The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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QUARTER-STAFF, strong wooden staff 61/2 ft. long, shod with iron, grasped in the middle; formerly used in England for attack and defence.

QUARTERLY REVIEW, a review started by John Murray, the celebrated London publisher, in February 1809, in rivalry with the Edinburgh, which had been seven years in possession of the field, and was exerting, as he judged, an evil influence on public opinion; in this enterprise he was seconded by Southey and Scott, the more cordially that the Edinburgh had given offence to the latter by its criticism of "Marmion." It was founded in the Tory interest for the defence of Church and State, and it had Gifford for its first editor, while the contributors included, besides Southey and Scott, all the ablest literary celebrities on the Tory side, of which the most zealous and frequent was John Wilson Croker.

QUARTERMASTER, in the army an officer whose duty it is to look after the quarters, clothing, rations, stores, ammunition, &c., of the regiment, and in the navy a petty officer who has to see to the stowage, steerage, soundings, &c., of the ship.

QUARTETTE, a musical piece in four parts, or for four voices or instruments.

QUARTO, a book having the sheet folded into four leaves.

QUASIMODO SUNDAY, the first Sunday after Easter.

QUASS, a beer made in Russia from rye grain, employed as vinegar when sour.

QUATRE-BRAS (i. e. four arms), a village 10 m. SE. of Waterloo, where the roads from Brussels to Charleroi and from Nivelles to Namur intersect: was the scene of an obstinate conflict between the English under Wellington and the French under Ney, two days before the battle of Waterloo.

QUATREFAGES DE BREAU, French naturalist and anthropologist, born at Berthezenne (Gard); studied medicine at Strasburg; was professor at the Natural History Museum in Paris; devoted himself chiefly to anthropology and the study of annelides (1810-1892).

QUATREMERE, ETIENNE MARC, French Orientalist, born in Paris; was professor at the College of France; was distinguished for his knowledge of Arabic and Persian, as well as for his works on Egypt; was of vast learning, but defective in critical ability (1782-1857).

QUATREMERE DE QUINCY, a learned French archaeologist and writer on art, born in Paris; was involved in the troubles of the Revolution; narrowly, as a constitutionalist, escaped the guillotine, and was deported to Cayenne in 1797, but after his return took no part in political affairs; wrote a "Dictionary of Antiquities" (1755-1849).

QUATRO CENTO (i. e. four hundred), a term employed by the Italians to signify one thousand four hundred, that is, the 15th century, and applied by them to the literature and art of the period.

QUEBEC (1,359), formerly called Lower Canada, one of the Canadian provinces occupying that part of the valley of the St. Lawrence, and a narrow stretch of fertile, well-cultivated land on the S. of the river, which is bounded on the S. by the States of New York and Maine, and on the E. by New Brunswick; it is twice the size of Great Britain, and consists of extensive tracks of cultivated land and forests interspersed with lakes and rivers, affluents of the St. Lawrence; the soil, which is fertile, yields good crops of cereals, hay, and fruit, and excellent pasturage, and there is abundance of mineral wealth; it was colonised by the French in 1608, was taken by the English in 1759-60, and the great majority of the population is of French extraction.

QUEBEC (63), the capital of the above province, and once of all Canada, a city of historical interest, is situated on the steep promontory, 333 feet in height, of the NW. bank of the St. Lawrence, at the mouth of the St. Charles River, 300 m. from the sea, and 180 m. below Montreal; it is divided into Upper and Lower, the latter the business quarter and the former the west-end, as it were; there are numerous public buildings, including the governor's residence, an Anglican cathedral, and a university; it is a commercial centre, has a large trade in timber, besides several manufacturing industries; the aspect of the town is Norman-French, and there is much about it and the people to remind one of Normandy.

QUEDLINBURG (19), an old town of Prussian Saxony, on the river Bode, at the foot of the Harz Mountains, 32 m. SW. of Magdeburg, founded by Henry the Fowler, and where his remains lie; was long a favourite residence of the emperors of the Saxon line; it has large nurseries, an extensive trade in flower seeds, and sundry manufactures.

QUEEN ANNE'S BOUNTY, a fund established in 1704 for the augmentation of the incomes of the poorer clergy, the amount of which for distribution in 1890 was L176,896; it was the revenue from a tax on the Church prior to the Reformation, and which after that was appropriated by the Crown.

QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS, a small group of islands on the W. coast of North America, N. of Vancouver's Island, 80 m. off the coast of British Columbia, a half-submerged mountain range, densely wooded, with peaks that rise sheer up 2000 ft.

QUEENBOROUGH, a town on the Isle of Sheppey, 2 m. S. of Sheerness, between which and Flushing, in Holland, a line of steamers plies daily.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE, a college for women in Harley Street, London, founded in 1848, and incorporated by Royal Charter in 1853, of which Maurice, Trench, and Kingsley were among the originators; attendance of three years entitles to the rank of "Associate," and of six or more to that of "Fellow"; it is self-supporting.

QUEEN'S COLLEGES, colleges established in Ireland in 1845 to afford a university education to members of all religious denominations, and opened at Belfast, Cork, and Galway in 1849, the first having 23 professors, with 343 students; the second 23 professors, with 181 students; and the third 37 professors, with 91 students. There is also a Queen's College in Melbourne.

QUEEN'S COUNTY (6), one of the inland counties of Leinster, in Ireland, N. of King's County, mostly flat; agriculture and dairy-farming are carried on, with a little woollen and cotton-weaving; population mostly Roman Catholics.

QUEEN'S METAL, an alloy of nine parts tin and one each of antimony, lead, and bismuth, is intermediate in hardness between pewter and britannia metal.

QUEENSLAND, a British colony occupying the NE. of Australia, 1300 m. from N. to S. and 800 m. from E. to W., two-thirds of it within the tropics, and occupying an area three times as large as that of France. Mountains stretch away N. parallel to the coast, and much of the centre is tableland; one-half of it is covered with forests, and it is fairly well watered, the rivers being numerous, and the chief the Fitzroy and the Burdekin. The population is only half a million, and the chief towns are Brisbane, the capital, Gympie, Maryborough, Rockhampton, and Townsville. The pastoral industry is very large, and there is considerable mining for gold. The mineral resources are great, and a coal-field still to be worked exists in it as large as the whole of Scotland. Maize and sugar are the principal products of the soil, and wool, gold, and sugar are the principal exports; the colony is capable of immense developments. Until 1859 the territory was administered by New South Wales, but in that year it became an independent colony, with a government of its own under a Governor appointed by the Crown; the Parliament consists of two Houses, a Legislative Council of 41 members, nominated by the Governor, and the Legislative Assembly of 72 members, elected for three years by manhood suffrage.

QUEENSTOWN, a seaport, formerly called the Cove of Cork, on the S. shore of Great Island, and 14 m. SE. of Cork; a port of call for the Atlantic line of steamers, specially important for the receipt and landing of the mails.

QUELPART (10), an island 52 m. S. of the Corea, 40 m. long by 17 broad, surrounded with small islets in situation to the Corea as Sicily to Italy.

QUERCITRON, a yellow dye obtained from the bark of a North American oak.

QUERETARO (36), a high-lying Mexican town in a province of the same name, 150 m. NW. of Mexico; has large cotton-spinning mills; here the Emperor Maximilian was shot by order of court-martial in 1867.

QUERN, a handmill of stone for grinding corn, of primitive contrivance, and still used in remote parts of Ireland and Scotland.

QUESNAY, FRANCOIS, a great French economist, born at Merez (Seine-et-Oise), bred to the medical profession, and eminent as a medical practitioner, was consulting physician to Louis XV., but distinguished for his articles in the "Encyclopedie" on political economy, and as the founder of the PHYSIOCRATIC SCHOOL (q. v.), the school which attaches special importance in State economy to agriculture (1694-1774).

QUESNEL, PASQUIER, a French Jansenist theologian, born in Paris; was the author of a great many works, but the most celebrated is his "Reflexions Morales"; was educated at the Sorbonne, and became head of the congregation of the Oratory in Paris, but was obliged to seek refuge in Holland with Arnauld on embracing Jansenism; his views exposed him to severe persecution at the hands of the Jesuits, and his "Reflexions" were condemned in 101 propositions by the celebrated bull Unigenitus; spent his last years at Amsterdam, and died there (1634-1719).

QUETELET, ADOLPHE, Belgian astronomer and statistician, born at Ghent; wrote on meteorology and anthropology, in the light especially of statistics (1796-1874).

QUETTA, a strongly fortified town in the N. of Beluchistan, commanding the Bolan Pass, and occupied by a British garrison. It is also a health resort from the temperate climate it enjoys.

QUEUES, BAKERS', "long strings of purchasers arranged in tail at the bakers' shop doors in Paris during the Revolution period, so that first come be first served, were the shops once open," and that came to be a Parisian institution.

QUEVEDO Y VILLEGAS, Francisco Gomez de, a Spanish poet, born at Madrid, of an old illustrious family; left an orphan at an early age, and educated at Alcala, the university of which he left with a great name for scholarship; served as diplomatist and administrator in Sicily under the Duke of Ossuna, the viceroy, and returned to the Court of Philip IV. in Spain at his death; struggled hard to purify the corrupt system of appointments to office in the State then prevailing but was seized and thrown into confinement, from which, after four years, he was released, broken in health; he wrote much in verse, but only for his own solace and in communication with his friends, and still more in prose on a variety of themes, he being a writer of the most versatile ability, of great range and attainment (1580-1645).

QUIBERON, a small fishing village on a peninsula of the name, stretching southward from Morbihan, France, near which Hawke defeated a French fleet in 1759, and where a body of French emigrants attempted to land in 1795 in order to raise an insurrection, but were defeated by General Hoche.

QUICHUAS, a civilised people who flourished at one time in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, and spoke a highly-cultivated language called Quichua after them.

QUICK, ROBERT HEBERT, English educationist; wrote "Essays on Educational Reformers"; was in holy orders (1832-1891).

QUICKSAND, sandbank so saturated with water that it gives way under pressure; found near the mouths of rivers.

QUIETISM, the name given to a mystical religious turn of mind which seeks to attain spiritual illumination and perfection by maintaining a purely passive and susceptive attitude to Divine communication and revelation, shutting out all consciousness of self and all sense of external things, and independently of the observance of the practical virtues. The high-priest of Quietism was the Spanish priest MOLINOS (q. v.), and his chief disciple in France was Madame de Guyon, who infected the mind of the saintly Fenelon. The appearance of it in France, and especially Fenelon's partiality to it, awoke the hostility of Bossuet, who roused the Church against it, as calculated to have an injurious effect on the interests of practical morality; indeed the hostility became so pronounced that Fenelon was forced to retract, to the gradual dying out of the fanaticism.

QUILIMANE (6), a seaport of East Africa, on the Mozambique Channel, in a district subject to Portugal; stands 15 m. from the mouth of a river of the name.

QUILON, a trading town on the W. coast of Travancore, 85 m. N. of Comorin.

QUIMPER (17), a French town 63 m. SE. of Brest, with a much admired cathedral; has sundry manufactures, and a fishing industry.

QUIN, JAMES, a celebrated actor, born in London; was celebrated for his representation of Falstaff, and was the first actor of the day till the appearance of Garrick in 1741 (1693-1766).

QUINAULT, French poet; his first performances procured for him the censure of Boileau, but his operas, for which Luini composed the music, earned for him a good standing among lyric poets (1635-1688).


QUINCY (31), a city in Illinois, U.S., on the Mississippi, 160 m. above St. Louis; a handsome city, with a large trade and extensive factories; is a great railway centre.

QUINCY, JOSIAH, American statesman, born at Boston; was bred to the bar, and entered Congress in 1804, where he distinguished himself by his oratory as leader of the Federal party, as the sworn foe of slave-holding, and as an opponent of the admission of the Western States into the Union; in 1812 he retired from Congress, gave himself for a time to purely local affairs in Massachusetts, and at length to literary labours, editing his speeches for one thing, without ceasing to interest himself in the anti-slavery movement (1772-1864).

QUINET, EDGAR, a French man of letters, born at Bourg, in the department of Ain; was educated at Bourg and Lyons, went to Paris in 1820, and in 1823 produced a satire called "Les Tablettes du Juif-Errant," at which time he came under the influence of HERDER (q. v.) and executed in French a translation of his "Philosophy of Humanity," prefaced with an introduction which procured him the friendship of Michelet, a friendship which lasted with life; appointed to a post in Greece, he collected materials for a work on Modern Greece, and this, the first fruit of his own view of things as a speculative Radical, he published in 1830; he now entered the service of the Revue des Deux Mondes, and in the pages of it his prose poem "Ahasuerus" appeared, which was afterwards published in a book form and soon found a place in the "Index Expurgatorius" of the Church; this was followed by other democratic poems, "Napoleon" in 1835 and "Prometheus" in 1838; from 1838 to 1842 he occupied the chair of Foreign Literature in Lyons, and passed from it to that of the Literature of Southern Europe in the College of France; here, along with Michelet, he commenced a vehement crusade against the clerical party, which was brought to a head by his attack on the Jesuits, and which led to his suspension from the duties of the chair in 1846; he distrusted Louis Napoleon, and was exiled in 1852, taking up his abode at Brussels, to return to Paris again only after the Emperor's fall; through all these troubles he was busy with his pen, in 1838 published his "Examen de la Vie de Jesus," his "Du Genie des Religions," "La Revolution Religieuse au xix^{e} Siecle," and other works; he was a disciple of Herder to the last; he believed in humanity, and religion as the soul of it (1803-1875).

QUININE, an alkaloid obtained from the bark of several species of the cinchona tree and others, and which is employed in medicine specially as a ferbrifuge and a tonic.

QUINISEXT, an ecclesiastical council held at Constantinople in 692, composed chiefly of Eastern bishops, and not reckoned among the councils of the Western Church.

QUINQUAGESIMA SUNDAY, the Sunday before the beginning of Lent.

QUINSY, inflammation of the tonsils of the throat.

QUINTANA, MANUEL JOSE, a Spanish lyric and dramatic poet, born in Madrid; was for a time the champion of liberal ideas in politics, which he ceased to advocate before he died; is celebrated as the author of a classic work, being "Lives of Celebrated Spaniards" (1772-1857).

QUINTETTE, a musical composition in obligato parts for five voices or five instruments.

QUINTILIAN, MARCUS FABIUS, celebrated Latin rhetorician, born in Spain; went to Rome in the train of Galba, and began to practise at the bar, but achieved his fame more as teacher in rhetoric than a practitioner at the bar, a function he discharged with brilliant success for 20 years under the patronage and favour of the Emperor Vespasian in particular, being invested by him in consequence with the insignia and title of consul; with posterity his fame rests on his "Institutes," a great work, being a complete system of rhetoric in 12 books; he commenced it in the reign of Domitian after his retirement from his duties as a public instructor, and it occupied him two years; it is a wise book, ably written, and fraught with manifold instruction to all whose chosen profession it is to persuade men (35-92).

QUIPO, knotted cords of different colours used by the ancient Mexicans and Peruvians for conveying orders or recording events.

QUIRINAL, one of the seven hills on which Rome was built, N. of the Palatine, and one of the oldest quarters of the city.

QUIRITES, the name the citizens of Rome assumed in their civic capacity.

QUITO (80), the capital of Ecuador, situated at an elevation of nearly 9000 ft. above the sea-level, and cut up with ravines; stands in a region of perpetual spring and amid picturesque surroundings, the air clear and the sky a dark deep blue. The chief buildings are of stone, but all the ordinary dwellings are of sun-dried brick and without chimneys. It is in the heart of a volcanic region, and is subject to frequent earthquakes, in one of which, in 1797, 40,000 of the inhabitants perished. The population consists chiefly of Indians, whose religious interests must be well cared for, for there are no fewer than 400 priests to watch over their spiritual welfare.

QUITO, CORDILLERA OF, a chain of mountains, the chief of them volcanic, in Ecuador, containing the loftiest peaks of the Andes, and including among them Antisana, Cotopaxi, and Chimborazo.

QUIT-RENT, a rent the payment of which frees the tenant of a holding from other services such as were obligatory under feudal tenure.

QUORRA, the name given to the middle and lower course of the Niger.

QUORUM, the number of the members of a governing body required by law to give legality to any transaction in the name of it.



RAAB (20), a town in Hungary, 67 m. NW. of Buda Pesth, manufactures tobacco and cutlery.

RAASAY, one of the Inner Hebrides, belonging to Inverness-shire, lies between Skye and Ross-shire; bare on the W., picturesque on the E.; has interesting ruins of Brochel Castle.

RABANT DE ST. ETIENNE, a moderate French Revolutionary; member of the Constituent Assembly; one of the Girondists; opposed the extreme party, and concealed himself between two walls he had built in his brother's house; was discovered, and doomed to the guillotine, as were also those who protected him (1743-1793).

RABAT (26), known also as NEW SALLEE, a declining port in Morocco, finely situated on elevated ground overlooking the mouth of the Bu-Ragrag River, 115 m. SE. of Fez; is surrounded by walls, and has a commanding citadel, a noted tower, interesting ruins, &c.; manufactures carpets, mats, &c., and exports olive-oil, grain, wool, &c.

RABBI (lit. my master), an appellation of honour applied to a teacher of the Law among the Jews, in frequent use among them in the days of Christ, who was frequently saluted by this title.

RABBISM, the name applied in modern times to the principles and methods of the Jewish Rabbis, particularly in the interpretation of the Jewish Scriptures.

RABELAIS, FRANCOIS, great French humorist, born at Chinon, the son of a poor apothecary; was sent to a convent at nine; became a Franciscan monk; read and studied a great deal, but, sick of convent life, ran away at forty years of age; went to Montpellier, and studied medicine, and for a time practised it, particularly at Lyons; here he commenced the series of writings that have immortalised his name, his "Gargantua" and "Pantagruel," which he finished as cure of Meudon, forming a succession of satires in a vein of riotous mirth on monks, priests, pedants, and all the incarnate solecisms of the time, yet with all their licentiousness revealing a heart in love with mankind, and a passionate desire for the establishment of truth and justice among men (1495-1553).

RACES OF MANKIND. These have been divided into five, the CAUCASIAN (q. v.) or Indo-European, the Mongolian or Yellow, the Negro or Black, the Malayan or Tawny, and the India or Copper-coloured.

RACHEL, ELIZA, a great French tragedienne, born in Switzerland, of Jewish parents; made her debut in Paris in 1838, and soon became famous as the interpreter of the principal characters in the masterpieces of Racine and Corneille, her crowning triumph being the representation, in 1843, of Phedre in the tragedy of Racine; she made a great impression wherever she appeared, realised a large fortune, and died of decline (1821-1858).

RACINE (21), a flourishing city of Wisconsin, U.S.A., capital of Racine County, at the entrance of Root River into Lake Michigan, 62 m. N. of Chicago; has an Episcopal university: trades in lumber, flax, and the products of various factories.

RACINE, JEAN, great French tragic poet, born at La Ferte Milon, in the dep. of Aisne; was educated at Beauvais and the Port Royal; in 1663 settled in Paris, gained the favour of Louis XIV. and the friendship of Boileau, La Fontaine, and Moliere, though he quarrelled with the latter, and finally lost favour with the king, which he never recovered, and which hastened his death; he raised the French language to the highest pitch of perfection in his tragedies, of which the chief are "Andromaque" (1667), "Britannicus" (1669), "Mithridate" (1673), "Iphigenie" (1774), "Phedre" (1677), "Esther" (1688), and "Athalie" (1691), as well as an exquisite comedy entitled "Les Plaideurs" (1669); when Voltaire was asked to write a commentary on Racine, his answer was, "One had only to write at the foot of each page, beau, pathetique, harmonieux, admirable, sublime" (1639-1699).

RACK, an instrument of torture; consisted of an oblong wooden frame, fitted with cords and levers, by means of which the victim's limbs were racked to the point of dislocation; dates back to Roman times, and was used against the early Christians; much resorted to by the Spanish Inquisition, and also at times by the Tudor monarchs of England, though subsequently prohibited by law in England.

RADCLIFFE (20), a prosperous town of Lancashire, on the Irwell, 7 m. NW. of Manchester; manufactures cotton, calico, and paper; has bleaching and dye works, and good coal-mines.

RADCLIFFE, MRS. ANN, nee WARD, English novelist, born in London; wrote a series of popular works which abound in weird tales and scenes of old castles and gloomy forests, and of which the best known is the "Mysteries of Udolpho" (1764-1823).

RADCLIFFE, JOHN, physician, born at Wakefield, studied at Oxford; commenced practice in London; by his art and professional skill rose to eminence; attended King William and Queen Mary; summoned to attend Queen Anne but did not, pleading illness, and on the queen's death was obliged to disappear from London; left L40,000 to found a public library in the University of Oxford (1650-1714).

RADETZKY, JOHANN, COUNT VON, Austrian field-marshal, born in Bohemia; entered the Austrian army in 1784; distinguished himself in the war with Turkey in 1788-89, and in all the wars of Austria with France; checked the Revolution in Lombardy in 1848; defeated and almost annihilated the Piedmontese army under Charles Albert in 1849, and compelled Venice to capitulate in the same year, after which he was appointed Governor of Lombardy (1766-1858).

RADICALS, a class of English politicians who, at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th, aimed at the political emancipation of the mass of the people by giving them a share in the election of parliamentary representatives. Their Radicalism went no farther than that, and on principle could not go farther.

RADNORSHIRE (22), the least populous of the Welsh counties; lies on the English border between Montgomery (N.) and Brecknock (S.); has a wild and dreary surface, mountainous and woody. RADNOR FOREST covers an elevated heathy tract in the E.; is watered by the Wye and the Teme. The soil does not favour agriculture, and stock-raising is the chief industry. Contains some excellent spas, that at Llandrindod the most popular. County town, Presteign.

RADOWITZ, JOSEPH VON, Prussian statesman; entered the army as an artillery officer, rose to be chief of the artillery staff; by marriage became connected with the aristocracy; at length head of the Anti-Revolutionary party in the State, and the political adviser of William IV., in which capacity he endeavoured to effect a reform of the German Diet, and to give a political constitution to Germany (1797-1853).

RAE, JOHN, Arctic voyager, born in Orkney, studied medicine in Edinburgh; first visited the Arctic regions as a surgeon; was engaged in three expeditions to these regions, of which he published reports; was made a LL.D. of Edinburgh University on the occasion of Carlyle's installation as Lord Rector (1813-1893).

RAEBURN, SIR HENRY, portrait-painter, born at Stockbridge, Edinburgh; was educated at George Heriot's Hospital; apprenticed to a goldsmith in the city, and gave early promise of his abilities as an artist; went to Italy; was introduced to Reynolds by the way, and after two years' absence settled in Edinburgh, and became famous as one of the greatest painters of the day; the portraits he painted included likenesses of all the distinguished Scotsmen of the period, at the head of them Sir Walter Scott; was knighted by George IV. a short time before his death (1756-1823).

RAFF, JOACHIM, musical composer of the Wagner School, born at Lachen, in Switzerland; began life as a schoolmaster; was attracted to music; studied at Weimar; lived near Liszt, and became Director of the Conservatorium at Frankfort-on-Main; his works include symphonies, overtures, with pieces for the violin and the piano (1822-1882).

RAFFLES, SIR THOMAS STAMFORD, English administrator, born in Jamaica; entered the East India Company's service, and rose in it; became Governor of Java, and wrote a history of it; held afterwards an important post in Sumatra, and formed a settlement at Singapore; returned to England with a rich collection of natural objects and documents, but lost most of them by the ship taking fire (1781-1826).

RAFN, KARL CHRISTIAN, Danish archaeologist, born in Fuenen; devoted his life to the study of northern antiquities; edited numerous Norse MSS.; executed translations of Norse literature; wrote original treatises in the same interest, and by his researches established the fact of the discovery of America by the Norsemen in the 10th century (1796-1864).

RAGGED SCHOOLS, a name given to the charity schools which provide education and, in most cases, food, clothing, and lodging for destitute children; they receive no Government support. The movement had its beginning in the magnanimous efforts of John Pounds (d. 1839), a shoemaker of Portsmouth; but the zeal and eloquence of Dr. GUTHRIE (q. v.) of Edinburgh greatly furthered the development and spread of these schools throughout the kingdom.

RAGLAN, FITZROY SOMERSET, LORD, youngest son of the Duke of Beaufort; entered the army at sixteen; served with distinction all through the Peninsular War; became aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington, and his military secretary; lost his right arm at Waterloo; did diplomatic service at Paris in 1815, and held afterwards a succession of important military posts; was appointed commander-in-chief of the British forces in the Crimea, and was present at all the engagements till attacked by cholera, aggravated by a repulse and unjust reflections on his conduct of the war, he sank exhausted and died (1788-1855).

RAGMAN ROLL, the name given to a record of the acts of fealty and homage done by the Scottish nobility and gentry in 1296 to Edward I. of England, and of value for the list it supplies of the nobles, gentry, burgesses, and clergy of the country at that period. The original written rolls of parchment have perished, but an abridged form is extant, and preserved in the Tower of London.

RAGNAROeK, in the Norse mythology the twilight of the gods, when it was predicted "the Divine powers and the chaotic brute ones, after long contest and partial victory by the former, should meet at last in universal, world-embracing wrestle and duel, strength against strength, mutually extinctive, and ruin, 'twilight' sinking into darkness, shall swallow up the whole created universe, the old universe of the Norse gods"; in which catastrophe Vidar and another are to be spared to found a new heaven and a new earth, the sovereign of which shall be Justice. "Insight this," says Carlyle, "of how, though all dies, and even gods die, yet all death is but a Phoenix fire-death, and new birth into the greater and the better as the fundamental law of being."

RAGUSA, a decayed Austrian city on the Dalmatian coast, fronting the Adriatic; has interesting remains of its ancient greatness, and still contains several fine monastic and other buildings.

RAHEL, wife of Varnhagen von Ense, born in Berlin, of Jewish parentage; was a woman of "rare gifts, worth, and true genius, and equal to the highest thoughts of her century," and lived in intimate relation with all the intellectual lights of Germany at the time; worshipped at the shrine of Goethe, and was the foster-mother of German genius generally in her day; she did nothing of a literary kind herself; all that remains of her gifts in that line are her Letters, published by her husband on her death, which letters, however, are intensively subjective, and reveal the state rather of her feelings than the thoughts of her mind (1771-1833).

RAIKES, ROBERT, the founder of Sunday Schools, born in Gloucester; by profession a printer; lived to see his pet institution established far and wide over England; left a fortune for benevolent objects (1735-1811).

RAILWAY KING, name given by Sydney Smith to GEORGE HUDSON (q. v.), the great railway speculator, who is said to have one day in the course of his speculations realised as much in scrip as L100,000.

RAINY, ROBERT, eminent Scottish ecclesiastic, born in Glasgow; professor of Church History and Principal in the Free Church College, Edinburgh; an able man, a sagacious and an earnest, a distinguished leader of the Free Church; forced into that position more by circumstances, it is believed, than by natural inclination, and in that situation some think more a loss than a gain to the Church catholic, to which in heart and as a scholar he belongs; b. 1826.

RAJAH, a title which originally belonged to princes of the Hindu race, who exercised sovereign rights over some tract of territory; now applied loosely to native princes or nobles with or without territorial lordship.

RAJMAHAL (4), an interesting old Indian town, crowns an elevated site on the Ganges, 170 m. NW. of Calcutta; has ruins of several palaces.

RAJON, PAUL ADOLPHE, French etcher, born at Dijon; made his mark in 1866 with his "Rembrandt at Work"; carried off medals at the Salon; visited England in 1872, and executed notable etchings of portraits of J.S. Mill, Darwin, Tennyson, &c. (1842-1888).

RAJPUT, a name given to a Hindu of royal descent or of the high military caste. See CASTE.

RAJPUTANA (12,016), an extensive tract of country in the NW. of India, S. of the Punjab, embracing some twenty native States and the British district, Ajmere-Merwara. The Aravalli Hills traverse the S., while the Thar or Great Indian Desert occupies the N. and W. Jodhpur is the largest of the native territories, and the Rajputs, a proud and warlike people are the dominant race in many of the States.

RAKOCZY MARCH, the national anthem of the Hungarians, composed about the end of the 17th century by an unknown composer, and said to have been the favourite march of Francis Rakoczy II. of Transylvania.

RAKSHASAS, in the Hindu mythology a species of evil spirits, akin to ogres.

RALEIGH, SIR WALTER, courtier, soldier, and man of letters, born near Budleigh, in E. Devon, of ancient family; entered as student at Oxford, but at 17 joined a small volunteer force in aid of the Protestants in France; in 1580 distinguished himself in suppressing a rebellion in Ireland; was in 1582 introduced at court, fascinated the heart of the Queen by his handsome presence and his gallant bearing, and received no end of favours at her hand; joined his half-brother, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, in an expedition to North America, founded a colony, which he called Virginia in honour of the queen, and brought home with him the potato and the tobacco plants, till then unknown in this country; rendered distinguished services in the destruction of the Armada; visited and explored Guiana, and brought back tidings of its wealth in gold and precious things; fell into disfavour with the queen, but regained her esteem; under King James he became suspected of disloyalty, and was committed to the Tower, where he remained 12 years, and wrote his "History of the World"; on his release, but without a pardon, he set out to the Orinoco in quest of gold-mines there, but returned heart-broken and to be sentenced to die; he met his fate with calm courage, and was beheaded in the Old Palace Yard; of the executioner's axe he smilingly remarked, "A sharp medicine, but an infallible cure" (1552-1618).

RALSTON, WILLIAM SHEDDEN, a noted Russian scholar and translator, born in London; studied at Cambridge, and in 1862 was called to the bar, but never practised; assistant in the British Museum library till 1875; visited Russia; his works embrace "Songs of the Russian People," "Russian Folk-Tales," &c. (1828-1889).

RAMA, in the Hindu mythology an avatar of Vishnu, being the seventh, in the character of a hero, a destroyer of monsters and a bringer of joy, as the name signifies, the narrative of whose exploits are given in the "RAMAYANA" (q. v.).

RAMADAN, the ninth month of the Mohammedan year, a kind of Lent, held sacred as a month of fasting by all Moslems, being the month in the life of Mahomet when, as he spent it alone in meditation and prayer, his eyes were opened to see, through the shows of things, into the one eternal Reality, the greatness and absolute sovereignty of Allah.

RAMAYANA, one of the two great epic poems, and the best, of the Hindus, celebrating the life and exploits of Rama, "a work of art in which an elevated religious and moral spirit is allied with much poetic fiction, ... written in accents of an ardent charity, of a compassion, a tenderness, and a humility at once sweet and plaintive, which ever and anon suggest Christian influences."

RAMBLER, a periodical containing essays by Johnson in the Spectator vein, issued in 1750-52, but written in that "stiff and cumbrous style which," as Professor Saintsbury remarks, "has been rather unjustly identified with Johnson's manner of writing generally."

RAMBOUILLET, MARQUISE DE, a lady of wealth and a lover of literature and art, born in Rome, who settled in Paris, and conceiving the idea of forming a society of her own, gathered together into her salon a select circle of intellectual people, which, degenerating into pedantry, became an object of general ridicule, and was dissolved at her death (1588-1665).

RAMEAU, JEAN PHILIPPE, French composer, born at Dijon; wrote on harmony, and, settling in Paris, composed operas, his first "Hippolyte et Aricie," and his best "Castor et Pollux" (1683-1764).

RAMESES, the name of several ancient kings of Egypt, of which the most famous are R. II., who erected a number of monuments in token of his greatness, and at whose court Moses was brought up; and R. III., the first king of the twentieth dynasty, under whose successors the power of Egypt fell into decay.

RAMILLIES, Belgian village in Brabant, 14 m. N. of Namur; scene of Marlborough's victory over the French under Villeroy in 1706.

RAMMOHUN ROY, a Brahman, founder of the Brahmo-Somaj, born at Burdwan, Lower Bengal; by study of the theology of the West was led to embrace deism, and tried to persuade his countrymen to accept the same faith, by proofs which he advanced to show that it was the doctrine of their own sacred books, in particular the Upanishads; with this view he translated and published a number of texts from them in vindication of his contention, as well as expounded his own conviction in original treatises; in doing so he naturally became an object of attack, and was put on his defence, which he conducted in a succession of writings that remain models of controversial literature; died in Bristol (1772-1833).

RAMSAY, ALLAN, Scottish poet, born in Crawford, Lanarkshire; bred a wig-maker; took to bookselling, and published his own poems, "The Gentle Shepherd," a pastoral, among the number, a piece which describes and depicts manners very charmingly (1686-1758).

RAMSAY, ALLAN, portrait-painter, son of preceding; studied three years in Italy, settled in London, and was named first painter to George III. (1715-1764).

RAMSAY, EDWARD BANNERMAN, dean of Edinburgh, born at Aberdeen, graduated at Cambridge; held several curacies; became incumbent of St. John's Episcopal Church, Edinburgh, in 1830, and dean of the diocese in 1840; declined a bishopric twice over; is widely known as the author of "Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character"; was a most genial, lovable man, a great lover of his country, and much esteemed in his day by all the citizens of Edinburgh (1793-1872).

RAMSBOTTOM (17), a busy manufacturing town in Lancashire, on the Irwell, 4 m. N. of Bury, engaged in cotton-weaving, calico-printing, rope-making, &c.

RAMSDEN, JESSE, mathematical instrument-maker and inventor, born in Yorkshire; invented the theodolite for the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain (1735-1800).

RAMSEY, a beautifully situated, healthy watering-place, 14 m. NE. of Douglas, in the Isle of Man.

RAMSGATE (25), a popular watering-place in the Isle of Thanet, Kent, fronting the Downs, 72 m. E. by S. of London; has a famous harbour of refuge; to the W. lies Pegwell Bay with Ebbsfleet.

RAMUS, PETER, or PIERRE DE LA RAMEE, a French philosopher and humanist, son of poor parents; became a servant in the College of Navarre; devoted his leisure to study, and became a great scholar; attacked scholasticism in a work against Aristotle as the main pillar of the system, and was interdicted from teaching philosophy, but the judgment was reversed by Henry II., and he was made a royal professor; he turned Protestant in the end, and was massacred on the eve of St. Bartholomew (1515-1572).

RANAVALONA III., queen of Madagascar; was crowned in 1883, but her kingdom and capital were taken from her by the French in 1893, and she is now queen only in name; b. 1861.

RANCHING, a term of Spanish derivation applied to the business of rearing cattle, as carried on in the southern and western States of America; vast herds of cattle in a half-wild condition are raised on the wide stretches of prairie land, and are tended by "cowboys," whose free, adventurous life attracts men of all sorts and conditions.

RANDALL, JAMES RYDER, American journalist; author of "Maryland, my Maryland," "Stonewall Jackson," and other popular lyrics, which greatly heartened the Southern cause in the Civil War; born in Baltimore; engaged in teaching till he took to journalism; b. 1839.

RANDOLPH, JOHN, a noted eccentric American politician, born at Cawsons, Virginia; entered Congress in 1799, and held a commanding position there as leader of the Democratic party; was a witty, sarcastic speaker; sat in the Senate from 1825 to 1827, and in 1830 was Minister to Russia; liberated and provided for his slaves (1773-1833).

RANDOLPH, SIR THOMAS, English diplomatist, was sent on diplomatic missions by Queen Elizabeth, and particularly mixed up in Scotch intrigues, and had to flee from Scotland for his life; left Memoirs (1523-1590).

RANDOLPH, THOMAS, English poet, wrote odes and sundry dramas, of which the "Muses' Looking-Glass" and "Amyntas" are the best, though not absolutely good (1605-1634).

RANEE, name given to a Hindu princess or queen; a rajah's wife.

RANELAGH, a place of resort in grounds at Chelsea of people of fashion during the last half of the 18th century, with a promenade where music and dancing were the chief attractions.

RANGOON (180), capital and chief port of British Burmah, situated 20 m. inland from the Gulf of Martaban, on the Hlaing or Rangoon River, the eastmost of the delta streams of the Irrawaddy; British since 1852; a well-appointed city of modern appearance, strongly fortified; contains the famous Shway-Dagon pagoda erected in the 6th century B.C.; has extensive docks, and negotiates the vast bulk of Burmese exports and imports; the former include teak, gums, spices, and rice.

RANJIT SINGH, the maharajah of the Sikhs, after taking possession of Lahore, became undisputed master of the Punjab, and imposed on his subjects the monarchical form of government, which was shattered to fragments after his death; he was the possessor of the Koh-i-Nur diamond (1797-1839).

RANJITSINHJI, Indian prince, born at Sarodar; studied at Cambridge; devoted himself to cricket, and became famous for his brilliant play; b. 1872.

RANKE, LEOPOLD VON, distinguished German historian, born in Thueringia just 16 days after Thomas Carlyle; began life similarly as a teacher and devoted his leisure hours to the study of history and the publication of historical works; was in 1825 appointed professor of History at Berlin; was commissioned by the Prussian government to explore the historical archives of Vienna, Rome, and Venice, the fruit of which was seen in his subsequent historical labours, which bore not only upon the critical periods of German history, but those of Italy, France, and even England; of his numerous works, all founded on the impartial study of facts, it is enough to mention here his "History of the Popes in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries" and his "German History in the Times of the Reformation" (1795-1886).

RANKINE, W. J. MACQUORN, mathematician and physicist, born in Edinburgh; devoted himself to engineering, and held the chair of Engineering in Glasgow University; wrote extensively on mathematical and physical subjects, both theoretical and practical (1820-1872).

RANNOCH, an elevated, dreary moorland in NW. of Perthshire, crossed by the West Highland Railway; Lochs Rannoch and Tummel lie to the E. and Loch Lydoch in the W.

RANTERS, a name given to the Primitive Methodists who seceded from the Wesleyan body on account of a deficiency of zeal.

RANZ DES VACHES, a simple melody, played on the horn by the Swiss Alpine herdsmen as they drive their cattle to or from the pasture, and which, when played in foreign lands, produces on a Swiss an almost irrepressible yearning for home.

RAPE OF THE LOCK, a dainty production of Pope's, pronounced by Stopford Brooke to be "the most brilliant occasional poem in the language."

RAPHAEL, one of the seven archangels and the guardian of mankind, conducted Tobias to the country of the Medes and aided him in capturing the miraculous fish, an effigies of which, as also a pilgrim's staff, is an attribute of the archangel.

RAPHAEL, SANTI, celebrated painter, sculptor, and architect, born at Urbino, son of a painter; studied under Perugino for several years, visited Florence in 1504, and chiefly lived there till 1508, when he was called to Rome by Pope Julius II., where he spent the rest of his short life and founded a school, several of the members of which became eminent in art; he was one of the greatest of artists, and his works were numerous and varied, which included frescoes, cartoons, madonnas, portraits, easel pictures, drawings, &c., besides sculpture and architectural designs, and all within the brief period of 37 years; he had nearly finished "The Transfiguration" when he died of fever caught in the excavations of Rome; he was what might be called a learned artist, and his works were the fruits of the study of the masters that preceded him, particularly Perugino and the Florentines, and only in the end might his work be called his own; it is for this reason that modern Pre-Raphaelitism is so called, as presumed to be observant of the simple dictum of Ruskin, "Look at Nature with your own eyes, and paint only what yourselves see" (1483-1520). See PRE-RAPHAELITISM.

RAPIN DE THOYRAS, French historian, born at Castres; driven from France by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, settled in Holland, came over to England with and served under the Prince of Orange, withdrew to Holland and wrote a "History of England," deservedly much in repute for long, if not still (1661-1725).

RAPP, GEORGE, German fanatic, born in Wuertemberg, emigrated to America, and founded a fraternity called Harmonites, who by tillage of land on the Ohio and otherwise amassed great wealth, to be kept in store for the service of Christ at His second coming (1770-1847).

RAPP, JEAN, French general, born at Colmar; served under Napoleon with distinction all through his wars, held Danzig for a whole year against a powerful Russian army, was kept prisoner by the Russians after surrender, returned to France, and submitted to Louis XVIII. after Waterloo (1772-1821).

RAPPAHANNOCK, a navigable river of Virginia State, rises in the Alleghanies, and after a course of 125 m. to the SE. discharges into Chesapeake Bay.

RASHI, a Jewish scholar and exegete, born at Troyes; was an expert in all departments of Jewish lore as contained in both the Scriptures and the Talmud, and indulged much in the favourite Rabbinical allegorical style of interpretation (1040-1105).

RASK, RASMUS CHRISTIAN, Danish philologist, born near Odense; studied first the primitive languages of the North, chiefly Icelandic, and then those of the East, and published the results of his researches both by his writings and as professor of Oriental Languages and of Icelandic in the university of Copenhagen (1787-1832).

RASKOLINK (lit. a separatist), in Russia a sect, of which there are many varieties, of dissenters from the Greek Church.

RASPAIL, FRANCOIS VINCENT, French chemist, physiologist, and socialist; got into trouble both under Louis Philippe and Louis Napoleon for his political opinions (1794-1878).

RASSAM, HORMUZD, Assyriologist, born at Mosul; assisted Layard in his explorations at Nineveh, and was subsequently, under support from Britain, engaged in further explorations both there and elsewhere; being sent on a mission to Abyssinia, was put in prison and only released after the defeat of Theodore; b. 1826.

RASSELAS, a quasi-novel written in 1759 by Johnson to pay the expenses of his mother's funeral, the subject of which is an imaginary prince of Abyssinia, and its aim a satire in sombre vein on human life.

RASTATT or RASTADT (12), a town in Baden, on the Murg, 15 m. SW. of Carlsruhe; is fortified, and manufactures hardware, beer, and tobacco.

RATANA, a brandy flavoured with kernels of fruits.

RATHLIN (1), a picturesque, cliff-girt island (61/2 by 1-1/3 m.) off the N. coast of Antrim; fishing is the chief industry; has interesting historical associations.

RATICH, WOLFGANG, German educationalist, born in Wilster (Holstein); a forerunner of Comenius; his theory of education, which in his hands proved a failure, was based on Baconian principles; proceeded from things to names, and from the mother tongue to foreign ones (1571-1635).

RATIONAL HORIZON, a great circle parallel to the horizon, the centre of which is the centre of the earth.

RATIONALISM, MODERN, a speculative point of view that resolves the supernatural into the natural, inspiration into observation, and revelation into what its adherents called reason, when they mean simply understanding, and which ends in stripping us naked, and leaving us empty of all the spiritual wealth accumulated by the wise in past ages, and bequeathed to us as an inheritance that had cost them their life's blood.

RATISBON or REGENSBURG (38), one of the oldest and most interesting of German towns in Bavaria, on the Danube, 82 m. NE. of Muenich; has a quaint and mediaeval appearance, with Gothic buildings and winding streets; associated with many stirring historical events; till 1806 the seat of the imperial diet; does an active trade in salt and corn, and manufactures porcelain, brass, steel, and other wares.

RATTAZZI, URBANO, Italian statesman, born at Alessandria; was leader of the extreme party in the Sardinian Chamber in 1849, and was several times minister, but was unstable in his politics (1808-1873).

RAUCH, CHRISTIAN, eminent Prussian sculptor, born in Waldeck; patronised by royalty; studied at Rome under Thorwaldsen and Canova; resided chiefly in Berlin; executed statues of Bluecher, Duerer, Goethe, Schiller, and others, as well as busts; his masterpiece is a colossal monument in Berlin of Frederick the Great (1777-1857).

RAUHES HAUS ("Rough House"), a remarkable institution for the reclamation and training of neglected children, founded (1831), and for many years managed by Johann Heinrich Wichern at Hoon, near Hamburg; it is affiliated to the German Home Mission.

RAUMER, FRIEDRICH LUDWIG GEORG VON, German historian; was professor of History at Berlin; wrote the "History of the Hohenstaufen and their Times," and a "History of Europe from the End of the 15th Century" (1781-1873).

RAVAILLAC, FRANCOIS, the assassin of Henry IV., born at Angouleme; a Roman Catholic fanatic, who regarded the king as the arch-enemy of the Church, and stabbed him to the heart as he sat in his carriage; was instantly seized, subjected to torture, and had his body torn by horses limb from limb (1578-1640).

RAVANA, in the Hindu mythology the king of the demons, who carried off Sita, the wife of Rama, to Ceylon, which, with the help of the monkey-god Hanuman, and a host of quadrumana, Rama invaded and conquered, slaying his wife's ravisher, and bringing her off safe, a story which forms the subject of the Hindu epic, "Ramayana."

RAVENNA (12), a venerable walled city of Italy; once a seaport, now 5 m. inland from the Adriatic, and 43 m. E. of Bologna; was capital of the Western Empire for some 350 years; a republic in the Middle Ages, and a papal possession till 1860; especially rich in monuments and buildings of early Christian art; has also picture gallery, museum, library, leaning tower, etc.; manufactures silk, linen, paper, etc.

RAVENNA, EXARCH OF, the viceroy of the Byzantine Empire in Italy while the latter was a dependency of the former, and who resided at Ravenna.

RAVENSCROFT, THOMAS, musical composer, born in London; was a chorister in St. Paul's Cathedral; composed many part-songs, etc., but is chiefly remembered for his "Book of Psalmes," which he edited and partly composed; some of the oldest and best known Psalms (e. g. Bangor, St David's) are by him (1592-1640).

RAVENSWOOD, a Scottish Jacobite, the hero of Scott's "Bride of Lammermoor."

RAVIGNAN, GUSTAVE DELACROIX DE, a noted Jesuit preacher, born at Bayonne; won wide celebrity by his powerful preaching in Notre Dame, Paris; wrote books in defence of his order (1795-1858).

RAWAL PINDI (74), a trading and military town in the Punjab, 160 m. NW. of Lahore; has an arsenal, fort, etc., and is an important centre for the Afghanistan and Cashmere trades.

RAWLINSON, GEORGE, Orientalist, brother of following, Canon of Canterbury; has written extensively on Eastern and Biblical subjects: b. 1815.

RAWLINSON, SIR HENRY, Assyriologist, born in Oxfordshire; entered the Indian Army in 1827; held several diplomatic posts, particularly in Persia; gave himself to the study of cuneiform inscriptions, and became an authority in the rendering of them and matters relative (1810-1895).

RAY, JOHN, English naturalist, born in Essex; studied at Cambridge; travelled extensively collecting specimens in the departments of both botany and zoology, and classifying them, and wrote works on both as well as on theology (1628-1705).

RAYLEIGH, LORD, physicist, was senior wrangler at Cambridge; is professor of Natural Philosophy in the Royal Institution; author of "The Theory of Sound"; discovered, along with Professor Ramsay, "argon" in the atmosphere; b. 1842.

RAYMOND, name of a succession of Counts of Toulouse, in France, seven in number, of which the fourth count, from 1088 to 1105, was a leader in the first crusade, and the sixth, who became Count in 1194, was stripped of his estate by Simon de Montfort.

RAYNAL, THE ABBE, French philosopher; wrote "Histoire des Indes" and edited "Philosophic History," distinguished for its "lubricity, unveracity, loose, loud eleutheromaniac rant," saw it burnt by the common hangman, and his wish fulfilled as a "martyr" to liberty (1713-1796).

RAYNOUARD, FRANCOIS, French litterateur and philologist, born in Provence; was of the Girondist party at the time of the Revolution, and imprisoned; wrote poems and tragedies, but eventually gave himself up to the study of the language and literature of Provence (1761-1836).

RE, ISLE OF (16), small island, 18 m. by 3, off the French coast, opposite La Rochelle; salt manufacturing chief industry; also oysters and wine are exported. Chief town, St. Martin (2).

READE, CHARLES, English novelist, born at Ipsden, in Oxfordshire; studied at Oxford; became a Fellow of Magdalen College, and was called to the bar in 1842; began his literary life by play-writing; studied the art of fiction for 15 years, and first made his mark as novelist in 1852, when he was nearly 40, by the publication of "Peg Woffington," which was followed in 1856 by "It is Never too Late to Mend," and in 1861 by "The Cloister and the Hearth," the last his best and the most popular; several of his later novels are written with a purpose, such as "Hard Cash" and "Foul Play"; his most popular plays are "Masks and Faces" and "Drink" (1814-1884).

READING (61), capital of Berkshire, on the Kennet, 36 m. N. of London; a town of considerable historic interest; was ravaged by the Danes; has imposing ruins of a 12th-century Benedictine abbey, &c.; was besieged and taken by Essex in the Civil War (1643); birthplace of Archbishop Laud; has an important agricultural produce-market, and its manufactures include iron-ware, paper, sauce, and biscuits.

READING (79), capital of Berks Co., Pennsylvania, on the Schuylkill River, 58 m. NW. of Philadelphia; has flourishing iron and steel works; population includes a large German settlement.

REAL, an old Spanish silver coin still in use in Spain, Mexico, and some other of the old Spanish colonies, also is a money of account in Portugal; equals one-fourth of the peseta, and varies in value from 21/2 d. to 5d. with the rise and fall of exchange.

REAL, a legal term in English law applied to property of a permanent or immovable kind, e. g. land, to distinguish it from personal or movable property.

REAL PRESENCE, the assumed presence, really and substantially, in the bread and wine of the Eucharist of the body and blood, the soul and divinity, of Christ, a doctrine of the Romish and certain other Churches.

REALISM, as opposed to Nominalism, is the belief that general terms denote real things and are not mere names or answerable to the mere conception of them, and as opposed to idealism, is in philosophy the belief that we have an immediate cognition of things external to us, and that they are as they seem. In art and literature it is the tendency to conceive and represent things as they are, however unsightly and immoral they may be, without any respect to the beautiful, the true, or the good. In Ruskin's teaching mere realism is not art; according to him art is concerned with the rendering and portrayal of ideals.

REALM, ESTATES OF THE, the Sovereign, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons in Great Britain.

REAL-SCHULE, a German school in which languages, sciences, and arts are taught to qualify for apprenticeship in some special business or craft.

REASON, in philosophy is more than mere understanding or reasoning power; it is the constitutive and regulative soul of the universe assumed to live and breathe in the inner life or soul of man, as that develops itself in the creations of human genius working in accord with and revealing the deep purpose of the Maker.

REASON, in German Vernunft, defined by Dr. Stirling "the faculty that unites and brings together, as against the understanding," in German Verstand, "the faculty that separates, and only in separation knows," and that is synthetic of the whole, whereof the latter is merely analytic of the parts, sundered from the whole, and without idea of the whole, the former being the faculty which construes the diversity of the universe into a unity or the one, whereas the latter dissolves the unity into diversity or the many.

REASON, GODDESS OF, a Mrs. Momoro, wife of a bookseller in Paris, who, on the 10th November 1793, in the church of Notre Dame, represented what was called Reason, but was only scientific analysis, which the revolutionaries of France proposed, through her representing such, to install as an object of worship to the dethronement of the Church, l'infame.

REAUMUR, French scientist, born in La Rochelle; made valuable researches and discoveries in the industrial arts as well as in natural history; is best known as the inventor of the thermometer that bears his name, which is graduated into 80 degrees from the temperature of melting ice to that of boiling water (1683-1757).

REBECCA THE JEWESS, a high-souled Hebrew maiden, who is the heroine in Sir Walter Scott's "Ivanhoe."

REBECCAITES, a band of Welsh rioters who in 1843, dressed as females, went about at nights and destroyed the toll-gates, which were outrageously numerous; they took their name from Gen. xxiv. 60.

REBELLION, name of two risings of Jacobites in Scotland to restore the exiled Stuart dynasty to the throne, one in behalf of the Pretender in 1715, headed by the Earl of Mar, and defeated at Sheriffmuir, and the other in behalf of the Young Chevalier, and defeated at Culloden in April 1746.

RECAMIR, MADAME, Frenchwoman, born at Lyons; became at 15 the wife of a rich banker In Paris thrice her own age; was celebrated for her wit her beauty, and her salon; was a friend of Madame de Stael and Chateaubriand, whom she soothed in his declining years, and a good woman (1777-1849).

RECANATI (6), a pretty Italian town, 15 m. S. of the Adriatic port Ancona, the birthplace of Leopardi; has a Gothic cathedral.

RECENSION, the name given to the critical revision of the text of an author, or the revised text itself.

RECHABITES, a tribe of Arab origin and Bedouin habits who attached themselves to the Israelites in the wilderness and embraced the Jewish faith, but retained their nomadic ways; they abstained from all strong drink, according to a vow they had made to their chief, which they could not be tempted to break, an example which Jeremiah in vain pleaded with the Jews to follow in connection with their vow to the Lord (See Jer. xxxv.).

RECIDIVISTS, a name applied to the class of habitual delinquents or criminals of France.

RECIPROCITY, a term used in economics to describe commercial treaties entered into by two countries, by which it is agreed that, while a strictly protective tariff is maintained as regards other countries, certain articles shall be allowed to pass between the two contracting countries free of or with only light duties; this is the cardinal principle of Fair Trade, and is so far opposed to Free Trade.

RECLUS, ELISEE, a celebrated French geographer; from his extreme democratic opinions left France In 1851, lived much in exile, and spent much time in travel; wrote "Geographie Universelle," in 14 vols., his greatest work; b. 1830.

RECORDE, ROBERT, mathematician, born in Pembroke; a physician by profession, and physician to Edward VI. and Queen Mary; his works on arithmetic, algebra, &c., were written in the form of question and answer; died in the debtors' prison (1500-1558).

RECORDER, an English law official, the chief Judicial officer of a city or borough; discharges the functions of judge at the Quarter-Sessions of his district; must be a barrister of at least five years' standing; is appointed by the Crown, but paid by the local authority; is debarred from sitting on the licensing bench, but is not withheld from practising at the bar; the sheriff in Scotland is a similar official.

RECTOR, a clergyman of the Church of England, who has a right to the great and small tithes of the living; where the tithes are impropriate he is called a vicar.

RECUSANTS, a name given to persons who refused to attend the services of the Established Church, on whom legal penalties were first imposed in Elizabeth's reign, that bore heavily upon Catholics and Dissenters; the Toleration Act of William III. relieved the latter, but the Catholics were not entirely emancipated till 1829.

RED CROSS KNIGHT, St. George, the patron saint of England, and the type and the symbol of justice and purity at feud with injustice and impurity.

RED CROSS SOCIETY, an internationally-recognised society of volunteers to attend to the sick and wounded in time of war, so called from the members of it wearing the badge of St. George.

RED REPUBLICANS, a party in France who, at the time of the Revolution of 1848, aimed at a reorganisation of the State on a general partition of Property.

RED RIVER, an important western tributary of the Mississippi; flows E. and SE. through Texas, Arkansas, and Louisiana; has a course of 1600 m. till it joins the Mississippi; is navigable for 350 m.

RED RIVER OF THE NORTH, flows out of Elbow Lake, Minnesota; forms the boundary between North Dakota and Minnesota, and flowing through Manitoba, falls into Lake Winnipeg after a course of 665 m.; is a navigable river.

RED SEA, an arm of the Arabian Sea, and stretching in a NW. direction between the desolate sandy shores of Turkey in Asia and Africa; is connected with the Gulf of Aden in the SE. by the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and in the NW. divides into the Gulfs of Suez and Akaba, between which lies the Sinai Peninsula; the SUEZ CANAL (q. v.) joins it to the Mediterranean; is 1200 m. long, and averages 180 in breadth; has a mean depth of 375 fathoms (greatest 1200); receives no rivers, and owing to the great evaporation its water is very saline; long coral reefs skirt its shores, and of many islands Jebel Zugur, in the Farisan Archipelago, and Dahlak are the largest; the dangerous Daedalus Reef is marked by a lighthouse; as a seaway between Europe and the East its importance was greatly diminished by the discovery of the Cape route, but since the opening of the Suez Canal it has much more than regained its old position; owes its name probably to the deep red tint of the water often seen among the reefs, due to the presence of microscopic organisms.

REDAN, a rampart shaped like the letter V, with its apex toward the enemy.

REDDITCH (11), a flourishing town of Worcester, on the Warwick border, 13 m. SW. of Birmingham, busy with the manufacture of needles, pins, fish-hooks, &c.

REDEMPTIONISTS, better known as TRINITARIANS (q. v.), a name bestowed on an order of monks consecrated to the work of redeeming Christian captives from slavery.

REDESDALE, in Northumberland, the valley of the river Reed, which rises in the Cheviots and flows SE. through pastoral and in part dreary moorland till it joins the North Tyne; at the S. end is the field of OTTERBURN (q. v.).

REDESWIRE, RAID OF THE, a famous Border fight took place in July 1575 at the Cheviot pass which enters Redesdale; through the timely arrival of the men of Jedburgh the Scots proved victorious; is the subject of a Border ballad.

REDGAUNTLET, an enthusiastic Jacobite character in Sir Walter Scott's novel of the name, distinguished by a "horse-shoe vein on his brow, which would swell up black when he was in anger."

REDGRAVE, RICHARD, painter, born at Pimlico, in London; studied at the Royal Academy, won his first success in "Gulliver on the Farmer's Table," became noted for his genre and landscape paintings, held Government appointments, and published among other works "Reminiscences" and "A Century of English Painters" (1804-1888).

REDING, ALOYS VON, a Swiss patriot, born in Schwyz; was the bold defender of Swiss independence against the French, in which he was in the end defeated (1755-1818).

REDOUBT KALI, a Russian fort on the E. coast of the Black Sea, 10 m. N. of Poti, the chief place for shipping Circassian girls to Turkey; captured by the British in 1854.

REDRUTH (10), a town of Cornwall, on a hilly site nearly 10 m. SW. of Truro, in the midst of a tin and copper mining district.

RED-TAPE, name given to official formality, from the red-tape employed in tying official documents, whence "red-tapism."

REES, ABRAHAM, compiler of "Rees' Cyclopedia" (45 vols.), born in Montgomeryshire; became a tutor at Hoxton Academy, and subsequently ministered in the Unitarian Chapel at Old Jewry for some 40 years (1743-1825).

REEVE, name given to magistrates of various classes in early English times, the most important of whom was the SHIRE-REEVE or sheriff, who represented the king in his shire; others were BOROUGH-REEVES, PORT-REEVES, &c.

REEVE, CLARA, an English novelist, born, the daughter of a rector, at Ipswich; the best known of her novels is "The Champion of Virtue," afterwards called "The Old English Baron," a work of the school of Mrs. Radcliffe and of Walpole (1725-1803).

REEVES, JOHN SIMS, distinguished singer, born at Shooter's Hill, Kent; made his first appearance at the age of 18 as a baritone at Newcastle, and then as a tenor, and the foremost in England at the time; performed first in opera and then as a ballad singer at concerts, and took his farewell of the public on May 11, 1891, though he has frequently appeared since; b. 1822.

REFERENDUM, a practice which prevails in Switzerland of referring every new legislative measure to the electorate in the several electoral bodies for their approval before it can become law.

REFORM, the name given in England to successive attempts and measures towards the due extension of the franchise in the election of the members of the House of Commons.

REFORMATION, the great event in the history of Europe in the 16th century, characterised as a revolt of light against darkness, on the acceptance or the rejection of which has since depended the destiny for good or evil of the several States composing it, the challenge to each of them being the crucial one, whether they deserved and were fated to continue or perish, and the crucial character of which is visible to-day in the actual conditions of the nations as they said "nay" to it or "yea," the challenge to each at bottom being, is there any truth in you or is there none? Austria, according to Carlyle, henceforth "preferring steady darkness to uncertain new light"; Spain, "people stumbling in steep places in the darkness of midnight"; Italy, "shrugging its shoulders and preferring going into Dilettantism and the Fine Arts"; and France, "with accounts run up on compound interest," had to answer the "writ of summons" with an all too indiscriminate "Protestantism" of its own.


REFORMATORIES, schools for the education and reformation of convicted juvenile criminals (under 16). Under an order of court offenders may be placed in one of these institutions for from 2 to 5 years after serving a short period of imprisonment. They are supported by the State, the local authorities, and by private subscriptions and sums exacted from parents and guardians. Rules and regulations are supervised by the State. The first one was established in 1838. There are now 62 in Great Britain and Ireland; but the numbers admitted are diminishing at a remarkable rate.

REFORMED CHURCH, the Churches in Switzerland, Holland, Scotland, and elsewhere under Calvin or Zwingle, or both, separated from the Lutheran on matter of both doctrine and policy, and especially in regard to the doctrine of the presence of Christ in the Eucharist.

REFRACTION. Light travels in straight lines; but when a ray travelling through one medium passes obliquely into another of either greater or less density it is bent at the point of incidence. This bending or breaking is called refraction. The apparent bend in a stick set sloping in a sheet of water is due to this phenomenon, as are also many mirages and other optical illusions.

REGALIA, the symbols of royalty, and more particularly those used at a coronation. The English regalia include the crown, the sceptre with the cross, the verge or rod with the dove, St. Edward's staff (in reality dating from Charles II.'s coronation), the orbs of king and queen, the sword of mercy called Curtana, the two swords of spiritual and temporal justice, the ring of alliance with the nation, bracelets, spurs, vestments, &c. These are to be seen in the Tower of London, and are valued at L3,000,000. The regalia of Scotland consist of the crown, the sceptre, and sword of State, and are on exhibition in the Crown-room in Edinburgh Castle.

REGENERATION, THE, "new or second birth" required of Christ before any one can become a member of His kingdom, and which, when achieved, is a resolute and irreversible No to the spirit of the world, and a no less resolute and irreversible Yea to the spirit of Christ, the No being as essential to it as the Yea. For as in the philosophy of Hegel, so in the religion of Christ, the negative principle is the creative or the determinative principle. Christianity begins in No, subsists in No, and survives in No to the spirit of the world; this it at first peremptorily spurns, and then disregards as of no account, what things were gain in it becoming loss. A stern requirement, but, as Carlyle says, and knew, one is not born the second time any more than the first without sore birth-pangs. See HIS "EVERLASTING NO" IN "SARTOR," LAST PARAGRAPH.

REGENERATION, BAPTISMAL, the doctrine that the power of spiritual life, forfeited by the Fall, is restored to the soul in the sacrament of baptism duly administered.


REGGIO (24), an Italian seaport; capital of a province of the same name; occupies a charming site on the Strait of Messina; built on the ruins of ancient Rhegium; is the seat of an archbishop; manufactures silks, gloves, hose, &c.

REGICIDES, murderers of a king, but specially applied to the 67 members of the court who tried and condemned Charles I. of England, amongst whom were Cromwell, Bradshaw, Ireton, and others, of whom 10 living at the time of the Restoration were executed, and 25 others imprisoned for life.

REGILLUS, LAKE, celebrated in ancient Roman history as the scene of a great Roman victory over the Latins in 496 B.C.; site probably near the modern town of Frascati.

REGINA, ST., a virgin martyr of the 3rd century, usually depicted as undergoing the torments of martyrdom, or receiving spiritual consolation in prison by a beautiful vision of a dove on a luminous cross.

REGIOMONTANUS, name adopted by Johann Mueller, a celebrated German astronomer and mathematician, born at Koenigsberg, in Franconia; appointed professor of Astronomy in Vienna (1461); sojourned in Italy; settled in Nueremberg, where much of his best work was done; assisted Pope Sixtus IV. in reforming the Calendar; was made Bishop of Ratisbon; died at Rome; was regarded as the most learned astronomer of the time in Europe, and his works were of great value to Columbus and other early navigators (1436-1476).

REGISTRAR-GENERAL, an official appointed to superintend registration, specially of births, deaths, and marriages.

REGIUM DONUM, an annual grant formerly voted by Parliament to augment the stipends of the Presbyterian clergy in Ireland, discontinued from 1869.

REGNARD, JEAN FRANCOIS, comic dramatist, born in Paris; inherited a fortune, which he increased by gambling; took to travelling, and was at 22 captured by an Algerine pirate, and when ransomed continued to travel; on his return to Paris wrote comedies, twenty-three in number, the best of them being "Le Joueur" and "Le Legataire," following closely in the steps of Moliere; he was admired by Boileau (1656-1710).

REGNAULT, HENRI, French painter, born in Paris; son of following; a genius of great power and promise, of which several remarkable works by him are proof; volunteered in the Franco-German War, and fell at Buzenval (1843-1871).

REGNAULT, HENRI VICTOR, a noted French physicist, born at Aix-la-Chapelle; from being a Paris shopman he rose to a professorship in Lyons; important discoveries in organic chemistry won him election to the Academy of Sciences in 1840; lectured in the "College de France and the Ecole Polytechnique;" became director of the imperial porcelain manufactory of Sevres; did notable work in physics and chemistry, and was awarded medals by the Royal Society of London (1810-1878).

REGNIER, MATHURIN, French poet, born at Chartres; led when young a life of dissipation; ranks high as a poet, but is most distinguished in satire, which is instinct with verve and vigour (1572-1613).

REGULARS, in the Romish Church a member of any religious order who has taken the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.

REGULUS, a Roman of the Romans; was twice over Consul, in 267 and 256 B.C.; defeated the Carthaginians, both by sea and land, but was at last taken prisoner; being sent, after five years' captivity, on parole to Rome with proposals of peace, dissuaded the Senate from accepting the terms, and despite the entreaties of his wife and children and friends returned to Carthage according to his promise, where he was subjected to the most excruciating tortures.

REGULUS, ST., or ST. RULE, a monk of the East who, in the 4th century, it is said, came to Scotland with the bones of St. Andrew, and deposited them at St. Andrews.

REHAN, ADA, actress, born in Limerick; made her debut at 16 in Albany, New York; came to London in 1884, and again in 1893; plays Rosalind in "As You Like It," Lady Teazle in "School for Scandal," and Maid Marian in the "Foresters," and numerous other parts; b. 1859.

REHOBOAM, the king of the Jews on whose accession at the death of Solomon, in 976 B.C., the ten tribes of Israel seceded from the kingdom of Judah.

REICH, THE, the old German Empire.

REICHENBACH, KARL, BARON VON, expert in the industrial arts, particularly in chemical manufacture; he was a zealous student of animal magnetism, and the discoverer of Od (1788-1869).

REICHENBERG (31), a town in North Bohemia, on the Neisse, 86 m. NE. of Prague; chief seat of the Bohemian cloth manufacture.

REICHENHALL (4), a popular German health resort, in South-East Bavaria, 10 m. SW. of Salzburg; is charmingly situated amidst Alpine scenery, and has a number of mineral springs; is the centre of the great Bavarian salt-works.

REICHSRATH, the Parliament of the Austrian Empire.

REICHSTADT, DUKE OF, the son and successor of Napoleon as Napoleon II.; died at Vienna in 1832.

REICHSTAG, the German Imperial Legislature, representative of the German nation, and which consists of 397 members, elected by universal suffrage and ballot for a term of five years.

REID, SIR GEORGE, a distinguished portrait-painter, born in Aberdeen; his portraits are true to the life, and are not surpassed by those of any other living artist; b. 1841.

REID, RIGHT HON. G. H., Premier of Australia, born at Johnstone, Renfrewshire; emigrated with his parents in 1852; adopted law as his profession; became Minister of Education in 1883; became Premier of N.S.W. in 1894; is a great Free Trader, and visited England for the Jubilee in 1897; Prime Minister of the Australian Commonwealth, 1904; b. 1845.

REID, CAPTAIN MAYNE, novelist, born in Co. Down; led a life of adventure in America, and served in the Mexican War, but settled afterwards in England to literary work, and wrote a succession of tales of adventure (1819-1883).

REID, THOMAS, Scottish philosopher, and chief of the Scottish school, born in Kincardineshire, and bred for the Scotch Church, in which he held office as a clergyman for a time; was roused to philosophical speculation by the appearance in 1730 of David Hume's "Treatise on Human Nature," and became professor of Philosophy in Aberdeen in 1752, and in Glasgow in 1763, where the year after he published his "Inquiry into the Human Mind," which was followed in course of time by his "Philosophy of the Intellectual and Active Powers"; his philosophy was a protest against the scepticism of Hume, founded on the idealism of Berkeley, by appeal to the "common-sense" of mankind, which admits of nothing intermediate between the perceptions of the mind and the reality of things (1710-1796).

REID, SIR WEMYSS, journalist and man of letters, born in Newcastle-on-Tyne; editor of the Leeds Mercury (1870-86), and of the Speaker since 1890; has written novels and biographies; is President of the Institute of Journalists, and was knighted in 1894; b. 1842.

REID, SIR WILLIAM, soldier and scientist; served in the Royal Engineers with distinction under Wellington; became Governor successively of Bermudas, Barbadoes, and Malta, and was the author of a scientific work on "The Law of Storms" (1791-1858).

REIGATE (23), a flourishing market-town in Surrey, 21 m. S. of London; is a busy railway centre; has interesting historic ruins; an old church, among others containing the grave of Lord Howard of Effingham.

REIGN OF A HUNDRED DAYS, the period during which Napoleon reigned in Paris from his return from Elba in the beginning of March till he left on the 12th June 1815 to meet the Allies in the Netherlands.

REIGN OF TERROR, the name given to the bloody consummation of the fiery French Revolution, including a period which lasted 420 days, from the fall of the Girondists on the 31st May 1793 to the overthrow of Robespierre and his accomplices on 27th July 1794, the actors in which at length, seeing nothing but "Terror" ahead, had in their despair said to themselves, "Be it so. Que la Terreur soit a l'ordre du jour (having sown the wind, come let us reap the whirlwind). One of the frightfulest things ever born of Time. So many as four thousand guillotined, fusilladed, noyaded, done to dire death, of whom nine hundred were women."

REIMARUS, a philosopher of the AUFKLAeRUNG (q. v.), born at Hamburg; author of the "Wolfenbuettel Fragments," published by Lessing in 1777, and written to disprove the arguments for the historical truth of the Bible, and in the interest of pure deism and natural religion (1694-1768).

REIS EFFENDI, one of the chief Ministers of State in Turkey, who is Lord Chancellor, and holds the bureau of foreign affairs.

REITERS, the cavalry of the German Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries.

RELATIVITY OF KNOWLEDGE, the doctrine that all knowledge is of things as they appear to us and not of things as they are in themselves, is subjective and not objective, is phenomenal and not noumenal.

RELIEF, prominence of a sculpture from a plain surface; works in relief are of three kinds: alto-relievo, high relief; mezzo-relievo, medium relief; basso-relievo, low relief.

RELIGIO MEDICI, a celebrated work of Sir Thomas Browne's, characterised as a "confession of intelligent, orthodox, and logical supernaturalism couched in some of the most exquisite English ever written."

RELIGION, a sense, affecting the whole character and life, of dependence on, reverence for, and responsibility to a Higher Power; or a mode of thinking, feeling, and acting which respects, trusts in, and strives after God, and determines a man's duty and destiny in this universe, or "the manner in which a man feels himself to be spiritually related to the unseen world."

RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY, society founded in 1799 for the circulation of religious works in home and foreign parts, has published in 220 languages, and is conducted by an annually elected body, consisting of four ministers and eight laymen in London.

RELIQUARY, name given to a portable shrine or case for relics of saints or martyrs; they assumed many forms, and were often rich in material and of exquisite design.

REMBRANDT or VAN REJN, a celebrated Dutch historical and portrait painter as well as etcher, born at Leyden, where he began to practise as an etcher; removed in 1630 to Amsterdam, where he spent the rest of his life and acquired a large fortune, but lost it in 1656 after the death of his first wife, and sank into poverty and obscurity; he was a master of all that pertains to colouring and the distribution of light and shade (1608-1669).

REMIGIUS, ST., bishop and confessor of the 6th century, represented as carrying or receiving a vessel of holy oil, or as anointing Clovis, who kneels before him.

REMINGTON, PHILO, inventor of the Remington breech-loading rifle, born at Litchfield, in New York State; 25 years manager of the mechanical department in his father's small-arms factory; Remington type-writer also the outcome of his inventive skill; retired in 1886; b. 1816.

REMONSTRANCE, THE, the name given to a list of abuses of royal power laid to the charge of Charles I. and drawn up by the House of Commons in 1641, and which with the petition that accompanied it contributed to bring matters to a crisis.

REMONSTRANTS, a name given to the Dutch Arminians who presented to the States-General of Holland a protest against the Calvinist doctrine propounded by the Synod of Dort in 1610.

REMUS, the twin-brother of Romulus, and who was slain by him because he showed his scorn of the city his brother was founding by leaping over the wall.

REMUSAT, ABEL, Orientalist, born in Paris; studied and qualified in medicine, but early devoted himself to the study of Chinese literature and in 1814 became professor of Chinese in the College of France; wrote on the language, the topography, and history of China, and founded the Asiastic Society of Paris (1788-1832).

REMUSAT, CHARLES, COMTE DE, French politician and man of letters, born in Paris; was a Liberal in politics; drew up a protest against the ordinances of Polignac, which precipitated the revolution of July; was Minister of the Interior under Thiers, was exiled after the coup d'etat, and gave himself mainly to philosophical studies thereafter (1797-1875).

RENAISSANCE, the name given to the revolution in literature and art in Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, caused by the revival of the study of ancient models in the literature and art of Greece and Rome, especially the former, and to the awakening in the cultured classes of the free and broad humanity that inspired them, an epoch which marks the transition from the rigid formality of mediaeval to the enlightened freedom of modern times.

RENAIX (17), a busy manufacturing town in East Flanders, Belgium, 22 m. SW. of Ghent; has large cotton and linen factories, breweries, and distilleries.

RENAN, ERNEST, Orientalist and Biblical scholar, born in Brittany, son of a sailor, who, dying, left him to the care of his mother and sister, to both of whom he was warmly attached; destined for the Church, he entered the seminary of St. Sulpice, where his studies threw him out of the relation with the Church and obliged him to abandon all thoughts of the clerical profession; accomplished in Hebrew, he was appointed professor of that language in the College of France in 1861, though not installed till 1870, and made a member of the French Academy in 1878; having distinguished himself by his studies in the Semitic languages, and in a succession of essays on various subjects of high literary merit, he in 1863 achieved a European reputation by the publication of his "Vie de Jesus," the first of a series bearing upon the origin of Christianity and the agencies that contributed to its rise and development; he wrote other works bearing more immediately on modern life and its destiny, but it is in connection with his views of Christ and Christianity that his name will be remembered; he entertained at last an overweening faith in science and scientific experts, and looked to the latter as the elect of the earth for the redemption of humanity (1823-1893).

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