The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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PECKSNIFF, a pronounced hypocrite in Dickens's "Martin Chuzzlewit," and who lies and cants whether he is drunk or sober.

PECOCK, REGINALD, bishop in succession of St. Asaph and Chichester, born in Wales; the author, among other works, of the "Repressor of Over Much Blaming of the Clergy" and the "Book of Faith"; he wrote on behalf of the Church against Lollards, but he offended Churchmen as well as the latter—Churchmen because he agreed with the Lollards in regard to the Bible as the rule of faith, and the Lollards because he appealed to reason as the interpreter of the Bible; he displeased the clergy also by his adoption in theological debate of the mother-tongue, but figures since in literature as the first English theologian; he was accused of treating authority with disrespect as well as setting up reason above revelation, obliged to recant in a most humiliating manner, deprived of his bishopric, and condemned to solitary confinement, away from his books, all to a few, and denied the use of writing materials (1390-1460).

PEDRO I., emperor of Brazil, second son of John VI. of Portugal; reigned from 1822 to 1831, when he abdicated in favour of his son (1798-1834).

PEDRO II., emperor of Brazil, son of preceding, ascended the throne in 1831; reigned peacefully till 1889, when a sudden revolution obliged him to resign, and retire to Europe and take up his abode in France, where he indulged his taste for science and learning (1825-1891).

PEEBLES, PETER, a character in Scott's "Redgauntlet."

PEEBLESSHIRE (19), a lowland Scottish county bordered by Lanark, Midlothian, Selkirk, and Dumfries; comprises hilly pastoral land watered by the upper Tweed; Windlestraw, Hartfell, and Broadlaw are the highest of its grassy hills; among the lesser rivers are the Leithen and Quair; some crops are grown, but most of the land is devoted to sheep grazing; a little coal is found in the N.; the only towns are Innerleithen (3) and PEEBLES (5), the county town, engaged in Tweed manufacture. The county is known also by the name of Tweeddale; its representation in Parliament is united with that of Selkirk.

PEEL (4), a fishing town and holiday resort on the W. coast of the Isle of Man, 12 m. NW. of Douglas; it is noted for its castle.

PEEL, SIR ROBERT, English statesman, born near Bury, Lancashire, the son of a wealthy cotton-spinner, to whose large fortune and baronetcy he succeeded; graduated at Oxford in 1808, and next year entered Parliament as Tory member for Cashel; he afterwards sat for his own university, and after 1832 for Tamworth; he was appointed Under-Secretary for the Colonies in 1811. and from 1812 till 1818 was Secretary for Ireland; in 1822 he became Home Secretary, but seceded from the Government when Canning became Premier in 1827; the question at issue was Catholic Emancipation, and it was characteristic of Peel that in the Government which succeeded Canning's he had the courage, having changed his opinions, to introduce the measure which removed the disabilities; opposed to Reform he became leader of the Conservative opposition in the Parliament of 1833; called to the Premiership in 1834 he could not maintain his administration, and it was not till 1841 that the victory of protection over the free-trade agitation gave him a stable majority in the Commons; his first measure was a modification of the corn laws on protectionist principles, 1842; then followed the 7d. income-tax and general tariff revision; in 1845 the agitation for free-trade in corn was brought to a crisis by the Irish potato famine; Peel yielded, and next year carried the final repeal of the corn laws; his "conversion" split the Tory party and he retired from office, becoming a supporter of the Whig ministry in its economical and ecclesiastical policy; he was a master of finance, an easy speaker, slow to form but conscientious to act upon his convictions, a man of the highest character; his death was the result of a fall from horseback (1788-1850).

PEEL TOWERS, the name given to fortresses of the moss-troopers on the Scottish border.

PEELE, GEORGE, dramatist, of the Elizabethan period, born in London; author of "Arraignment of Paris" and "David and Bathsabe," full of passages of poetic beauty; has been charged with having led the life of a debauchee and to have died of a disease brought on by his profligacy, but it is now believed he has been maligned (1548-1597).


PEERS, THE TWELVE, the famous warriors or paladins at the court of Charlemagne, so called from their equality in prowess and honour.

PEGASUS, the winged horse, begotten of Poseidon, who sprung from the body of Medusa when Perseus swooped off her head, and who with a stroke of his hoof broke open the spring of Hippocrene on Mount Helicon, and mounted on whom Bellerophon slew the Chimera, and by means of which he hoped, if he had not been thrown, to ascend to heaven, as Pegasus did alone, becoming thereafter a constellation in the sky; this is the winged horse upon whose back poets, to the like disappointment, hope to scale the empyrean, who have not, like Bellerophon, first distinguished themselves by slaying Chimeras.

PEGU (6), a town of Lower Burma, in the province and on the river of the same name, 46 m. NE. of Rangoon, is a very ancient city; the province (1,162) is a rice-growing country, with great teak forests on the mountain slopes.

PEI-HO, a river of North China, 350 miles long; formed by the junction of four other rivers, on the chief of which stands Pekin; has a short navigable course south-eastward to the Gulf of Pechili, where it is defended by the forts of Taku.

PEIRCE, BENJAMIN, American mathematician and astronomer, born in Massachusetts, U.S.; wrote on the discovery of Neptune and Saturn's rings, as well as a number of mathematical text-books (1809-1880).

PEISHWAH, the name of the overlord or chief minister of Mahratta chiefs in their wars with the Mohammedans, who had his head-quarters at Poonah, the last to hold office putting himself under British protection, and surrendering his territory; nominated as his successor Nana Sahib, who became the chief instigator of the Mutiny of 1857, on account, it is believed, of the refusal of the British Government to continue to him the pension of his predecessor who had adopted him.

PEKIN (1,000), the capital of China, on a sandy plain in the basin of the Pei-ho, is divided into two portions, each separately walled, the northern or Manchu city and the southern or Chinese. The former contains the Purple Forbidden city, in which are the Imperial palaces; surrounding it is the August city, in which are a colossal copper Buddha and the Temple of Great Happiness. Outside this are the government offices, foreign legations, the temple of Confucius, a great Buddhist monastery, a Roman Catholic cathedral, and Christian mission stations. The Chinese city has many temples, mission stations, schools, and hospitals; but it is sparsely populated, houses are poor, and streets unpaved. Pekin has railway communication with Hankow, and is connected with other cities and with Russia by telegraph. Its trade and industry are inconsiderable. It is one of the oldest cities in the world. It was Kubla Khan's capital, and has been the metropolis of the empire since 1421.

PELAGIUS, a celebrated heresiarch of the 5th century, born in Britain or Brittany; denied original sin and the orthodox doctrine of divine grace as the originating and sustaining power in redemption, a heresy for which he suffered banishment from Rome in 418 at the hands of the Church. A modification of this theory went under the name of Semi-Pelagianism, which ascribes only the first step in conversion to free-will, and the subsequent sanctification of the soul to God's grace.

PELASGI, a people who in prehistoric times occupied Greece, the Archipelago, the shores of Asia Minor, and great part of Italy, and who were subdued, and more or less reduced to servitude, by the Hellenes, and supplanted by them. They appear to have been, so far as we find them, an agricultural people, settled and not roving about, and to have had strongholds enclosed in cyclopean walls, that is, walls consisting of huge boulders unconnected with cement.

PELEUS, the son of AEacus, the husband of Thetis, the father of Achilles, and one of the Argonauts, after whom Achilles is named Pelides, i. e. Peleus' boy.

PELEW ISLANDS (10), twenty-six in number, of coral formation, and surrounded by reefs; are in the extreme W. of the Caroline Archipelago in the North Pacific, and SE. of the Philippines. They belong to Spain; are small but fertile, and have a healthy climate. The natives are Malays, and though gentle lead a savage life.

PELHAM, a fashionable novel by Bulwer Lytton, severely satirised by Carlyle in "Sartor" in the chapter on "Dandies" as the elect of books of this class.

PELIAS, king of Iolchus, and son of Poseidon, was cut to pieces by his own daughters, which were thrown by them into a boiling caldron in the faith of the promise of Medea, that he might thereby be restored to them young again. It was he who, to get rid of Jason, sent him in quest of the golden fleece in the hope that he might perish in the attempt.

PELICAN, a bird, the effigy of which was used in the Middle Ages to symbolise charity; generally represented as wounding its breast to feed its young with its own blood, and which became the image of the Christ who shed His blood for His people.

PELIDES, a patronymic of Achilles, as the son of Peleus.

PELION, a range, or the highest of a range, of mountains in the E. of Thessaly, upon which, according to Greek fables, the Titans hoisted up Mount Ossa in order to scale heaven and dethrone Zeus, a strenuous enterprise which did not succeed, and the symbol of all such.

PELISSIER, a French marshal, born near Rouen; was made Duc de Malakoff for storming the Malakoff tower, which led to the fall of Sebastopol in 1855; rose from the ranks to be Governor-General of Algeria, the office he held when he died (1794-1864).

PELLA, the capital of Macedonia, and the birthplace of Alexander the Great, stood on a hill amid the marches NW. of Thessalonica.

PELLEGRINI, CARLO, a caricaturist, born in Capua; came to London; was distinguished for the inimitable drollery of his cartoons (1838-1889).

PELLICO, SILVIO, Italian poet and patriot, born in Piedmont; suffered a fifteen years' imprisonment in the Spielberg at Bruenn for his patriotism, from which he was liberated in 1830; he wrote an account of his life in prison, which commanded attention all over Europe, both for the subject-matter of it and the fascination of the style (1789-1854).

PELLISSON, PAUL, a man of letters and a wit of the age of Louis XIV.; spent some five years in the Bastille, but after his release was appointed historiographer-royal; in his captivity he made a companion of a spider, who was accustomed to eat out of his hand (1624-1693).

PELOPIDAS, a Theban general, and leader of the "sacred band"; the friend of Epaminondas; contributed to the expulsion (379 B.C.) of the Spartans from the citadel of Thebes, of which they had taken possession in 380, after which he was elected to the chief magistracy; gained a victory over Alexander of Pherae the tyrant of Thessaly, but lost his life in 362 while too eagerly pursuing the foe.

PELOPONNESIAN WAR, a war of thirty years' duration (431-404 B.C.) between Athens and Sparta, which ended in the supremacy of the latter, till the latter was overthrown at Leuctra by the Thebans under Epaminondas in 371 B.C. This war is the subject of the history of Thucydides.

PELOPONNESUS (lit. the Isle of Pelops), the ancient name of the Morea of Greece, the chief cities of which were Corinth, Argos, and Sparta; it was connected with the rest of Greece by the Isthmus of Corinth.

PELOPS, in the Greek mythology the grandson of Zeus and son of Tantalus, who was slain by his father and served up by him at a banquet he gave the gods to test their omniscience, but of the shoulder of which only Demeter in a fit of abstraction partook, whereupon the gods ordered the body to be thrown into a boiling caldron, from which Pelops was drawn out alive, with the shoulder replaced by one of ivory.

PEMBROKESHIRE (89), a maritime county, the farthest W. in Wales; is washed by St. George's Channel except on the E., where it borders on Cardigan and Carmarthen. It is a county of low hills, with much indented coast-line. Milford Haven, in the S., is one of the best harbours in the world. The climate is humid; two-thirds of the soil is under pasture; coal, iron, lead, and slate are found. ST. DAVID'S is a cathedral city; the county town is PEMBROKE (18) on Milford Haven, and near it is the fortified dockyard and arsenal PEMBROKE DOCK (10).

PEMMICAN, a food for long voyages, particularly in Arctic expeditions, consisting of lean meat or beef without fat dried, pounded, and pressed into cakes. The use of it is now suppressed.

PENANCE, in the Roman Catholic Church an expression of penitence as well as the sacrament of absolution; also the suffering to which a penitent voluntarily subjects himself, according to the schoolmen, as an expression of his penitence, and in punishment of his sin; the three steps of penitence were contrition, confession, and satisfaction.

PENANG or PRINCE OF WALES ISLANDS (91), a small fertile island near the northern opening of the Straits of Malacca, off the Malay coast, and 360 m. NW. of Singapore; is one of the British Straits Settlements, of value strategically; it is hilly, and covered with vegetation; the population are half Chinese, a fourth of them Malays; figs, spices, and tobacco are exported. The capital is GEORGETOWN (25), on the island. PROVINCE WELLESLEY (97), on the mainland, belongs to the same settlement; it exports tapioca and sugar. The DINDINGS (2), 80 m. S., are another dependency.

PENATES, the name given by the Romans to their household deities, individually and unitedly, in honour of whom a fire, in charge of the vestal virgins, was kept permanently burning.

PENDA, a Mercian king of the 7th century, who headed a reactionary movement of heathenism against the domination of Christianity in England, and for a time seemed to carry all before him, but Christianity, under the preaching of the monks, had gained too deep a hold, particularly in Northumbria, and he was overpowered in 665 in one final struggle and slain.

PENDENNIS, the name of a novel by Thackeray, from the name of the hero, and published in 1849-50 in succession to "Vanity Fair."

PENDLETON, a NW. suburb of Manchester, in the direction of Bolton, with extensive manufactures and collieries.

PENDRAGON, a title bestowed on kings by the ancient Britons, and especially on the chiefs among them chosen by election, so called from their wearing a dragon on their shields or as a crest in sign of sovereignty.

PENELOPE, the wife of Ulysses, celebrated for her conjugal fidelity during his twenty years' absence, in the later half of which an army of suitors pled for her hand, pleading that her husband would never return; but she put them all off by a promise of marriage as soon as she finished a web (called after Penelope's web) she was weaving, which she wove by day and undid at night, till their importunities took a violent form, when her husband arrived and delivered her.

PENINSULAR STATE, the State of Florida, from its shape.

PENINSULAR WAR, a war carried on in Spain and Portugal during the years 1808 and 1814, between the French on the one hand and the Spanish, Portuguese, and British, chiefly under Wellington, on the other, and which was ended by the victory of the latter over the former at Toulouse just after Napoleon's abdication.

PENITENTIAL PSALMS or PSALMS OF CONFESSION, is a name given from very early times to Psalms vi., xxxii., xxxviii., li., cii., cxxx., which are specially expressive of sorrow for sin. The name belonged originally to the fifty-first Psalm, which was recited at the close of daily morning service in the primitive Church.

PENITENTS, ORDER OF, a religious order established in 1272 for the reception to the Church of reformed courtesans.

PENN, WILLIAM, founder of Pennsylvania, the son of an admiral, born in London; was converted to Quakerism while a student at Oxford, and for a fanatical attack on certain fellow-students expelled the University; his father sent him to travel in France, and afterwards placed him in charge of his Irish estates; his religious views occasioned several disputes with his father, and ultimately brought him into conflict with the Government; he spent several periods of imprisonment writing books in defence of religious liberty, among them "The Great Cause of Liberty of Conscience" (1671); then travelled in Holland and Germany propagating his views; his father's death brought him a fortune and a claim upon the crown which he commuted for a grant of land in North America, where he founded (1682) the colony of Pennsylvania—the prefix Penn, by command of Charles II. in honour of the admiral; here he established a refuge for all persecuted religionists, and laying out Philadelphia as the capital, governed his colony wisely and generously for two years; he returned to England, where his friendship with James II. brought many advantages to the Quakers, but laid him under harassing and undeserved prosecutions for treason in the succeeding reign; a second visit to his colony (1699-1701) gave it much useful legislation; on his return his agent practically ruined him, and he was a prisoner in the Fleet in 1708; the closing years of his life were clouded by mental decay (1644-1718).

PENNANT, THOMAS, traveller and naturalist, born near Holywell, Flintshire; studied at Oxford, but took no degree; in 1746 he made a tour of Cornwall; among his subsequent journeys, of which he published accounts, were tours in Ireland (1754), the Continent (1764), Scotland (1769 and 1772), and Wales; he wrote several works on zoological subjects, and published an amusing "Literary Life of the late Thomas Pennant, Esq., by Himself," 1793 (1726-1798).

PENNSYLVANIA (5,258), most populous but one of the American States, lies N. of Mason and Dixon's Line, separated by New Jersey, on the E. by the Delaware River, with Ohio on the W., New York on the N., and Lake Erie at the NW. corner. The country is hilly, being traversed by the Blue Mountains and the Alleghany ranges, with many fertile valleys between the chains, extensive forests, and much picturesque scenery. The Cumberland Valley in the W. is one of the best farming lands in New England. The Alleghany River in the W. and the two branches of the Susquehanna in the centre water the State. Pennsylvania is the greatest mining State in the Union; its iron-mines and petroleum-wells supply half the iron and most of the oil used in the country; its bituminous coal-beds in the W. are extremely rich, and the anthracite deposits of the E. are unrivalled; in manufactures, too, it ranks second among the States; these are very varied, the most valuable being iron, steel, and shipbuilding. Founded by Swedes, it passed to English settlers in 1664; the first charter was granted to William Penn in 1681. In the Revolution it took a prominent part, and was among the first States of the Union. Education is well advanced; there are 20 State colleges. The mining population includes many Irish, Hungarian, and Italian immigrants, among whom riots are frequent. Of the agriculturists many are of Dutch descent, and about two millions still speak a Low German patois known as Pennsylvanian Dutch. HARRISBURG (39) is the capital; the metropolis is PHILADELPHIA (1,047), the second largest city in the country; while PITTSBURG (239), ALLEGHANY (105), SCRANTON (75), and READING (59) are among the many large towns.

PENNY, originally a silver coin, weighed in the 7th century 1/240-th of a Saxon pound, but decreased in weight till in Elizabeth's time it was 1/63 of an ounce troy. It was at first indented with a cross so as to be broken for halfpennies and farthings, but silver coins of these denominations were coined by Edward I. Edward VI. stopped the farthings, and the halfpence were stopped in the Commonwealth. Copper coinage was established in 1672. The present coins were issued first in 1860. They are half the size of their predecessors, and intrinsically worth one-seventh of their nominal value.

PENNY WEDDING, a wedding at which the guests pay part of the charges of the festival.

PENRITH (9), a market town of Cumberland, and tourist centre for the English lakes; contains a very old church and school, and ruins of a picturesque castle. Brewing, iron-founding, and timber-sawing are its industries.

PENRYN (3), a Cornish market town at the head of Falmouth harbour; has manufactures of paper, woollen cloth, and gunpowder. It has considerable fishing industry, and ships the Penryn granite quarried near.

PENSEROSO, II, a famous Italian poem by Milton, written in 1633.

PENSIONARY, THE GRAND, a State functionary of Holland, whose office, abolished in 1795, it was to superintend State interests, register decrees, negotiate with other countries, and take charge of the revenues, &c.


PENTAGRAM, a symbol presumed to possess a magical influence, particularly to charm away evil spirits, formed by placing the figure of an equilateral triangle athwart another.

PENTAMERONE, a collection of tales in the Neapolitan dialect, supposed to be told during five days by ten old women to a pseudo-princess, and published at Naples 1637; is of great value to students of folk-lore.

PENTATEUCH, the name given by Origen to the first five books of the Bible, which the Jews call the Law or Five-fifths of the Law, the composition of which has of late years been subjected to keen critical investigation, and the whole ascribed to documents of different dates and diverse authorship, to the rejection of the old traditional hypothesis that it was the work of Moses, first called in question by Spinoza, and shown to be untenable by JEAN ASTRUC (q. v.).

PENTECOST (i. e. fiftieth), a great feast of the Jews, so called as held on the fiftieth day after the second of the Passover. It is called also the Feast of Harvest, or Weeks of First-Fruits, the Passover feast being connected with the commencement and this with the conclusion of harvest. It is regarded by the Jews as commemorative of the giving of the law on Mount Sinai, and will never cease to be associated in the Christian memory with the great awakening from which dates the first birth of the Christian consciousness in the Christian Church, the moment when the disciples of Christ first realised in common that their Master was not dead but alive, and nearer to them than He had been when present in the flesh.

PENTELICUS, a range of mountains in Attica between Athens and Marathon, famous for its quarries of fine white marble.

PENTHESILEA, the daughter of Ares and the queen of the Amazons; on the death of Hector she came to the assistance of the Trojans, but was slain by Achilles, who mourned over her when dying on account of her beauty, her youth, and her courage.

PENTHEUS, a king of Thebes, opposed to the introduction of the Bacchus worship into his kingdom, was driven mad by the god, and torn in pieces by his mother and sisters, who, under the Bacchic frenzy, mistook him for a wild beast.

PENTHIEVRE, DUC DE, the father-in-law of Philippe Egalite, and the protector of Florian (1725-1793).

PENTLAND FIRTH is the strait between the Orkneys and the Scottish mainland connecting the North Sea with the Atlantic, 12 m. long by 6 broad, and swept by a rapid current very dangerous to navigation; 5000 vessels traverse it annually.

PENTONVILLE, a populous district of London, in the parishes of St James's, Clerkenwell, and Islington, where is the Pentonville Model Prison, built in 1840-42 on the radiating principle to accommodate 520 prisoners.

PENUMBRA, the name given to the partial shadow on the rim of the total shadow of an eclipse, also to the margin of the light and shade of a picture.

PENZANCE (14), the largest town in Cornwall, most westerly borough in England, and terminus of the Great Western Railway, is beautifully situated on the rocky W. shore of Mount's Bay; its public buildings chiefly of granite. It has a fine harbour and docks, and is the centre of the mackerel and pilchard fishing industries. Its mild climate makes it a favourite watering-place.

PEOPLE'S PALACE, Mile End Road, London, is an institution for the recreation and instruction of the East-end population, opened by the Queen in May 1887, and owing its origin to the impulse given by Sir W. Besant's "All Sorts and Conditions of Men." In it are a library, art galleries, concert and reading rooms, baths, gymnasium, &c., and technical classes and handicraft schools are held; these are attended by 5000 pupils, and the institution is visited by a million and a quarter people annually.

PEPIN THE SHORT, king of the Franks, was the son of Charles Martel, and at first shared with his brother Carloman the viceroyalty of the kingdom under Hilderik III.; in 747 Carloman retired to a monastery, and five years later Pepin deposed Hilderik and ascended the throne; his kingdom embraced the valleys of the Rhine, the Rhone, and the Seine; he united his interests with those of the Church, and in 756 entered Italy to rescue the Pope from the threatened domination of the Lombards; reduced Aistulf of Lombardy to vassalage, assumed the title of Patrician of Rome, and by bestowing on Pope Stephen III. the "Exarchate" of the Roman empire, laid the foundation of papal temporal sovereignty, five cities being placed under his jurisdiction; his subsequent exploits included the conquest of the Loire Valley and the expulsion of the Moors from France; his fame was overshadowed by that of his son Charlemagne; d. 678.

PEPSIN, an essential constituent of the gastric juice extracted from the stomach of the calf, sheep, and pig, and used in medicine to supply any defect of it in the stomach of a patient.

PEPYS, SAMUEL, author of a famous Diary, a scholarly man and respected as connected with different grades of society; held a clerkship in the Admiralty, and finally the secretaryship; kept a diary of events from 1660 to 1669, which remained in MS. till 1826, when it was published in part by Lord Braybrooke, and is of interest for the insight it gives into the manners of the time and the character of the author; the latest and completest edition of this Diary is that of H. B. Wheatley, published in 1893-96, in eight vols. (1633-1703).

PERA, a suburb of Constantinople, on the N. side of the Golden Horn, and the foreign diplomatic quarter.

PERAEA, "the country beyond," designated that part of Palestine beyond or E. of the Jordan.

PERCEVAL, a hero of the legends of chivalry, famed for his adventures in quest of the Holy Graal.

PERCEVAL, SPENCER, English statesman, born in London, son of the Earl of Egmont; bred to the bar; entered Parliament as a supporter of Pitt, and held a succession of posts under different administrations, attaining the Premiership, which he held from 1800 to 1812, on the 11th of May, of which year he was shot dead by a madman of the name of Bellingham in the lobby of the House; he was devoted to the throne, and a man of upright character but narrow sympathies (1762-1812).

PERCIVAL, JAMES GATES, American poet and geologist, born at Kensington, Connecticut; took his degree at Yale in 1815, and qualified as a medical practitioner; he was for a few months professor of Chemistry at West Point, but retired and gave himself to literature and geology; his scientific works are valuable; "Prometheus and Clio" appeared in 1822, "Dream of a Day" in 1843; he died at Hazel Green, Wisconsin (1795-1856).

PERCY, a noble English family of Norman origin, the founder of which accompanied the Conqueror, and was rewarded with grants of land for his services; a successor of whom in the female line, Henry, the father of the famous Hotspur, was created Duke of Northumberland in 1377.

PERCY, THOMAS, English prelate and antiquary, born at Bridgenorth, Shropshire, the son of a grocer; devoted himself to the collection of old ballads, and published in 1765 "Reliques of Ancient English Poetry"; he published also ballads of his own, among them "The Hermit of Warkworth," and was the author of "O Nannie, wilt thou gang wi' me?" he associated with Johnson, Burke, and other notables of the period, and was a member of Dr. Johnson's Literary Club; became bishop of Dromore in 1782, where he was held in affectionate regard; was blind for some years before he died (1729-1811).

PERDICCAS, a favourite general of Alexander the Great, who, when on his deathbed, took his signet ring off his finger and gave it to him; he became an object of distrust after Alexander's death, and was assassinated in Egypt.

PEREIRA, JONATHAN, pharmacologist, born in London; author of the "Elements of Materia Medica," a standard work; was examiner on the subject in London University (1804-1853).

PEREKOP, ISTHMUS OF, connects the Crimea with the S. of Russia; is pierced by a ship-canal.

PEREZ, ANTONIO, Spanish statesman, and minister of Philippe II., born in Aragon; was the tool of the king in the murder of Escoveda, the confidant of John of Austria; was convicted of betraying State secrets and imprisoned, but escaped; being in possession of royal secrets, which he published, Philippe tried every means to arrest him, but Perez evaded capture, and found refuge in France, where he died in poverty (1539-1611).

PERFECTIONISM, the doctrine that moral perfection is by divine grace attainable in the present life.

PERFECTIONISTS, an American sect or society founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848 at Oneida, New York State, on Communistic principles, but owning no law save that of the Spirit, and subject to no criticism but the judgment they freely passed on one another, a system which they were obliged to modify in 1880 so far as to recognise the rights of matrimony and the family, and to adopt the principle of a joint-stock limited liability company, on which lines the community is proving a prosperous one.

PERGAMOS, the citadel of Troy, a name frequently given by the poets to the city itself.

PERGAMOS, an ancient city of Mysia, in Asia Minor; founded by a colony of Greek emigrants in 3rd century B.C., and eventually the centre of a province of the name, which was subject for a time to Macedonia, but threw off the yoke and became independent, till it became a Roman province by bequest on the part of Attalus III. in 133 B.C. The city possessed a library second only to that of Alexandria, contained one of the seven churches mentioned in the Revelation, and gave its name to parchment, alleged to have been invented there.

PERI, in the Eastern mythology a fairy being of surpassing beauty, begotten of fallen spirits, and excluded from Paradise, but represented as leading a life of pleasure and endowed with immortality; there were male Peris as well as female, and they were intermediate between angels and demons.

PERIANDER, the tyrant of Corinth from 625 to 585 B.C., was one of the seven sages of Greece, and a patron of literature and the arts; Arion and Anacharsis lived at his Court.

PERICLES, the great Athenian statesman, born in Athens, of noble parentage; was a devoted disciple of Anaxagoras; entered public life 467 B.C. as a democrat, and soon became head of the democratic party, to the increase of the power of the citizens and annihilation of the domination of the oligarchy centred in the Areopagus; hostile to territorial aggrandisement, he sought, as his chief ambition, the unification of Greece in one grand confederacy, but was defeated in this noble aim by the jealousy of Sparta; he put down all rivalry, however, in Athens itself, and established himself as absolute ruler with the consent of the citizens, reforming the laws, adorning the city, and encouraging literature and the arts, masters, many wise in the one and skilful in the other, he had at his disposal, such as few or none of the cities of the world had ever before or have had since; the resulting prosperity did but enhance the envy of the other States, Sparta in particular, and two years before he died the spirit of hostility took shape in the outbreak of the PELOPONNESIAN WAR (q. v.); he had surrounded the city with walls, and his policy was to defend it from within them rather than face the enemy in the field, but it proved fatal, for it tended to damp rather than quicken the ardour of the citizens, and to add to this a plague broke out among them in 430 B.C., which cut down the most valiant of their number, and he himself lay down to die the year after; he was a high-souled, nobly-bred man, great in all he thought and did, and he gathered around him nearly all the noble-minded and noble-hearted men of his time to adorn his reign and make Athens the envy of the world; d. 429 B.C.

PERIER, CASIMIR, a French banker and politician, born at Grenoble; took part in the Revolution of 1830, became Minister of the Interior in 1831; suppressed the insurrections at Paris and Lyons; died of cholera (1777-1832).

PERIGEE, the point in the orbit of the moon or a planet nearest the earth.

PERIGORD, an ancient territory of France, S. of Guienne, famous for its truffles, of which PERIGUEUX (q. v.) was the capital; united to the Crown of France by Henry IV. in 1589, it is now part of the department of Dordogne and part of Lot-et-Garonne.

PERIGUEUX (31), chief town of the department of Dordogne, France, on the Isle, 95 m. by rail NE. of Bordeaux, is a narrow irregular town with a cathedral after St. Mark's in Venice, museum of antiquities, and library; iron and woollens are the industries; truffles and truffle pies are exported.

PERIHELION, the point on the orbit of a planet or comet nearest the sun.

PERIM, a small barren, crescent-shaped island at the mouth of the Red Sea, belonging to Britain, and used as a coaling-station.

PERIPATETIC PHILOSOPHY, the name given to the philosophy of Aristotle, from his habit of walking about with his disciples as he philosophised in the shady walks of the Lyceum.

PERNAMBUCO (130), a seaport in N. Brazil, consists of three portions connected by bridges: Recife, on a peninsula, the business quarter; San Antonio, the modern quarter, on an intermediate island; and Bon Vista, on the mainland; manufactures cotton and tobacco, and has shipbuilding yards; the trade chiefly with England, the United States, and France; it is the capital of a province (1,100) of the name, producing sugar and cotton.

PERONELLA, in fairy legend a pretty country lass who exchanges places with an old wizened queen, and receives the homage due to royalty, but gladly takes back her rags and beauty.

PEROWNE, STEWART, Bishop of Worcester, born at Burdwan, of Huguenot extraction, educated at Cambridge; became a Fellow of Corpus Christi; held several academic and ecclesiastical appointments; an eminent Hebrew scholar and exegete; his chief work a commentary on the Psalms; b. 1823.

PERPIGNAN (28), a town on the Tet, 7 m. from the sea; a fortress in the French department of Pyrenees-Orientales; has a cathedral of the 14th century and a bourse in Moorish-Gothic, and manufactures wine and brandy; belonged originally to Aragon; was taken by France in 1475, and retaken, after restoration to Spain, in 1642, since which time it has belonged to France.

PERRAULT, CHARLES, French man of letters, born in Paris; bred to the bar; distinguished as the author of inimitable fairy tales, which have immortalised his name, as "Puss in Boots," "Cinderella," "Bluebeard," &c., as also "Parallel des Anciens et des Modernes," in which his aim was to show—an ill-informed attempt—that the ancients were inferior in everything to the moderns (1628-1703).

PERSECUTIONS OF THE CHURCH, by which are meant those at the hands of Imperial Rome, are usually reckoned 10 in number, viz., those under Nero in 64, Domitian 95, Trajan 107, Hadrian 125, Marcus Aurelius 165, Severus 202, Maximinus 235, Decius 249, Valerianus 257, and Diocletian 303; besides these there were others quite as deadly within the Church itself on the part of orthodox against heterodox, or Catholic against Protestant, and Established against Nonconformist.

PERSEPHONE, in the Greek mythology the daughter of Zeus and Demeter, the Proserpine of the Romans. See PROSERPINE.

PERSEPOLIS, the ancient capital of Persia, represented now by its ruins, which stand 25 m. from the NW. shores of Lake Niris, on the banks of the Murghab River, though in its palmy days it was described as "the Glory of the East."

PERSEUS, in the Greek mythology the son of Zeus and Danae, and the grandson of Acrisius, king of Argos, of whom it was predicted before his birth that he would kill his grandfather, who at his birth enclosed both his mother and him in a chest and cast it into the sea, which bore them to an island where they became slaves of the king, Polydectes, who sought to marry Danae; failing in his suit, and to compel her to submission, he ordered Perseus off to fetch him the head of the Medusa; who, aided by Hermes and Athena, was successful in his mission, cut off the head of the Medusa with the help of a mirror and sickle, brought it away with him in a pouch, and after delivering and marrying Andromeda in his return journey, exposed the head before Polydectes and court at a banquet, which turned them all into stone, whereupon he gave the Gorgon's head to Athena to place on her shield, and set out for Argos; Acrisius hearing of his approach fled, but was afterwards killed accidentally by his grandson, who in throwing a discus had crushed his foot.

PERSIA (7,000), occupies the tableland 5000 ft. high between the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea on the S., the Caspian Sea and Turkestan on the N., Armenia on the W., and Afghanistan and Beluchistan on the E., and is a country three times as large as France; lofty mountain ranges traverse it from NW. to SE. and gird its northern boundary; the highest peak is Mount Demavend, 18,500 ft., in the Elburz, overlooking the Caspian. Most of the rivers evaporate inland; only one is navigable, the Karun, in the SW.; Lake Urumiyah, in the NW., is the largest, a very salt and shallow sheet of water. The eastern half of the country is largely desert, where the sand is swept about in clouds by the winds. With little rain, the climate is intensely hot in summer and cold in winter. Forests clothe the outer slopes of the mountains, and scanty brushwood the inner plains. Wheat and barley are grown on higher levels, and cotton, sugar, and fruits on the lower, all with the help of Irrigation. Agriculture is the chief industry; there are manufactures of carpets, shawls, and porcelain. The internal trade is carried on by caravans; foreign trade is not extensive, and is chiefly in Russian hands; the exports include opium, carpets, pearls, and turquoises. The capital is Teheran (210), a narrow, crooked, filthy town, at the southern foot of the Elburz. Tabriz (180), in the NW., is the emporium of trade. Ispahan (60), Meshed (60), Barfurush (60), and Shiraz (30) are the other important towns. The Government is despotic; the emperor is called the Shah. The people are courteous and refined in manner, witty, and fluent in speech; they are of Aryan stock and Mohammedan faith. The original empire of Persia was established by Cyrus 537 B.C. A century later decay set in. Revival under Parthian and Sassanian dynasties lasted from 138 B.C. till A.D. 639. Persia became then a province of the Arabs. From the 14th century it fell under Mongol sway, and again in the 16th century under Turkish. The present dynasty was founded in 1795. The future of the country is in Russian and British hands.

PERSIAN GULF, a great inland sea lying between Arabia and Persia, and entered from the Indian Ocean through the Gulf of Oman; is 650 m. long and from 50 to 250 m. broad. The Arabian coast is low and sandy, the Persian high. The chief islands are in the W., where also is the Great Pearl Bank. The only river of importance received is the Shat-el-Arab, which brings down the waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris.

PERSIAN WARS, wars conducted by Persia in the three expeditions against Greece, first in 490 B.C. under Darius, and defeated by the Athenians under Miltiades at Marathon; the second, 480 B.C., under Xerxes, opposed by Leonidas and his 300 Spartans at Thermopylae and defeated by the Athenians under Themistocles at Salamis by sea; and the third, in 479 B.C., under Xerxes, by the Greeks under the Spartan Pausanius at Plataea.

PERSIANS, a name given to sculptured draped male figures used as columns.

PERSIANS, THE, belonged to the Aryan race, hence Iran, the original name of their country; they were related rather to the Western than the Eastern world, and it is from them that continuous history takes its start; they first recognised an ethereal essence, which they called Light, as the principle of all good, and man as related to it in such a way that, by the worship of it, he became assimilated to it himself. Among them first the individual subject stood face to face with a universal object, and claimed a kinship with it as the light of life. The epoch thus created was the emancipation of the human being from dependent childhood to self-dependent manhood, and it constituted the first epoch in the self-conscious history, which is the history proper, of the human race. The idea the Persians formed of the principle of good came far short of the reality indeed, but they first saw that it was of purely illuminating quality and universal, and that the destiny of man was to relate himself to it, to know, worship, and obey it. With the ethereal principle of good they associated an equally ethereal principle of evil, and, as they identified the one with light, they identified the other with darkness. Man they regarded as related to both, and his destiny to adore the one and disown the other as master. As the light had no portion in the darkness, and the darkness no portion in the light, the religion arose which pervades that of the Bible, which requires the children of the former to separate from those of the latter.

PERSIFLAGE, a French term for a light, quizzing mockery, or scoffing, specially on serious subjects, out of a cool, callous contempt for them.

PERSIGNY, FIALIN, DUC DE, a French statesman, a supporter all along of Louis Napoleon, abetting him in all his efforts to attain the throne of France, from the affair of Strasburg in 1836 to the coup d'etat of December 1851, and becoming in the end Minister of the Interior under him; had to leave France at his fall (1806-1872).

PERSIUS, the last king of Macedonia; was conquered by Paulus AEmilius, and died captive at Rome 167 B.C.

PERSIUS, Roman satirist, born in Etruria, was a pupil and friend of Cornutus the Stoic; a man much esteemed, who died young, only 28; wrote six short satires in the purity of a white-souled manhood, of much native vigour, though not equal to those of Horace and Juvenal, and that have commanded the regard of all scholars down to the present time; they have often been translated (34-62).

PERTH (30), the county-town of Perthshire, on the Tay, 22 m. W. of Dundee: is a beautifully situated town, with fine buildings, the only old one being the restored St. John's Church. Its industries are dyeing and ink-making. At Scone, 2 m. distant, the kings of Scotland were crowned; and the murder of James I., the Gowrie conspiracy, and the battle of Tippermuir are but a few of its many historical associations. "The Five Articles of Perth," adopted by a General Assembly held there in 1618, did much to precipitate the conflict between the Royal power and the Scottish Church; they enjoined kneeling at the Lord's Supper, observance of Christmas, Good Friday, Easter, and Pentecost, confirmation, and the private administration of the sacraments.

PERTH (8), the capital of West Australia, on the Swan River.

PERTHSHIRE (122), the most beautiful and varied county in Scotland, occupies the whole of the Tay Valley and part of the Forth, and is bounded by nine other counties. The N. and W. are mountainous, with many rivers and lakes, and much of the finest scenery in Scotland; the Trossachs and Loch Katrine are world famed. In the E. is extensive woodland and the Carse of Gowrie, one of the most fertile of Scottish plains. Ben Lawers is the highest mountain, Loch Tay the largest lake. Much of the soil is good only for sheep farms, deer forests, and grouse moors; the county is visited annually by thousands of tourists and sportsmen.

PERTINAX, HELVIUS, Roman emperor in succession to Commodus; rose from the ranks by his military services to the imperial dignity, which he was pressed to accept against his will, and was assassinated by the Praetorian Guards less than three months after, in consequence of the reforms he projected in order to restore the ancient discipline of the army (126-193).

PERTURBATIONS, name given to irregularities or slight deviations in the movement of a heavenly body, due chiefly to the neighbourhood of another point in its orbit.

PERU (3,000), a country in the W. of South America, twice the size of Austro-Hungary, lies between Brazil and Bolivia and the Pacific, with Ecuador on the N. and Chile on the S.; it consists of a seaboard plain, hot and rainless, but intersected by rich river courses, in which sugar, cotton, and coffee are grown; the Andes chains, snow-tipped and presenting every kind of climate and variety of vegetation on their slopes and in their valleys, rich in minerals and yielding chiefly great quantities of silver; and the Montana, the eastward slopes of the Andes, clad with valuable forests where the cinchona is cultivated, and the upland basins of the Ucayale River and the Upper Amazon, very fertile, with great coffee and cacao plantations and abundant rain; the chief articles of export are silver, nitre, guano, sugar, and wool. Lima (200), the capital, is 8 m. inland from its port Callao (35); has an old cathedral, and is the chief centre of commerce; its principal merchants are Germans. The government is republican; the ruling classes are of Spanish descent, but half of the population are Inca Indians and a quarter are half-castes. From the 12th to the 16th centuries the Incas enjoyed a high state of civilisation and an extensive empire administered on socialistic principles; they attained great skill in the industries and arts. The Spanish conqueror Pizarro, landing in 1532, overthrew the empire and established the colony; after three centuries of oppression Peru threw off the Spanish yoke in 1824. The history of the republic has been one of continual restlessness, and a war with Chile 1879-84 ended in complete disaster; recovery is slowly progressing.

PERUGIA (17), Italian walled city on the right bank of the Tiber, 127 m. by rail N. of Rome, with a cathedral of the 15th century, some noteworthy churches, a Gothic municipal palace, picture gallery, university, and library; is rich in art treasures and antiquarian remains; it has silk and woollen industries; it was anciently called Perusia, and one of the cities of ancient Etruria, and in its day has experienced very varied fortunes; it was the centre of the Umbrian school of painting.

PERUGINO, his proper name VANNUCCI, Italian painter, born near Perugia, whence his name; studied with Leonardo da Vinci at Florence, where he chiefly resided; was one of the teachers of Raphael, painted religious subjects, did frescoes for churches that have nearly all perished, a "Christ giving the Keys to Peter" being the best extant; Ruskin contrasts his work with Turner's; "in Turner's distinctive work," he says, "colour is scarcely acknowledged unless under influence of sunshine ... wherever the sun is not, there is melancholy and evil," but "in Perugino's distinctive work"—to whom he therefore gives "the captain's place over all"—"there is simply no darkness, no wrong. Every colour is lovely and every space is light; the world, the universe, is divine; all sadness is a part of harmony, and all gloom a part of light" (1446-1524).

PESCHIERA, one of the fortresses of the QUADRILATERAL (q. v.), on an island in the Mincio, 14 m. W. of Verona.

PESHAWAR or PESHAWUR (84), a town on the Indian frontier, and centre of trade with Afghanistan, is 10 m. from the entrance of the Khyber Pass, on the Kabul River, and though ill-fortified is a bulwark of the empire, being provided with a large garrison of infantry and artillery.

PESHITO (i. e. simple), a version of the Bible in Syriac, executed not later than the middle of the 2nd century for Judaic Christians in the Syrian Church, the version of the Old Testament being executed direct from the Hebrew and that of the New being the first translation of the Greek of it into a foreign tongue, and both of value in questions affecting exegesis and the original text; the New Testament version contains all the books now included except the Apocalypse, Jude, 2 Peter, and 2 and 3 John.

PESSIMISM, a name given now to a habit of feeling, now to a system of opinion; as the former it denotes a tendency to dwell on the dark or gloomy side of things, culminating in a sense of their vanity and nothingness, while in the latter it is applied to all systems of opinion which lay the finger on some black spot in the structure of the life of the world or of the universe, which so long as it remains is thought to render it unworthy of existence.

PESTALOZZI, JOHANN HEINRICH, a celebrated educationist, born at Zurich; founder of a natural system of education, beginning with childhood, and who, however unsuccessful in the working of it himself from his want of administrative faculty, persuaded others by his writings to adopt it, especially in Germany, and to adopt it both enthusiastically and successfully; his method, which he derived from Rousseau, was based on the study of human nature as we find it born in the child, and it aimed at the harmonious development of all its innate capabilities, beginning with the most rudimentary (1745-1827).

PESTH or BUDAPEST (492), on the left bank of the Danube, forming one municipality with Buda on the right, is the capital of Hungary, and 173 m. by rail E. of Vienna; Pesth is built on a plain, joined to Buda by three bridges, the last on the Danube, and is a thriving modern city, with picture galleries, parliament house, library, university, science schools, many baths, and public gardens; it makes machinery, agricultural implements, cutlery, flour, &c., and does a great trade in corn, wool, hides, wines, and bacon.

PETALISM, banishment in Sparta similar to ostracism in Athens, procured by writing the name on an olive leaf.

PETARD, a cone-shaped explosive machine for bursting open gates, barriers, &c., made of iron and filled with powder and ball.

PETASUS, the winged-cap of the god Mercury.

PETCHORA, the largest river in Northern Russia, rises in the Ural Mountains and flows N. through Vologda and Archangel, then westward and N. again, entering the Arctic Ocean by a large, island-studded estuary, after a course of 1000 m. through sombre forests and wild, sombre scenery.

PETER, THE APOSTLE, originally called Simon, was a fisherman on the Sea of Galilee; one of the first called by Christ to become a disciple; the first to recognise, as the foundation-stone of the Church, the divinity in the humanity of His Master, and the first thereafter to recognise and proclaim that divinity as glorified in the cross, to whom in recognising which, especially the former, was committed the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and who accordingly was the first to open the door of it to the Gentile world. He was the principal figure in the history of the early Christian Church, but was soon eclipsed by the overpowering presence and zeal of Paul. Tradition, indeed, has something to tell of him, but from it little of trustworthy can be gathered except that he finished his career by martyrdom in the city of Rome. This Apostle is represented in Christian art as an old man, bald-headed, with a flowing beard, dressed in a white mantle, and holding a scroll in his hand, his attributes being the keys, and a sword in symbol of his martyrdom.

PETER, THE FIRST EPISTLE OF, addressed especially to Jewish Christians in certain churches of Asia Minor, the members of which were suffering persecution at the hands of their adversaries as evil-doers; was written to exhort them to rebut the charge by a life of simple well-doing, and to comfort them under it with the promise of the return of the Lord.

PETER, THE SECOND EPISTLE OF, addressed to all who anywhere bore the Christian name; appears to have been written not long before his death to counteract certain fatal forms of error, at once doctrinal and practical, that had already begun to creep into the Church, and against which we meet with the same warnings in the Epistle of Jude, the doctrinal error being the denial of Christ as Lord, and the practical the denial of Him as the way, the truth, and the life, to the peril of the forfeiture of eternal life.

PETER, THE WILD BOY, a savage creature of 13 years of age, found in 1725 in a forest of Hanover, who was accustomed to walk on all fours, and climb trees like a squirrel, living on wild plants, grass, and moss, and who could not be weaned from these habits, or taught to speak more than a syllable or two; he wore a brass collar with his name on it; at length refused all food, and died in 1786.

PETER MARTYR, 1, a Dominican notorious for his severity as a member of the Inquisition, murdered by a mob at Como in 1252, became the patron saint of the Inquisition. 2, A Protestant reformer, born at Florence, became a monk and abbot at Lucca, from which, on embracing the doctrines of the Reformation, he was forced to flee, first to Switzerland and then to England in the reign of Edward VI., but had to retreat from thence also on the accession of Mary to Strasburg, and at length to Zurich, where he died (1500-1562). 3, A historian, born at Arona, rose to become bishop of Jamaica, wrote on the discovery of America, d. 1525.

PETER THE GREAT, emperor of Russia, son of the Czar Alexei, born at Moscow; succeeded his half-brother Feodor in 1682, but was forced for a time to share the throne with his half-sister Sophia, acting as regent for her brother Ivan; conscious of his imperfect education, he chose a Genoese named Lefort as his preceptor, and after some years' careful training he deposed Sophia, and entered Moscow as sole ruler in 1689; with the help of Lefort and Patrick Gordon, a Scotsman, he proceeded to raise and discipline an army on the European model, and determined also to construct a navy; to reach the sea he made war on the Turks, and possessed himself of the port of Azov, at the mouth of the Don; hither he invited skilled artificers from Austria, Venice, Prussia, and Holland, and a navy was built; from 1697 to 1698 he visited the countries on the Baltic and England, acquiring vast stores of information, working as a shipwright in the Dutch yards, and finally taking back with him an army of mechanics; on his return he vigorously reformed the Russian press, schools, and church, introduced European manners and literature, and encouraged foreign trade; desirous now of an opening on the Baltic, he began in 1700 a long contest with Sweden, marked first by many defeats, notably that of Narva, then the seizure of Ingria, and founding of the new capital St. Petersburg 1703, the victory of Pultowa 1712, seizure of the Baltic provinces and part of Finland 1713, and finally by the Peace of 1721, which ceded the conquered territories to Russia; in 1711 the Turks had recovered Azov; in 1722 war with Persia secured him three Caspian provinces; Peter pursued a vigorous and enlightened policy for the good of Russia, but his disposition was often cruel; his son Alexei was put to death for opposing his reforms, and on his own death he was succeeded by the Empress Catherine I., the daughter of a peasant, who had been his mistress, and whom he had married in 1712 (1672-1725).

PETER THE HERMIT, a monk, born in Amiens, of good family, who is credited with having by his preaching kindled the enthusiasm in Europe which led to the first Crusade; he joined it himself as the leader of an untrained rabble, but made a poor figure at the siege of Antioch, where he was with difficulty prevented from deserting the camp; he afterwards founded a monastery near Liege, where he died (1050-1115).

PETERBOROUGH (25), an English cathedral city, on the Nen, partly in Huntingdonshire and partly in Northamptonshire, on the edge of the Fen country, 76 m. N. of London; has an old town-hall, manufactures of farm implements, trade in malt and coal, and is a great railway centre; the cathedral is one of the finest in Britain, of very varied architecture, was restored and reopened afterwards in 1890.

PETERBOROUGH, CHARLES MORDAUNT, EARL OF, saw some active service as a volunteer in Charles II.'s navy, and on the accession of James II. threw himself into politics as an opponent of the king; William III. showed him great favour; he was of the Queen's Council of Regency when William was in Ireland, but imprudent intriguing brought him a short confinement in the Tower in 1697; the war of the Spanish Succession was the opportunity which brought him fame; appointed to the command of the British and Dutch forces, which fought for Charles of Austria, he reduced Barcelona 1705, and Valencia 1706; retook Barcelona from the French, and but for Charles's hindrance would have entered Madrid; differences with other generals led to his recall in 1707; the rest of his life was spent in retirement; he was the friend of Pope, and held by him in genuine esteem; he died in Lisbon (1658-1735).

PETERHEAD (12), a seaport on the E. coast of Aberdeenshire, 30 m. NE. of Aberdeen; built irregularly of reddish granite; has a free library and museum, and is the seat of a convict prison; the chief industry is herring-fishing; there are two harbours, and a third, a great harbour of refuge, is in course of construction.

PETERHOF (14), a town on the Gulf of Finland, 18 m. W. of St. Petersburg, with a palace of the Czar built in 1711 by Peter the Great.

PETERLOO, a name, suggested by Waterloo, given to an insurrectionary gathering in 1819 of workers in St. Peter's Field, Manchester, to demand Parliamentary reform, and which was dispersed by the military to the sacrifice of 13 lives and the wounding of 600, a proceeding which excited wide-spread indignation, and contributed to promote the cause which it was intended to defeat.

PETER'S, ST., church at Rome, is built, it is alleged, over the tomb of St. Peter, and on the site of the basilica erected by Constantine and Helena in 306. The original structure after falling into decay was begun to be rebuilt in 1450, and finally consecrated by Urban XIII. in 1626. It is the largest and grandest church in Christendom, covers an area of over 26,000 square yards, the interior of it in length being 206 yards, the transept 150 yards, the nave 150, and the dome 465. It contains thirty altars, and is adorned with numerous statues and monuments.

PETER'S PENCE, an annual tribute of a silver penny per household in England to support the chair of St. Peter at Rome, and which continued more or less to be levied from the end of the 8th century till the days of Elizabeth, when it ceased. The payment has been revived since 1848 in Britain, France, and Belgium in compensation to the Pope for loss of his territorial possessions.

PETERWARDEIN (4), a strong Austrian fortress on the right bank of the Danube, near the Servian frontier, 40 m. NW. of Belgrade; stands among unhealthy marshes.

PETION DE VILLENEUVE, JEROME, born at Chartres; figured in the French Revolution as a zealous republican, member of the Tiers Etat, one of the commission to reconduct the royal family from Varennes; was mayor of Paris in the year of the September massacres, 1792; was first President of the Convention, and, though his influence was declining, member of the first Committee of Defence, 1793; his attack on Robespierre proving unsuccessful he committed suicide; his body was afterwards found on the Landes of Bordeaux half devoured by wolves; was surnamed the "Virtuous," as Robespierre the "Incorruptible"; was of the Girondist party; had "unalterable beliefs, not hindmost of them," says Carlyle, "belief in himself" (1783-1793).

PETITE NATURE, a French term applied to pictures containing figures less than life-size, but with the effect of life-size.

PETITION OF RIGHT, a petition presented to Charles I. by the Commons in 1628, and that became law by the king's acceptance of it. It sought for and obtained the abolition of certain grievances which the country unconstitutionally suffered from, such as taxation or levying of money without consent of Parliament, imprisonment without cause shown, billeting of troops, and recourse to martial law in a time of peace. This petition Charles I. would at first fain have evaded, but the Commons would be satisfied with nothing less than its acceptance entire.

PETOeFI, SANDOR, celebrated Magyar poet and patriot, born in the county of Pesth, of poor parents; first announced himself as a poet in 1844; wrote a number of war-songs; fought in the cause of the revolution of 1848, and fell in the battle of Schaessburg; his poetry inaugurated a new era in the literature of his country (1823-1849).

PETRA, a ruined city, and once the rock capital of Edom, and afterwards of Arabia Petraea; was a place of some importance at one time as a commercial centre; the name Petra signifies rock.

PETRARCH, FRANCESCO, the famous Italian lyric poet, born at Arezzo, in Tuscany, whither his father had gone when exiled with Dante from Florence; spent his youth in Avignon; intended for the profession of law, devoted his time to the study of Cicero and Virgil; met Laura in the church of St. Clare there in 1327, a lady of surpassing beauty; conceived a passion for her which she could not return, and wrote sonnets in praise of her, which immortalised both himself and her; after travel in France and Germany he retired in 1337 to the valley of Vaucluse, where he composed the most of his poems, and his reputation reached its height in 1341, when he was crowned laureate in the Capitol of Rome; he was in Italy when tidings reached him of the death of Laura in 1348, on the anniversary of the day when he first met her, upon which he gave expression to his feelings over the event in a touching note of it in his Virgil; we find him again at Rome in 1350, and after moving from place to place settled in Arqua in 1370, where he died; his Latin works are numerous, and include an epic on the Second Punic war, Eclogues, Epistles in verse, and Letters of value giving the details of his life; his fame rests on his lyrics; by those alone he still lives, and that more from the finished art in which they are written than from any glow of feeling they kindle in the reader's heart (1304-1374).

PETRI, LAURENTIUS, a Swedish Reformer; was a disciple of Luther; became professor of Theology and first Protestant archbishop of Upsala, and superintended the translation of the Bible into Swedish (1499-1573).

PETRIE, FLINDERS, Egyptologist, son of an Australian explorer; after explorations at Stonehenge, surveyed the pyramids and temples of Ghizeh in 1881-82; excavated for the Egyptian Exploration Fund Nankratis, Am, and Defenneh; has achieved many other important works of the kind, and issued a popular work, "Ten Years' Diggings in Egypt"; b. 1853.

PETRIE, GEORGE, Irish archaeologist, born in Dublin, of Scottish parentage; bred to art; executed Irish landscapes, but is best known for his "Essay on the Round Towers of Ireland," a work of no small interest (1790-1866).

PETROLEUM, is the common name of a series of rock oils found in large quantities in the United States and Canada, near Rangoon, and in the neighbourhood of the Caspian Sea. The oil issues from the rocks, or is drawn from subterranean reservoirs, where its presence is supposed to result from natural distillation of vegetable and animal substances, and after refining, put in the market as benzoline, paraffin, and lubricating oil. It is extensively used in the industries, and has been applied as fuel to steamships.

PETROLEUSE, was a name given to certain Parisian women of the Commune of 1871, who poured petroleum on the Hotel de Ville and other buildings to burn them.

PETRONIUS, a Roman satirist and accomplished voluptuary at the court of Nero, and the director-in-chief of the imperial pleasures; accused of treason, and dreading death at the hands of the emperor his master, he opened his veins, and by bandaging them bled slowly to death, showing the while the same frivolity as throughout his life; he left behind him a work, extant now only in fragments, but enough to expose the abyss of profligacy in which the Roman world was then sunk at that crisis of its fate; d. 63.

PETTIE, JOHN, painter, born at Edinburgh; his works, chiefly historical, were numerous, and of a high character (1839-1893).

PETTY, SIR WILLIAM, political economist, born in Hampshire; was a man of versatile genius, varied attainments, and untiring energy; was skilled in medicine, in music, in mechanics, and in engineering, as well as economics, to which especially he contributed by his pen (1623-1687).

PETTY JURY, a jury of 12 elected to try a criminal case after a true bill against the accused has been found by a Grand Jury.

PETTY OFFICERS, officers in the navy, consisting of four grades, and corresponding in function and responsibility to non-commissioned officers in the army.

PETTY SESSIONS, name given to sessions of justices of the peace to try small cases without a jury.

PEUTINGER, CONRAD, an Augsburg antiquary, left at his death a 13th-century copy of a 3rd-century map of the Roman military roads, now in the Imperial Library at Vienna, known as the "Tabula Peutingeriana" (1465-1547).

PFAeFERS, hot springs near a village of the same name in the Swiss canton of St. Gall; have been in use for 800 years.

PFAHLBAUTEN, lake dwellings of prehistoric date in Switzerland.

PFALZ, the German name for the Palatinate.

PFEIFFER, IDA, a celebrated traveller, born in Vienna; being separated from her husband, and having completed the education of her two sons and settled them in life, commenced her career of travel in 1842, in which year she visited Palestine, in 1845 visited Scandinavia, in 1846 essayed a voyage round the world by Cape Horn, in 1851 a second by the Cape of Good Hope, and in 1856 an expedition to Madagascar, returning at the end of each to Vienna and publishing accounts of them (1797-1858).

PFFLEIDERER, OTTO, a philosophical theologian, born in Wuertemberg, professor at Jena, and afterwards at Berlin; has written on religion, the philosophy of it and sundry developments of it, in an able manner, as well as lectured on it in Edinburgh in connection with the Gifford trust, on which occasion he was bold enough to overstep the limits respected by previous lecturers between natural and revealed religion, to the inclusion of the latter within his range; b. 1830.

PFORZHEIM (29), manufacturing town in Baden, in the N. of the Black Forest; manufactures gold and silver ornaments, and has chemical and other factories.

PHAEDRUS, a Latin fabulist, of the age of Augustus, born in Macedonia, and settled in Rome; originally a slave, was manumitted by Augustus; his fables, 97 in number, were written in verse, and are mostly translations from AEsop, the best of them such as keep closely to the original.

PHAETHON (i. e. the shining one, and so called from his father), the son of HELIOS (q. v.); persuaded his father to allow him for one day to drive the chariot of the sun across the heavens, but was too weak to check the horses, so that they rushed off their wonted track and nearly set the world on fire, whereupon Zeus transfixed him with a thunderbolt, metamorphosed his sisters who had yoked the horses for him into poplars and their tears into amber.

PHALANSTERY, a body of people living together on the Communistic principle of Fourier; also the building they occupy.

PHALANX, among the Greeks a body of heavy infantry armed with long spears and short swords, standing in line close behind one another, generally 8 men deep, the Macedonian being as much as 16; its movements were too heavy, and it was dashed in pieces before the legions of Rome to its extinction; it was superseded by the Roman legion.

PHALARIS, a tyrant of Agrigentum, in Sicily, in the 6th century, who is said, among other cruelties, to have roasted the victims of his tyranny in a brazen bull which bears his name; the "Letters of Phalaris," at one time ascribed to him, have been proved to be spurious.

PHALLUS, a symbol of the generative power of nature, being a representation of the male organ of generation, and associated with rites and ceremonies of nature-worship in the early stages of civilised life, and the worship of which was supposed to have a magic influence in inducing fertility among the flocks and herds, as well as in the soil of the earth.

PHARAMOND, a Knight of the Round Table, and the reputed first king of the Franks.

PHARAOH, a name, now proper, now common, given in the Old Testament to the kings of Egypt, identified with that of the sun-god Phra, and applied to the king as his representative on earth; some 10 of the name occur in the Bible, and it is matter of difficulty often to distinguish one from another.

PHARISEES (i. e. Separatists), a sect of the Jews who adopted or received this name because of the attitude of isolation from the rest of the nation which they were compelled to assume at the time of their origin. This was some time between the years 165 and 105 B.C., on their discovery that the later Maccabaean chiefs were aiming at more than religious liberty, and in their own interests contemplating the erection of a worldly kingdom that would be the death of the theocratic, which it was the purpose of Providence they should establish; this was the separate ground which they at first assumed alone, but they in the end carried the great body of the nation along with them. They were scrupulously exact in their interpretation and observance of the Jewish law as the rule to regulate the life of the Jewish community in every department, and were the representatives of that legal tendency which gave character to the development of Judaism proper during the period which elapsed between the date of the Captivity and the advent of Christianity. The law they observed, however, was not the written law as it stood, but that law as expounded by the oral law of the Scribes, as the sole key to its interpretation, so that their attitude to the Law of Moses was pretty much the same as that of the Roman Catholics and the High Churchmen in relation to the Scriptures generally, and they were thus at length the representatives of clericalism as well as legalism in the Jewish Church, and in doing so they took their ground upon a principle which is the distinctive article of orthodox Judaism in the matter to the present day. In the days of Christ they stood in marked opposition to the SADDUCEES (q. v.) both in their dogmatic views and their political principles. As against them, on the dogmatic side, they believed in a spiritual world and in an established moral order, and on the political their rule was to abstain from politics, except in so far as they might injuriously affect the life and interests of the nation; but at that time they had degenerated into mere formalists, whose religion was a conspicuous hypocrisy, and it was on this account and their pretensions to superior sanctity that they incurred the indignation and exposed themselves to the condemnation of Christ.

PHAROS, an island of ancient Egypt, near Alexandria, on which the first lighthouse was erected by Ptolemy Philadelphus in 48 B.C.

PHARSALIA, a district in the N. of Greece, the southern portion of the modern province of Larissa; was the scene of Caesar's victory over Pompey, 48 B.C.

PHELPS, ELIZABETH STUART, American authoress, born at Andover; wrote "Gates Ajar" and other popular stories, is a great advocate, by lecturing and otherwise, for social reform and the emancipation of women; b. 1844.

PHELPS, SAMUEL, an English actor, born in Devonport; made his debut as Shylock in London at the Haymarket in 1837, achieved his greatest successes in Sadler's Wells by his representation of Shakespeare's plays and the works of eminent dramatists of the 18th century; was distinguished in comedy as well as tragedy, in which last he primarily appeared and established his fame (1804-1878).

PHERECYDES, an ancient Greek philosopher, born in Syros in 6th century B.C.; distinguished as having had Pythagoras among his pupils, and believed to have been the author of many of the doctrines promulgated by his disciple and named Pythagorean.

PHIDIAS, the greatest sculptor and statuary of ancient Greece, born at Athens; flourished in the time of Pericles, and was appointed by him to direct the works of art projected to the beautifying of the city, and expressly commissioned to execute certain of these works himself; the chief work that he superintended was the erection of the Parthenon, much of which he himself adorned; and of the statues he executed the most famous were one of Athena of ivory and gold for the Parthenon, and a colossal one of Zeus, his masterpiece, also of ivory and gold, for Olympia; accused of having appropriated some of the gold intended for the statue of Athena he was acquitted, but was afterwards charged with impiety for carving his own likeness and that of Pericles on the shield of the goddess, and was thrown into prison, where he died, 432 B.C.

PHILADELPHIA (1,293), largest city in Pennsylvania, on the Delaware, 100 m. from the sea and 90 m. by rail SW. of New York; is the third city in the Union in population, manufactures, and commerce, regularly built with plain substantial dwelling-houses; recently more splendid public buildings have been erected, the town-hall, of white marble, is the second highest structure in the world; a masonic temple and Government offices of granite and the Mint are also fine buildings; there is a university and colleges of science, medicine, art, and music, many churches, a Roman Catholic cathedral, and many hospitals and charitable institutions; the industries include locomotive building, saw-making, woollen and cotton goods, sugar and oil refining, and chemical works; it trades largely in coal. Founded by William Penn in 1682, it was the central point of the War of Independence; the first Congress met here, and the Declaration of Independence was signed (1776) in a building still standing; here too the Federal Union was signed (1778) and the constitution drawn up (1787), and from 1790 to 1800 it was the capital of the United States.

PHILADOR, FRANCOIS ANDRE, a celebrated composer and chess-player, born at Dreux; wrote a number of operas; in regard to chess his great maxim was "Pawns are the soul of chess"; fled at the time of the Revolution to London, where he died (1726-1795).

PHILAE, an island of syenite stone in the Nile, near Assouan, in Nubia, 1200 ft. long and 50 ft. broad; is almost covered with ancient buildings of great beauty, among which is a temple of Isis, with a great gateway dating from 361 B.C., which was converted into a church in 577.

PHILATORY, a transparent reliquary to contain and exhibit the bones and relics of saints.

PHILEMON, EPISTLE TO, a short letter by Paul to a member of the Church at Colossae on behalf of a slave, Onesimus, who had deserted his service, gone off with some of his property, and taken refuge in Rome, but had been converted to Christ, and whom he begs not to manumit, but simply to receive back as a brother for his sake.

PHILEMON AND BAUCIS, in the Greek mythology a pair of poor people who, in fond attachment to each other, lived in a small cottage in Phrygia by themselves and gave hospitality to gods in disguise when every other door was shut against them, and to whom, in the judgment that descended upon their inhospitable neighbours, the gods were propitious, and did honour by appointing them to priesthood, when they would rather have been servants, in a temple metamorphosed out of their cottage. Here they continued to minister to old age, and had but one prayer for themselves, that they might in the end die together; when as they sat at the door of the temple one day, bent with years, they were changed, he into an oak and she into a linden. This is Ovid's version of the story, to which he adds as the moral of it, "Those who piously honour the gods are themselves held in honour."

PHILIP, an Indian chief whose father had been a staunch friend of the Pilgrim settlers, was himself friendly to the colonists, till in 1671 their encroachments provoked him to retaliation; after six years' fighting, in which many colonists perished and great massacres of Indians took place, he was defeated and slain, 1676.

PHILIP OF MACEDON, the father of Alexander the Great, usurped the kingdom from the infant king Amyntas, his nephew and ward, in 360 B.C.; having secured his throne, he entered on a series of aggressive wars, making expeditions into Thrace and Thessaly; the siege of Olynthus brought him into conflict with Athens, the two cities being allies, and occasioned some of the most brilliant orations of Demosthenes; the successive appeals for his aid against their enemies by the Thebans and the Argives led him into Greece and into the Peloponnesus; in 339 B.C. a council of Greek cities appointed him commander-in-chief of their leagued forces in a projected war against the Locrians, but the Athenians and Thebans opposed his coming; the defeat of their armies at Chaeronea, 338 B.C., placed all Greece at his feet; his next project was an expedition against Persia, but while preparations were on foot he was assassinated at AEgae; a man of unbridled lust, he was an astute and unscrupulous politician, but of incomparable eloquence, energy, and military skill (382-336 B.C.).

PHILIP II., Philip-Augustus, king of France, shared the throne with his father, Louis VII., from 1179, and succeeded him as sole ruler in 1180; marrying Isabella of Hainault, he united the Capet and Carlovingian houses; his grand aim was to secure to himself some of the English possessions in France; his alliance with Richard of England in the third crusade ended in a quarrel; returning to France he broke his oath to Richard by bargaining with John for portions of the coveted territory; an exhausting war lasted till 1119; on Richard's death Philip supported Arthur against John in his claim to Anjou, Maine, and Touraine; after Arthur's murder, the capture of Chateau Gaillard in 1204 gave him possession of these three provinces with Normandy and part of Poitou; the victory of Bouvines 1214 secured his throne, and the rest of his reign was spent in internal reforms and the beautifying of Paris (1165-1223).

PHILIP IV., the Fair, king of France, succeeded his father Philip III. in 1285; by his marriage with Joanna of Navarre added Navarre, Champagne, and Brie to his realm; but the sturdy valour of the Flemish burghers at Courtrai on the "Day of Spurs" prevented the annexation of Flanders; his fame rests on his struggle and victory over the papal power; a tax on the clergy was condemned by Boniface VIII. in 1296; supported by his nobles and burghers Philip burnt the papal bull, imprisoned the legate, and his ambassador in Rome imprisoned the Pope himself; Boniface died soon after, and in 1305 Philip made Clement V. Pope; kept him at Avignon, and so commenced the seventy years' "captivity"; he forced Clement to decree the suppression of the Templars, and became his willing instrument in executing the decree; he died at Fontainebleau, having proved himself an avaricious and pitiless despot (1268-1314).

PHILIP VI., of Valois, king of France, succeeded Charles IV. in 1328; Edward III. of England contested his claim, contending that the Salic law, though it excluded females, did not exclude their male heirs; Edward was son of a daughter, Philip son of a brother, of Philip IV.; thus began the Hundred Years' War between France and England, 1337; the French fleet was defeated off Sluys in 1340, and the army at Crecy in 1346; a truce was made, when the war was followed by the Black Death; the worthless king afterwards purchased Majorca (1293-1350).

PHILIP II., king of Spain, only son of the Emperor Charles V.; married Mary Tudor in 1554, and spent over a year in England; in 1555 he succeeded his father in the sovereignty of Spain, Sicily, Milan, the Netherlands, Franche-Comte, Mexico, and Peru; a league between Henry II. of France and the Pope was overthrown, and on the death of Mary he married the French princess Isabella, and retired to live in Spain, 1559. Wedding himself now to the cause of the Church, he encouraged the Inquisition in Spain, and introduced it to the Netherlands; the latter revolted, and the Seven United Provinces achieved their independence after a long struggle in 1579; his great effort to overthrow Protestant England ended in the disaster of the Armada, 1588; his last years were embittered by the failure of his intrigues against Navarre, raids of English seamen on his American provinces, and by loathsome disease; he was a bigot in religion, a hard, unloved, and unloving man, and a foolish king; he fatally injured Spain by crushing her chivalrous spirit, by persecuting the industrious Moors, and by destroying her commerce by heavy taxation (1527-1598).

PHILIP V., grandson of Louis XIV., first Bourbon king of Spain; inherited his throne by the testament of his uncle Charles II. in 1700; the rival claim of the Archduke Charles of Austria was supported by England, Austria, Holland, Prussia, Denmark, and Hanover; but the long War of the Spanish Succession terminated in the peace of Utrecht, and left Philip his kingdom; after an unsuccessful movement to recover Sicily and Sardinia for Spain he joined England and France against the Emperor, and gained the former island for his son Charles III.; he died an imbecile at Madrid (1683-1746).

PHILIP THE BOLD, Duke of Burgundy, was the fourth son of John the Good, king of France; taken captive at Poitiers 1356; on his return to France he received for his bravery the duchies of Touraine and Burgundy; on his brother's accession to the French throne as Charles V. he exchanged the former duchy for the hand of Margaret of Flanders, on the death of whose father he assumed the government of his territories; his wise administration encouraged arts, industries, and commerce, and won the respect and esteem of his subjects; he was afterwards Regent of France when Charles V. became imbecile (1342-1404).

PHILIP THE GOOD, grandson of the above, raised the duchy to its zenith of prosperity, influence, and fame; he was alternately in alliance with England, and at peace with his superior, France; ultimately assisting in driving England out of most of her Continental possessions (1396-1467).

PHILIPHAUGH, a battlefield on the Yarrow, 3 m. W. of Selkirk, was the scene of Leslie's victory over Montrose in 1645.

PHILIPPI, a Macedonian city, was the scene of a victory gained in 42 B.C. by Octavianus and Antony over Brutus and Cassius, and the seat of a church, the first founded by St. Paul in Europe.

PHILIPPIANS, EPISTLE TO THE, an Epistle of Paul written at Rome during his imprisonment there to a church at Philippi, in Macedonia, that had been planted by himself, and the members of which were among the first-fruits of his ministry in Europe. The occasion of writing it was the receipt of a gift from them, and to express the joy it gave him as a token of their affection. It is the least dogmatic of all his Epistles, and affords an example of the Apostle's statement of Christian truth to unbiased minds; one exhortation, however, shows he is not blind to the rise of an evil which has been the bane of the Church of Christ since the beginning, the spirit of rivalry, and this is evident from the prominence he gives in chapter ii. 5-8 to the self-sacrificing lowliness of Christ, and by the counsel he gives them in chapter iv. 8.

PHILIPPIC, the name originally applied to Demosthenes' three great orations against Philip of Macedon, then to Cicero's speeches against Mark Antony; now denotes any violent invective written or spoken.

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS (8,500), a large and numerous group in the north of the Malay archipelago, between the China Sea and the Pacific, of which the largest, Luzon, and the next Mindanao, are both much greater than Ireland; are mountainous and volcanic, subject to eruptions and continuous earthquakes. In the N. of the group cyclones too are common. The climate is moist and warm, but fairly healthy; the soil is very fertile. Rice, maize, sugar, cotton, coffee, and tobacco are cultivated; the forests yield dye-woods, hard timber, and medicinal herbs, and the mines coal and iron, copper, gold, and lead. The chief exports are sugar, hemp, and tobacco. The aboriginal Negritoes are now few; half-castes are numerous; the population is chiefly Malayan, Roman Catholic at least nominally in religion, and speaking the Tagal or the Visayan language. Discovered by Magellan in 1521, who was killed on the island of Mactan; they were annexed by Spain in 1569, and held till 1898, when they fell to the Americans. The capital is Manilla (270), on the W. coast of Luzon; Laoag (37), San Miguel (35), and Banang (33) among the largest towns.

PHILIPS, AMBROSE, minor poet, born in Leicester, of good family; friend of Addison and Steele, and a Whig in politics; held several lucrative posts, chiefly in Ireland; wrote pastorals in vigorous and elegant verse, and also some short sentimental verses for children, which earned for him from Henry Carey the nickname of "Namby-Pamby" (1678-1749).

PHILIPS, JOHN, litterateur, born in Oxfordshire, author of "The Splendid Shilling," an admirable burlesque in imitation of Milton, and a poem, "Cider," an imitation of Virgil (1676-1708).

PHILIPS, KATHERINE, poetess, born in London; was the daughter of a London merchant and the wife of a Welsh squire, a highly sentimental but worthy woman; the Society of Friendship, in which the members bore fancy names—hers, which also served her for a nom de plume, was Orinda—had some fame in its day, and brought her, as the foundress, the honour of a dedication from Jeremy Taylor; her work was admired by Cowley and Keats; she was a staunch royalist (1631-1664).

PHILISTINE, the name given by the students in Germany to a non-university man of the middle-class, or a man without (university) culture, or of narrow views of things.

PHILISTINES, a people, for long of uncertain origin, but now generally believed to have been originally emigrants from Crete, who settled in the plain, some 40 m. long by 15 broad, extending along the coast of Palestine from Joppa on the N. to the desert on the S., and whose chief cities were Ashdod, Askelon, Ekron, Gaza, and Gath; they were a trading and agricultural people, were again and again a thorn in the side of the Israelites, but gradually tamed into submission, so as to be virtually extinct in the days of Christ; their chief god was DAGON (q. v.).

PHILLIP, JOHN, painter, born in Aberdeen; his early pictures illustrate Scottish subjects, his latest and best illustrate life in Spain, whither he had gone in 1851 for his health (1817-1867).

PHILLIPS, WENDELL, slavery abolitionist and emancipationist generally, born at Boston, U.S., and bred to the bar; was Garrison's aide-de-camp in the cause, and chief after his death (1811-1884).

PHILO JUDAEUS (i. e. Philo the Jew), philosopher of the 1st century, born in Alexandria; studied the Greek philosophy, and found in it, particularly the teaching of Plato, the rationalist explanation of the religion of Moses, which he regarded as the revelation to which philosophy was but the key; he was a man of great learning and great influence among his people, and was in his old age one of an embassy sent by the Jews of Alexandria in A.D. 40 to Rome to protest against the imperial edict requiring the payment of divine honours to the emperor; he identified the Logos of the Platonists with the Word in the New Testament.

PHILOCRETES, a famous archer, who had been the friend and armour-bearer of Hercules who instructed him in the use of the bow, and also bequeathed his bow with the poisoned arrows to him after his death; he accompanied the Greeks to the siege of Troy, but one of the arrows fell on his foot, causing a wound the stench of which was intolerable, so that he was left behind at Lemnos, where he remained in misery 10 years, till an oracle declared that Troy could not be taken without the arrows of Hercules; he was accordingly sent for, and being healed of his wound by AEsculapius, assisted at the capture of the city.

PHILOMELA, daughter of Pandion, king of Athens, and sister of Progne; she was the victim of an outrage committed by her brother-in-law Tereus, who cut out her tongue to prevent her exposing him, and kept her in close confinement; here she found means of communicating with her sister, when the two, to avenge the wrong, made away with Itys, Tereus' son, and served him up to his father at a banquet; the fury of Tereus on the discovery knew no bounds, but they escaped his vengeance, Philomela by being changed into a nightingale and Progne into a swallow.

PHILOPOEMON, the head of the Achaecan League, born at Megalopolis, and the last of the Greek heroes; fought hard to achieve the independence of Greece, but having to struggle against heavy odds, was overpowered; rose from a sick-bed to suppress a revolt, was taken prisoner, thrown into a dungeon, and forced to drink poison (252-183 B.C.).

PHILOSOPHE, name for a philosopher of the school of 18th century Enlightenment, represented by the ENCYCLOPEDISTS (q. v.) of France; the class have been characterised by the delight they took in outraging the religious sentiment. See AUFKLAeRUNG and ILLUMINATION, THE.

PHILOSOPHER'S STONE was, with the Elixir of Life, the object of the search of the mediaeval alchemists. Their theory regarded gold as the most perfect metal, all others being removed from it by various stages of imperfection, and they sought an amalgam of pure sulphur and pure mercury, which, being more perfect still than gold, would transmute the baser metals into the nobler.

PHILOSOPHISM, FRENCH, a philosophy such as the philosophers of France gave instances of, founded on the notion and cultivated in the belief that scientific knowledge is the sovereign remedy for the ills of life, summed up in two articles—first, that "a lie cannot be believed"; and second, that "in spiritual supersensual matters no belief is possible," her boast being that "she had destroyed religion by extinguishing the abomination" (l'Infame).

PHILOSOPHY, the science of sciences or of things in general, properly an attempt to find the absolute in the contingent, the immutable in the mutable, the universal in the particular, the eternal in the temporal, the real in the phenomenal, the ideal in the real, or in other words, to discover "the single principle that," as Dr. Stirling says, "possesses within itself the capability of transition into all existent variety and varieties," which it presupposes can be done not by induction from the transient, but by deduction from the permanent as that spiritually reveals itself in the creating mind, so that a Philosopher is a man who has, as Carlyle says, quoting Goethe, "stationed himself in the middle (between the outer and the inner, the upper and the lower), to whom the Highest has descended and the Lowest mounted up, who is the equal and kindly brother of all." "Philosophy dwells aloft in the Temple of Science, the divinity of the inmost shrine; her dictates descend among men, but she herself descends not; whoso would behold her must climb with long and laborious effort; may still linger in the forecourt till manifold trial have proved him worthy of admission into the interior solemnities." Indeed philosophy is more than SCIENCE (q. v.); it is a divine wisdom instilled into and inspiring a thinker's life. See THINKER, THE.

PHILOXENUS, a Greek poet who lived at the court of Dionysius the Elder, tyrant of Syracuse; condemned to prison for refusing to praise some verses of the tyrant, he was led forth to criticise others, but returned them as worse, begging the officers who handed them to lead him back, which when the tyrant was told, he laughed and released him.

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