his installation as Prime Minister in 1624 he set himself to the achievement of a threefold purpose, and rested not till he accomplished it—the ruin of the Protestants as a political party, the curtailment of the power of the nobles, and the humiliation of the House of Austria in the councils of Europe; his administration was signalised by reforms in finance, in the army, and in legislation; as the historian Thierry has said of him, "He left nothing undone that could be done by statesmanship for the social amelioration of the country; he had a mind of the most comprehensive grasp, and a genius for the minutest details of administration"; he was a patron of letters, and the founder of the French Academy (1585-1642).

RICHMOND, 1, an interesting old borough (4) in Yorkshire, on the Swale, 49 m. N.W. of York; has a fine 11th-century castle, now partly utilised as barracks, remains of a Franciscan friary, a racecourse, &c. 2, A town (23) in Surrey, 9 m. W. of London; picturesquely situated on the summit and slope of Richmond Hill, and the right bank of the Thames; has remains of the royal palace of Sheen, a magnificent deer park, a handsome river bridge, &c.; supplies London with fruit and vegetables; has many literary and historical associations. 3, Capital (85) of Virginia, U.S.; has a hilly and picturesque site on the James River, 116 m. S. of Washington; possesses large docks, and is a busy port, a manufacturing town (tobacco, iron-works, flour and paper mills), and a railway centre; as the Confederate capital it was the scene of a memorable, year-long siege during the Civil War, ultimately falling into the hands of Grant and Sheridan in 1865.

RICHMOND, LEGH, an evangelical clergyman of the Church of England, born in Liverpool, famed for a tract "The Dairyman's Daughter" (1772-1827).

RICHTER, JEAN PAUL FRIEDRICH, usually called Jean Paul simply, the greatest of German humourists, born at Wunsiedel, near Baireuth, in Bavaria, the son of a poor German pastor; had a scanty education, but his fine faculties and unwearied diligence supplied every defect; was an insatiable and universal reader; meant for the Church, took to poetry and philosophy, became an author, putting forth the strangest books with the strangest titles; considered for a time a strange, crack-brained mixture of enthusiast and buffoon; was recognised at last as a man of infinite humour, sensibility, force, and penetration; his writings procured him friends and fame, and at length a wife and a settled pension; settled in Baireuth, where he lived thenceforth diligent and celebrated in many departments of literature, and where he died, loved as well as admired by all his countrymen, and more by those who had known him most intimately ... his works are numerous, and the chief are novels, "'Hesperus' and 'Titan' being the longest and the best, the former of which first (in 1795) introduced him into decisive and universal estimation with his countrymen, and the latter of which he himself, as well as the most judicious of his critics, regarded as his masterpiece" (1763-1825).

RICHTHOFEN, BARON VON, traveller and geographer, born in Carlsruhe, Silesia; accompanied in 1861 the Prussian expedition to Eastern Asia, travelled in 1862-68 in California, and in 1869-72 in China; has since been professor of Geography successively at Bonn, Leipzig, and Berlin; has written a great work on China; b. 1833.

RICORD, PHILIPPE, a famous French physician, born at Baltimore, U.S.; came to Paris, was a specialist in a department of surgery, and surgeon-in-chief to the hospital for venereal diseases (1800-1889).

RIDLEY, NICOLAS, martyred bishop, born in Northumberland, Fellow and ultimately Master of Pembroke College, Cambridge; on a three years' visit to the Continent fell in with certain of the Reformers and returned convinced of and confirmed in the Protestant faith; became king's chaplain, bishop of Rochester, and finally of London; favoured the cause of Lady Jane Grey against Mary, who committed him to the Tower, and being condemned as a heretic was at Oxford burnt at the stake along with Latimer (1500-1555).

RIEHM, EDWARD, Protestant theologian, born at Diersburg, Baden, was professor at Halle; wrote many theological works, among them "Handwoerterbuch des biblischen Alterthums" (1830-1888).

RIENZI, COLA DI, Roman tribune, born at Rome, of humble origin; gave himself to the study of the ancient history of the city, became inspired with a noble ambition to restore its ancient glory, and being endowed with an eloquent tongue, persuaded, with sanction of Pope Clement VI., who was then at Avignon, his fellow-citizens to rise against the tyranny to which they were subjected at the hands of the nobles, in which he at length was successful; but his own rule became intolerable, and he was assassinated in an emeute just seven years after the commencement of his political career (1313-1354).

RIESENGEBIRGE (i. e. Giant Mountains), a range dividing Bohemia from Silesia; Schneekoppe (5260 ft.) is the highest peak; is a famous summer resort for Germans.

RIFACIMENTO, a literary work recast to adapt it to a change in the circumstances of the time.

RIFF, the name given to the N. coast-lands of Morocco from Tangiers to Algeria; is a mountainous and woody region, with a rugged foreshore, inhabited by lawless Berbers.

RIGA (182), the third seaport of Russia and capital of Livonia, on the Dwina, 7 m. from its entrance into the Gulf of Riga (a spacious inlet on the E. side of the Baltic); has some fine mediaeval buildings; is the seat of an archbishop, and is a busy and growing commercial and manufacturing town, exporting grain, timber, flax, linseed, wool, &c.

RIGDUM FUNNIDOS, Scott's nickname for JOHN BALLANTYNE (q. v.).

RIGHTS, DECLARATION OF, a declaration of the fundamental principles of the constitution drawn up by the Parliament of England and submitted to William and Mary on their being called to the throne, and afterwards enacted in Parliament when they became king and queen. It secures to the people their rights as free-born citizens and to the Commons as their representatives, while it binds the sovereign to respect these rights as sacred.

RIGI, an isolated mountain, 5900 ft. high, in the Swiss canton of Schwyz, with a superb view from the summit, on which hotels have been built for the convenience of the many who visit it; is reached by two toothed railways with a gradient of 1 ft. in 4.

RIGVEDA, the first of the four sections into which the VEDAS (q. v.) are divided, and which includes the body of the hymns or verses of invocation and praises; believed to have issued from a narrow circle of priests, and subsequently recast many of them.

RIMINI (11, with suburbs 20), a walled city of N. Italy, of much historic interest both in ancient and mediaeval times, on the small river Marecchia, spanned by a fine Roman bridge close to its entrance into the Adriatic, 69 m. SE. of Bologna; has a 15th-century Renaissance cathedral, an ancient castle, and other mediaeval buildings, a Roman triumphal arch, &c.; manufactures silks and sail-cloth.

RIMMON, name of a Syrian god who had a temple at Damascus called the house of Rimmon, a symbol of the sun, or of the fertilising power of nature.

RINALDO, one of Charlemagne's paladins, of a violent, headstrong, and unscrupulous character, who fell into disgrace, but after adventures in the Holy Land was reconciled to the Emperor; Angelica, an infidel princess, fell violently in love with him, but he turned a deaf ear to her addresses, while others would have given kingdoms for her hand.

RINDERPEST or CATTLE PLAGUE, a fever of a malignant and contagious type; the occurrence of it in Britain is due to the importation of infected cattle from the Asiatic steppes.

RING AND THE BOOK, a poem by Browning of 20,000 lines, giving different versions of a story agreeably to and as an exhibition of the personalities of the different narrators.

RIO DE JANEIRO (423), capital and chief seaport of Brazil, charmingly situated on the E. coast of Brazil, on the W. shore of a spacious and beautiful bay, 15 m. long, which forms one of the finest natural harbours in the world; stretches some 10 m. along the seaside, and is hemmed in by richly clad hills; streets are narrow and ill kept; possesses a large hospital, public library (180,000 vols.), botanical gardens, arsenal, school of medicine, electric tramways, &c.; has extensive docks, and transacts half the commerce of Brazil; coffee is the chief export; manufactures cotton, jute, silk, tobacco, &c. Great heat prevails in the summer, and yellow fever is common.

RIO GRANDE (known also as Rio Bravo del Norte), an important river of North America, rises in the San Juan Mountains in Colorado; flows SE., dividing Texas from Mexico, and enters the Gulf of Mexico after a course of 1800 m.; is navigable for steamboats some 500 m.; chief tributary, Rio Pecos; also the name given to the head-stream of the river Parana in Brazil and Argentina.

RIO GRANDE DO NORTE (310), a maritime State in the NE. corner of Brazil, called after the Rio Grande, which flows NE. and enters the Atlantic at Natal, the capital of the State.

RIO GRANDE DO SUL (645), the southmost state in Brazil, lies N. of Uruguay, fronting the Atlantic; capital, Rio Grande (18).

RIO NEGRO, 1, One of the larger tributaries of the Amazon, rises as the Guainia in SE. Columbia; crosses Venezuela and Brazil in a more or less SE. direction, and joins the Amazon (the Maranon here) near Manaos after a course of 1350 m.; some of its tributaries connect the Orinoco with the Amazon. 2, Has its source in a small lake in the Chilian Andes, flows NE. and E. to the Atlantic, is some 500 m. long, and easily navigated.

RIOJA (80), a province of W. Argentina, embraces some of the most fruitful valleys of the Andes which grow cereals, vines, cotton, &c.; some mining in copper, silver, and gold is done. The capital, Rioja (6), is prettily planted in a vine and orange district at the base of the Sierra Velasco 350 m. NW. of Cordoba.

RIOM (10), a pretty little French town in the dep. of Puy-de-Dome, noted for its many quaint old houses of the Renaissance period; does a good trade in tobacco, linen, &c.

RIP VAN WINKLE, a Dutch colonist of New York who, driven from home by a termagant wife strolls into a ravine of the Katskill Mountains, falls in with a strange man whom he assists in carrying a keg, and comes upon a company of odd-looking creatures playing at ninepins, but never uttering a word, when, seizing an opportunity that offered, he took up one of the kegs he had carried, fell into a stupor, and slept 20 years, to find his beard and all the world about him quite changed.

RIPLEY, 1, a manufacturing town (7) of Derbyshire, situated 10 m. NE. of Derby, in a busy coal and iron district; manufactures silk lace. 2. A Yorkshire village on the Nidd, 31/2 m. NW. of Harrowgate; has an interesting castle, old church, &c.

RIPLEY, GEORGE, American transcendentalist, born in Massachusetts; a friend of Emerson's and founder of BROOK FARM (q. v.); took to Carlyle as Carlyle to him, though he was "grieved to see him" taken up with the "Progress of Species" set, and "confusing himself" thereby (1802-1880).

RIPON, FREDERICK JOHN ROBINSON, EARL OF, statesman, younger son of Lord Grantham, entered Parliament in 1806 as a Tory; rose to be Chancellor of the Exchequer, and was for a few months in 1827 Prime Minister; was subsequently in different Cabinets Colonial Secretary, Lord Privy Seal, and President of the Board of Trade; created an Earl In 1833 (1782-1859).

RIPON, GEORGE FREDERICK SAMUEL ROBINSON, MARQUIS OF, statesman, born in London, son of preceding; entered House of Commons in 1852 as a Liberal; became Secretary for War (1863), and three years later for India; was President of the Council in 1868, a popular Viceroy of India (1880-84), First Lord of the Admiralty in 1886, and Colonial Secretary in 1892-95; was created Marquis in 1871; went over to the Catholic Church in 1874, resigning in consequence the Grand-Mastership of the Freemasons; b. 1827.

RISHANGER, WILLIAM ("Chronigraphus"), an annalist and monk of St. Albans; wrote what is in effect a continuation of MATTHEW PARIS'S (q. v.) "Chronicle," and practically a history of his own times from 1259 to 1307, which is both a spirited and trustworthy account, albeit in parts not original; b. 1250.

RISHIS (i. e. seers), a name given by the Hindus to seven wise men whose eyes had been opened by the study of the sacred texts of their religion, the souls of whom are fabled to be incarnated in the seven stars of the Great Bear.

RISTORI, ADELAIDE, distinguished Italian tragedienne; was one of a family of strolling players; her career on the stage was a continuous triumph; the role in which she specially shone was that of Lady Macbeth; she was married in 1847 to the Marquis del Grillo, and is known as Marquise; b. 1821.

RITSCHL, ALBRECHT, Protestant theologian, born at Berlin; studied at Rome, where in 1853 he became professor extraordinarius of theology, and in 1860 ordinary professor; after which he was in 1864 transferred to Goettingen, where he spent the rest of his life, gathering year after year around him a large circle of students, and enriching theological literature by his writings; the work which defines his position as a German theologian is entitled "The Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation," in which he seeks to draw the line between Christianity as exhibited respectively in the theology of the Reformation and that of modern Pietism; by his lectures and his writings he became the founder of what is called the Goettingen School of Theology, and exercised an influence on the religious philosophy of the time, such as has not been witnessed in Germany since the days of Schleiermacher; his teaching is distinguished by the prominence it gives to the ethical side of Christianity, and that it is only as exhibited on the ethical side that it becomes the exponent and medium of God's grace to mankind (1822-1889).

RITSCHL, FRIEDRICH WILHELM, German philologist, born near Erfurt; became professor of Philology successively at Breslau, Bonn, and Leipzig; his influence on philological study was great, and his greatest work was an edition of Plautus (1806-1876).

RITSON, JOSEPH, a whimsical and crabbed antiquary; his industry was great, his works numerous, among them one entitled "Ancient English Metrical Romances," containing a long and still valuable dissertation (1752-1803).

RITTER, HEINRICH, German philosopher, born in Anhalt; professor successively at Berlin, Kiel, and Goettingen; is distinguished as the author of an able "History of Philosophy" (1791-1860).

RITTER, KARL, celebrated geographer, born at Quedlinburg; the founder of comparative geography; professor of geography at Berlin; his chief works "Geography in its Relation to Nature," and the "History of Man" (1779-1859).

RITUALISM, respect for forms in the conduct of religious worship, particularly in connection with the administration of the sacraments of the Church, under the impression or on the plea that they minister, as they were ordained in certain cases to minister, to the quickening and maintenance of the religious life.

RIVAROL, a French writer, born at Bagnols, in the department of Var; famed for his caustic wit; was a Royalist emigrant at the time of the Revolution, and aided the cause by his pamphlets; he was styled by Burke "The Tacitus of the Revolution" (1753-1801).

RIVE-DE-GIER (13), a flourishing town in the department of Loire, France, on the Gier, 13 m. NE. of St. Etienne; is favourably situated in the heart of a rich coal district; has manufactures of silk, glass, machinery, steel, &c.

RIVERS, RICHARD WOODVILLE, EARL, a prominent figure in the reigns of Henry VI. and Edward IV.; was knighted in 1425; espoused the cause of the Lancastrians in the Wars of the Roses, but changed sides on the marriage of his daughter with Edward IV., who created him an earl in 1460; fell out of jealousy into disfavour with the nobility, and was beheaded in 1469; his son ANTHONY, who succeeded to the title, after acting on the Council of Regency during Edward V.'s reign, was put to death by Richard (III.), Duke of Gloucester, in 1483.

RIVIERA, an Italian term for coast-land flanked by mountains, especially applied to the strip of land lying around the Gulf of Genoa from Nice to Leghorn, which is divided by Genoa into the Western and Eastern Riviera, the former the more popular as a health resort; but the whole coast enjoys an exceptionally mild climate, and is replete with beautiful scenery. Nice, Monaco, Mentone, and San Remo are among its most popular towns.

RIVIERE, BRITON, celebrated painter of animals, born in London; among his pictures, which are numerous, are "Daniel in the Lions' Den," "Ruins of Persepolis," "Giants at Play," and "Vae Victis"; b. 1840.

RIVOLI, 1, town (5) in North Italy, 8 m. W. of Turin; has two royal castles, and manufactures silks, woollens, &c. 2, An Italian village, 12 m. NW. of Verona; scene of Napoleon's crushing victory over the Austrians in 1797.

RIXDOLLAR, a silver coin current on the Continent, of varying value.

RIZZIO, DAVID, favourite of Mary, Queen of Scots, born in Turin; the son of a dancing-master; was employed by the queen as her secretary, and being offensive to the nobles, was by a body of them dragged from the queen's presence and stabbed to death, 9th March 1566.

ROANNE (31), an old French town in the department of Loire, on the river Loire, 49 m. NW of St. Etienne; has interesting ruins, a college flourishing cotton and hat factories, dye-works, tanneries, &c.

ROANOKE (16), a flourishing city of Virginia, U.S., on the Roanoke River; has rapidly sprung into a busy centre of steel, iron, machinery, tobacco, and other factories.

ROARING FORTIES, a sailor's term for the Atlantic lying between 40 deg. and 50 deg.N. latitude, so called from the storms often encountered there.

ROB ROY, a Highland freebooter, second son of Macgregor of Glengyle; assumed the name of Campbell on account of the outlawry of the Macgregor clan; traded in cattle, took part in the rebellion of 1715, had his estates confiscated, and indemnified himself by raiding (1671-1734).

ROBBEN ISLAND, a small island at the entrance of Table Bay, 10 m. NW. of Cape Town; has a lunatic asylum and a leper colony.

ROBBIA, LUCA DELIA, Italian sculptor, born in Florence, where he lived and worked all his days; executed a series of bas-reliefs for the cathedral, but is known chiefly for his works in enamelled terra-cotta, the like of which is named after him, "Robbia-ware" (1400-1482).


ROBERT II., king of Scotland from 1371 to 1390, son of Walter Stewart and Marjory, only daughter of Robert the Bruce; succeeded David II., and became the founder of the Stuart dynasty; was a peaceable man, but his nobles were turbulent, and provoked invasions on the part of England by their forays on the Borders (1316-1390).

ROBERT III., king of Scotland from 1390 to 1406, son of Robert II.; was a quite incompetent ruler, and during his reign the barons acquired an ascendency and displayed a disloyalty which greatly diminished the power of the Crown both in his and succeeding reigns; the government fell largely into the hands of the king's brother, the turbulent and ambitious Robert, Duke of Albany; an invasion (1400) by Henry IV. of England and a retaliatory expedition under Archibald Douglas, which ended in the crushing defeat of Homildon Hill (1402), are the chief events of the reign (1340-1406).

ROBERT THE DEVIL, the hero of an old French romance identified with Robert, first Duke of Normandy, who, after a career of cruelty and crime, repented and became a Christian, but had to expiate his guilt by wandering as a ghost over the earth till the day of judgment; he is the subject of an opera composed by Meyerbeer.

ROBERTS, DAVID, painter, born in Edinburgh; began as a house-painter; became a scene-painter; studied artistic drawing, and devoted himself to architectural painting, his first pictures being of Rouen and Amiens cathedrals; visiting Spain he published a collection of Spanish sketches, and after a tour in the East published in 1842 a magnificently-illustrated volume entitled the "Holy Land, Syria, Idumaea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia;" a great number of his pictures are ecclesiastical interiors (1796-1864).

ROBERTS, LORD, born at Cawnpore, educated in England; entered the Bengal Artillery in 1851; served throughout the Indian Mutiny, commanded in the Afghan War, and achieved a brilliant series of successes, which were rewarded with honours on his return to England; was made commander-in-chief of the Madras army in 1881, commander-in-chief in India in 1885, and commander of the forces in Ireland in 1895; b. 1832.

ROBERTSON, FREDERICK WILLIAM, distinguished preacher, born in London; a graduate of Brasenose College, Oxford, entered the Church in 1840, was curate first at Winchester, next at Cheltenham, and finally settled in Brighton; is known far and wide by his printed sermons for his insight into, and his earnestness in behalf of, Christian truth (1816-1853).

ROBERTSON, JOSEPH, antiquary, born and educated at Aberdeen; apprenticed to a lawyer, but soon took to journalism, and became editor of the Aberdeen Constitutional, and afterwards of the Glasgow Constitutional; in 1849 was editor of the Edinburgh Evening Courant, and four years later received the post of curator of the historical department of the Edinburgh Register House; author of various historical, antiquarian, and topographical works (1810-1866).

ROBERTSON, THOMAS WILLIAM, a popular dramatist, the son of an actor, born at Newark-on-Trent; brought up amongst actors, he naturally took to the stage, but without success; always ready with his pen, he at last made his mark with "David Garrick," and followed it up with the equally successful "Ours," "Caste," "School," &c. (1829-1871).

ROBERTSON, WILLIAM, historian, born in Borthwick, Midlothian; was educated in Edinburgh; entered the Church; became minister of Gladsmuir; distinguished himself in the General Assembly of the Church; became leader of the Moderate party; one of the ministers of Greyfriars Church, Edinburgh, and Principal of the University, having previously written his "History of Scotland," which brought him other honours, and which was followed by a "History of Charles V." and a "History of America," all of which contributed to awaken an interest in historical studies; he was what is called a "Moderate" to the backbone, and his cronies were men more of a sceptical than a religious turn of mind, David Hume being one of the number; while his history of Scotland, however well it may be written, as Carlyle testifies, is no history of Scotland at all (1721-1793)

ROBESPIERRE, MAXIMILIEN, leader of the Jacobins in the French Revolution, born in Arras, of Irish origin; bred to the bar; became an advocate and a judge; he resigned because he could not brook to sentence a man to death; inspired by the gospel of Rousseau, became a red-hot Republican and an "INCORRUPTIBLE" (q. v.); carried things with a high hand; was opposed by the Girondists, and accused, but threw back the charge on them; carried the mob along with him, and with them at his back procured sentence of death against the king; head of the Committee of Public Safety, he laid violent hands first on the queen and then on all who opposed or dissented from the extreme course he was pursuing; had the worship of reason established in June 1794, and was at the end of the month following beheaded by the guillotine, amid the curses of women and men (1758-1794).

ROBIN HOOD, a famous outlaw who, with his companions, held court in Sherwood Forest, Nottingham, and whose exploits form the subject of many an old English ballad and tale. He was a robber, but it was the rich he plundered and not the poor, and he was as zealous in the protection of the weak as any Knight of the Round Table; he was an expert in the use of the bow and the QUARTER-STAFF (q. v.), and he and his men led a merry life together.

ROBINS, BENJAMIN, father of the modern science of artillery, born, the son of a Quaker, at Bath; established himself in London as a teacher of mathematics, as also his reputation by several mathematical treatises; turned his attention to the theoretical study of artillery and fortification; upheld Newton's principle of ultimate ratios against Berkeley, and in 1742 published his celebrated work, the "New Principles of Gunnery," which revolutionised the art of gunnery; was appointed engineer-in-general to the East India Company (1749), and planned the defences of Madras (1707-1751).

ROBINSON, EDWARD, Biblical scholar, born in Connecticut; author of "Biblical Researches in Palestine"; a professor in New York (1794-1863).

ROBINSON, HENRY CRABB, literary dilettante, born at Bury St. Edmunds; lived some years at Weimar, and got acquainted with Goethe and his circle; called to the English bar, and on quitting practice at it with a pension, became acquainted with the literary notabilities in London, and left a diary full of interesting reminiscences (1775-1807).

ROBINSON, HERCULES GEORGE ROBERT, LORD ROSMEAD, born, son of an admiral, in 1824; withdrew from the army shortly after his first commission, and gave himself to Government Colonial service; received a knighthood, and held Governorship of Hong-Kong in 1859; was successively governor of Ceylon, New South Wales, New Zealand, Cape of Good Hope, &c.; created Lord Rosmead in 1896 (1824-1898).

ROBINSON, MARY, poetess, born at Leamington; author of various poetical works, a translation of Euripides' "Hippolytus," a Life of Emily Bronte, &c.; married in 1886 to M. Darmesteter, a noted French Orientalist; b. 1857.

ROBSON, FREDERICK (stage name of F. R. Brownhill), a noted comedian, born at Margate; took to the stage in 1844 after serving some time as an apprentice to a London engraver; his greatest triumphs were won after 1853 on the boards of the Olympic Theatre, London; he combined in a high degree all the gifts of a low comedian with a rare power of rising to the grave and the pathetic (1821-1864).

ROCHAMBEAU, COMTE DE, marshal of France, born at Vendome; commanded the troops sent out by France to assist the American colonies in their rebellion against the mother-country (1725-1807).

ROCHDALE (72), a flourishing town and cotton centre in Lancashire, prettily situated on the Roche, 11 m. NE. Of Manchester; its woollen and cotton trade (flannels and calicoes) dates back to Elizabeth's time; has an interesting 12th century parish church.

ROCHE, ST., the Patron saint of the plague-stricken; being plague-smitten himself, and overtaken with it in a desert place, he was discovered by a dog, who brought him a supply of bread daily from his master's table till he recovered.

ROCHEFORT, COMTE DE, commonly known as Henri Rochefort, French journalist and violent revolutionary, who was deported for his share in the Commune in 1871, but escaped and was amnestied, and went back to Paris under eclipse; b. 1830.

ROCHELLE, LA (23), a fortified seaport of France, on an inlet of the Bay of Biscay, 95 m. NW. of Bordeaux; capital of the department of Charente-Inferieure; has a commodious harbour, noteworthy public buildings, a fine promenade and gardens; shipbuilding, glass-works, sugar-refineries, &c., are among its chief industries.

ROCHESTER, 1, an interesting old city (26), of Kent, 29 m. SE. of London, on the Medway, lying between and practically forming one town with Strood and Chatham; the seat of a bishop since 604; has a fine cathedral, which combines in its structure examples of Norman, Early English, and Decorated architecture; a hospital for lepers founded in 1078; a celebrated Charity House, and a strongly posted Norman castle. 2, Capital (163), of Monroe County, New York, on the Genesee River, near Lake Ontario, 67 m. NE. of Buffalo; is a spacious and well-appointed city, with a university, theological seminary, &c.; has varied and flourishing manufactures.

ROCHESTER, JOHN WILMOT, EARL OF, a witty profligate of the court of Charles II.; wrote poems, many of them licentious, among them, however, some exquisite songs; killed himself with his debauchery; died penitent; he was the author of the epitaph, accounted the best epigram in the English language, "Here lies our sovereign Lord the king," &c. (1648-1680).

ROCHET, a linen vestment worn by bishops, abbots, and other dignitaries, in the form of a surplice, but shorter and open at the sides.

ROCK ISLAND (14), capital of Rock Island county, Illinois, on the Mississippi; a busy centre of railway and river traffic; derives its name from an island in the river, where there is an extensive Government arsenal; a fine bridge spans the river.

ROCK TEMPLES, temples hewn out of solid rock, found in Western India especially, such as those at ELLORA (q. v.) and ELEPHANTA (q. v.).

ROCKALL, a remarkable peak of granite rock, rising some 70 ft. above the sea-level from the bed of an extensive sandbank in the Atlantic, 184 m. W. of St. Kilda; a home and haunt for sea-birds.

ROCK-BUTTER, a soft mineral substance found oozing from alum slates, and consisting of alum, alumina, and oxide of iron.

ROCKFORD (24), a busy manufacturing town, capital of Winnebago County, Illinois, on the Rock River, 86 m. NW. of Chicago.

ROCKHAMPTON (12), the chief port of Central Queensland, Australia, on the Fitzroy, 35 m. from its mouth; in the vicinity are rich gold-fields, also copper and silver; engaged in tanning, meat-preserving, &c.; is connected by a handsome bridge with its suburb North Rockhampton.

ROCKING STONES or LOGANS, large stones, numerous in Cornwall, Wales, Yorkshire, &c., so finely poised as to rock to and fro under the slightest force.

ROCKINGHAM, CHARLES WATSON WENTWORTH, MARQUIS OF, statesman, of no great ability; succeeded to the title in 1750; opposed the policy of Bute, and headed the Whig opposition; in 1762 became Prime Minister, and acted leniently with the American colonies, repealing the Stamp Act; was a bitter opponent of North's American policy of repression; held the Premiership again for a few months in 1782 (1730-1782).

ROCKY MOUNTAINS, an extensive and lofty chain of mountains in North America, belonging to the Cordillera system, and forming the eastern buttress of the great Pacific Highlands, of which the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains form the western buttress, stretching in rugged lines of almost naked rock, interspersed with fertile valleys, from New Mexico through Canada to the Arctic Ocean, broken only by a wonderfully beautiful tract of elevated plateau in southern Wyoming, over which passes the Union Pacific Railroad; reaches its greatest height in Colorado (Gray's Peak, 14,341 ft.); gold, silver, &c., are found abundantly.

ROCOCO, name given to a debased style of architecture, overlaid with a tasteless, senseless profusion of fantastic ornamentation, without unity of design or purpose, which prevailed in France and elsewhere in the 18th century.

ROCROI (2), a small fortified town of France, about 3 m. from the Belgian frontier, in the dep. of Ardennes; memorable for a great victory of the French under Conde over the Spaniards in 1643.

RODBERTUS, JOHANN KARL, Socialist, born in Greifswald; believed in a Socialism that would in course of time realise itself with the gradual elevation of the people up to the Socialistic ideal (1815-1875).

RODERIC, the last king of the Visigoths in Spain, was slain in battle with the Moors, who had invaded Spain during a civil war, and his army put to flight in 711.

RODERICK RANDOM, the hero of a novel of Smollett's, a young Scotch scapegrace, rough and reckless, and bold enough.

RODEZ (15), a town of France, in the dep. of Aveyron; crowns an eminence at the foot of which flows the Aveyron, 80 m. NE. of Toulouse; has a beautiful Gothic cathedral, interesting Roman remains; manufactures textiles, leather, paper, &c.

RODIN, AUGUSTE, eminent French sculptor, born in Paris, distinguished for his statues and busts; b. 1840-1917.

RODNEY, LORD, English admiral, born at Walton-on-Thames; entered the navy at the age of 12, and obtained the command of a ship in 1742; did good service in Newfoundland; was made Admiral of the Blue in 1759, and in that year destroyed the stores at Havre de Grace collected for the invasion of England; in 1780 defeated the Spanish fleet off Cape St. Vincent; in 1782 defeated the French fleet under Count de Grasse by breaking the enemy's line; was first made a baronet and then a peer, with a pension of L2000, for his services to the country (1718-1792).

RODOSTO (19), a Turkish town on the N. coast of the Sea of Marmora, 60 m. W. of Constantinople; is the seat of an archbishop of the Greek Church, has many mosques; fruitful vineyards in the vicinity produce excellent wine.

RODRIGUEZ (2), an interesting volcanic island lying far out in the Indian Ocean, 380 m. NE. of Mauritius, of which it is a dependency; agriculture is the chief employment; has a good climate, but is subject to severe hurricanes.

ROE, EDWARD PAYSON, American novelist, born in New Windsor, New York; studied for the ministry and served as a chaplain during the Civil War; settled down as a pastor of a Presbyterian church at Highland Fells; made his mark as a novelist in 1872 with "Barriers Burned Away"; took to literature and fruit-gardening, and won a wide popularity with such novels as "From Jest to Earnest," "Near to Nature's Heart," &c. (1838-1888).

ROEBUCK, JOHN ARTHUR, English Radical politician, born at Madras; represented first Bath and then Sheffield in Parliament, contributed to the downfall of the Aberdeen Government, and played in general an independent part; his vigorous procedure as a politician earned for him the nickname of "Tear 'em" (1802-1879).

ROERMOND (12), an old Dutch town in Limburg, at the confluence of the Roer and the Meuse, 29 m. N. by E. of Maestricht; has a splendid 13th-century cathedral; manufactures cottons, woollens, &c.

ROESKILDE, an interesting old Danish city, situated on a fjord, 20 m. W. by S. of Copenhagen, dates back to the 10th century; has a fine 13th-century cathedral, the burying-place of most of the Danish kings.

ROGATION DAYS, the Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday preceding Ascension Day, on which special litanies are sung or recited by the Roman Catholic clergy and people in public procession; has its origin in an old custom dating from the 6th century. In England the practice ceased after the Reformation.

ROGER I., the youngest of the 12 sons of Tancred of Hauteville; conquered Sicily from the Saracens after a war of 30 years, and governed it under the title of count in part from 1071 and wholly from 1089 to 1101.

ROGER II., son and successor of the preceding, was crowned king of the two Sicilies by the Pope; waged war advantageously against the Emperor of the East and the Saracens of North Africa; ruled the country well and promoted industry (1097-1154).

ROGER OF WENDOVER, an early English chronicler, lived in the 13th century; was a monk of St. Albans and subsequently prior of Belvoir; wrote a history of the world down to Henry III.'s reign, the only valuable portion of it being that which deals with his own times.

ROGERS, HENRY, English essayist; contributed for years to the Edinburgh Review; author of the "Eclipse of Faith" (1806-1877).

ROGERS, JAMES E. THORWOLD, political economist, born in Hampshire; became professor of Political Economy at Oxford; author of a "History of Agriculture and Prices in England" and "Six Centuries of Work and Wages," an abridgment of it (1823-1890).

ROGERS, JOHN, the first of the Marian martyrs, born at Birmingham; prepared a revised edition of the English Bible, preached at Paul's Cross against Romanism the Sunday after Mary's entrance into London, and was after a long imprisonment tried for heresy, and condemned to be burned at Smithfield (1505-1555).

ROGERS, SAMUEL, English poet, born in London, son of a banker, bred to banking, and all his life a banker—took to literature, produced a succession of poems: "The Pleasures of Memory" in 1792, "Human Life" in 1819, and "Italy," the chief, in 1822; he was a good conversationalist, and told lots of good stories, of which his "Table-Talk," published in 1856, is full; he issued at great expense a fine edition of "Italy" and early poems, which were illustrated by Turner and Stothard, and are much prized for the illustrations (1763-1855).

ROGET, PETER MARK, physician, born in London; was professor of Physiology at the Royal Institution; wrote on physiology in relation to natural theology; was author of a "Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases" (1779-1869).

ROHAN, PRINCE LOUIS DE, a profligate ecclesiastic of France who attained to the highest honours in the Church; became archbishop and cardinal, but who had fallen out with royalty; was debarred from court, tried every means to regain the favour of Marie Antoinette, which he had forfeited, was inveigled into buying a necklace for her in hope of thereby winning it back, found himself involved in the scandal connected with it, and was sent to the Bastille (1783-1803). See "Diamond Necklace" in CARLYLE'S "MISCELLANIES."

ROHILKHAND (5,343), a northern division of the North-West Provinces, British India; is a flat, well-watered, fertile district, crossed by various railways; takes its name from the Rohillas, an Afghan tribe, who had possession of it in the 18th century.

ROHILLAS (i. e. hillmen), a tribe of Afghans who settled in a district N. of Oudh, called Rohilkhand after them, and rose to power in the 18th century, till their strength was broken by the British in 1774.

ROHLFS, F. GERARD, German traveller, born near Bremen, travelled in various directions through North Africa; undertook missions to Abyssinia, and has written accounts of his several journeys; b. 1832.

ROKITANSKY, BARON, eminent physician, born at Koeniggraetz, professor of Pathological Anatomy at Vienna, and founder of that department of medicine (1804-1878).

ROLAND, one of the famous paladins of Charlemagne, and distinguished for his feats of valour, who, being inveigled into the pass of Roncesvalles, was set upon by the Gascons and slain, along with the flower of the Frankish chivalry, the whole body of which happened to be in his train.

ROLAND, MADAME, a brave, pure-souled, queen-like woman with "a strong Minerva face," the noblest of all living Frenchwomen, took enthusiastically to the French Revolution, but when things went too far supported the Moderate or Girondist party; was accused, but cleared herself before the Convention, into whose presence she had been summoned, and released; but two days after was arrested, imprisoned in Charlotte Corday's apartments, and condemned; on the scaffold she asked for pen and paper "to write the strange thoughts that were rising in her," which was refused; looking at the statue of Liberty which stood there, she exclaimed bitterly before she laid her head on the block, "O Liberty, what crimes are done in thy name!" (1754-1793).

ROLAND DE LA PLATIERE, JEAN MARIE, husband of Madame Roland, was Inspector of Manufactures at Lyons; represented Lyons in the Constituent Assembly; acted with the Girondists; fled when the Girondist party fled, and on hearing of his wife's fate at Rouen bade farewell to his friends who had sheltered him, and was found next morning "sitting leant against a tree, stiff in the rigour of death, a cane-sword run through his heart" (1732-1793).

ROLLIN, CHARLES, French historian, born in Paris; rector of the University; wrote "Ancient History" in 13 vols., and "Roman History" in 16 vols., once extremely popular, but now discredited and no longer in request (1661-1741).

ROLLO, a Norwegian, who became the chief of a band of Norse pirates who one day sailed up the Seine to Rouen and took it, and so ravaged the country that Charles the Simple was glad to come to terms with them by surrendering to them part of Neustria, which thereafter bore from them the name of Normandy; after this Rollo embraced Christianity, was baptized by the Bishop of Rouen, and was the first Duke of Normandy (860-932).

ROMAGNA, the former name of a district in Italy which comprised the NE. portion of the Papal States, embracing the modern provinces of Ferrara, Bologna, Ravenna, and Forli.

ROMAINE, WILLIAM, evangelical divine of the English Church, born at Hartlepool, author of works once held in much favour by the evangelicals, entitled severally "The Life, the Walk, and the Triumph of Faith" (1714-1795).

ROMAN EMPIRE, HOLY, or the REICH, the name of the old German Empire which, under sanction of the Pope, was established by Otho the Great in 962, and dissolved in 1806 by the resignation of Francis II., Emperor of Austria, and was called "Holy" as being Christian in contrast with the old pagan empire of the name.

ROMANCE LANGUAGES, the name given to the languages that sprung from the Latin, and were spoken in the districts of South Europe that had been provinces of Rome.

ROMANES, GEORGE JOHN, naturalist, born at Kingston, Canada; took an honours degree in science at Cambridge; came under the influence of Darwin, whose theory of evolution he advocated and developed in lectures and various works, e. g. "Scientific Evidences of Organic Evolution," "Mental Evolution in Animals," "Mental Evolution in Man"; his posthumous "Thoughts on Religion" reveal a marked advance from his early agnosticism towards a belief in Christianity; founded the Romanes Lectures at Oxford (1848-1894).

ROMANOFF, the name of an old Russian family from which sprung the reigning dynasty of Russia, and the first Czar of which was Michael Fedorovitch (1613-1645).

ROMANS (17), a town in the dep. Drome, France, on the Isere, 12 m. NE. of Valence; a 9th-century bridge spans the river to the opposite town Peage; has a 9th-century abbey; manufactures silk, &c.

ROMANS, EPISTLE TO THE, an epistle written from Corinth, in the year 59, by St. Paul to the Church at Rome to correct particularly two errors which he had learned the Church there had fallen into, on the part, on the one hand, of the Jewish Christians, that the Gentiles as such were not entitled to the same privileges as themselves, and, on the other hand, of the Gentile Christians, that the Jews by their rejection of Christ had excluded themselves from God's kingdom; and he wrote this epistle to show that the one had no more right to the grace of God than the other, and that this grace contemplates the final conversion of the Jews as well as the Gentiles. The great theme of this epistle is that faith in Christ is the one way of salvation for all mankind, Jew as well as Gentile, and its significance is this, that it contains if not the whole teaching of Paul, that essential part of it which presents and emphasises the all-sufficiency of this faith.

ROMANTICISM, the name of the reactionary movement in literature and art at the close of last century and at the beginning of this against the cold and spiritless formalism and pseudo-classicism that then prevailed, and was more regardful of correctness of expression than truth of feeling and the claims of the emotional nature; has been defined as the "reproduction in modern art and literature of the life and thought of the Middle Ages."

ROME (423), since 1871 capital of the modern kingdom of Italy (q. v.), on the Tiber, 16 m. from its entrance into the Tyrrhenian Sea; legend ascribes its foundation to Romulus in 753 B.C., and the story of its progress, first as the chief city of a little Italian kingdom, then of a powerful and expanding republic (510 B.C. to 30 B.C.), and finally of a vast empire, together with its decline and fall in the 5th century (476 A.D.), before the advancing barbarian hordes, forms the most impressive chapter in the history of nations; as the mother-city of Christendom in the Middle Ages, and the later capital of the PAPAL STATES (q. v.) and seat of the Popes, it acquired fresh glory; it remains the most interesting city in the world; is filled with the sublime ruins and monuments of its pagan greatness and the priceless art-treasures of its mediaeval period; of ruined buildings the most imposing are the Colosseum (a vast amphitheatre for gladiatorial shows) and the Baths of Caracalla (accommodated 1600 bathers); the great aqueducts of its Pre-Christian period still supply the city with water from the Apennines and the Alban Hills; the Aurelian Wall (12 m.) still surrounds the city, enclosing the "seven hills," the Palatine, Capitoline, Aventine, &c., but suburbs have spread beyond; St. Peter's is yet the finest church in the world; the Popes have their residence in the Vatican; its manufactures are inconsiderable, and consist chiefly of small mosaics, bronze and plaster casts, prints, trinkets, &c.; depends for its prosperity chiefly on the large influx of visitors, and the court expenditure of the Quirinal and Vatican, and of the civil and military officials.

ROMFORD (8), an old market-town of Essex, on the Bourne or Rom, 12 m. NE. of London; noted for its cattle and corn markets; industries include brewing, market-gardening, foundries, &c.

ROMILLY, SIR SAMUEL, English lawyer, born in London, of a Huguenot family; was a Whig in politics, and was Solicitor-General for a time; devoted himself to the amendment of the criminal law of the country, and was a zealous advocate against slavery and the spy system (1751-1818).

ROMNEY, GEORGE, English portrait-painter, born in Lancashire; married at Kendal, left his wife and two children there, and painted portraits in London for 35 years in rivalry with Reynolds and Gainsborough, and retired at the end of that time to Kendal to die, his wife nursing him tenderly, though in the whole course of the term referred to, he had visited her only twice (1734-1862).

ROMNEY, NEW (1), one of the old CINQUE PORTS (q. v.), in S. Kent, 8 m. SW. of Hythe; the sea has receded from its shores, leaving it no longer a port; as centre of a fine pastoral district it has an important sheep fair; the little village of Old Romney lies 11/2 m. inland.

ROMOLA, a novel by George Eliot, deemed her greatest by many, being "a deep study of life in the city of Florence from an intellectual, artistic, religious, and social point of view."

ROMSAY (4), a town in Hampshire, on the Test, 8 m. NW. of Southampton; has a remarkably fine old Norman church and a corn exchange; birthplace of Lord Palmerston.

ROMULUS, legendary founder of Rome, reputed son of Mars and RHEA SILVIA (q. v.), daughter of Numitor, king of Alba Longa; exposed at his birth, along with Remus, his twin-brother (q. v.); was suckled by a she-wolf and brought up by Faustulus, a shepherd; opened an asylum for fugitives on one of the hills of Rome, and founded the city in 753 B.C., peopling it by a rape of Sabine women, and afterwards forming a league with the SABINES (q. v.); he was translated to heaven during a thunderstorm, and afterwards worshipped as Quirinus, leaving Rome behind him as his mark.

RONALDSHAY, NORTH AND SOUTH, two of the Orkney Islands; North Ronaldshay is the most northerly of the Orkney group; South Ronaldshay (2) lies 61/4 m. NE. of Duncansby Head; both have a fertile soil, and the coast fisheries are valuable.

RONCESVALLES, a valley of the Pyrenees, 23 m. NE. of Pampeluna, where in 775 the rear of the army of Charlemagne was cut in pieces by the Basques, and ROLAND (q. v.) with the other Paladins was slain.

RONDA (19), one of the old Moorish towns of Spain, built amid grand scenery on both sides of a great ravine (bridged in two places), down which rushes the Guadiaro, 43 m. W. of Malaga; is a favourite summer resort.

RONDEAU, a form of short poem (originally French) which, as in the 15th century, usually consists of 13 lines, eight of which have one rhyme and five another; is divided into three stanzas, the first line of the rondeau forming the concluding line of the last two stanzas; Swinburne has popularised it in modern times.

RONDO, a form of musical composition which corresponds to the RONDEAU (q. v.) in poetry; consists of two or more (usually three) strains, the first being repeated at the end of each of the other two, but it admits of considerable variation.

RONSARD, PIERRE, celebrated French poet, born near Vendome; was for a time attached to the Court; was for three years of the household of James V. of Scotland in connection with it, and afterwards in the service of the Duke of Orleans, but having lost his hearing gave himself up to literature, writing odes and sonnets; he was of the PLEIADE SCHOOL OF POETS (q. v.), and contributed to introduce important changes in the idiom of the French language, as well as in the rhythm of French poetry (1521-1585).

ROeNTGEN, WILHELM KONRAD VON, discoverer of the Roentgen rays, born at Lennep, in Rhenish Prussia; since 1885 has been professor of Physics at Wuerzburg; his discovery of the X-rays was made in 1898, and has won him a wide celebrity; b. 1845.

ROeNTGEN RAYS, described by Dr. Knott as "rays of light that pass with ease through many substances that are optically opaque, but are absorbed by others." "For example," he says, "the bony structures of the body are much less transparent than the fleshy parts; hence by placing the hand between a fluorescent screen and the source of these rays we see the shadow of the skeleton of the hand with a much fainter shadow of the flesh and skin bordering it." See Dr. Knott's "Physics."

ROOKE, SIR GEORGE, British admiral, born at Canterbury; distinguished himself at the battle of Cape La Hogue in 1692; in an expedition against Cadiz destroyed the Plate-fleet in the harbour of Vigo in 1702; assisted in the capture of Gibraltar from the Spaniards in 1704, and fought a battle which lasted a whole day with a superior French force off Malaga the same year (1650-1709).

ROON, COUNT VON, Prussian general, born in Pomerania; was Minister of War in 1859 and of Marine in 1861; was distinguished for the important reforms he effected in the organisation of the Prussian army, conspicuous in the campaigns of 1866 and 1871-72 (1803-1879).

ROOT, GEORGE FREDERICK, a popular American song-writer, born at Sheffield, Massachusetts; was for some time a music teacher in Boston and New York; took to song writing, and during the Civil War leaped into fame as the composer of "Tramp, tramp, tramp the Boys are Marching," "Just before the Battle, Mother," "The Battle Cry of Freedom," and other songs; was made a Musical Doctor by Chicago University in 1872 (1820-1895).

ROOT AND BRANCH MEN, name of a party in the Commons who in 1641 supported a petition for the abolition of Episcopacy in England, and even carried a bill through two readings, to be finally thrown out.


RORKE'S DRIFT, a station on the Tugela River, Zululand, the defence of which was on the night of the 24th January 1879 successfully maintained by 80 men of the 24th Regiment against 4000 Zulu warriors.

ROSA, CARL, father of English opera, born at Hamburg; introduced on the English stage the standard Italian, French, and German operas with an English text (1842-1889).

ROSA, SALVATOR, Italian painter, born near Naples, a man of versatile ability; could write verse and compose music, as well as paint and engrave; his paintings of landscape were of a sombre character, and generally representative of wild and savage scenes; he lived chiefly in Rome, but took part in the insurrection of Masaniello at Naples in 1647 (1615-1673).

ROSAMOND, FAIR, a daughter of Lord Clifford, and mistress of Henry II., who occupied a bower near Woodstock, the access to which was by a labyrinth, the windings of which only the king could thread. Her retreat was discovered by Queen Eleanor, who poisoned her.

ROSARIO (51), an important city of the Argentine Republic, on the Parana, 190 m. NW. of Buenos Ayres; does a large trade with Europe, exporting wool, hides, maize, wheat, &c.

ROSARY, a string of beads used by Hindus, Buddhists, Mohammedans, and Roman Catholics as an aid to the memory during devotional exercises; the rosary of the Roman Catholics consists of beads of two sizes, the larger ones mark the number of Paternosters and the smaller the number of Ave Marias repeated; of the former there are usually five, of the latter fifty.

ROSAS, JEAN MANUEL, Argentine statesman, born at Buenos Ayres; organised the confederation, became dictator, failed to force the Plate River States into the confederation, and took refuge in England, where he died (1793-1877).

ROSCHER, WILHELM, distinguished political economist, born at Hanover, professor at Goettingen and Leipzig, the head of the historical school of political economy; his chief work a "System of Political Economy" (1817-1894).

ROSCIUS, QUINTUS, famous Roman comic actor, born near Lanuvium, in the Sabine territory; was a friend of Cicero, and much patronised by the Roman nobles; was thought to have reached perfection in his art, so that his name became a synonym for perfection in any profession or art.

ROSCOE, SIR HENRY, chemist, born in London, grandson of succeeding, professor at Owens College, Manchester; author of treatises on chemistry; b. 1834.

ROSCOE, WILLIAM, historian, born in Liverpool; distinguished as the author of the "Life of Lorenzo de' Medici" and of "Leo X.," as well as of "Handbooks of the Italian Renaissance" and a collection of poems (1753-1831).

ROSCOMMON (114), an inland county of Connaught, SW. Ireland; is poorly developed; one-half is in grass, and a sixth mere waste land; crops of hay, potatoes, and oats are raised, but the rearing of sheep and cattle is the chief industry; the rivers Shannon and Suck lie on its E. and W. borders respectively; there is some pretty lake-scenery, interesting Celtic remains, castle, and abbey ruins, &c. The county town, 96 m. NW. of Dublin, has a good cattle-market, and remains of a 13th-century Dominican abbey and castle.

ROSCREA (3), an old market-town of Tipperary, 77 m. SW. of Dublin; its history reaches back to the 7th century, and it has interesting ruins of a castle, round tower, and two abbeys.

ROSEBERY, ARCHIBALD PHILIP PRIMROSE, EARL OF, born in London; educated at Eton and Christ's Church, Oxford; succeeded to the earldom in 1868; was twice over Secretary for Foreign Affairs under Mr. Gladstone, in 1885 and 1892; was first Chairman of London County Council; became Prime Minister on March 1894 on Mr. Gladstone's retirement, and resigned in June 1895; he is one of the most popular statesmen and orators of the day, and held in deservedly high esteem by all classes; b. 1847.

ROSECRANS, WILLIAM STARKE, American general, born at Kingston, Ohio; trained as an engineer, he had settled down to coal-mining when the Civil War broke out; joined the army in 1861, and rapidly came to the front; highly distinguished himself during the campaigns of 1862-63, winning battles at Iuka, Corinth, and Stone River; but defeated at Chickamauga he lost his command; reinstated in 1864 he drove Price out of Missouri; has been minister to Mexico, a member of Congress, and since 1885 Registrar of the U.S. Treasury; b. 1819.

ROSENKRANZ, KARL, philosopher of the Hegelian school, born at Magdeburg; professor of Philosophy at Koenigsberg; wrote an exposition of the Hegelian system, a "Life of Hegel," on "Goethe and his Works," &c. (1805-1879).

ROSES, WARS OF THE, the most protracted and sanguinary civil war in English history, fought out during the reigns of Henry VI., Edward IV., and Richard III. between the adherents of the noble houses of York and Lancaster—rival claimants for the throne of England—whose badges were the white and the red rose respectively; began with the first battle of St. Albans (1455), in which Richard, Duke of York, defeated Henry VI.'s forces under the Duke of Somerset; but not till after the decisive victory at Towton (1461) did the Yorkists make good their claim, when Edward (IV.), Duke of York, became king. Four times the Lancastrians were defeated during his reign. The war closed with the defeat and death of the Yorkist Richard III. at Bosworth, 1485, and an end was put to the rivalry of the two houses by the marriage of Henry VII. of Lancaster with Elizabeth of York, 1486.

ROSETTA (18), a town on the left branch of the delta of the Nile, 44 m. NE. of Alexandria, famous for the discovery near it by M. Boussard, in 1799, of the Rosetta stone with inscriptions in hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek, and by the help of which archaeologists have been able to interpret the hieroglyphics of Egypt.

ROSICRUCIANS, a fraternity who, in the beginning of the 15th century, affected an intimate acquaintance with the secrets of nature, and pretended by the study of alchemy and other occult sciences to be possessed of sundry wonder-working powers.

ROSINANTE, the celebrated steed of Don Quixote, reckoned by him superior to the Bucephalus of Alexander and the Bavieca of the Cid.

ROSLIN, a pretty little village of Midlothian, by the wooded side of the North Esk, 61/2 m. S. of Edinburgh; has ruins of a 14th-century castle, and a small chapel of rare architectural beauty, built in the 16th century as the choir of a projected collegiate church.

ROSMINI, ANTONIO ROSMINI-SERBATI, distinguished Italian philosopher, born at Rovereto, entered the priesthood, devoted himself to the study of philosophy, founded a system and an institute called the "Institute of the Brethren of Charity" at Stresa, W. of Lake Maggiore, on a pietistic religious basis, which, though sanctioned by the Pope, has encountered much opposition at the hands of the obscurantist party in the Church (1797-1865).

ROSS, SIR JOHN, Arctic explorer, born in Wigtownshire; made three voyages, the first in 1811 under Parry; the second in 1829, which he commanded; and a third in 1850, in an unsuccessful search for Franklin, publishing on his return from them accounts of the first two, in both of which he made important discoveries (1777-1856).

ROSSANO (19), a town of Southern Italy, in Calabria, 2 m. from the SW. shore of the Gulf of Taranto; has a fine cathedral and castle; valuable quarries of marble and alabaster are wrought in the vicinity.

ROSSBACH, a village in Prussian Saxony, 9 m. SW. of Merseburg, where Frederick the Great gained in 1767 a brilliant victory with 22,000 men over the combined arms of France and Austria with 60,000.

ROSSE, WILLIAM PARSONS, THIRD EARL OF, born in York; devoted to the study of astronomy; constructed reflecting telescopes, and a monster one at the cost of L30,000 at Parsonstown, his seat in Ireland, by means of which important discoveries were made, specially in the resolution of nebulae (1800-1867).

ROSSETTI, CHARLES DANTE GABRIEL, poet and painter, born in London, the son of Gabriele Rossetti; was as a painter one of the PRE-RAPHAELITE BROTHERHOOD (q. v.), and is characterised by Ruskin as "the chief intellectual force in the establishment of the modern romantic school in England,... as regarding the external world as a singer of the Romaunts would have regarded it in the Middle Ages, and as Scott, Burns, Byron, and Tennyson have regarded it in modern times," and as a poet was leader of the romantic school of poetry, which, as Stopford Brooke remarks, "found their chief subjects in ancient Rome and Greece, in stories and lyrics of passion, in mediaeval romance, in Norse legends, in the old English of Chaucer, and in Italy" (1828-1882).

ROSSETTI, CHRISTINA GEORGINA, poetess, born in London, sister of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and of kindred temper with her brother, but with distinct qualities of her own; her first volume, called the "Goblin-Market," contains a number of very beautiful short poems; she exhibits, along with a sense of humour, a rare pathos, which, as Professor Saintsbury remarks, often "blends with or passes into the utterance of religious awe, unstained and unweakened by any craven fear" (1830-1894).

ROSSETTI, GABRIELE, Italian poet and orator, born at Vasto; had for his patriotic effusions to leave Italy, took refuge in London, and became professor of Italian in King's College, London; was a man of strong character, and student of literature as well as man of letters himself; was the father of Dante Gabriel and Christina (1783-1854).

ROSSI, PELLEGRINO, an Italian jurist and politician, born at Carrara, educated at Bologna, where he became professor of Law in 1812; four years later was appointed to a chair in Geneva, where he also busied himself with politics as a member of the Council and deputy in the Diet; settled in Paris in 1833, became professor at the College de France, was naturalised and created a peer, returned to Rome, broke off his connection with France, won the friendship of Pius IX., and rose to be head of the ministry; was assassinated (1787-1848).

ROSSINI, GIOACCHINO, celebrated Italian composer of operatic music, born at Pesaro; his operas were numerous, of a high order, and received with unbounded applause, beginning with "Tancred," followed by "Barber of Seville," "La Gazza Ladra," "Semiramis," "William Tell," &c.; he composed a "Stabat Mater," and a "Mass" which was given at his grave (1792-1868).

ROSTOCK (44), a busy German port in Mecklenburg, on the Warnow, 7 m. from its entrance into the Baltic; exports large quantities of grain, wool, flax, &c., has important wool and cattle markets; shipbuilding is the chief of many varied industries, owns a flourishing university, a beautiful Gothic church, a ducal palace, &c.

ROSTOFF, 1, a flourishing town (67) of South Russia, on the Don, 34 m. E. of Taganrog; manufactures embrace tobacco, ropes, leather, shipbuilding, &c. 2, One of the oldest of Russian market-towns (12), on the Lake of Rostoff, 34 m. SW. of Jaroslav, seat of an archbishop; manufactures linens, silks, &c.

ROSTOPCHINE, COUNT, Russian general, governor of Moscow; was charged with having set fire to the city against the entrance of the French in 1812; in his defence all he admitted was that he had set fire to his own mansion, and threw the blame of the general conflagration on the citizens and the French themselves (1763-1826).

ROSTRUM (lit. a beak), a pulpit in the forum of Rome where the orators delivered harangues to the people, so called as originally constructed of the prows of war-vessels taken at the first naval battle in which Rome was engaged.

ROTHE, RICHARD, eminent German theologian, born at Posen, professor eventually at Heidelberg; regarded the Church as a temporary institution which would decease as soon as it had fulfilled its function by leavening society with the Christian spirit; he wrote several works, but the greatest is entitled "Theological Ethics" (1799-1867).

ROTHERHAM (42), a flourishing town in Yorkshire, situated on the Don, 5 m. NE. of Sheffield; its cruciform church is a splendid specimen of Perpendicular architecture; manufactures iron-ware, chemicals, pottery, &c.

ROTHESAY (9), popular watering-place on the W. coast of Scotland, capital of Buteshire, charmingly situated at the head of a fine hill-girt bay on the NE. side of the island of Bute, 19 m. SW. of Greenock; has an excellent harbour, esplanade, &c.; Rothesay Castle is an interesting ruin; is a great health and holiday resort.

ROTHSCHILD, MEYER AMSCHEL, the founder of the celebrated banking business, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, a Jew by birth; began his career as a money-lender and made a large fortune (1743-1812); left five sons, who were all made barons of the Austrian empire—AMSELM VON R., eldest, head of the house at Frankfort (1773-1855); SOLOMON VON R., the second, head of the Vienna house (1774-1855); NATHAN VON R., the third, head of the London house (1777-1836); KARL VON R., the fourth, head of the house at Naples (1755-1855); and JACOB VON R., the fifth, head of the Paris house (1792-1868).

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