MILLBANK PRISON, Westminster, constructed 1812-21 on the plans of Howard and Bentham, so that each of its 1100 cells were visible from the governor's room, was used for solitary confinement preparatory to penal servitude, and as a convict prison until 1886, and demolished 1890.
MILLER, HUGH, journalist and geologist, self-taught, born in Cromarty, of sailor ancestry; began life as a stone-mason; editor of the Witness newspaper from 1839 till his death; wrote the "Old Red Sandstone," "Footprints of the Creator," and the "Testimony of the Rocks," books which awakened an interest in geological subjects, besides being the author of an account of his life, "My Schools and Schoolmasters"; died by his own hand at Portobello; he was a writer of considerable literary ability, and "nothing," says Prof. Saintsbury, "can be more hopelessly unliterary than to undervalue Hugh Miller" (1802-1856).
MILLER, WILLIAM, line-engraver, lived at Millerfield, Edinburgh; famed for his engravings of Turner; was a member of the Society of Friends, and stood high in his art as an engraver (1797-1882).
MILLET, JEAN FRANCOIS, French painter of French peasant life, born near Greville, of a peasant family; sent to Paris, studied under Paul Delaroche, withdrew into rustic life, and took up his abode at the village of Barbizon, near the Forest of Fontainebleau, where he spent as a peasant the rest of his life, honoured though poor by all his neighbours, and produced inimitable pictures of French country life, completing his famous "Sower," and treating such subjects as the "Gleaners," the "Sheep-Shearers," "Shepherdess and Flock," &c., with an evident appreciation on his part of the life they depicted so faithfully (1814-1875).
MILMAN, HENRY HART, dean of St. Paul's, ecclesiastical historian, born in London; edited Gibbon's "Decline and Fall," wrote "History of the Jews," "History of Christianity to the Abolition of Paganism under the Empire," and "History of Latin Christianity," all learned works, particularly the last in 9 vols., described by Dean Stanley as "a complete epic and philosophy of mediaeval Christianity"; was professor of Poetry at Oxford (1791-1865).
MILNE-EDWARDS, HENRI, eminent naturalist, born at Bruges, of English parentage; wrote extensively and learnedly on natural history subjects, dissented from Darwin, and held to the theory of different centres of creation, and to this he stoutly adhered to the last (1800-1885).
MILNER, VISCOUNT, High Commissioner of South Africa since 1897, and Governor of the Transvaal and Orange River Colonies since 1901; a student of Balliol (graduating with a first class in classics), and a Fellow of New College, Oxford; called to the bar in 1881; Private Secretary to Mr. Goschen (1887-1889); Under-Secretary for Finance in Egypt (1889-1892); Chairman of the Inland Revenue Board, from 1892 to 1897, when he succeeded Lord Rosmead at the Cape; represented the Mother Country with great ability before and during the Boer War; visited England and raised to the peerage in 1901; declined the Colonial Secretaryship in 1903; resigned in 1905; b. 1854.
MILNER, JOSEPH, Church historian; master of the Grammar School, Hull; his "History of the Church" reaches down to the 16th century (1744-1797).
MILO, a celebrated athlete, born at Crotona, of extraordinary strength, said to have one day carried a live bullock 120 paces along the Olympic course, killed it with his fist, and eaten it up entire at one repast; in old age he attempted to split a tree, but it closed upon his arm, and the wolves devoured him.
MILTIADES, an Athenian general, famous for his decisive defeat of the Persians at Marathon, 490 B.C.; failing in a naval attack on Paros, and fined to indemnify the cost of the expedition, but unable to pay, was cast into prison, where he died of his wounds inflicted in the attempt.
MILTON, JOHN, poet, born in London, son of a scrivener; graduated at Cambridge, and settled to study and write poetry in his father's house at Horton, 1632; in 1638 he visited Italy, being already known at home as the author of the "Hymn on the Nativity," "Allegro," "Penseroso," "Comus," a mask, and "Lycidas," an elegy on his friend King, who was drowned in the Irish Sea in 1637, besides much excellent Latin verse; the outbreak of the Civil War recalled him, and silenced his muse for many years; settling in London he took pupils, married in 1643 Mary Powell, and became active as a writer of pamphlets on public questions; his first topic was Church Government, then his wife's desertion of him for two years called forth his tracts on Divorce, a threatened prosecution for which elicited in turn the "Areopagitica, a Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing"; his father died in 1647, his wife in 1652; under the Common wealth he was "Secretary of Foreign Tongues," and successfully defended the execution of Charles I. in his Latin "Defence of the English People," and other bitter controversial works; he married in 1656 his second wife, who died two years later; the Restoration gave him back to leisure and poetry; his greatest work, "Paradise Lost," was composed rapidly, dictated to his daughters, and completed in 1663, but not published till 1667; 1671 saw "Paradise Regained" and "Samson Agonistes"; he had been blind since 1652; he married Elizabeth Minshull in 1663, who comforted him in his closing years; a man of fervent, impulsive temperament, and a lover of music, he was sincere in controversy, magnanimous in character, and of deep religious faith; the richness, melody, and simplicity of his poetry, the sublimity of his great theme, and the adequacy of its treatment, place him among the greatest poets of the world; in later years he leaned to Arianism, and broke away from the restraints of outward religious practice; his last prose work, a Latin treatise on "Christian Doctrines," was lost at the time of his death, and only recovered 150 years later (1608-1674).
MILWAUeKEE (285), chief city of Wisconsin, U.S., on W. shore of Lake Michigan, 80 miles N. by W. of Chicago. Exports grain, iron ore, &c.; manufactures flour, machinery, and pig-iron.
MIMES, dramatic performances among the Greeks and Romans, in comic representation of scenes in ordinary life, often in extempore dialogue.
MIMIR, in the Norse mythology the god of wisdom, guardian of the sacred well which nourished the roots of the TREE IGGDRASIL (q. v.), and a draught of whose waters imparted divine wisdom.
MINARETS, a salient feature of Mohammedan architecture, are tall slim towers, in several storeys with balconies, from which the muezzin calls the people to prayer, and terminated by a spire or finial.
MINERVA, the Roman virgin goddess of wisdom and the arts, identified with the GREEK ATHENA (q. v.); born full-armed from the brain of Jupiter, and representing his thinking, calculating, inventive power, and third in rank to him.
MINERVA PRESS, a printing establishment in Leadenhall Street, London, which about a century ago issued a set of trashy, extremely sentimental novels with complicated plots, in which hero and heroine were involved before they could get married.
MINGHETTI, MARCO, Italian patriot and statesman, born at Bologna; a man of liberal views; a friend and associate of Cavour; held office under him as Minister of the Interior in 1862; was ambassador to the Court of St. James's in 1868, and Prime Minister at Rome from 1873 to 1876 (1818-1886)
MINIMS, an order of monks founded by St. Francis of Paula in 1453, a name which signifies "the least" to express super-humility.
MINNEAPOLIS (203), city of U.S., Minnesota, on both sides of the Mississippi, the greatest centre of the wheat and flour trade in U.S.
MINNESINGERS (i. e. love-singers), a name given to the lyric poets of Germany during the latter part of the 12th and the first half of the 13th centuries.
MINNESOTA (1,302), one of the United States of America; lies between the Dakotas on the W. and Wisconsin on the E., Canada on the N., and Iowa on the S., round the upper waters of the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence, and the Red River of the North; the State is largely prairie, with hundreds of lakes, the largest Red Lake, and is chiefly a wheat-producing area; there are pine forests in the N., iron mines, slate and granite quarries; the climate is dry, equable, and bracing; education is good; the State university is at Minneapolis; the capital is ST. PAUL (133), where the Mississippi is still navigable, a fine city, founded in 1840, the centre of the grocery and dry-goods trade; the largest city is Minneapolis (203), which has great lumber and flour mills; Duluth (33) has a magnificent harbour and good shipping trade.
MINORCA (34), the second of the Balearic Isles, hilly, with stalactite caves and rocky coast; is less fertile than Majorca, from which it is 25 m. distant NE.; it produces oil, wine, and fruits, and makes boots and shoes, but under Spanish misrule is not prosperous; the capital Mahon (17), in the SE., is strongly fortified, and has a good harbour.
MINOS, an ancient king of Crete, celebrated for his administration of justice; was fabled to have been appointed, along with AEacus and Rhadamanthus, one of the judges of the dead on their descent into the nether world.
MINOTAUR, in the Greek mythology a monster, half-man half-bull with a bull's head, confined in the Labyrinth of Crete, fed by the annual tribute of seven youths and seven maidens of Athenian birth, till he was slain by Theseus with the help of ARIADNE (q. v.).
MINSTRELS, a body of men who during the Middle Ages wandered from place to place, especially from court to court, singing their own compositions to the harp for accompaniment.
MINTO, EARL OF, Governor-General of India; was bred to the bar, served in Parliament and as ambassador, went out to India in 1806, consolidated the British power, captured Java, and opened diplomatic relations with powers around (17501814).
MIRABEAU, GABRIEL HONORE RIQUETTI, COMTE DE, son of the succeeding, born at the mansion-house of Bignon; was a man of massive intellect and strong physical frame, who came to the front in the French Revolution; being expelled from his order by the noblesse of Provence, he ingratiated himself with the Third Estate, and was elected commons-deputy of Aix to the States-General in 1789, where he became, as the incarnation of the whole movement, the ruling spirit of the hour, and gave proof, if he had lived, of being able to change the whole course of the Revolution, for he was already in communication with the court and in hopes of gaining it over to accept the inevitable, when he sickened and died, to the consternation of the entire people, whose affection and confidence he had won (1749-1791). See CARLYLE'S "FRENCH REVOLUTION" and his Essay in his "MISCELLANIES."
MIRABEAU, VICTOR RIQUETTI, MARQUIS DE, "crabbed old friend of men," born at Pertuis, in Provence, claimed to be of Florentine descent; "could never make the world go to his mind," and set about reforming it by coercing a family as self-willed as himself, to the driving of his celebrated son to desperate courses and reckless excesses; advocated the doctrines of the French economists in a series of writings instinct with a certain theoretical philanthropy (1716-1783).
MIRACLE PLAYS were strictly speaking dramas founded on legends of the saints, as distinct from mysteries founded on scriptural subjects, but the name came to cover all those religious representations for the instruction of the people fostered by the Church of the Middle Ages, performed first in churches, afterwards in public places; they were common in England from the 12th century, but latterly became corrupt through the introduction of grotesque indecorous comicalities; the rise of the drama led to their abandonment; on the Continent ecclesiastical action was taken against them, not by the Reformers, but by the Church itself in the 18th century, and everywhere they have all but disappeared; the Passion Play acted every 10 years at Oberammergau, Bavaria, is the only important survival.
MIRANDA, the beautiful daughter of the magician Prospero in Shakespeare's "Tempest."
MIRANDA, FRANCESCO DE, a Portuguese poet; wrote sonnets and epistles in verse; was predecessor of Camoens (1495-1558).
MISERERE, a carved bracket on the under side of the stall seats in mediaeval churches, which, when the seat was turned up during the standing portion of the service, afforded support to the older clergy. Miserere, the Catholic name for the 51st Psalm.
MISHNA, the oral law of the Jews, which is divided into six parts, and constitutes the text of the Talmud, of which the Gemara is the commentary.
MISPRISION, a high offence under, but close upon, the degree of a capital one; misprision of treason being a concealment of a felony without consenting to it.
MISSAL, a book containing the service of the mass for the entire year, such as is now in almost universal use throughout the Catholic world.
MISSISSIPPI (1,290), an American State on the E. bank of the Lower Mississippi, abutting on the Gulf of Mexico, between Louisiana and Alabama; has a hilly surface, traversed by numerous rivers, the Yazoo, a tributary of the Mississippi, forming a great fertile delta; the climate is free from extremes; the chief industry is agriculture; the best crops are grown in the N., and on the alluvial bottom lands; in the centre and NE. are good grazing farms; cotton, corn, oats, and fruits are the chief crops; virgin forests of hardwood cover much of the delta; valuable deposits of pipe and ochre clays and of lignite are found; cotton is manufactured, and there is trade in lumber; more than half the population is coloured, and the races are kept distinct in the State schools; the State university is at Oxford, and there are many other colleges; Jackson (6), the capital, is the chief railway centre, Meridian (10) has iron manufactures, Vicksburg (13) and Natchez (10) are the chief riverports; Mississippi was colonised by the French in 1699, ceded to Britain 1763, admitted to the Union 1817, joined the South in 1861, but was readmitted to the Union in 1869.
MISSISSIPPI RIVER rises in Lake Itaska, Minnesota, and flowing S. for 2800 m., enters the Gulf of Mexico by a large delta; its earlier course is through picturesque country, often in gorges, with rapids such as the St. Anthony Falls, the Des Moines and Rock Island Rapids. After receiving the Missouri, 3000 m. long, from the Rocky Mountains, it flows 21/2 m. per hour through great alluvial plains, which are protected from its overflows by hundreds of miles of earth embankments, and is joined by the Ohio from the E., the Red and Arkansas Rivers from the W., and many other navigable streams. The Mississippi is navigable by large steamers for 2000 m.; St. Louis, Memphis, Vicksburg, Natchez, and New Orleans are among the chief ports on its banks.
MISSISSIPPI SCHEME was started in France 1717 by John Law and the Government, ostensibly to develop the Mississippi basin, but really to ease the pressure on the exchequer; a company was formed and empowered to monopolise almost all the foreign trade; 624,000 shares were issued; depreciated paper currency was accepted in payment, and the national bank issued notes without stint; in 1719 the demand for shares was enormous; the nation was completely carried away; next year the crash came; the Government made every effort to save the position, but in vain; the distress was extreme, and Law had to leave the country.
MISSOLONGHI (6), Greek seaport and fishing town, on the Gulf of Patras, chiefly noted for heroic defences in the War of Independence 1821-1826, and as the place of Byron's death 1824.
MISSOURI (2,679), an American State on the right bank of the Mississippi, between Iowa and Arkansas, is half the size of the British Isles, and is traversed by the Missouri River; N. of that river the country is level, S. of it there rise the Ozark tablelands; the soil is very fertile, and the State principally agricultural; immense crops of maize, oats, potatoes, cotton, and tobacco are raised; there are large cattle ranches, and dressed beef and pork are largely exported; the climate is subject to extremes; coal, iron, lead, zinc, and other minerals abound, while marble, granite, and limestone are quarried; the rivers afford excellent transport facilities; the educational system is very complete; admitted to the Union in 1821, Missouri was divided in the Civil War, and suffered terribly, but since then has been very prosperous; the capital, St. Louis (452), is one of the greatest commercial and manufacturing towns in the Union, does a vast trade in grain and cotton, and has hardware, leather goods, and tobacco factories; Kansas City (133), has great pork-packing establishments and railroad iron-works.
MISTRAL, FREDERICK, poet of Southern France, born near Maillaune, was a peasant's son, and himself a peasant; his fame rose on the publication of the epic, "Mireio," in Provencal dialect, 1859; in 1867 he published "Calendou," and in 1876 a volume of songs, and in 1884 "Nerto," a novel; b. 1830.
MITFORD, MARY RUSSELL, authoress, born at Alresford, Hants, lived with her father, an extravagant physician, at Lyme Regis and London; she published poems in 1810-11-12, but, forced to earn a living, took to dramatic work; "Julian," "The Foscari," and "Rienzi" were successful if ephemeral tragedies; her best work was "Our Village," sketches of homely English life written with much care, and after appearing in the London Magazine, published in 5 vols., 1824-32 (1786-1855).
MITFORD, WILLIAM, English author; wrote a "History of Greece" and on the "English Metre, or the Harmony of Language" (1744-1827).
MITHRAS (i. e. the Friend), the highest of the second order of deities in the ancient Persian religion, the friend of man in this life and his protector against evil in the world to come, sided with Ormuzd against Ahriman, incarnated in the sun, and represented as a youth kneeling on a bull and plunging a dagger into his neck, while he is at the same time attacked by a dog, a serpent, and a scorpion.
MITHRIDATES THE GREAT, surnamed Eupator, king of Pontus from 123 to 63 B.C.; an implacable enemy of the Romans, between whom and him there raged from 90 to 63 a succession of wars, till he was defeated by Pompey near the Euphrates, when, being superseded by his son, he put an end to his life; he was a great man and conqueror, subdued many surrounding nations, and was a collector of works of art; he made a special study of poisons, and familiarised himself with all their antidotes, in view of possible attempts by means of them to take away his life.
MITRAILLEUSE, a gun consisting of several, as many as 25, barrels, from which a number of shots may be fired simultaneously or in rapid succession, used by the French in the Franco-German War.
MIVART, ST. GEORGE, naturalist, a Roman Catholic professor at Louvain, distinguished for his opposition to Darwinianism; b. 1827.
MNEMOSYNE in the Greek mythology the daughter of Uranos, the goddess of memory, and the mother of the Muses by Zeus.
MOA, the name of several species of New Zealand and Australian birds, from 2 to 14 ft. high, and quite wingless; almost extinct since the 17th century; two living specimens were captured in 1876.
MOAB, a pastoral region extending along the E. of lower parts of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, and inhabited by the descendants of Lot, now extinct, or merged among the Arabs.
MOABITE STONE, a stone 4 ft. high and 2 ft. broad found by Dr. Klein in 1868 among the ruins of Dhiban, a town in Moab, now in the Louvre at Paris, describing a victory of the Moabites over the Israelites; it was broken by the Arabs, but the fragments have been collected and put into their proper places.
MOBILE (31), a city and port of Alabama, U.S., 30 m. N. of the Gulf of Mexico; a thriving place; exports cotton, lumber, &c.
MOBILIER CREDIT, a banking and financial company founded in Paris in 1852; lends money on security of property other than real, and takes shares in public schemes, such as railways.
MODENA (31), Italian town, 62 m. N. of Florence; has a cathedral, with noted campanile, university, library, and art collections, and manufactures silk and leather; capital of a duchy (303); incorporated in the kingdom of Italy 1860.
MODERN ATHENS, Edinburgh, from its resemblance to Athens and its repute for literary culture; applied also to Boston, in America.
MODERN BABYLON, London, from its huge extent and the miscellaneous character of its inhabitants.
MODJESKA, HELENA, actress, born in Cracow; went on the stage after her first marriage in 1861, and from 1868 to 1876 was the favourite of Warsaw; retired to California on her second marriage, but returned to the stage, having learned English in seven months in California 1877, and till her final retirement in 1895, was eminently successful in America and Britain in such parts as Rosalind, Beatrice, &c.
MODRED, SIR, a treacherous knight, the rebellious nephew of King Arthur, whose wife he seduced; was slain in battle, and buried in Avalon.
MOFFAT, ROBERT, African missionary, born at Ormiston, Haddingtonshire; the scene of his nearly lifelong labours was among the Bechuanas in South Africa, whom he raised from a savage to a civilised state; he was sent out in 1816 by the London Missionary Society. He married (1819) Mary Smith, a daughter of his former employer at Dunkinfield.
MOHAMMED, great prophet of the Arabs, and founder of Islamism, born at Mecca, the son of Abdallah, of the tribe of the Koreish; left an orphan, brought up by his uncle Abu Taleb; became steward to a rich WIDOW KADIJAH (q. v.) whom he married; was given to serious meditation, would retire into solitude and pray, and one day, by the favour of Heaven, got answer which left him "in doubt and darkness no longer, but saw it all," saw into the vanity of all that was not God, that He alone was great, inconceivably great; that it was with Him alone we had to do, we must all submit to Him; this revelation made to him he imparted to Kadijah, and after a time she assented, and his heart leaped for joy; he spoke or his doctrine to this man and that, but made slow progress in persuading others to believe it; made only 13 converts in 3 years; his preaching gave offence to the chief people, and his relatives tried hard to persuade him to hold his peace, but he would not; after 13 years a conspiracy was formed to take his life, and he fled, through peril after peril, to Medina, in his fifty-third year, and in 622 of our era; his enemies had taken up the sword against him, and he now replied with the same weapon, and in 10 years he prevailed; it was a war against idolatry in all its forms, and idolatry was driven to the wall, the motto on his banner "God is Great," a motto with a depth of meaning greater than the Mohammedan world, and perhaps the Christian, has yet realised; it is for one thing a protest on the part of Mohammed, in which the Hebrew prophets forestalled him, against all attempts to understand the Deity and fathom "His ways, which are ever in the deep, and whose footsteps are not known" (571-631).
MOHAMMEDANISM, the religion of MOHAMMED, or ISLAM, (q. v.), is essentially much the same as the religion of the Jews with some elements borrowed from the Christian religion, and is defined by Carlyle as a bastard Christianity; originating in Arabia it spread rapidly over the W. of Asia, the N. of Africa, and threatened at one time to overrun Europe itself; it is the religion to-day of two hundred millions of the human race, and the profession of it extends over a wide area in western and southern Asia as also in northern Africa, though its limits in Europe do not extend beyond the bounds of Turkey.
MOHAWK, a tribe of American Indians, gave name to a band or club of ruffians who infested the streets of London in 1711-12.
MOHIC'ANS, an American Indian tribe, took sides with the English settlers against the French and with the former against England.
MOHL, JULIUS, Orientalist, born in Stuttgart; edited the "Shah Nameh" of Firdushi, a monumental work (1800-1876).
MOeHLER, JOHANN ADAM, a Roman Catholic theologian, born at Wuertemberg, author of "Symbolik," a work which discusses the differences between the doctrines of Catholics and Protestants, as evidenced in their respective symbolical books, a work which created no small stir in the theological world (1796-1838).
MOIR, DAVID MACBETH, the "Delta" of Blackwood, born in Musselburgh, where he practised as a physician; was author of "Mansie Waugh" (1798-1851).
MOIRA, FRANCIS RAWDON-HASTINGS, EARL OF, son of the Earl of Moira; entered the army 1771, and served against the Americans in the War of Independence; created Baron Rawdon in 1783; succeeded to his father's title 1793; entered political life under Fox, and was Governor-General of India 1813-23, in which period fell the Goorkha War, for the successful negotiations subsequent on which he was created Marquis of Hastings; his administration encouraged native education and freedom of the press; from 1824 he was Governor of Malta till his death at Naples (1754-1826).
MOKANNA, AL, "the veiled one," a name given to Hakim ben Allah, who wore a veil to hide the loss of an eye; he professed to be an incarnation of the Deity and to work miracles; found followers; founded a sect at Khorassan; seized some fortresses, but was overthrown at Kash A.D. 780, whereupon he took poison.
MOLDAU, largest river in Bohemia, rises on the N. of the Boehmerwald Mountains, flows SE. along their base, then turns northward through Bohemia, passes Budweis, becomes navigable, is 100 yards broad at Prague, and joins the Elbe at Melnik after flowing 278 m.
MOLDAVIA, once independent, now the northern division of Roumania, lies between the Carpathians and the Pruth River, and is well watered by the Sereth; its chief town is Jassy, in the NE.
MOLE, LOUIS MATTHIEU, COMTE, French statesman, born in Paris; published in 1805 an essay on politics which, defending Napoleon, won for its author a series of minor offices, and in 1813 a peerage and a seat in the Cabinet; retaining power under Louis XVIII. and Louis Philippe, he was Minister of Marine 1817, Foreign Minister 1830, and Premier 1837, but retired from politics two years later (1781-1855).
MOLECULE, the smallest particle of which an element or a compound body is composed, and that retains all the properties in a free state.
MOLESWORTH, SIR WILLIAM, British statesman, born in London; was an advanced Liberal; editor and proprietor of the Westminster Review; edited the works of Hobbes (1810-1855).
MOLIERE, JEAN BAPTISTE POQUELIN, great French comic dramatist, born in Paris; studied law and passed for the bar, but evinced from the first a proclivity for the theatre, and soon associated with actors, and found his vocation as a writer of plays, which procured him the friendship of Lafontaine, Boileau, and other distinguished men, though he incurred the animosity of many classes of society by the ridicule which he heaped on their weaknesses and their pretensions, the more that in his satires his characters are rather abstract types of men than concrete individualities; his principal pieces are, "Les Precieuses Ridicules," "L'Ecole des Femmes," "Le Tartuffe," "Le Misanthrope," "George Dandin," "L'Avare," "Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme," "Les Fourberies de Scapin," "Le Malade malgre Lui," "Les Femmes Savantes," and "Le Malade Imaginaire"; though seriously ill, he took part in the performance of this last, but the effort was too much for him, and he died that night; from the grudge which the priests bore him for his satires on them he was buried without a religious service (1622-1673).
MOLINA, LUIS, a Spanish Jesuit and theologian, author of a theory called Molinism, which resolves the doctrine of predestination into a mere foreknowledge of those who would accept and those who would reject the grace of God in salvation.
MOLINOS, MIGUEL DE, a Spanish theologian, born at Saragossa; published a book called the "Spiritual Guide," which, as containing the germ of Quietism, was condemned by the Inquisition, and its author sentenced to imprisonment for life (1627-1696).
MOLLAH, a judge of the highest rank among the Turks on matters of law, both civil and sacred.
MOLLWITZ, a village in Silesia, 20 m. SE. of Breslau, where Frederick the Great defeated the Austrians 1741.
MOLOCH or MOLECH, the chief god of the Ammonites, the worship of whom, which prevailed among all the Canaanites, was accompanied with cruelties, human sacrifices among others, revolting to the humane spirit of the Jewish religion; originally it appears to have been the worship of fire, through which the innocent as well as the guilty have often to pass for the achievement of the noblest enterprises, which degenerated at length into selfish sacrifices of others for interests of one's own, into the substitution of the innocent for the guilty by way of atonement to the Deity!
MOLTKE, COUNT VON, surnamed the Silent, great German field marshal, born in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, of an old family; was pre-eminent as a military strategist, planned and conducted the Prussian campaign against Austria in 1866, and the German campaign against France in 1870-72; was in the service of Denmark before he entered the Prussian (1800-1891).
MOLUCCAS or SPICE ISLANDS (400), an archipelago of mountainous islands, mostly volcanic, between Celebes and New Guinea, is in two main groups; in the N. the largest island is Jilolo, but the most important Tidor and Ternate, which export spices, tortoise-shell, and bees-wax; in the S. Buru and Ceram are largest, most important, Amboyna, from which come cloves; the people are civilised Malays; the islands are equatorial, but tempered by sea-breezes, and healthy; discovered by the Portuguese in 1521, they have been in Dutch possession since 1607, except when held by Britain 1810-1814.
MOMBASA (Africans and Arabs 20), capital of British East Africa, on a rocky islet, close inshore, 50 m. N. of Pemba; was ceded with a tract of country six times the size of the British Isles, and rich in gold, copper, plumbago, and india-rubber, to the British East African Company by the Sultan of Zanzibar in 1888, since when it has been rebuilt, and the harbour, one of the best and healthiest on the coast, made a naval coaling-station and head-quarters.
MOMMSEN, THEODOR, historian, born in Schleswig, a man of immense historical knowledge; his greatest work the "History of Rome"; was professor of Ancient History at Berlin; his forte was his learning more than his critical capacity; b. 1817.
MOMUS, the god of raillery, the son of Night, a kind of ancient MEPHISTOPHELES (q. v.).
MONACHISM, or MONASTICISM, is an institution in which individuals devote themselves, apart from others, to the cultivation of spiritual contemplation and religious duties, and which has constituted a marked feature in Pre-Christian Jewish asceticism, and in Buddhism as well as in Christianity; in the Church it developed from the practice of living in solitude in the 2nd century, and received its distinctive note when the vow of obedience to a superior was added to the hermit's personal vows of poverty and chastity; the movement of St. Benedict in the 6th century stamped its permanent form on Western Monasticism, and that of St. Francis in the 12th gave it a more comprehensive range, entrusting the care of the poor, the sick, the ignorant, &c., to the hitherto self-centred monks and nuns; during the Middle Ages the monasteries were centres of learning, and their work in copying and preserving both sacred and secular literature has been invaluable; English Monachism was swept away at the Reformation; in France at the Revolution; and later in Spain, Portugal, and Italy it has been suppressed; brotherhoods and sisterhoods have sprung up in the Protestant churches of Germany and England, but in all of them the vows taken are revocable.
MONACO (13), a small principality 9 m. E. of Nice, on the Mediterranean shore, surrounded by French territory and under French protection; has a mild salubrious climate, and is a favourite winter resort. The capital, MONACO, is built on a picturesque promontory, and 1 m. NE. stands Monte Carlo.
MONAD, the name given by Leibnitz to one of the active simple elementary substances, the plurality of which in their combinations or combined activities constitutes in his regard the universe both spiritual and physical; it denotes in biology an elementary organism.
MONAGHAN (82), an inland Ulster county, Ireland, surrounded by Louth, Armagh, Tyrone, Fermanagh, Cavan, and Meath; is undulating, with many small lakes and streams; grows flax and manufactures linen, and has limestone and slate quarries. The chief towns are CLONES (2), and the county-town MONAGHAN (3), which has a produce market.
MONBODDO, JAMES BURNETT, LORD, a Scottish judge, born in Kincardineshire, an eccentric writer, author of a "Dissertation on the Origin of Language" and of "Ancient Metaphysics"; had original fancies on the origin, particularly of the human race from the monkey, conceived not so foolish to-day as they were then (1714-1799).
MONCREIFF, SIR HENRY WELLWOOD, Scottish clergyman, born at Blackford; from 1775 to 1827 minister of St. Cuthbert's, Edinburgh, and leader of the evangelical party of the Scottish Church.
MONCREIFF, JAMES W., LORD, second son of preceding, eminent Scottish judge; was the author of the Veto Act which led to the Disruption of 1843 (1776-1851).
MONCREIFF, SIR HENRY W., son of preceding, became a Free Church minister, and was Principal Clerk of the General Assembly of the Free Church; an authority on Church law (1809-1885).
MONCREIFF, JAMES, brother of preceding, bred for the Scottish bar; was Lord Advocate of Scotland under four administrations; was appointed Lord Justice-Clerk in 1860; was raised to the peerage in 1874 (1811-1895).
MOND, LUDWIG, distinguished technical chemist and inventor, born at Cassel, in Germany; was a pupil of Kolbe and Bunsen, and has made important additions to chemical-industrial processes and products; b. 1839.
MONEY, defined by Ruskin to be "a documentary claim to wealth, and correspondent in its nature to the title-deed of an estate."
MONGE, GASPARD, celebrated French mathematician, born at Beaune; one of the founders of the Polytechnic School in Paris (1746-1818).
MONGOLS, a great Asiatic people having their original home on the plains E. of Lake Baikal, Siberia, who first rose into prominence under their ruler Genghis Khan in the 12th century; he, uniting the three branches of Mongols, commenced a career of conquest which made him master of all Central Asia; his sons divided his empire, and pursued his conquests; a Mongol emperor seized the throne of China in 1234, and from this branch sprang the great Kublai Khan, whose house ruled an immense territory 1294-1368. Another section pushed westwards as far as Moravia and Hungary, taking Pesth in 1241, and founded the immense empire over which Tamerlane held sway. A third but later movement, springing from the ruins of these earlier empires, was that of Baber, who conquered India, and founded the Great Mogul line, 1519. Now Mongols are constituent elements in the populations of China, Russian, and Turkish Asia.
MONICA, ST., the mother of St. Augustine, who became to him the symbol of "the highest he knew on earth, bowing before a Higher in heaven."
MONISM, the name given to the principle of any system of philosophy which resolves the manifold of the universe into the evolution of some unity in opposition to DUALISM (q. v.).
MONK, GEORGE, DUKE OF ALBEMARLE, general and admiral, was a Devonshire man, who spent his youth in the Dutch wars, and returned to England just in time to side with Charles I. against the Parliament; after leading a regiment in Ireland, he was captured at Nantwich in 1644, and spent two years in the Tower; obtaining his release by changing sides, he won commendation from Cromwell at Dunbar in 1650, and was entrusted with the command of operations in Scotland afterwards; in 1653 he beat Van Tromp at sea, twice; from 1654 till 1660 he was Governor of Scotland; on the death of Cromwell he saw the confusion, marched with 6000 troops to London, and after cautious negotiations, brought Charles II. to England and set him on the throne, receiving a peerage and many honours for reward; he behaved well as Governor of London in the plague year, and was again admiral in the Dutch wars of 1666 (1608-1670).
MONMOUTH, GEOFFREY, a Welsh priest of the 12th century, compiler of what he called a "History of the Early Kings of Britain," from that of Brut, through the story of King Arthur and others, such as King Lear, down to that of Cadwallo, a Welsh king, who died in 689.
MONMOUTH, JAMES, DUKE OF, illegitimate son of Charles II., born at Rotterdam; was admitted to Court after the Restoration, and received his title in 1663; his manners and his Protestantism brought him popular favour in spite of his morals, and by-and-by plots were formed to secure the succession for him; forced to fly to Holland in 1683, he waited till his father's death, then planned a rebellion with Argyll; Argyll failed in Scotland; Monmouth, landing in Dorsetshire 1685, was soon overthrown at Sedgemoor, taken prisoner, and executed (1649-1685).
MONMOUTHSHIRE (252), a west of England county lying N. of the Severn estuary, between Glamorgan and Gloucestershire; is low and flat in the S., but otherwise hilly, and is traversed by the Usk River; more than half the surface is under permanent pasture; the wealth of Monmouthshire consists of coal and iron-stone; Monmouth (5), the county town, is the centre of beautiful scenery, and has some fine buildings.
MONOPHYSITES, a body of heretics who arose in the 5th century and maintained that the divine and human natures in Christ were united in one divine-human nature, so that He was neither wholly divine nor wholly human, but in part both.
MONOTHEISM, belief in the existence of one God, or the divine unity, or that the Divine Being, whether twofold, as in dualism, threefold, as in Trinitarianism, is in essence and in manifestation one.
MONOTHELISM, a heresy which arose in the 7th century, in which it was maintained that, though in Christ there were two natures, there was but One Will, viz., the Divine.
MONRO, ALEXANDER, founder of Edinburgh Medical School, born of Scotch parentage in London; studied there, and at Paris and Leyden, and was appointed lecturer on Anatomy by the Surgeons' Company at Edinburgh in 1719; two years later he became professor, and in 1725 was admitted to the University; he was a principal promoter and early clinical lecturer in the Royal Infirmary, and continued his clinical work after resigning his chair to his son Alexander; he wrote several medical works, and was a Fellow of the Royal Society; he was called primus, to distinguish him from his son and grandson, who were called respectively secundus and tertius, and were professors of Anatomy in Edinburgh like himself (1697-1767).
MONROE, JAMES, American President, born in Virginia, of Scottish descent; left college to join Washington's army; was wounded in the war, and studying law, entered Congress in 1783; he assisted in framing the Constitution, and sat in the Senate 1790-1794; his diplomatic career in France was marked by the purchase of Louisiana from that country in 1803; he was governor of Virginia thrice over, and Secretary of State till 1817; then followed two terms of the Presidency, during which Florida was acquired from Spain 1819, the delimitation of the slave limit by the Missouri compromise, the recognition of the South American Republics, and the statement of the "MONROE DOCTRINE" (q. v.); in his later years his generosity led him into debt, and he spent his closing days with relations in New York (1758-1831).
MONROE DOCTRINE, the doctrine of James Monroe, twice over President of the United States, that the United States should hold aloof from all interference with the affairs of the Old World, and should not suffer the Powers of the Old World to interfere with theirs.
MONSON, SIR EDWARD, English diplomatist; entered the diplomatic service in 1856, and after service at various courts, became ambassador at Paris in 1896; b. 1834.
MONSOON originally denoted a periodical wind in the Indian Ocean, which blows from SW. from April to October, and from NE. from October to April; now denotes any wind connected with a continent regularly recurring with the seasons.
MONSTRANCE, a transparent pyx on which the Host is exhibited on the altar to the people, or conveyed in public procession.
MONT BLANC, in the Graian Alps, on the French-Italian frontier, the highest mountain in Europe, 15,782 ft., the upper half under perpetual snow; has 56 magnificent glaciers, including the Mer-de-Glace; it was first climbed by Balmat and Paccard in 1786, and since then has been many times ascended, now by 50 parties every year.
MONT CENIS, an Alpine peak (12,000 ft.) on the Savoy-Piedmont frontier and the adjacent pass, over which a road was constructed 1802-1810, and near which a railway tunnel was pierced (1857-70) at a cost of L3,000,000.
MONT DE PIETE, an institution to lend money to the poor at little or no interest, first established in the 15th century, a time when lending to the poor was as much a work of mercy as giving to them; a public pawnbroking establishment, so called in France.
MONTAGNARDS. See MOUNTAIN, THE.
MONTAGU, LADY MARY WORTLEY, an English lady, born in Nottinghamshire, celebrated for her wit and beauty, and for her "Letters on the Manners of the East" (1690-1762).
MONTAIGNE, MICHEL DE, a sceptico-speculative thinker and moralist, born in the Chateau of Montaigne, Perigord; an easy-going mortal, but a keen observer of the ways and manners of other people, which some experience in travel gave him opportunities to do, as well as the study of the old classic Latin authors; his fame rests on his "Essays," in which he records his observations of mankind, but in which, from a decided descendental twist he had, he betrays a rather low idea of the morale of the race; the book, however, is a favourite with all observant people of education, and a translation of it by Florio is the one book we know for certain to have been in the library of Shakespeare; bred as he was by his father's arrangement among the common people, he always retained a friendly feeling towards his neighbours, and they cherished towards him feelings of very high regard; he was a quiet, tolerant man, and his writings reveal a character which commands the respect of men who affect a much higher level of thinking than that occupied by himself (1533-1592).
MONTALEMBERT, COMTE DE, a French politician, born in London, son of a French emigrant; was associated with Lamennais and Lacordaire in the conduct of the Avenir, an Ultramontane Liberal organ, and spent his life in advocating the cause of a free unfettered system of national education; wrote the "Monks of the West," his chief work (1810-1870).
MONTANA (132), a State of the American Union, in the NW., lies along the Canadian border between Idaho and the Dakotas, with Wyoming on the S.; has a mild climate, and a soil which, with irrigation, produces fine crops of grain and vegetables. Cattle-raising is profitable, but the chief industry is mining, in the Rocky Mountains, which occupy a fifth of the State. There gold, silver, copper, and lead abound. The Missouri and the Columbia Rivers rise in Montana, and the Yellowstone traverses the whole State. The State was admitted to the Union in 1889, with Helena (9) as capital.
MONTANISM, a heresy which arose in the 2nd century; derived its name from an enthusiast in Phrygia named Montanus, who insisted on the permanency of the spiritual gifts vouchsafed to the primitive Church, and a return to the severe discipline of life and character prevailing in it.
MONTCALM DE SAINT VERAN, LOUIS JOSEPH, MARQUIS DE, born near Nimes; entered the army early, and at forty-four was field-marshal and commander of the forces in Quebec against the English; the capture of Forts Oswego and William Henry and the defence of Ticonderoga were followed by the loss of Louisburg and Fort Duquesne and the retreat on Quebec, where, surprised by Wolfe in 1759, he was totally defeated, and Canada lost to France; both generals fell (1712-1759).
MONTE CARLO (4), a great gambling centre in Monaco, 1 m. NE. of the capital; visited by 400,000 persons annually. The Casino is held by a company, and stands on ground leased from the prince.
MONTEFIORE, SIR MOSES, a philanthropic Jewish banker, born in Leghorn; a friend to the emancipation not only of the oppressed among his own race, but of the slave in all lands; lived to a great age (1784-1885).
MONTEGUT, EMILE, French critic, born at Limoges; is noted for books of travel, studies in French and English literature, and for translations of Shakespeare, Macaulay's "History," and Emerson's "Essays."
MONTENEGRO (236), a Balkan State, less than half the size of Wales, lying in a wild mountainous region between Herzegovina and Albania, and touching the Adriatic Sea with its SW. corner only. The climate is severe in winter, mild in summer. The soil is sterile, but is industriously tilled, and patches of arable land on the mountain sides and in the valleys yield maize, oats, potatoes, and tobacco. Cattle and sheep are reared in large numbers; vines and mulberries are cultivated round the lake, whose waters abound in fish. Cattle, hides, and cheese are the exports. The Montenegrins are a primitive people; the men hunt and fight, the women work. They are mostly of the Greek Church, and noted for their morality. The government is patriarchal, with a prince at the head. Education and road-making have recently advanced. The towns are mere villages. Cetinje (1) is the capital; Antivari and Dulcigno, the Adriatic ports.
MONTESPAN, MARQUISE DE, mistress of Louis XIV.; a woman noted for her wit and beauty; bore the king eight children; was supplanted by MADAME DE MAINTENON (q. v.); passed her last days in religious retirement (1641-1707).
MONTESQUIEU, BARON DE, illustrious French publicist, born in the Chateau La Brede, near Bordeaux; his greatest work, and an able, "Esprit des Lois," though rated in "Sartor" as at best the work of "a clever infant spelling letters from a hieroglyphic prophetic book, the lexicon of which lies in eternity, in heaven"; was author of an able work "On the Causes of the Grandeur of the Romans and their Declension" (1689-1755).
MONTEVIDEO (215), on the N. shore of the Rio de la Plata, 130 m. E. of Buenos Ayres; is the capital of Uruguay; a well-built town, with a cathedral, university, school of arts, and museum. The chief industries are beef-salting and shipping, though there is practically no harbour. Nearly half the population are foreigners.
MONTEZ, LOLA, an adventuress of Spanish descent, born at Limerick; contracted no end of marriages, which were broken off one after another; took to the stage; took to lecturing, and ended in trying to reclaim fallen women (1818-1861).
MONTEZUMA II., the last of the Mexican emperors; submitted to Cortez when he landed; died in 1520 of a wound he received as he pled with his subjects to submit to the conqueror, aggravated by grief over the failure of his efforts in bringing about a reconciliation.
MONTFORT, SIMON DE, son of a French count; came to England in 1230, where he inherited from his grandmother the earldom of Leicester; attached to Henry III., and married to the king's sister, he was sent to govern Gascony in 1248; returned in 1253, and passed over to the side of the barons, whom he ultimately led in the struggle against the king; after repeated unsuccessful attempts to make Henry observe the Provisions of Oxford, Simon took arms against him in 1263; the war was indecisive, and appeal being made to the arbitration of Louis the Good, Simon, dissatisfied with his award, renewed hostilities, defeated the king at Lewes, and taking him and his son prisoner, governed England for a year (1264-65); he sketched a constitution for the country, and summoned the most representative parliament that had yet met, but as he aimed at the welfare of not the barons only, but the common people as well, the barons began to distrust him, when Prince Edward, having escaped from captivity, joined them, and overthrew Simon at Evesham, where he was slain (1206?-1265).
MONTGOLFIER BROTHERS, inventors of the balloon, who made their first ascent in Paris in 1783 in "their paper dome, filled with smoke of burnt wood, amid the shouts of congregated men"; JOSEPH (1740-1810), and ETIENNE (1745-1799).
MONTGOMERIE, ALEXANDER, Scottish poet, born, it is alleged, in Ayrshire, from a branch of the Eglinton family; wrote sonnets and some short poems, but his best-known piece is an allegorical poem, "The Cherry and the Slae" (1556-1610).
MONTGOMERY, COMTE DE, a French knight of Scottish descent, captain of the Scottish Guard under Henry II. of France; having in 1559 mortally wounded the king in a tourney, he fled to England, but returned to fight in the ranks of the Huguenots, and having had to surrender, he was taken to Paris and beheaded, in violation of the terms of surrender, which assured him of his life (1530-1574).
MONTGOMERY, JAMES, poet and hymn-writer, born at Irvine, son of a Moravian minister; studied for the same profession, but was not licensed; after some years of various occupation he started journalism, and eventually produced a journal of his own, Sheffield Iris, 1794-1825; he was twice fined and imprisoned for seditious publications, but became a Conservative in 1832, a pensioner 1835, and died at Sheffield; of his poetry most is forgotten, but "For ever with the Lord," and some dozen other hymns are still remembered (1771-1854).
MONTGOMERY, ROBERT, author of "The Omnipresence of Deity" and "Satan," born at Bath, son of a clown; passed undistinguished through Oxford, and was minister of Percy Street Chapel, London; all his many works are forgotten save the above, which lives in Macaulay's famous review (1807-1855).
MONTGOMERYSHIRE (58), a North Wales inland county, surrounded by Merioneth, Cardigan, Radnor, Salop, and Denbigh; is chiefly a stretch of mountain pasture land, which rises to 2500 ft. at Plinlimmon, and in which the Severn rises; but in the E. are well wooded and fertile valleys. There are lead and zinc mines, and slate and limestone quarries. There is some flannel manufacture at Newtown. The county town is Montgomery (1).
MONTHOLON, COMTE DE, French general, born in Paris, served under Napoleon, accompanied him to St. Helena, and left "Memoirs" (1782-1853).
MONTMORENCY, ANNE, DUC DE, marshal and constable of France, born of an old illustrious family; served in arms under Francis I.; was associated with Conde against the Huguenots, and was mortally wounded at St. Denis fighting against them (1492-1567).
MONTMORENCY, HENRI, SECOND DUC OF, born at Chantilly; distinguished himself in arms under Louis XIII., but provoked along with Gaston, Duke of Orleans, into rebellion, he was taken prisoner and beheaded, notwithstanding intercessions from high quarters on his behalf for the zeal he had shown in defence of the Catholic faith (1596-1632).
MONTPELIER (4), capital of Vermont, 250 m. N. of New York and 120 m. NW. of Portland, Maine, is on the Onion River, and has some mills and tanneries.
MONTPELLIER (66), capital of Herault, France, on the Lez, 6 m. from the Gulf of Lyons, 30 m. SW. of Nimes, is a picturesque town, containing a cathedral, a university, picture-gallery, libraries, and other institutions, and has been a centre of culture and learning since the 16th century; it also manufactures chemicals, corks, and textiles, and does a large trade in brandy and wine.
MONTREAL (217), the greatest commercial city of Canada, on an island in the St. Lawrence, at the confluence of the Ottawa River, 150 m. above Quebec, is the centre of railway communication with the whole Dominion and the States, connected by water with all the shipping ports on the great lakes, and does an enormous import and export trade; its principal shipment is grain; it is the chief banking centre, has the greatest universities (M'Gill and a branch of Laval), hospitals, and religious institutions, and pursues boot and shoe, clothing, and tobacco manufactures; more than half the population is French and Roman Catholic, and the education of Protestant and Roman Catholic children is kept distinct; founded in 1642 by the French, Montreal passed to Britain in 1760; in 1776 it was occupied by the revolting colonies, but recovered next year, and since then has had a steady career of prosperity and advancement.
MONTROSE (13), an ancient burgh and seaport of Forfarshire, 35 m. S. of Aberdeen, stands on a tongue of land between the sea and a basin which is almost dry at low water; carries on timber-trade with Baltic and Canadian ports, and spins flax, makes ropes and canvas.
MONTROSE, JAMES GRAHAM, MARQUIS OF, born at Old Montrose, and educated at St. Andrews; travelled in Italy, France, and the Netherlands; returning in 1637 he joined the Covenanters, and we find him at Aberdeen, Stonehaven, and across the English border supporting the Covenant by force of arms; suspected of treachery to the cause he was imprisoned for a year, 1641-42, in Edinburgh Castle, whereupon he joined the side of the king; in 1644-45 he did splendid service for Charles in Scotland, defeating the Covenanters near Aberdeen, at Inverlochy and Kilsyth; but routed by Leslie at Philiphaugh he lost the royal confidence, and next year withdrew to Norway; an unsuccessful invasion in the Stuart cause in 1650 ended in his defeat at Invercarron, capture, and execution; "The Great Marquis," as he is called, was a soldier of genius, and a man of taste, learning, clemency, and courage (1612-1650).
MONTYON PRIZES, four prizes in the gift of the French Academy, so named from their founder, Baron de Montyon (1733-1820), and awarded annually for (1) improvements in medicine and surgery; (2) improvements tending to health in some mechanical process; (3) acts of disinterested goodness; (4) literary works conducive to morality; the last two are usually divided among several recipients.
MOODY, DWIGHT LYMAN, evangelist, born in Massachusetts; settled in Chicago, where he began his career as an evangelist, associated with Mr. Sankey; visited great Britain in 1873 and 1883, and produced a wide-spread impression, especially on the first visit; b. 1837.
MOON, the satellite of the earth, from which it is distant 238,800 m., and which revolves round it in 27-1/3 days, taking the same time to rotate on its own axis, so that it presents always the same side to us; is a dark body, and shines by reflection of the sun's light, its diameter 2165 m.; it has a rugged surface of mountains and valleys without verdure; has no water, no atmosphere, and consequently no life.
MOON, MOUNTAINS OF THE, a range of mountains supposed by Ptolemy and early geographers to stretch across Africa from Abyssinia to Guinea, now variously identified as the Kenia, Kilimanjaro, Ruwenzori, &c.
MOONSHEE, in India a teacher of languages, especially Hindustani and Persian.
MOORE, FRANK FRANKFORT, novelist and dramatist, born at Limerick, both his novels and his dramas are numerous; commenced his literary career as a journalist in connection with the Belfast News Letter as literary and art editor, a post he relinquished in 1893 to settle in London; b. 1855.
MOORE, JOHN, M.D., author and novelist, born at Stirling, studied medicine in Glasgow, and practised there, in Holland, Paris, and London; he published books on the countries of Europe which he visited, an essay on the French Revolution, and among several novels, one of some note, "Zeluco" (1789); he died at Richmond (1730-1802).
MOORE, SIR JOHN, general, eldest son of above, born at Glasgow; served in Corsica, the West Indies, Ireland, Holland, Egypt, Sicily, and Sweden; his famous and last expedition was to Spain in 1808, when with 10,000 men he was sent to co-operate in expelling the French; Spanish apathy and other causes weakened his hands, and in December he found himself with 25,000 men at Astorga, a French force of 70,000 advancing against him; retreat was necessary, but disastrous; he was overtaken by Soult at Coruna in the act of embarking; the victory lay with the English, but Moore was killed (1761-1808).
MOORE, THOMAS, the Bard of Erin, born in Dublin, the son of a grocer, studied at Trinity College; went to London with a translation of "Anacreon," which gained him favour and a valuable appointment in the Bermudas in 1803; fought a duel with Jeffrey in 1806, began his "Irish Melodies" in 1807, and published "The Twopenny Postbag" in 1812; in 1817 appeared "Lalla Rookh," a collection of Oriental tales, and in 1818 a satiric piece "The Fudge Family," and published a Life of Byron in 1830; Moore's songs were written to Irish airs, and they contributed much to ensure Catholic emancipation (1779-1852).
MOORS, a general term for tribes in North Africa descended from Arab and Berber stock; they were Christians for several centuries, but on their conquest by Arabs in 647 embraced Mohammedanism; the town Moors do not hold before European settlers, but the nomad tribes show more vitality; Moorish peoples seized and settled in Spain early in the 8th century, and, introducing a civilisation further advanced than that in Europe generally with respect to science, art, and industry alike, maintained a strong rule till the 11th century; then the Spaniards gradually recovered the peninsula; Toledo was taken in 1085, Saragossa in 1118, Valencia in 1238, Seville in 1248, Murcia in 1260, and Granada in 1492; Turkish successes in the East came too late to save the Moors, and the last were banished from the country in 1609.
MORAINES, masses of rock which become detached from the hill-side and find lodgment on a glacier are so called, and are further described as lateral, medial, terminal, or ground moraines, according as they lie along its edges, its middle, are piled up in mounds at its end, or falling down crevasses, are ground against the rock underneath.
MORALITIES, didactic dramas, following in order of time the miracle plays and mysteries, in which the places of saints and biblical personages in them were taken by characters representing different virtues and vices, and the story was of an allegorical nature; were the immediate precursors of the secular drama.
MORAVIA (2,277), a crownland in the N. of Austria, lying between the Moravian and the Carpathian Mountains, with Silesia on the N., Hungary on the E., Lower Austria on the S., and Bohemia on the W.; is mountainous, with lofty plains in the S., and is watered by the March, a tributary of the Danube; the valleys and plains are fertile; grain, beetroot, flax, hemp, and vines are grown; cattle and poultry rearing and bee-keeping occupy the peasantry; sugar, textiles, and tobacco are the chief manufactures; there are coal and iron mines, graphite and meerschaum are found; the capital is Bruenn (94), which has woollen and leather industries; associated with Bohemia in 1029, Moravia passed with that country to Austria in 1526, its association with Bohemia terminating in 1849; the inhabitants are two-thirds Slavs and one-third German, and are mostly Roman Catholic.
MORAVIANS, a sect of Protestant Christians who, followers of John Huss, formed themselves into a separate community in Bohemia in 1467 on the model of the primitive Church, in which the members regarded each other as brethren, and were hence called the United Brethren; like other heretics they suffered much persecution at the hands of the orthodox Church; they are known also as Herrnhuters.
MORAY, JAMES STUART, EARL OF, illegitimate son of James V. of Scotland, and so half-brother of Mary, Queen of Scots; was from 1556 the leader of the Reformation party, and on Mary's arrival in her kingdom in 1561 became her chief adviser; on her marriage with Darnley he made an unsuccessful attempt to raise a Protestant rebellion, and had to escape to England 1565, and after a visit to Edinburgh, when he connived at Rizzio's murder, to France in 1567; he was almost immediately recalled by the nobles, who had imprisoned Mary in Lochleven, and appointed regent; next year he defeated at Langside the forces which, on her escape, had rallied round her, and in the subsequent management of the kingdom secured both civil and ecclesiastical peace, and earned the title of "the Good Regent"; he was shot by a partisan of the queen's, James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, when riding through Linlithgow (1531-1570).
MORE, HANNAH, English authoress, born near Bristol; wrote dramas, a novel entitled "Coelebs in Search of a Wife," and a tract "The Shepherd of Salisbury Plain" (1745-1833).
MORE, HENRY, a Platonist, born at Grantham, a Fellow of Christ College, Cambridge, and author of a poem "Song of the Soul"; he was a mystic who exercised a great influence among the young men of Cambridge (1614-1687).
MORE, SIR THOMAS, Chancellor of England, born in London; was the lifelong friend of Erasmus, and the author of "Utopia," an imaginary commonwealth; succeeded Wolsey as Chancellor, but resigned the seals of office because he could not sanction the king's action in the matter of the divorce, and was committed to the Tower for refusing to take the oath of supremacy, whence after 12 months he was brought to trial and sentenced to be beheaded; he ascended the scaffold, and laid his head on the block in the spirit of a philosopher; was one of the wisest and best of men (1478-1535).
MOREA is the modern name of the ancient Peloponnesus, that remarkable peninsula, larger than Wales, which constitutes the southern half of Greece, and is joined to the mainland by the Isthmus of Corinth, less than 4 m. broad.
MOREAU, JEAN VICTOR, French general, born at Morlaix; served with distinction under the Republic and the Empire; was suspected of plotting against the latter with George Cadoudal, and banished on conviction; went to America, but returning to Europe, joined the ranks of the Russians against his country, and was mortally wounded by a cannon ball at Dresden (1763-1813).
MORGANATIC MARRIAGE, is a union permitted to German princes who, forbidden to marry except with one of equal rank, may ally themselves with a woman of inferior status, their children being legitimate but not eligible for the succession; the marriages of British princes contracted before the age of 25 without consent of the sovereign, or after that age without consent of Parliament, are of a morganatic nature.
MORGARTEN, a mountain slope in the canton of Zug, Switzerland, where 1400 Swiss, on Nov. 15, 1315, in assertion of their independence, defeated an Austrian army of 15,000.
MORGHEN, RAPHAEL SANZIO CAVALIERE, engraver, born in Naples, of German parentage; studied in Rome, and by genius and industry became one of the foremost engravers; his works include engravings of Raphael's "Transfiguration," the result of 16 years' labour, and Leonardo da Vinci's "Last Supper," his masterpiece (1758-1833).
MORGUE, a house in which bodies found dead are placed for identification.
MORISONIANISM, the principles of the Evangelical Union, a Scottish denomination founded by the Rev. James Morison of Kilmarnock on his expulsion from the United Secession Church in 1843, and united with the Scottish Congregational Union in 1897; differed from the older Presbyterianism in affirming the freedom of the human will to accept or reject salvation, and the universal scope of the offer of salvation as made by God to all men; in polity the Morisonians observed a modified independency.
MORLEY, JOHN, politician and man of letters, born in Blackburn; is an advanced Liberal in both capacities; besides essays and journalistic work, has written biographies, particularly on men associated with politics and social movements, such as Voltaire, Rousseau, and Diderot, as well as Burke, and is editor of "English Men of Letters"; in politics he was a staunch supporter of Mr. Gladstone, though he could have little sympathy with him as a High Churchman; b. 1838.
MORMON, BOOK OF, a book which in 1827 fell into the hands of Joseph Smith, the son of a farmer, alleged by him to have been written by a Hebrew prophet who emigrated to America 600 years before Christ, and to have been recorded by him as a direct revelation to himself from heaven, by means of which the interrupted communication between heaven and earth was to be restored.
MORMONISM, the creed of the Mormons, or Latter-day Saints as they are called, who have settlements of their own in the valley of the Salt Lake, generally called Utah, U.S.; they conceive, according to Hepworth Dixon, of God as a flesh and blood man, of man as of the divine substance, as existing from, and to exist to, all eternity, and without inherited sin, of the earth as only one of many inhabited worlds, of the spirit world as consisting of beings awaiting incarnation, of polygamy as of divine ordination and the relationship eternal, and of their social system as the kingdom of God on earth.
MORNY, DUC DE, French politician, born in Paris; played a conspicuous part in the coup d'etat of December 1851, and was President of the Corps Legislatif; was believed to have been the son of Queen Hortense, and consequently Louis Napoleon's half-brother (1811-1865).
MOROCCO (4,000), an empire in the NW. corner of Africa, three times the size of Great Britain, its coast-line stretching from Algeria to Cape Nun, and its inland confines being vaguely determined by the French hinterlands. Two-thirds of the country is desert; much of the remainder is poor pasture land; the Atlas Mountains stretch from SW. to NE., but there are some expanses of level fertile country; on the seaboard the climate is delightful, with abundance of rain in the season; among the mountains extremes prevail; south of the Atlas it is hot and almost rainless; the mineral wealth is probably great; gold, silver, copper, and iron are known to be plentiful, but bad government hinders development; the exports are maize, pulse, oil, wool, fruit, and cattle; cloth, tea, coffee, and hardware are imported; the chief industries are the making of leather, "Fez" caps, carpets, and the breeding of horses; government is extremely despotic and corrupt, and the Sultan's authority over many of the tribes is merely nominal; there is no education; the religion is Mohammedanism, and slavery prevails; there are no roads, and the country is imperfectly known; telegraph, telephone, and postal service are in European hands; the country was taken from the Romans by the Arabs in the 7th century, and has ever since been in their hands, but Berbers, Spaniards, Moors, Jews, and negroes also go to make up the population. The chief towns are Fez (25), in the N., a sacred Moslem city, squalid and dirty, but with good European trade, and a depot for the caravans from the interior; and Morocco (60), in the S., near the Tensift River, 240 m. SW. of Fez, well situated for local and transit trade, but a dilapidated city.
MOROCCO, a fine-grained leather of the skin of a goat or sheep, first prepared in Morocco.
MORPHEUS (i. e. the Moulder), the god of dreams, the son of Night and Sleep.
MORRIS-DANCE, a rustic merrymaking common in England after 1350, and still extant; is of disputed origin; the chief characters, Maid Marian, Robin Hood, the hobby-horse, and the fool, execute fantastic movements and Jingle bells fastened to their feet and dress.
MORRIS, SIR LEWIS, a poet, born in Carmarthen, Wales; the author of "Songs of Two Worlds," "The Epic of Hades," "A Vision of Saints," &c.; often confounded with the succeeding, with whom he has next to nothing in common; b. 1833.
MORRIS, WILLIAM, poet, art-worker, and Socialist, born in Walthamstow, near London, son and heir of a wealthy merchant; studied at Oxford, where he became the lifelong bosom friend of Burne-Jones; of an artistic temperament, he devoted his working hours to decorative art, in particular designing wall-papers; produced in 1858 "The Defence of Guenevere and other Poems," in 1867 "The Life and Death of Jason," and from 1868 to 1870 his masterpiece, "THE EARTHLY PARADISE" (q. v.); among other works he translated the "AEneid" and the "Odyssey," and gave a splendid rendering of some of the Norse legends (1834-1896).
MORRISON, ROBERT, first missionary to China, and Chinese scholar, born of Scottish parentage at Morpeth; entered the Independent ministry, and was sent to Macao and Canton by the London Missionary Society in 1807; in 1814 he published a Chinese version of the New Testament, and in 1819 of the Old Testament; in 1823 his great Chinese Dictionary was published at the expense of the East India Company; returning to England in 1824, he went out again 10 years later as interpreter to Lord Napier, and died at Canton (1782-1834).
MORSE, SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE, inventor, born at Charlestown, Massachusetts, graduated at Yale in 1810 and adopted art as a profession; he gained some distinction as a sculptor, and in 1835 was appointed professor of Design in New York; electrical studies were his hobby; between 1832 and 1837 he worked out the idea of an electric telegraph—simultaneously conceived by Wheatstone in England—and in 1843 Congress granted funds for an experimental line between Washington and Baltimore; honour and fortune crowded on him, his invention was adopted all over the world, and he received an international grant of L16,000; he died in New York (1791-1872).
MORTGAGE, a deed conveying property to a creditor as security for the payment of a debt, the person to whom it is given being called the Mortgagee.
MORTON, JAMES DOUGLAS, EARL OF, regent of Scotland; joined the Reforming party, was made Chancellor, took part in the murder of Rizzio, and was privy to the plot against Darnley, joined the confederacy of the nobles against Mary, fought against her at Langside, and became regent in 1572; became unpopular, was charged with being accessory to Darnley's murder, and beheaded in 1581.
MOSAYLIMA, a rival of Mohammed, posed as equally a prophet, and entitled to share with Mohammed the sovereignty of the world; two battles followed, in the second of which Mosaylima was killed, to the dispersion of his followers.
MOSCHUS, a Greek pastoral poet, author of lyrics which have been translated by Andrew Lang; lived 150 B.C.
MOSCOW (799), on the Moskwa River, in the centre of European Russia, 370 m. SE. of St. Petersburg; was before 1713 the capital, and is still a great industrial and commercial centre; its manufactures include textiles, leather, chemicals, and machinery; it does a great trade in grain, timber, metals from the Urals, and furs, hides, &c., from Asia; besides the great cathedral there are many churches, palaces, and museums, a university, library, picture-gallery, and observatory; the enclosure called the Kremlin or citadel is the most sacred spot in Russia; thrice in the 18th century the city was devastated by fire, and again in 1812 to compel Napoleon to retire.
MOSELLE, river, rising W. of the Vosges Mountains, flows NW. through French and German Lorraine, then NE. through Rhenish Prussia to join the Rhine at Coblenz, 315 m. long, two-thirds of it navigable; it passes in its tortuous course Metz, Thionville, and Treves.
MOSES, the great Hebrew law-giver, under whose leadership the Jews achieved their emancipation from the bondage of Egypt, and began to assert themselves as an independent people among the nations of the earth; in requiring of the people the fear of God and the observance of His commandments, he laid the national life on a sure basis, and he was succeeded by a race of prophets who from age to age reminded the people that in regard or disregard for what he required of them depended their prosperity or their ruin as a nation, of which from their extreme obduracy they had again and again to be admonished.
MOSHEIM, a Protestant Church historian, born at Luebeck, was professor at Goettingen; his principal work a History of the Church, written in Latin, and translated into English and other languages (1694-1755).
MOSS-TROOPERS, maurauders who formerly raided the moss-grown borderland of England and Scotland.
MOTHERWELL, WILLIAM, Scottish poet, born in Glasgow, educated in Edinburgh; entered a lawyer's office in Paisley in 1811 and became Sheriff-Clerk Depute of Renfrewshire 1818; he was editor of the Paisley Advertiser in 1828, and of the Glasgow Courier in 1830; he wrote biographical notices of local poets, and edited "Minstrelsy, Ancient and Modern," in 1827; but his own fame was established by "Poems, Narrative and Lyrical," 1832, the gem of the collection being "Jeanie Morison"; he died in Glasgow (1797-1835).
MOTLEY, JOHN LOTHROP, historian and diplomatist, born in Massachusetts; commenced his literary career as a novelist, but soon turned all his thoughts to the study of history; spent years in the study of Dutch history; wrote the "History of the Dutch Republic," which was published in 1856, the "History of the United Netherlands," publishing the first part in 1860 and the second in 1868, and the "Life and Death of John Barnevelde" in 1874; was appointed the United States minister at Vienna in 1861, and at St. James's in 1869; he ranks high as a historian, being both faithful and graphic (1814-1877).
MOTOR CAR, a vehicle propelled by petroleum, electricity, &c.
MOUNTAIN, THE, the name given to the Jacobins, or the extreme democratic party, at the French Revolution, from their occupying the highest benches in the hall of the National Convention, and included such men as Marat, Danton, Robespierre, and the men of the Reign of Terror.
MOVABLE FEASTS, festivals of the Church, the date of which varies with the date of Easter.
MOZAMBIQUE (1,000), the general name for Portuguese East Africa, lies between Cape Delgado and Delagoa Bay on the mainland, opposite Madagascar; the Rovuma River separates it from German territory in the N.; in the S. it touches British Maputaland, while inland it borders on British Central and South Africa and the Transvaal; the Zambesi divides it into two; the coast is low and wet, inland are richly wooded plateaux; the soil is fertile, and minerals abound, but the government is bad, and industry does not develop; 52 miles of railway connect Lorenzo Marques with the Transvaal; other chief towns are Quilimane (6), and the capital MOZAMBIQUE (7), on an island.
MOZART, WOLFGANG AMADEUS CHRYSOSTOM, eminent musical composer, born at Salzburg; was distinguished for his musical genius as a boy, and produced over 600 musical compositions, but his principal works were his operas, the "Marriage of Figaro," "Don Giovanni," and the "Magic Flute"; his fate was an unhappy one; he suffered much from poverty and neglect; the last piece he wrote was a Requiem Mass, which he felt, he said, as if he were writing for himself, and he died at Prague on the evening of its rehearsal (1756-1791).
MUCKLEBACKIT, SAUNDERS, an old fisherman in Scott's "Antiquary."
MUCKLEWRATH, a fanatic preacher in Scott's "Old Mortality."
MUCOUS MEMBRANE, a delicate membrane which lines the cavities and the canals of the human body.
MUEZZIN, an official, usually blind, attached to a Mohammedan mosque, summons the faithful to prayers with a chant from a minaret.
MUFTI, a doctor and interpreter of Mohammedan law.
MUFTI, THE GRAND, is head of the Ulema, or interpreters of the Koran; holds his appointment from the Sultan, and exercises great influence at the Porte; legal advisers to local and general councils in the Turkish empire are also styled Mufti.
MUGGLETON, founder of the Muggletonians, a tailor who, along with one Reeve, at the time of the Commonwealth, pretended to be the two witnesses of the Revelation and the last of God's prophets, invested with power to save and to damn; individuals of the sect founded by him existed so recently as the beginning of this century.
MUIR, JOHN, a Sanskrit scholar, born in Glasgow; was of the Indian Civil Service; was a man of liberal views, particularly in religion, and a patron of learning; endowed the Chair of Sanskrit in Edinburgh University (1810-1882).
MUIR, SIR WILLIAM, an Arabic scholar, brother of the preceding; Principal of Edinburgh University; was in the Indian Civil Service; wrote a "Life of Mahomet," on the rise of Mohammedanism, and on the Koran; b. 1819.
MUKDEN (250), in Chinese Shing-king, the capital of Manchuria, on a tributary of the Liao, in the S. of the province; is a city of considerable commercial importance, and has good coal-mines in the neighbourhood; there are a great palace, and numerous temples; Irish and Scotch Presbyterian and Roman Catholic missions have a centre here; the Japanese invasion of 1894-98 was directed towards it.
MULL (5), large island in the NW. of Argyllshire, third of the Hebrides; is mountainous and picturesque, with greatly indented coast-line; the highest peak is Ben More, 3185 ft., the largest inlet Loch-na-Keal; the soil is best adapted for grazing. TOBERMORY (1), in the N., is the only town.
MUeLLER, GEORGE, founder of the Orphan Homes near Bristol; born in Prussia; founded the Orphan Home, in 1836, on voluntary subscriptions, in answer to prayer, to the support one year of more than 2000 orphans (1805-1898).
MUeLLER, JOHANNES, eminent German physiologist, born at Coblenz; professor at Berlin; ranks as the founder of modern physiology, and famed as author of a text-book on the science, entitled "Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen" (1801-1858).
MUeLLER, JOHANNES VON, celebrated historian, born at Schaffhausen, the "History of Switzerland" his principal work (1752-1809).
MUeLLER, JULIUS, a German theologian, born at Brieg; professor at Halle; his great work, the "Christian Doctrine of Sin"; he collaborated on theological subjects with Neander and Nitzsch (1801-1878).
MUeLLER, KARL OTFRIED, archaeologist and philologist, born at Brieg, brother of the preceding; was professor at Goettingen, and distinguished for his researches in Grecian antiquities and his endeavour to construe all that concerns the history and life of ancient Greece, including mythology, literature, and art (1797-1840).
MULOCK, DINAH MARIA (Mrs. Craik), English novelist, born in Stock-upon-Trent, authoress of "John Halifax, Gentleman," and other novels (1820-1887).
MULREADY, WILLIAM, genre painter, born at Ennis, Ireland, illustrated the "Vicar of Wakefield" and other works (1786-1863).
MULTAN (75), a Punjab city near the Chenab River, 200 m. SW. of Lahore; has many mosques and temples; manufactures of silks, carpets, pottery, and enamel ware, and considerable trade.
MUeNCHHAUSEN, BARON VON, a cavalry officer in the service of Hanover famed for the extravagant stories he used to relate of his adventures and exploits which, with exaggerations, were collected by one Raspe, and published in 1785 under Muenchhausen's name (1720-1797).
MUeNICH (351), capital of Bavaria, on the Isar, 440 m. by rail SW. of Berlin; is a city of magnificent buildings and rare art treasures; palaces, public buildings, cathedral, churches, &c., are all on an elaborate scale, and adorned with works of art; there are galleries of sculpture, and ancient and modern painting, a university, colleges, and libraries; the industries include stained glass, lithographing, bell-founding, and scientific instrument-making; and there are enormous breweries. Muenich has been the centre of artistic life and culture in the 19th century, and associated with it are Cornelius, Kaulbach, and many famous names.
MUeNSTER (49), capital of Westphalia, a mediaeval-looking town, 100 m. by rail N. of Cologne; has textile, paper, and printing industries; there is an old cathedral of 12th century, a town-hall, castle, and 16th-century wine-cellar; the place of the Catholic university has been taken by an academy with Catholic theological and philosophical faculties; here took place the Anabaptist movement of 1535; the bishops retained their secular jurisdiction till 1803.
MUeNZER, THOMAS, Anabaptist leader, born at Stolberg, and began to preach at Zwickau 1520; he came into collision both with the civil authorities and the Reformed Church; for several years he travelled through Bohemia and South Germany, and in 1525 settled at Muehlhausen; here his communistic doctrines obtained popularity and kindled an insurrection; the rebels were routed at Frankenhansen, and Muenzer was captured and executed (1489-1525).
MURAT, JOACHIM, king of Naples, born near Cahors, the son of an innkeeper; entered the army, attracted the notice of Bonaparte, and became his aide-de-camp; distinguished himself in many engagements, received Bonaparte's sister to wife, and was loaded with honours on the establishment of the Empire, and for his services under it as a dashing cavalry officer was rewarded with the crown of Naples in 1808, but to the last allied in arms with his brother-in-law; he had to fight in the end on his own behalf in defence of his crown, and was defeated, taken prisoner, and shot (1771-1815).
MURATORI, LUDOVICO ANTONIO, Italian antiquary and historian, horn in Vignola, Modena; became librarian in Milan 1695, and of the D'Este library, Modena, in 1700, in which city he died; he edited the Italian chronicles of the 5th-16th centuries, with many essays and dissertations, and many other historical and antiquarian works; but his name is chiefly associated with the "Muratorian Fragment," which dates from the 2nd century, and contains a list of the then canonical scriptures, and which he published 1840 (1672-1750).
MURAVIEFF, COUNT, Russian statesman, born of a distinguished family; entered the diplomatic service in connection with the Russian embassies at Berlin, Stockholm, The Hague, and Paris, and became Minister to Denmark in 1893; in 1897 he was appointed Minister for Foreign Affairs in succession to Lobanoff; b. 1845.
MURCHISON, SIR RODERICK IMPEY, geologist, born in Ross-shire; entered the army and served in the Peninsular War, but retiring in 1816 gave himself to science; he explored many parts of Europe, predicted the discovery of gold in Australia, was President of the British Association, and knighted in 1846, and subsequently received many other scientific appointments and honours; he founded the Chair of Geology in Edinburgh University in 1870; but his fame rests on his discovery and establishment of the Silurian system; his book on "The Silurian System" is the chief of several works (1792-1871).