LITURGY is sometimes used as including any form of public worship, but more strictly it denotes the form for the observance of the Eucharist. As development from the simple form of their institution in the primitive Church liturgies assumed various forms, and only by degrees certain marked types began to prevail: viz., the Roman, ascribed to St. Peter, in Latin, and prevailing in the Roman Catholic Church all over the world; the Ephesian, ascribed to St. John, in corrupt Latin, included the old Scottish and Irish forms, heard now only in a few places in Spain; the Jerusalem, ascribed to St. James, in Greek, the form of the Greek Church and in translation of the Armenians; the Babylonian, ascribed to St. Thomas, in Syriac, used still by the Nestorians and Christians of St. Thomas; and the Alexandrian, ascribed to St. Mark, in a Graeco-Coptic jargon, in use among the Copts; these all contain certain common elements, but differ in order and in subsidiary parts; the Anglican liturgy is adapted from the Roman; other Protestant liturgies or forms of service are mostly of modern date and compiled from Scripture sources.
LIVA, an Italian coin worth 91/2 d., and the monetary unit in the country.
LIVERPOOL (585), the third city and first seaport of Great Britain, in Lancashire, on the Mersey, 3 m. from the sea, formerly the chief seat of the slave interest in Britain; owed its present prosperity to the impulse of the cotton trade at the end of the 18th century; progressing rapidly it has now docks stretching six miles along the Mersey, which receive a sixth of the tonnage that visits British ports; through it passes a third of our foreign trade, including enormous imports of wheat and cotton and exports of cotton goods; it possesses shipbuilding and engineering works, iron-foundries, flour, tobacco, and chemical factories; the public buildings, town hall, exchange, colleges, and observatory are fine edifices; it was the native place of W. E. Gladstone.
LIVERPOOL, EARL OF, ROBERT JENKINSON, English statesman, educated at Oxford; entered Parliament 1791, and as Foreign Secretary negotiated the peace of Amiens in 1802; becoming Lord Hawkesbury in 1803, he became Home Secretary under Pitt, and succeeding to the earldom in 1808; was War Secretary under Perceval in 1800, Premier from 1812 to 1827; he liberalised the tariff and maintained a sound finance, uniting and holding together the Tory party at a critical period (1770-1828).
LIVERYMEN, name given to members of the several guilds or corporations of London and freemen of the city, so called as entitled to wear the livery belonging to their respective companies; they possess certain privileges of a civic character.
LIVINGSTONE, DAVID, African traveller and missionary, born in Blantyre, Lanarkshire; began life as a mill-worker, studied medicine and theology at Glasgow, and was sent out to Africa by the London Missionary Society in 1840, landed at Port Natal, and addressed himself to missionary work; moving north, he arrived at Lake Ngami in 1849, and ascending the Zambesi in 1853 arrived at Loanda next year; later on he explored the course of the Zambesi and its tributaries, discovered Lake Nyassa, and set himself to discover the sources of the Nile, but this expedition proved too much for him, and he died exhausted; his body was embalmed, brought home to England, and buried in Westminster Abbey (1815-1873).
LIVIUS, TITUS (LIVY), illustrious Roman historian, born at Patavium (Padua); appears to have settled early in Rome and spent the most of his life there; his reputation rests on his "History of Rome from the Foundation of the City to the Death of Drusus," it consisted of 142 chapters, but of these only 30 remain entire and 5 in fragments, bequeathing to posterity his account of the early history of the city and of the wars with Hannibal (59-17 B.C.).
LIVONIA (1,260), Russian Baltic province on the Gulf of Riga; is flat and marshy, and only moderately fertile; produces rye, barley, and potatoes; its chief industries are distilling, brewing, and iron-founding, and fishing; four-fifths of the population are Letts and Esthonians, only 5 per cent. are Russian; the original Finnic Livonians are almost extinct; capital Riga (180).
LIVRAISON, part of a serial issued from time to time.
LLANDUDNO (6), a fashionable watering-place at the foot of Great Ormes Head, Carnarvon, frequented by people from Yorkshire and Lancashire.
LLANELLY (32), a manufacturing seaport in Carmarthenshire for shipping coal, iron, and copper.
LLANOS, vast level plains twice the size of Great Britain in the N. of South America, in the basin of the Orinoco, covered in great part with tall grass and stocked in the rainy season with herds of cattle; during the dry season they are a desert.
LLORENTE, JUAN ANTONIO, Spanish historian, is the author of several works, but his celebrity is mainly due to his "History of the Spanish Inquisition," of which in 1789 he became the secretary (1760-1823).
LLOYD'S, a part of the Royal Exchange, London, appropriated to the use of underwriters and for marine intelligence, frequented by those interested in merchant shipping; so called from Lloyd's Coffee-house, formerly the head-quarters of the class.
LOAD-LINE, line painted on the outside of a vessel to mark the extreme of immersion in loading her with a cargo.
LOADSTONE or LODESTONE, an iron ore remarkable for its magnetic quality or power of attracting iron; it derived its name from its use as a leading stone in the compass to mariners.
LOBBY, THE, hall connected with a legislative assembly to which the public have access.
LOCAL OPTION, licence granted to the inhabitants of a district to extinguish or reduce the sale of intoxicants in their midst.
LOCHABER, a Highland district in the S. of Inverness-shire.
LOCHABER AXE, an axe with a broad blade and a long handle formerly in use among the Highlanders as a weapon.
LOCHIEL, a Highland chief, Sir Evan Cameron his name, head of the Cameron clan, who held out against William III.'s rule in the Highlands, but ultimately took the oath of allegiance; d. 1719.
LOCHINVAR, hero of a ballad in Scott's "Marmion," who carries off his sweetheart just as she is about to be sacrificed in marriage to another whom she loathes.
LOCHLEVEN, Scottish lake in Kinross-shire overshadowed by Benarty and the West Lomond, is 23 m. NW. of Edinburgh; in a castle on one of its islands Mary Stuart was imprisoned 1567-68; it is now famous for its trout.
LOCKE, JOHN, English philosopher, the father of modern materialism and empiricism, born in Wrington, Somerset; studied medicine, but did not practise it, and gave himself up to a literary life, much of it spent in the family of the celebrated Earl of Shaftesbury, both at home with it and abroad; his great work is his "Essay on the Human Understanding" in 1690, which was preceded by "Letters on Toleration," published before the expulsion of James II., and followed by the "Treatise on Government" the same year, and "Thoughts on Education" in 1693; his "Essay" was written to show that all our ideas were derived from experience, that is, through the senses and reflection on what they reveal, and that there are no innate ideas; "Locke," says Prof. Saintsbury, "is eminently" (that is, before all his contemporaries) "of such stuff as dreams are not made of"—is wholly a prosaic practical man and Englishman (1632-1704).
LOCKHART, JOHN GIBSON, man of letters, born in Cambusnethan; bred for the Scottish bar and practised at it; contributed to Blackwood, wrote in collaboration with John Wilson "Peter's Letters to his Kinsfolk"; married Sophia Scott, Sir Walter's daughter, in 1820, lived a good deal near Abbotsford, wrote some four novels and "Spanish Ballads," became editor of the Quarterly in 1825, and began in 1837 his "Life of Scott," a great work, and his greatest; died at Abbotsford, health broken and in much sorrow; his "Life" has been interestingly written by Andrew Lang (1794-1854).
LOCKOUT, the exclusion of workmen from a factory by the employer to bring them to terms which they decline to accept.
LOCKYER, SIR JOSEPH NORMAN, astronomer, born at Rugby; became clerk in the War Office in 1857, was secretary to the Royal Commission on Scientific Instruction in 1870, and was transferred to the Science and Art Department in 1875; he directed Government eclipse expeditions to Sicily, India, Egypt, and the West Indies; in 1860 he became F.R.S., received the Society's Rumford medal in 1874, next year was appointed corresponding Member of the Institute of France and received the Janssen medal in 1891; he was knighted in 1897; he made important discoveries in spectrum analysis, and has written several astronomical works; b. 1836.
LOCO-FOCOS, the name, which denotes lucifer-matches, given to an ultra-democratic or radical party in the United States because at a meeting when on one occasion the lights were extinguished the matches which they carried were drawn and the lamps lit again.
LOCRI, a people of ancient Greece of two distinct tribes occupying different districts of the country.
LODI (18), a town in Lombardy, 18 m. SE. of Milan, on the Adda, famous for a signal victory of Bonaparte over the Austrians in 1796 in the face of a tremendous fire.
LOEWE, GOTTFRIED, German composer; composed oratorios, operas, and pianoforte pieces; sang and played in London in 1847 (1796-1869).
LOFODEN ISLANDS (20), a rugged mountainous chain on the NW. Norwegian coast within the Arctic circle, with winters rendered mild by the Gulf Stream, afford pasturage for sheep; the waters between them and the mainland are a rich cod-fishing ground, visited by thousands of boats between January and March.
LOGAN, JOHN, a Scotch poet, born at Soutra; was for a time minister in South Leith church, but was obliged to resign; was the author of a lyric, "The Braes of Yarrow" and certain of the Scotch paraphrases (1748-1788). See BRUCE, MICHAEL.
LOGARITHM, the exponent of the power to which a fixed number, called the base, must be raised to produce a certain given number.
LOGIC, the science of correct thinking or of the laws which regulate thought, called also dialectics; or in the Hegelian system "the scientific exposition and development of those notions or categories which underlie all things and all being."
LOGIC SPECTACLES, Carlyle's name for eyes that can only discern the external relations of things, but not the inner nature of them.
LOGOS, an expression in St. John's gospel translated the Word (in chap. i.) to denote the manifestation of God, or God as manifested, defined in theology as the second person of the Deity, and viewed as intermediary between God as Father and God as Spirit.
LOG-ROLLING, mutual praise by authors of each other's work.
LOHENGRIN, hero of a German 13th-century poem; son of Parzival, and a Knight of the Grail; carried by a swan to Brabant he delivered and married the Princess Elsa; subsequently returning from war against the Saracens, she asked him of his origin; he told her, and was at once carried back again by the swan. Wagner adapted the story in his opera "Lohengrin."
LOIRE, the largest river in France, 630 m., rises in the Cevennes, flows northwards to Orleans and westward to the Bay of Biscay, through a very fertile valley which it often inundates. It is navigable for 550 m., but its lower waters are obstructed by islands and shoals; it is connected by canals with the Seine, Saone, and Brest Harbour.
LOKI, in the Norse mythology, a primitive spirit of evil who mingles with the Norse gods, distinguished for his cunning and ensnaring ways, whose devices are only evil in appearance, and are overruled for good.
LOLLARDS, originally a religious community established at Antwerp in 1300, devoted to the care of the sick and burial of the dead, and as persecuted by the Church, regarded as heretics. Their name became a synonym for heretic, and was hence applied to the followers of Wycliffe in England and certain sectaries in Ayrshire.
LOMBARD, PETER, a famous schoolman, born in Lombardy in the 12th century, of poor parents; was a disciple of Abelard; taught theology at, and became Bishop of, Paris; was styled the Master of Sentences, as author of a compilation of sentences from Augustine and other Church Fathers on points of Christian doctrine, and long used as a manual in scholastic disputations.
LOMBARDS, a German people, settled at the beginning of our era about the lower Elbe. In the 5th century we find them in Moravia, and a century later established, a powerful people, between the Adriatic and the Danube. They invaded Italy in 568, and in three years had mastered the North, but abandoning their Arian faith they gradually became Italianised, and after the overthrow of their dynasty by Charlemagne in 774 they became merged in the Italians. From the 13th century Italian merchants, known as Lombards, from Lucca, Florence, Venice, and Genoa, traded under much odium, largely in England as wool-dealers and bankers, whence the name Lombard Street.
LOMBARDY (3,982), an inland territory of Northern Italy between the Alps and the Po, Piedmont, and Venetia. In the N. are Alpine mountains and valleys rich in pasturage; in the S. a very fertile, well irrigated plain, which produces cereals, rice, and sub-tropical plants. The culture of the silkworm is extensive; there are textile and hardware manufactures. The chief towns are Milan, Pavia, and Corno. Austrian in 1713, Napoleon made it part of the kingdom of Italy in 1805; it was restored to Austria in 1815, and finally again to Italy in 1859.
LOMOND, LOCH, an irregularly-shaped lake in Dumbarton and Stirling shires, 22 m. long and of varying breadth; contains a number of small wooded islands; on the eastern shore rises Ben Lomond to the height of 3192 ft.
LONDON (5,633), on the Thames, 50 m. from the sea, the capital of the British Empire, is the most populous and wealthiest city in the world. An important place in Roman times, it was the cap. of the East Saxons, and has been the metropolis of England since the Norman Conquest; it possesses, therefore, innumerable historic buildings and associations. Often devastated by plague and fire, its progress has never been stayed; its population has more than quadrupled itself this century, and more than doubled since 1850. The City of London proper occupies one square mile in the centre, is wholly a commercial part, and is governed by an annually elected mayor and aldermen; is the seat of a bishopric, with St. Paul's for cathedral. The City of Westminster is also a bishopric under a high steward and high bailiff, chosen by the dean and chapter. These two cities, with twenty-five boroughs under local officers, constitute the metropolis, and since 1888 the county of the city of London, and send 59 members to Parliament. Streets in the older parts are narrow, but newer districts are well built; the level ground and density of building detracts from the effect of innumerable magnificent edifices. Buckingham, Kensington, and St. James's are royal residences; the Houses of Parliament are the biggest Gothic building in the world; St. Paul's, built by Sir Christopher Wren, contains the remains of Nelson and Wellington, Reynolds, Turner, and Wren himself. Westminster, consecrated 1269, is the burial-place of England's greatest poets and statesmen, and of many kings; the Royal Courts of Justice in the Strand were opened in 1882. London has a University (an examining body), 700 colleges and endowed schools, among which Westminster, Christ's Hospital, and the Charterhouse are famous, many medical hospitals, and schools and charitable institutions of all kinds. London is the centre of the English literary and artistic world, and of scientific interest and research; here are the largest publishing houses, the chief libraries and art-galleries, and museums; the British Museum and Library, the National Galleries, &c., and magnificent botanical and zoological gardens. London is also a grand emporium of commerce, and the banking centre of the world. It has nine principal docks; its shipping trade is unrivalled, 55,000 vessels enter and clear annually; it pays more than half the custom duties of the kingdom, and handles more than a quarter of the total exports; its warehouse trade is second only to that of Manchester; it manufactures everything, chiefly watches, jewellery, leather goods, cycles, pianos, and glass. The control of traffic, the lighting, and water-supply of so large a city are causing yearly more serious problems.
LONDON (30), the cap. of Middlesex county, Ontario, near the S. end of the peninsula, in the middle of a fertile district, and a rising place.
LONDONDERRY (152), maritime county in Ulster, washed by Lough Foyle and the Atlantic, surrounded by Donegal in the W., Tyrone in the S., and Antrim in the W., and watered by the Foyle, Roe, and Bann Rivers, somewhat hilly towards the S., is largely under pasture; the cultivated parts grow oats, potatoes, and flax; granted to the Corporation and Guilds of London in 1609, a large part of the land is still owned by them. The county town, LONDONDERRY (33), manufactures linen shirts, whisky, and iron goods, and does a considerable shipping trade. Its siege by the troops of James II. in 1689 is memorable.
LONG, GEORGE, a distinguished classical scholar, born in Lancashire; became professor of Greek in London University; edited several useful works, among others the "Penny Cyclopaedia," on which he spent 11 years of his life (1800-1870).
LONG ISLAND (774), a long narrow island, 115 m. long by from 12 to 24 broad, belonging to New York State, off the shores of New York and Connecticut, from which it is separated by the East River and Long Island Sound. It is low, much of it forest and sandy waste land, with great lagoons in the S. The chief industry is market-gardening; fisheries and oyster-beds are valuable. Principal towns, Brooklyn, Long Island City, and Flushing.
LONG PARLIAMENT, the celebrated English Parliament which assembled 3rd November 1640, and was dissolved by Cromwell 20th April 1653, and which was afterwards restored, and did not finally decease till 16th March 1660.
LONG TOM COFFIN, a character in Cooper's novel "The Pilot," and of wider celebrity than any of the sailor class.
LONGCHAMP, a racecourse on the W. side of the Bois du Boulogne, Paris.
LONGCHAMP, WILLIAM DE, a low-born Norman favourite of Richard I., made by him bishop of Ely; became Justiciar of England 1190, and Papal Legate 1191; clever, energetic, just, and faithful, he yet incurred dislike by his ambition and arrogance, and was banished to Normandy; his energy in gathering the money for Richard's ransom restored him to favour, and he became Chancellor; d. 1197.
LONGFELLOW, HENRY WADSWORTH, American poet, born at Portland, Maine; after studying on the Continent, became professor of Modern Languages in Harvard University; wrote "Hyperion," a romance in prose, and a succession of poems as well as lyrics, among the former "Evangeline," "The Golden Legend," "Hiawatha," and "Miles Standish" (1807-1882).
LONGINUS, DIONYSIUS CASSIUS, a learned Greek philosopher, rhetorician, and critic, and eminent in all three departments, being in philosophy a Platonist of pure blood; his fame as a teacher reached the ears of Zenobia, the queen of Palmyra, and being invited to her court he became her political adviser as well as the educator of her children, but on the surrender of the place he was beheaded by order of the Emperor Aurelian as a traitor; he wrote several works, but the only one that survives to some extent is his "Treatise on the Sublime," translated by Boileau (210-273).
LONGMANS, famous and oldest publishing house in London; founded by Thomas Longman of Bristol in 1726, and now in the hands of the fifth generation; has been associated with the production of Johnson's "Dictionary," Lindley Murray's "Grammar," the works of Wordsworth, Southey, Coleridge, and Scott, and Macaulay's "Lays," "Essays," and "History"; it absorbed the firm of Parker in 1863, and of Rivington in 1890.
LOeNNROT, ELIAS, a great Finnish scholar, born in Nyland; was professor at Helsingfors; was editor of ancient Finnish compositions, and author of a Finnish-Swedish Dictionary (1802-1884).
LOPE DE VEGA. See VEGA.
LORD OF THE ISLES, assumed title of Donald, a chief of Islay, who in 1346 reduced the whole of the Western Isles under his authority, and borne by his successors, and, as some allege, his ancestors as well.
LORELEI or LURLEI, a famous steep rock, 430 ft. high, on the Rhine, near St. Goar; dangerous to boatmen, on which it was fabled a siren sat combing her hair and singing to lure them to ruin; the subject of an exquisite Volkslied by Heine.
LORETTO, a city in Italy, 14 m. SE. of Ancona; celebrated as the site of the SANTA CASA (q. v.), and for the numerous pilgrims that annually resort to the holy shrine.
L'ORIENT (41), a seaport in Morbihan; contains the principal shipbuilding yard in France; was founded by the French East India Company in 1664 in connection with their trade in the East.
LORNE, MARQUIS OF, eldest son of the Duke of Argyll; entered Parliament in 1868; married Princess Louise, fourth daughter of Queen Victoria, in 1871; became Governor-General of Canada in 1878, member of Parliament for South Manchester in 1895, and is Governor of Windsor Castle; b. 1845.
LORRAINE, a district in France, between Metz and the Vosges; belonged originally to Germany, became French in 1766, and was restored to Germany in 1871.
LORRAINE, CLAUDE. See CLAUDE LORRAINE.
LOS ANGELES (11), a city in South California, 345 m. SE. of San Francisco, and founded in 1781; is the centre of a great orange-growing district, and a health resort.
LOST TRIBES, the ten tribes of the race of Israel whom the Assyrians carried off into captivity (see 2 Kings xvii. 6), and of whom all trace has been lost, and only in recent years guessed at.
LOTOPHAGI. See LOTUS EATERS.
LOTUS EATERS or LOTOPHAGI, an ancient people inhabiting a district of Cyrenaica, on the NE. coast of Africa, who lived on the fruit of the lotus-tree, from which they made wine. Ulysses and his companions in their wanderings landed on their shores, but the soothing influence of the lotus fruit so overpowered them with languor, that they felt no inclination to leave, or any more a desire to pursue the journey homewards. See Tennyson's poem "The Lotus-eaters."
LOTZE, RUDOLF HERMANN, German philosopher, born at Bautzen, in Saxony; professor successively at Goettingen and Berlin; believed in metaphysics as well as physics, and was versant in both; "Microcosmus" is his principal work, published in 1864; he founded the system of "teleological idealism," based on ethical considerations; he repudiated agnosticism, and had as little patience with a mere mechanical view of the universe as Carlyle (1817-1881).
LOUDON, JOHN CLAUDIUS, botanist and horticulturist, born at Cambuslang, Lanarkshire; wrote largely on plants and their cultivation, and an "Arboretum" on trees and shrubs (1783-1843).
LOUIS I., LE DEBONNAIRE (i. e. the Gentle), was king of France from 814 to 840 in succession to his father Charlemagne, but was too meek and lowly to rule, and fitter for a monk than a king; suffered himself to be taken advantage of by his nobles and the clergy; was dethroned by his sons, and compelled to retire into a cloister, from which he was twice over brought forth to stay the ravages of their enemies; he divided his kingdom among them during his lifetime, and bequeathed it to them to guard over it when he was gone, to its dismemberment.
LOUIS VI., LE GROS (i. e. the Fat), was son of Philip I.; was associated in the royal power with his father from 1098 to 1108, and sole king from 1108 till 1137; in his struggle against the great vassals he, by the help of the clergy and the bourgeois, centralised the government in the crown; had trouble with Henry I. of England as Lord Superior of Normandy, and was defeated by him in battle in 1119; under his reign the burgesses achieved their independence, and though he did nothing to initiate the movement he knew how to profit from the achievement in the interest of the monarchy.
LOUIS VII., THE YOUNG, son of the preceding, married Eleanor of Aquitaine; took part in the second crusade; on his return divorced his queen for her profligacy in his absence, who married Henry II. of England, and brought with her as dowry to Henry the richest provinces of France, which gave rise to the Hundred Years' War (1120-1180).
LOUIS VIII., THE LION, son of Philip Augustus; offered by the barons of England the crown of England, he was crowned at London in 1216, but defeated at Lincoln next year, he was obliged to recross the Channel; became king of France in 1223; he took several towns from the English, and conducted a crusade against the Albigenses (1187-1226).
LOUIS IX., SAINT LOUIS, son of the preceding; was a minor at the death of his father, and the country was governed by his mother, Blanche of Castile, with a strong hand; on attaining his majority he found himself engaged with the English under Henry, who had been called on to assist certain of the great barons in revolt, but in 1242 he defeated them in three engagements; under a vow he made during a dangerous illness he became a crusader, and in 1249 landed in Egypt with 40,000 men, but in an engagement was taken prisoner by the Saracens; released in 1250 on payment of a large ransom, though he did not return home for two years after, till on hearing of the death of his mother, who had been regent during his absence; on his return he applied himself to the affairs of his kingdom and the establishment of the royal power, but undertaking a second crusade in 1270, he got as far as Tunis, where a plague broke out in the camp, and he became one of the victims, and one of his sons before him; he was an eminently good and pious man, and was canonised by Boniface VIII. in 1297 (1215-1270).
LOUIS XI., son of Charles VII., born at Bourges, of a cruel and treacherous nature, took part in two insurrections against his father, by whom he had been pardoned after the first and from whom he had to flee after the second for refuge to Burgundy, where he remained till his father's death in 1461; he signalised the commencement of his reign by severe measures against the great vassals, which provoked a revolt, headed by the Dukes of Burgundy and Bretagne, which he succeeded in subduing more by his crafty policy than force of arms; involved afterwards in a war with Charles the Bold of Burgundy and soliciting an interview, he was discovered by Charles to have been sowing treason among his subjects, taken prisoner, and only released on a solemn protestation of innocence; notwithstanding the sinister and often cruel character of his policy, he did much to develop the resources of the country and advance the cause of good government by the patronage of learning; the crimes he had committed weighed heavily on his mind towards the end of his days, and he died in great fear of death and the judgment (1423-1483).
LOUIS XIII., the son of Henry IV.; being only nine years old at the death of his father, the government was conducted by Marie de' Medicis, his mother, and at his accession the country was a prey to civil dissensions, which increased on the young king's marriage with a Spanish princess; the Huguenots rose in arms, but a peace was concluded in 1623; it was now Richelieu came to the front and assumed the reins with his threefold policy of taming the nobles, checkmating the Huguenots, and humbling the house of Austria; Rochelle, the head-quarters of the Huguenots, revolted, the English assisting them, but by the strategy adopted the city was taken and the English driven to sea; henceforth the king was nobody and the cardinal was king; the cardinal died in 1642 and the king the year after, leaving two sons, Louis, who succeeded him, and Philip, Duke of Orleans and the first of his line (1601-1644).
LOUIS XIV., the "Grand Monarque," son of the preceding, was only nine when his father died, and the government was in the hands of his mother, Anne of Austria, and Cardinal Mazarin, her minister; under the regency the glory of France was maintained in the field, but her internal peace was disturbed by the insubordination of the parlement and the troubles of the Fronde; by a compact on the part of Mazarin with Spain before he died Louis was married to the Infanta Maria Theresa in 1659, and in 1660 he announced his intention to rule the kingdom alone, which he did for 54 years with a decision and energy no one gave him credit for, in fulfilment of his famous protestation L'etat, c'est moi, choosing Colbert to control finance, Louvois to reorganise the army, and Vauban to fortify the frontier towns; he sought to be as absolute in his foreign relations as in his internal administration, and hence the long succession of wars which, while they brought glory to France, ended in exhausting her; at home he suffered no one in religious matters to think otherwise than himself; he revoked the Edict of Nantes, sanctioned the dragonnades in the Cevennes, and to extirpate heresy encouraged every form of cruelty; yet when we look at the men who adorned it, the reign of Louis XIV. was one of the most illustrious in letters and the arts in the history of France: Corneille, Racine, and Moliere eminent in the drama, La Fontaine and Boileau in poetry, Bossuet in oratory, Bruyere and Rochefoucauld in morals, Pascal in philosophy, Saint-Simon and Retz in history, and Poussin, Lorraine, Lebrun, Perault, &c., in art (1636-1715).
LOUIS XV., Bien-Aime (i. e. Well-Beloved), great-grandson of the preceding, and only five at his death, the country during his minority being under the regency of Philip, Duke of Orleans; the regency was rendered disastrous by the failure of the Mississippi Scheme of Law and a war with Spain, caused by the rejection of a Spanish princess for Louis, and by his marriage to Maria Lesczynski, the daughter of Stanislas of Poland; Louis was crowned king in 1722 and declared of age the following year; in 1726 Cardinal Fleury, who had been his tutor, became his minister, and under him occurred the war of the succession to Poland, concluded by the treaty of Vienna, and the war of the Austrian succession, concluded by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle; with the death of his minister Louis gave way to his licentious propensities, and in all matters of state allowed himself to be swayed by unworthy favourites who pandered to his lusts, the most conspicuous among them being Madame de Pompadour and Dame de Barry, her successor in crime; under them, and the corrupt court they presided over, the country went step by step to ruin, and she was powerless to withstand the military ascendency of England, which deprived her of all her colonies both in the East and in the West; though Choiseul, his last "substantial" minister, tried hard by a family compact of the Bourbons to collect her scattered strength; the situation did not trouble Louis; "it will last all my time," he said, and he let things go; suffering from a disease contracted by vice, he was seized with confluent smallpox, and died in misery, to the relief of the nation, which could not restrain its joy (1710-1774).
LOUIS XVI., the grandson of the preceding and his successor; had in 1770 married Marie Antoinette, the youngest daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, and a woman young, beautiful, and accomplished, in high esteem for the purity of her character; his accession was hailed with enthusiasm, and he set himself to restore the ruined finances of the country by taking into his counsel those who could best advise him in her straitened state, but these one and all found the problem an impossible one, owing to the unwillingness of the nobility to sacrifice any of their privileges for the public good; this led to the summoning of the States-General in 1789, and the outbreak of the Revolution by the fall of the Bastille in July of that year; in the midst of this Louis, well-intentioned but without strength of character, was submissive to the wishes of his court and the queen, lost his popularity by his hesitating conduct, the secret support he gave to the EMIGRANTS (q. v.), his attempt at flight, and by his negotiations with foreign enemies, and subjected himself to persecution at the hands of the nation; he was therefore suspended from his functions, shut up in the Temple, arraigned before the Convention, and condemned to death as "guilty of conspiracy against the liberty of the nation and a crime against the general safety of the State"; he was accordingly guillotined on the 21st January; he protested his innocence on the scaffold, but his voice was drowned by the beating of drums; he was accompanied by the Abbe Edgeworth, his confessor, who, as he laid his head on the block, exclaimed, "Son of St. Louis, ascend to heaven" (1754-1793).
LOUIS XVII., second son of the preceding, shut up in the Temple, was, after the execution of his mother, proclaimed king by the Emigrants, and handed over in his prison to the care of one Simon, a shoemaker, in service about the prison, to bring him up in the principles of Sansculottism; Simon taught him to drink, dance, and sing the carmagnole; he died in prison "amid squalor and darkness," his shirt not changed for six months (1785-1796).
LOUIS XVIII., brother of Louis XVI., and called Monsieur during his brother's reign, flew from Paris and joined the Emigrants along with his brother, Count d'Artois, and took up arms, which he was compelled to forego, to wander from one foreign Court to another and find refuge at last in England; on Napoleon's departure for Elba he returned to France and was installed on the throne as Louis le Desire, but by the reappearance of the former on the scene he was obliged to seek refuge in Belgium, to return for good after the battle of Waterloo, July 9, 1815, with Talleyrand for minister and Fouche as minister of police; he reigned but a few years, his constitution being much enfeebled by a disease (1755-1824).
LOUIS NAPOLEON (Napoleon III.), nephew of the first emperor, born at Paris, brought up at Augsburg and in Switzerland; became head of the family in 1832; he began a Bonapartist propaganda, and set himself to recover the throne of France; an abortive attempt in 1836 ended in a short exile in America and London, and a second at Boulogne in 1840 landed him in the fortress of Ham under sentence of perpetual imprisonment; escaping in 1846 he spent two years in England, returning to France after the Revolution of 1848; elected to the Constituent Assembly and the same year to the Presidency he assumed the headship of the Republic, and posed as the protector of popular liberties and national prosperity; struggles with the Assembly followed; he won the favour of the army, filled the most important posts with his friends, dissolved the Constitution in 1851 (Dec. 2), was immediately re-elected President for ten years, and a year later assumed the title of Emperor; he married the Spanish Countess Eugenie in 1853, and exerted himself by public works, exhibitions, courting of the clergy, gagging of the press, and so on to strengthen his hold on the populace; in the Crimean War (1854-56) and the Lombardy campaign (1859) he was supported by Britain; in 1860 he annexed Savoy and Nice; ten years later suspecting the enthusiasm of the army, he plunged into war with Germany to rekindle its ardour, on a protest arising from the scheme to put Leopold of Hohenzollern on the Spanish throne; France was unprepared, disaster followed disaster; the Emperor surrendered to the Germans at Sedan, Sept. 2, 1870; a prisoner till the close of the war, he came to England in 1871 and resided with the Empress at Chislehurst till his death (1808-1873).
LOUIS PHILIPPE, king of the French from 1830 till 1848, born at Paris, eldest son of the Duke of Orleans, renounced his titles along with his father, and joined the National Guard and the Jacobins at the Revolution as M. Egalite; after the defeat of Neerwinden 1793, where he commanded the centre, he fled to Austria and Switzerland and supported himself by teaching; after three years in the United States he came to London in 1800, and on the fall of Napoleon repaired to Paris and recovered his estates; he gained popularity with the bourgeoisie, and when the Revolution of July 1830 overthrew Charles X. he succeeded to the throne as the elected sovereign of the people; under the "citizen king" France prospered; but his government gradually became reactionary and violent; he used his great wealth in giving bribes, tampered with trial by jury and the freedom of the press, and so raised against him both the old aristocracy and the working-classes; political agitation culminated in the Revolution of February 1848; he was forced to abdicate and escaped with his queen to England, where he died (1773-1850).
LOUIS-D'OR, an old French gold coin which ranged in value from 16s. 7d. to 18s. 93/4d., and ceased to be issued in 1795.
LOUISIANA (1,119), an American State on the Gulf of Mexico, between the Mississippi and Sabine Rivers, with Arkansas on the N. and traversed diagonally by the Red River, is half upland and half alluvial; much of the lower level in the S. is marshy, subject to tidal flow or river inundation, and is covered by swampy woods, but is being reclaimed and planted with rice; on the uplands cattle are grazed, there are pine and oak forests, while the arable land is under cotton, sugar, oranges, and figs; the principal manufactures are shingles and tanks, cotton-seed oil, tobacco, and clothing; there is a State University and agricultural and mechanical college at Baton Rouge; the Southern and Tulane Universities are in New Orleans; free schools are throughout the State. Founded by France, but held by Spain from 1762 till 1800, ceded again to France and sold to the United States by Napoleon, it was admitted to the Union in 1812. In the Civil War a hundred battles were fought within the State and New Orleans was captured, which left ruin behind; but since 1880 prosperity has returned, property is increasing fast, and finances are healthy.
LOUISVILLE (205), on the left bank of the Ohio River, the largest city in Kentucky, is well built and regular, with a Roman Catholic cathedral, many colleges and charitable institutions; it is the largest tobacco market in the world, has pork packing, distilling, tanning, and many other industries.
LOURDES, a French town in the dep. of the Hautes-Pyrenees, with a grotto near by in which the Virgin Mary, as is alleged, appeared to a girl of the place in 1858, and to which multitudes have since resorted in the hope of being healed of their maladies from the waters which spring up on the spot.
LOUTH (71), the smallest Irish county, in Leinster, stretches from Carlingford Bay to the estuary of the Boyne, washed by the Irish Sea; the country is flat and the soil fertile, potatoes, oats, and barley are grown; there are coarse linen manufactures and oyster fisheries; rich in antiquities, its chief towns are Dundalk (12), Drogheda (12), and Ardee (2).
LOUVET, French romancer, born in Paris; author of the "Chevalier de Faublas," which gives a picture of French society on the eve of the Revolution, in which the author played a part (1760-1797).
LOUVOIS, MARQUIS OF, War Minister of Louis XIV., born in Paris; was a man of great administrative ability in his department, but for the glory of France and his own was savage for war and relentless in the conduct of it, till one day in his obstinate zeal, as he threatened to lay the cathedral city of Treves in ashes, the king, seizing the tongs from the chimney, was about to strike him therewith, and would have struck him, had not Madame de Maintenon, his mistress, interfered and stayed his hand; he died suddenly, to the manifest relief of his royal master (1641-1691).
LOUVRE, an open turret or lantern on ancient roofs for the escape of smoke or foul air.
LOUVRE, a great art museum and gallery in Paris, containing Egyptian, Assyrian, classic, mediaeval, and modern relics and art treasures of priceless value; here is housed the Venus of Milo.
LOVAT, SIMON FRASER, LORD, a Highland chief connected with Inverness, who, being outlawed, fled to France and got acquainted with the Pretender, in whose interest he returned to Scotland to excite a rising, but betraying the secret to the government was imprisoned in the Bastille on his going back to France; on his release and return he opposed the Pretender in 1715, but in 1745 espoused the cause of Prince Edward; was arrested for treason, convicted, and beheaded on Tower Hill (1667-1747).
LOVEDALE, a mission station in South Africa, 650 m. NE. of Cape Town, founded in 1841, and supported by the Free Church of Scotland.
LOVELACE, one of the principal characters in Richardson's "Clarissa Harlowe"; is the type of a young heartless seducer.
LOVELACE, RICHARD, English cavalier and poet, born at Woolwich, heir of great wealth, but lost his all in supporting the royal cause, and died a ruined man; was the handsomest man of his time, and the author of a collection of poems entitled "Lucasta" (1618-1658).
LOVER, SAMUEL, an Irish novelist and poet, born in Dublin; started as a painter, but soon gave himself to literature; was the author of "Rory O'More" and "Handy Andy," as also of some lyrics and ballads of a stirring character (1797-1868).
LOW CHURCH, that section of the Church of England which, in contrast with the High Church party, is not exclusive in its assertion of Church authority and observances, and in contrast with the Broad Church party is narrowly evangelical in its teaching.
LOW LATIN, Latin as spoken and written in the Middle Ages, being a degeneration of the classical which began as early as the time of Cicero and developed unchecked with the dismemberment of the Roman empire.
LOW MASS, mass performed by a single priest and without musical accompaniment.
LOW SUNDAY, name given in Catholic countries to the next Sunday after Easter, in contrast with the style of the festival just closed.
LOWE, SIR HUDSON, English general, born in Ireland; served with credit in various military enterprises, and was appointed governor of St. Helena in 1815, and held that office during Napoleon's incarceration there; a much abused-man for his treatment of his prisoner, particularly by the French, who dub him "Napoleon's jailer"; died in London in poor circumstances; wrote a defence of his conduct (1770-1844).
LOWELL, JAMES RUSSELL, American essayist, poet, and diplomatist, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, son of a clergyman; graduated at Harvard in 1838, studied law, but acquiring extensive scholarship devoted himself to literature; volumes of poems were published by him in 1840 and 1844, but the Mexican War of 1846 and the Civil War of 1861-65 called forth respectively the first and second series of "Biglow Papers," in rustic dialect, the highest expression of his genius and the finest modern English satire; he was an ardent abolitionist; succeeding Longfellow in the chair of Modern Languages and Literature in Harvard in 1855, he visited Europe to study, returned as U.S. minister to Spain in 1877, was transferred to England 1880-1885; of his prose work "My Study Windows" and "Among my Books" are essays on literary subjects, "Fireside Travels" contain reminiscences, and his last work was a "Life of Hawthorne"; he died at Cambridge in the house of his birth (1818-1891).
LOWER EMPIRE, name given to the Byzantine empire.
LOWESTOFT (23), seaport and watering-place at the mouth of the Waveney, in Suffolk, 120 m. NE. of London, the most easterly town in England; has a good harbour, an old parish church, and a large fish-market; the Dutch were defeated off Lowestoft in 1665.
LOWTH, ROBERT, a distinguished English prelate, born in Hants; was professor of Poetry in Oxford, and bishop in succession of St. Davids, Oxford, and London; wrote "Prelectiones" on the poetry of the Hebrews, a celebrated work, and executed a translation of Isaiah (1710-1787).
LOYOLA, IGNATIUS, the founder of the Order of the Jesuits, born in the castle of Loyola, in the Basque Provinces of Spain, of a noble Spanish family; entered the army, and served with distinction, but being severely wounded at the siege of Pampeluna, he gave himself up to a life of austere religious devotion, and conceived the idea of enlisting and organising a spiritual army for the defence of the Church at home and the propagation of the faith in the realms of heathendom; it seemed to him a time when such an organisation should be formed, and he by-and-by got a number of kindred spirits to join him, with the result that he and his confederates did, on Ascension Day, 1534, solemnly pledge themselves in the subterranean chapel of the Abbey of Montserrat to, through life and death, embark in this great undertaking; the pledge thus given was confirmed by the pope, Pope Pius III., the Order formed, and Ignatius, in 1547, installed as general, with absolute authority subject only to the Pope, to receive canonisation by Gregory XV. in 1622 (1481-1566).
LUBBOCK, SIR JOHN, scientist, born in London; banker by profession; as a member of Parliament has accomplished several economic reforms; is author of "Prehistoric Times," "The Origin of Civilisation and the Primitive Condition of Man," and various books on natural science; his "Pleasures of Life" has been very popular, and gone through between 30 and 40 editions; b. 1834.
LUeBECK (64), a German free city on the Trave, an old-fashioned place, but with wide, open streets, 12 m. from the Baltic, 40 m. NE. of Hamburg; joined the North German Federation in 1866, and the Customs Union in 1868. It has a 12th-century cathedral, some fine old churches, scientific and art collections; with unimportant industries; its Baltic and German transit trade is extensive.
LUCAN, a Latin poet, born at Corduba (Cordova), in Spain; was a nephew of Seneca, and brought early to Rome; gave offence to Nero, and was banished from the city; joined in a conspiracy against the tyrant, and was convicted, whereupon he caused his veins to be opened and bled to death, repeating the while the speech he had composed of a wounded soldier on the battlefield dying a like death; he was the author of a poem entitled "Pharsalia" on the civil war between Caesar and Pompey (39-65).
LUCARIS, CYRIL, eminent ecclesiastic in the Greek Church, born in Crete, who embraced and propagated Protestantism; became a victim of persecution, and had a mysterious fate (1572-1637).
LUCCA (20), cap. of the Italian prov. of Lucca (309), on the Serchio, 12 m. NE. of Pisa; has an extensive trade in olive-oil, silk, and capers, the specialty of the province. Its cathedral has a very ancient cedar crucifix, fine paintings, and valuable archives. There are other ancient churches, scientific and artistic institutes, and a wonderful aqueduct of 459 arches. The natives are known over Europe as stucco figure-sellers and organ-grinders.
LUCERNE (36), a Swiss canton E. of Berne, mountainous in the S., where cattle are pastured and much cheese made; in the N. and in the valleys fertile with corn and fruit crops; is German speaking, and Roman Catholic; its highest elevation, Mount Pilatus, is 7000 ft. Stretching from the eastern corner is Lake Lucerne, one of the most beautiful in Europe. The cap. Lucerne (20), on the shores of the lake, is a busy tourist centre; outside its walls is the famous Lion of Lucerne, designed by Thorwaldsen, in memory of the Swiss Guard slain while defending the Tuileries in Paris in 1792, and cut out of the solid rock.
LUCIAN, a Greek writer, born in Samosata, in Syria, in the early part of the 2nd century; he travelled much in his youth; acquired a cynical view of the world, and gave himself to ridicule the philosophical sects and the pagan mythology; his principal writings consist of "Dialogues," of which the "Dialogues of the Dead" are the best known, the subject being one affording him scope for exposing the vanity of human pursuits; he was an out and out sceptic, found nothing worthy of reverence in heaven or on earth.
LUCIFER (i. e. light-bringer), name given to Venus as the morning star, and by the Church Fathers to Satan in interpretation of Isaiah xiv. 12.
LUeCKE, FRIEDRICH, German theologian, professor first at Bonn and then at Goettingen; wrote commentaries on John's Gospel and the Apocalypse (1791-1855).
LUCKNOW (273), fourth city in India, cap. of the prov. of Oudh, on the Gumti, a tributary of the Ganges, 200 m. NW. of Benares; is a centre of Indian culture and Mohammedan theology, an industrial and commercial city. It has many magnificent buildings, Canning and Martiniere Colleges, various schools and Government offices. It manufactures brocades, shawls, muslins, and embroideries, and trades in country products, European cloth, salt, and leather. Its siege from July 1857 to March 1858, its relief by Havelock and Outram, and final deliverance by Sir Colin Campbell, form the most stirring incidents of the Indian Mutiny.
LUCRETIA, a Roman matron, the wife of Collatinus, whose rape by a son of Tarquinus Superbus led to the dethronement of the tyrant, the expulsion of his family from Rome, and the establishment of the Roman republic.
LUCRETIUS, TITUS CARUS, a Roman poet of whose personal history nothing is known, only that he was the author of a poem entitled "De Rerum Natura," a philosophic, didactic composition in six books, in which he expounds the atomic theory of Leucippus, and the philosophy of Epicurus; the philosophy of the work commends itself only to the atheist and the materialist, but the style is the admiration of all scholars, and has ensured its translation into most modern languages (about 95-31 B.C.).
LUCULLUS, LUCIUS, a Roman general, celebrated as conqueror of Mithridates, king of Pontus, and for the luxurious life he afterwards led at Rome on the wealth he had amassed in Asia and brought home with him; one day as he sat down to dine alone, and he observed his servant had provided for him a less sumptuous repast than usual, he took him sharply to task, and haughtily remarked, "Are you not aware, sirrah, that Lucullus dines with Lucullus to-day?"
LUDDISM, fanatical opposition to the introduction of machinery as it originally manifested itself among the hand-loom weavers of the Midlands.
LUDDITES name assumed by the anti-machinery rioters of 1812-1861, after a Leicestershire idiot, Ned Ludd, of 1780; appearing first at Nottingham, the agitation spread through Derby, Leicester, Cheshire, Lancashire, and Yorkshire, finally merging in the wider industrial and political agitations and riots that marked the years that followed the peace after Waterloo.
LUDLOW, EDMUND, a republican leader in the Civil War against Charles I., born in Wiltshire of good family; entered the army of the Parliament, and was present in successive engagements, but opposed Cromwell on his assumption of the Protectorate, and was put under arrest; reasserted his republicanism on Cromwell's death, but died in exile after the Restoration; left "Memoirs" (1630-1693).
LUDOVICUS VIVES, a humourist, born in Valentia, Spain; studied at Paris, wrote against scholasticism, taught at Oxford, was imprisoned for opposing Henry VIII.'s divorce; died at Bruges (1472-1540).
LUGA'NO, a lake partly in the Swiss canton of Ticino and partly in the Italian province of Como, 15 m. by 2 m., in the midst of picturesque grand scenery, with a town of the name on the NW. side amid vineyards and olive plantations.
LUINI, BERNARDINO, a painter of the Lombard school, born at Luino, in the territory of Milan, and a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, so that some of his works, which though they show a grace and delicacy of their own, pass for those of his master; is famed for his works in oil as well as in fresco; is, in Ruskin's regard, one of the master painters of the world (1460-1540).
LUKE or LUCANUS, author of the third Gospel, as well as the Acts, born in Antioch, a Greek by birth and a physician by profession, probably a convert, as he was a companion, of St. Paul; is said to have suffered martyrdom and been buried at Constantinople; is the patron saint of artists, and represented in Christian art with an ox lying near him, or in the act of painting; his Gospel appears to have been written before the year 63, and shows a Pauline interest in Christ, who is represented as the Saviour of Jew and Gentile alike; it was written for a Gentile Christian and in correspondence with eye-witnesses of Christ's life and death.
LULLI, a composer of operatic music, born in Provence; was director of the French opera in the reign of Louis XIV. (1633-1687).
LULLY, RAYMOND, the Doctor Illuminatus, as he was called, born at Palma, in Majorca, who was early smitten with a zeal for the conversion of the Mohammedans, in the prosecution of which mission he invented a new method of dialectic, called after him Ars Lullia; held public discussions with the Mohammedans, who showed themselves as zealous to convert him as he was to convert them, till he ventured in his over-zeal when in Africa among them to threaten them with divine judgment if they did not abjure their faith, upon which they waxed furious, dragged him out of the city, and stoned him to death in the year 1315; his works, several on alchemy, fill 16 volumes.
LUNAR CYCLE, a period of time at the close of which the new moons return on the same days of the year.
LUNAR MONTH, a month of 29 days, the time of the revolution of the moon, a lunar year consisting of 12 times the number.
LUNAR THEORY, an explanation by mathematical reasoning of perturbations in the movements of the moon founded on the law of gravitation.
LUNAR YEAR, a period of 12 synodic lunar months, being about 354.5 days.
LUND (14), a city in the S. of Sweden, 10 m. NE. of Malmoe, once the capital of the Danish kingdom, the seat of an archbishop, with a Romanesque cathedral and a flourishing university.
LUNDY ISLAND, a precipitous rugged island 3 m. long by 1 m. broad, belonging to Devon, with the remains of an old castle, and frequented by myriads of sea-fowl.
LUeNEBURG (21), on the Ilmenau, 30 m. SE. of Hamburg, an ancient German city with old Gothic churches, once the capital of an independent duchy, now in Hanover; has salt and gypsum mines, iron and chemical manufactures; the British royal house is descended from the princes of Brunswick-Lueneburg.
LUPERCALIA, a Roman festival held on Feb. 15 in honour of Lupercus, regarded as the god of fertility, in the celebration of which dogs and goats were sacrificed and their skins cut up into thongs, with which the priests ran through the city striking every one, particularly women, that threw themselves in their way.
LUPERCUS, an ancient Italian god, worshipped by shepherds as the protector of their flocks against wolves.
LUPUS, a chronic disease of the skin, characterised by the tuberculous eruptions which eat into the skin, particularly of the face, and disfigure it.
LUSATIA, a district of Germany, between the Elbe and the Oder, originally divided into Upper and Lower, belongs partly to Saxony and partly to Prussia; it swarmed at one time with Wends.
LUSIAD or LUSIADES, a poem of Camoens in ten cantos, in celebration of the discoveries of the Portuguese in the East Indies, and in which Vasco da Gama is the principal figure; it is a genuine national epic, in which the poet passes in review all the celebrated exploits and feats that glorify the history of Portugal.
LUSITANIA, the ancient name of Portugal, still used as the name of it in modern poetry.
LUSTRUM, a sacrifice for expiation and purification offered by one of the censors of Rome in name of the Roman people at the close of the taking of the census, and which took place after a period of five years, so that the name came to denote a period of that length.
LUTETIA, the ancient name of Paris, Lutetia Parisiorum, mud-town of the borderers, as Carlyle translates it.
LUTHER, MARTIN, the great Protestant Reformer, born at Eisleben, in Prussian Saxony, the son of a miner, was born poor and brought up poor, familiar from his childhood with hardship; was sent to study law at Erfurt, but was one day at the age of 19 awakened to a sense of higher interests, and in spite of remonstrances became a monk; was for a time in deep spiritual misery, till one day he found a Bible in the convent, which taught him for the first time that "a man was not saved by singing masses, but by the infinite grace of God"; this was his awakening from death to life, and to a sense of his proper mission as a man; at this stage the Elector of Saxony was attracted to him, and he appointed him preacher and professor at Wittenberg; on a visit to Rome his heart sank within him, but he left it to its evil courses to pursue his own way apart; if Rome had let him alone he would have let it, but it would not; monk Tetzel arrived at Wittenberg selling indulgences, and his indignation was roused; remonstrance after remonstrance followed, but the Pope gave no heed, till the agitation being troublesome, he issued his famous "fire-decree," condemning Luther's writings to the flames; this answer fired Luther to the quick, and he "took the indignant step of burning the decree in 1520 at the Elster Gate of Wittenberg, Wittenberg looking on with shoutings, the whole world looking on"; after this Luther was summoned to the Diet of Worms, and he appeared there before the magnates, lay and clerical, of the German empire on April 17, 1521; how he demeaned himself on that high occasion is known to all the world, and his answer as well: "Here stand I; I can do no other; so help me God"; "it was the grandest moment in the modern history of man"; of the awakening this produced Luther was the ruling spirit, as he had been the moving one, and he continued to be so to the end of his life; his writings show the man as well as his deeds, and amid all the turmoil that enveloped him he found leisure to write and leave behind him 25 quarto volumes; it is known the German Bible in use is his work, executed by him in the Castle of Wartburg; it was begun by him with his back to the wall, as it were, and under the protestation, as it seemed to him, of the prince of darkness himself, and finished in this obstructive element pretty much throughout, the New Testament in 1522, the Pentateuch in 1523, and the whole, the Apocrypha included, in 1534; he was fond of music, and uttered many an otherwise unutterable thing in the tones of his flute; "the devils fled from his flute," he says; "death-defiance on the one hand, and such love of music on the other, I could call these," says Carlyle, "the two opposite poles of a great soul, between these two all great things had room.... Luther," he adds, "was a true great man, great in intellect, in courage, in affection, and integrity,... great as an Alpine mountain, but not setting up to be great at all—his, as all greatness is, an unconscious greatness" (1488-1546).
LUTHERANISM, that form of Protestantism which prevails in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Northern Germany. See LUTHERANS.
LUTHERANS, the name given to that school of the Protestant Church which accepted Luther's doctrine, especially that of the Eucharist, in opposition to that of the members of the Reformed Church, who assented to the views in that matter of Zwingli, the Swiss Reformer; the former maintaining the presence of Christ in the Eucharist, and that the grace of Christ is communicated in the celebration of it, and the latter maintaining that it is a merely commemorative ordinance, and the means of grace to the believing recipient only.
LUTTERWORTH, a small town in Leicestershire, on the Swift, 8 m. NE. of Rugby, of the church of which Wiclif was rector, and where he was buried, though his bones were afterwards, in 1428, dug up and burned, and the ashes cast into the river.
LUeTZEN, a small town in Prussian Saxony, the vicinity of it the scene of a victory of Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, and of another by Napoleon over the combined forces of Russia and Prussia in 1813.
LUX, the name given to the unit of the intensity of electric light.
LUX, ADAM, a young Parisian; smitten with love for Charlotte Corday, proposed a statue to her with the inscription "Greater than Brutus," which brought him to the guillotine.
LUXEMBURG (211), grand-duchy, a small, independent territory at the corner where Belgium, France, and Rhenish Prussia meet, is a plateau watered by the Moselle on its eastern boundary, and the tributary Sauer; is well wooded and fertile, yielding wheat, flax, hemp, and wine. Iron ore is mined and smelted; leather, pottery, sugar, and spirits manufactured. The population is Low-German and Roman Catholic; the language of the educated, French. The government is in the hands of a grand-duke, the Duke of Nassau, and a house of 42 representatives. For commercial purposes Luxemburg belongs to the German Customs Union. The capital is LUXEMBURG (18). There is a Belgian province of LUXEMBURG (212), until 1839 part of the grand-duchy.
LUZON (3,200), the largest of the Philippines; about one-half larger than Ireland; is the most northerly of the group; is clad with forests, and yields grain, sugar, hemp, and numerous tropical products. The capital is Manila.
LYCAON, a king of Arcadia; changed into a wolf for offering human flesh to Zeus, who came, disguised as mortal, to his palace on the same errand as the angels who visited Lot in Sodom. According to another tradition he was consumed, along with his sons, by fire from heaven.
LYCEUM, a promenade in Athens where Aristotle taught his pupils as he walked to and fro within its precincts.
LYCIAS, an Athenian orator, who flourished in the 4th century B.C.; assisted in the expulsion of the Thirty Tyrants, and distributed among the citizens his large fortune which the Tyrants had confiscated.
LYCIDAS, the name of an exquisite dirge by Milton over the death by drowning of his friend Edward King.
LYCURGUS, the legislator of Sparta, who lived in the 9th century B.C.; in the interest of it as king visited the wise in other lands, and returned with the wise lessons he had learned from them to frame a code of laws for his country, which was fast lapsing into a state of anarchy; when he had finished his work under the sanction of the oracle at Delphi he set put again on a journey to other lands, but previously took oath of the citizens that they would observe his laws till his return; it was his purpose not to return, and he never did, in order to bind his countrymen to maintain the constitution he gave them inviolate for ever.
LYDGATE, JOHN, an early English poet; was a monk of Bury St. Edmunds in the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries; was a teacher of rhetoric as well as a poet, and a man of some note in his day.
LYDIA, a country of Asia Minor; seat of an early civilisation, and a centre of influences which affected both the religion and culture of Greece; was noted for its music and purple dyes.
LYELL, SIR CHARLES, celebrated English geologist, born at Kinnordy, in Forfarshire; bred for and called to the bar; he left his practice, and gave himself to the study of geology, to which he had been attracted by Alexander Buckland's lectures when he was at Oxford; his great work was his "Principles of Geology," which, published in 1830, created quite a revolution in the science; it was followed by his "Student's Elements of Geology," which was modified by his conversion to Darwin's views, and by "Antiquity of Man," written in defence of Darwin's theory (17971875).
LYLY, JOHN, English dramatist, born in Kent; was the author of nine plays on classical subjects, written for the court, which were preceded in 1579 by his once famous "Euphues, or Anatomy of Wit," followed by a second part next year, and entitled "Euphues and his England," and that from the fantastic, pompous, and affected style in which they were written gave a new word, Euphuism, to the English language (1553-1606).
LYNCH LAW, the name given in America to the trial and punishment of offenders without form of law, or by mob law; derived from the name of a man Lynch, dubbed Judge, who being referred to used to administer justice in the far West in this informal way.
LYNDHURST, JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY, BARON, thrice Lord Chancellor of England, born at Boston, Massachusetts, son of an artist; was brought up in London, educated at Cambridge, and called to the bar in 1804; acquiring fame in the treason trials of the second decade, he entered Parliament in 1808, was Solicitor-General 1819, Attorney-General 1819, Master of the Rolls 1826, and Lord Chancellor in three governments 1827-30; Chief Baron of the Exchequer 1830-34; he was Lord Chancellor in Peel's administrations of 1834-35 and 1841-46; he was great as a debater, and a clear-headed lawyer, but not earnest enough for a statesman (1772-1863).
LYNEDOCH, THOMAS GRAHAM, LORD, soldier, born in Perthshire; raised in 1793 the 90th Regiment of Foot, and served with it at Quiberon and Isle Dieu; thereafter distinguished himself in various ways at Minorca 1798, and Malta 1800, in the Peninsular wars, and in Holland; founded the Senior United Service Club in 1817; was created baron and general 1821, and died in London (1748-1843).
LYON COURT, the Herald's College of Scotland, consisting of three heralds and three pursuivants.
LYON KING OF ARMS, the legal heraldic officer of Scotland, who presides over the Lyon Court.
LYONS (398), the second city of France, at the junction of the Rhone and Saone, 250 m. S. of Paris; has a Roman Catholic university, and valuable museum, library, and art collections, many old churches and buildings, and schools of art and industries; the staple industry is silk, weaving, dyeing, and printing; there are also chemical, machinery, and fancy ware manufactures, and it is an emporium of commerce between Central and Southern Europe; of late years Lyons has been a hot-bed of ultra-republicanism.
LYRIC POETRY, poetry originally accompanied by the lyre, in which the poet sings his own passions, sure of a sympathetic response from others in like circumstances with himself.
LYSANDER, a Spartan general and admiral who put an end to the Peloponnesian War by defeat of the Athenian fleet off AEgospotami, and of whom Plutarch says in characterisation of him, he knew how to sew the skin of the fox on that of the lion; fell in battle in 395 B.C.
LYSIMACHUS, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, who became king of Thrace and afterwards of Macedonia; d. 281 B.C.
LYTTON, EDWARD ROBERT, EARL OF, statesman and novelist, under the nom de plume of Owen Meredith; entered the diplomatic service at an early age, became viceroy of India in 1876, and ambassador at Paris in 1892.
LYTTON, GEORGE EDWARD BULWER, LORD, statesman and novelist, born in London; entered Parliament at the age of 26, began his parliamentary career as a Whig, but became a Conservative and ranked in that party for the greater part of his life; "Pelham," published in 1828, was his first novel, and this was followed by a long list of others of endless variety, all indicative of the conspicuous ability of the author, and to the last giving no sign of decay in power; he was the author of plays as well as novels (1803-1873).
MAB, QUEEN, the fairies' midwife that brings dreams to the birth, to be distinguished from Titania, the Queen.
MABILLON, JEAN, a French Benedictine and eminent scholar; wrote a history of his order and edited St. Bernard's works (1632-1707).
MABLY, GABRIEL BONNET DE, French author, was born at Grenoble, brother of Condillac; educated at Lyons, and became secretary to Cardinal Tencin, but most of his life was spent in study, and he died in Paris; his "Romans and the French" is not complimentary to his countrymen; he was a great admirer of the ancients (1709-1785).
MABUSA, JAN, real name Gossaert, Flemish artist, born at Mabuse, lived and died at Antwerp; his work is not great but careful, his figures catch the stiffness of his favourite architectural backgrounds; his early period is strongly national, but a visit to Italy with Philip of Burgundy brought him under southern influences and contributed to intensify his colour (1470-1532).
MACADAM, JOHN LOUDON, Scottish engineer, born at Ayr; inventor of the system of road-making which bears his name; he made his fortune as a merchant in New York, but spent it in road-making (1756-1836).
MACAIRE, ROBERT, a noted criminal and assassin that figures in French plays; was convicted of a murder in trial by combat with a witness in the shape of the dog of the murdered man.
MACAO, small island at the mouth of the Canton River, 100 m. S. of Canton, forming with Colovane and Taipa since 1557 a Portuguese station (50, mostly Chinese); is a very healthy port, though very hot; formerly it was a centre of the Coolie trade, abolished in 1873, but its anchorage is bad, and since the rise of Hong-Kong its commerce has suffered severely; chief import opium, export tea; it is the head-quarters of French missions in China.
MACARIUS, ST., a hermit of the Thebaid, where he spent 60 years of a life of solitude and austerity (300-390). Festival, January 13.
MACARONI, a fine wheaten paste made into long thin tubes, and manufactured in Italy and the S. of France.
MACASSAR, southern portion and chief town (20) at SW. corner of Celebes; exports coffee, spices, timber, and "Macassar" oil.
MACAULAY, THOMAS BABINGTON, LORD, essayist and historian, born at Rothley Temple, Leicestershire, son of Zachary Macaulay the philanthropist, and so of Scottish descent; graduated at Cambridge 1822, proving a brilliant debater in the Union, and became Fellow of Trinity 1824; called to the bar 1826, he preferred to follow literature, having already gained a footing by some poems in Knight's Quarterly and by his essay on "Milton" in the Edinburgh Review (1825); in 1830 he entered Parliament for a pocket-borough, took an honourable part in the Reform debates, and in the new Parliament sat for Leeds; his family were now in straitened circumstances, and to be able to help them he went out to India as legal adviser to the Supreme Council; to his credit chiefly belongs the Indian Penal Code; returning in 1838, he represented Edinburgh in the Commons with five years' interval till 1856; the "Lays of Ancient Rome" appeared in 1842, his collected "Essays" in 1843, two years later he ceased writing for the Edinburgh; he was now working hard at his "History," of which the first two volumes attained a quite unprecedented success in 1848; next year he was chosen Lord Rector of Glasgow University; 1855 saw the third and fourth volumes of his "History"; in 1857 he was made a peer, and many other honours were showered upon him; with a tendency to too much declamation in style, a point of view not free from bias, and a lack of depth and modesty in his thinking, he yet attained a remarkable amount and variety of knowledge, great intellectual energy, and unrivalled lucidity in narration (1800-1859).
MACBETH, a thane of the north of Scotland who, by assassination of King Duncan, became king; reigned 17 years, but his right was disputed by Malcolm, Duncan's son, and he was defeated by him and fell at Lumphanan, December 5, 1056.
MACCABEES, a body of Jewish patriots, followers of Judas Maccabaeus, who in 2nd century B.C. and in the interest of the Jewish faith withstood the oppression of Syria and held their own for a goodly number of years against not only the foreign yoke that oppressed them, but against the Hellenising corruption of their faith at home.
MACCABEES, BOOKS OF, two books of the Apocrypha which give, the first, an account of the heroic struggle which the Maccabees maintained from 175 to 135 B.C. against the kings of Syria, and the second, of an intercalary period of Jewish history from 175 to 160 B.C., much of it of legendary unreliable matter; besides these two a third and a fourth of a still more apocryphal character are extant.
M'CARTHY, JUSTIN, writer and politician, began life as a journalist; is the author of a "History of Our Own Times" and a "History of the Four Georges," as well as a number of novels; represents North Longford in Parliament; b. 1830.
M'CHEYNE, ROBERT MURRAY, the subject of a well-known memoir by Andrew Bonar, was born in Edinburgh, educated at the university there, and was minister of St. Peter's, Dundee, from 1836 till his death; he is esteemed a saint by pious evangelical people, by whom the memoirs of him are much prized (1813-1843).
M'CLELLAN, American general, born in Philadelphia; served in the Mexican War, and in the War of Secession, eventually as commander-in-chief; was author of military engineering works (1826-1882).
MACCLESFIELD (36), Cheshire manufacturing town on the Bollin, 15 m. S. of Manchester; has a 13th-century church, and a grammar-school founded by Edward VI.; its staple industry is silk manufactures; there are breweries, and mining and quarrying near.
MACCLINTOCK, Arctic navigator, born at Dundalk; sent out by Lady Franklin to discover the fate of Sir John and his crew; wrote an account of the voyage (1819-1891).
M'CLURE, Arctic navigator, born in Wexford; went out in search of Franklin, and discovered the North-West Passage in 1850 (1807-1873).
M'CRIE, THOMAS, a Scotch seceder, born in Dunse; was minister in Edinburgh; author of the "Life of John Knox," published in 1812; defended the Covenanters against Scott; he was a man of dignified military presence (1772-1835).
M'CULLOCH, HORATIO, a Scottish landscape-painter, born in Glasgow; was distinguished for his Highland landscapes (1806-1867).
M'CULLOCH, JOHN RAMSEY, political economist, born in Isle of Whithorn; contributed to the Scotsman and Edinburgh Review; wrote "Principles of Political Economy," and edited Dictionaries of Commerce and Geography (1789-1864).
MACCUNN, HAMISH, Scottish composer, born at Greenock; entered the Royal College of Music in 1883, and became junior professor of Harmony at the Royal Academy; his fertility in melody and mastery of the orchestra are devoted to music of strong national characteristics, as his overture "Land of the Mountain and the Flood," and his choral work "The Lay of the Last Minstrel" show; b. 1868.
MACDONALD, marshal of France, born at Sancerre, of Scotch descent, entered the army at the time of the Revolution as a lieutenant, and rapidly rose in rank; served with distinction under Napoleon, especially at Wagram, when he was made Duke of Taranto; supported the Bourbons on their restoration (1765-1840).
MACDONALD, SIR CLAUDE M., British Minister at Peking; served in the army in Egypt in 1882 and 1884, as a diplomatist in Zanzibar in 1887, and on the coast of Africa as commissioner in 1888; was sent to Peking in 1896; b. 1852.
MACDONALD, FLORA, a devoted Jacobite who, at the risk of her own life, screened Prince Charles Edward after his defeat at Culloden from his pursuers, and saw him safe off to France, for which she was afterwards confined for a short time in the Tower (1722-1790).
MACDONALD, GEORGE, novelist, born in Huntly; trained for the ministry, but devoted himself to literature; is the author, among other works, of "Robert Falconer," "David Elginbrod," and "Alec Forbes"; his interests are religious, and his views liberal, particularly on religious matters; b., 1824.
MACE, THE, the symbol of authority in the House of Commons; is placed on the table when the House is sitting, and is under the table as a rule when the Speaker is not in the chair.
MACEDONIA, an ancient kingdom lying between Thrace and Illyria, the Balkans and the AEgean; mostly mountainous, but with some fertile plains; watered by the Strymon, Axius, and Heliacmon Rivers; was noted for its gold and silver, its oil and wine. Founded seven centuries B.C., the monarchy was raised to dignity and power by Archelaus in the 5th century. Philip II. (359 B.C.) established it yet more firmly; and his son, Alexander the Great, extended its sway over half the world. His empire broke up after his death, and the Romans conquered it in 168 B.C. AEgae and Pella were its ancient capitals, Philippi, Thessalonica, and Amphipolis among its towns. After many vicissitudes during the Middle Ages it is now a province of Turkey.
MACEDONIANS, a sect in the early Church who taught that the Holy Ghost was inferior to the Father and the Son, so called from Macedonius, bishop of Constantinople, their leader.
MACFARREN, SIR GEORGE ALEXANDER, musical author and composer, born in London; studied at the Royal Academy, and became professor there in 1834; in many operatic works he aimed at restoring old English musical characteristics, and wrote also cantatas "Lenore," "May-Day," &c., and oratorios, of which "John the Baptist" (1873) was the first; but his chief merit lies in his writings on theory (1813-1887).
MACHIAVELLI, NICCOLO, statesman and historian, born in Florence, of an ancient family; was secretary of the Florentine Republic from 1498 to 1512, and during that time conducted its diplomatic affairs with a skill which led to his being sent on a number of foreign embassies; he was opposed to the restoration of the Medici family, and on the return of it to power was subjected to imprisonment and torture as a conspirator, but was at last set at liberty; he spent the remainder of his life chiefly in literary labours, producing among other works a treatise on government, entitled "The Prince," the principles of which have established for him a notoriety wide as the civilised world (1469-1530).
MACHIAVELLISM, the doctrine taught by Machiavelli in "The Prince," that to preserve the integrity of a State the ruler should not feel himself bound by any scruple such as may suggest itself by considerations of justice and humanity; the State he regards as too precious an institution to endanger by scruples of that sort.
M'IVOR, FLORA, the heroine in Scott's "Waverley."
MACK, KARL, Austrian general, born in Franconia; notorious for his military incapacity and defeats; confronted by Napoleon at Ulm in 1805, he surrendered with 28,000 men without striking a blow; for this he was tried by court-martial, and sentenced to death, which was commuted to imprisonment for life, from which he was released at the end of a year (1752-1826).
MACKAY, CHARLES, journalist, novelist, and critic; wrote an autobiography entitled, "Forty Years' Recollections of Life, Literature, and Public Affairs"; was the father of Eric Mackay, author of "Love-Letters of a Violinist" (1814-1889).
MACKENZIE, SIR ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, composer, born at Edinburgh; studied in Germany and at the Royal Academy; was teacher and conductor in his native city from 1865 to 1878, lived thereafter in Italy; was made Principal of the Royal Academy of Music in 1887, and knighted in 1895; his opera "Colomba" (1883) first brought him fame; among his works, which are of every kind, his oratorio, "The Rose of Sharon" (1884), is reckoned best; b. 1847.
MACKENZIE, SIR GEORGE, eminent Scottish lawyer, born in Dundee; became King's Advocate for Scotland; wrote on law and on other subjects in a style which commended itself to such a critic as Dryden, though by his severe treatment of the Covenanters he earned in Scotland the opprobrious title of the "bluidy Mackenzie" (1636-1691).
MACKENZIE, HENRY, novelist, born in Edinburgh; bred to law; author of "The Man of Feeling," "The Man of the World," and "Julia de Roubigne," written in a sentimental style; held the office of Controller of Taxes in Scotland by favour of Pitt (1745-1831).
MACKENZIE RIVER, a river in N. America, rises in the Rocky Mountains; is fed by mighty streams in its course, and falls into the Arctic Ocean after a course of over 2000 m. in length.
M'KINLEY, WILLIAM, American statesman, of Scottish parentage; served in the Civil War; born at Niles, Ohio; entered Congress in 1877; made his mark as a zealous Protectionist; passed in 1890 a tariff measure named after him; was elected to Presidency as the champion of a sound currency in opposition to Mr. Bryan in November 1896; b. 1844.
MACKINTOSH, SIR JAMES, philosopher and politician, born in Inverness-shire; took his degree in medicine, but went to the London bar; was a Whig in politics; wrote "Vindiciae Gallicae" in reply to Burke's philippic; defended Peltier, Bonaparte's enemy, in a magnificent style, and contributed a masterly preliminary "Dissertation on Ethics" to the "Encyclopaedia Britannica" (1763-1832).
MACLAREN, IAN (nom de plume of Rev. John Watson), born in Essex, of Scottish parents; studied in Edinburgh; was minister of the Free Church in Logiealmond and in Glasgow, and translated to Sefton Park Presbyterian Church, Liverpool, In 1880; wrote a series of idylls entitled "Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush," and a second series entitled "The Days of Auld Lang Syne"; both had a large circulation, and a number of other works, religious as well as fictitious; b. 1850.
MACLAURIN, COLIN, mathematician, born in Kilmoden, Argyllshire; was professor of Mathematics in Aberdeen and in Edinburgh; wrote a "Treatise on Fluxions," in defence of Newton against Berkeley, and an "Account of Newton's Discoveries"; did much to give an impetus to mathematical study in Scotland (1698-1746).
MACLEOD, NORMAN, liberal Scottish clergyman, born at Campbeltown, son of the manse; a genial, warm-hearted man; an earnest, powerful, and vigorous preacher, and a humorous writer; a visit to India in connection with missions shortened his days (1817-1872).
MACLISE, DANIEL, painter, born at Cork, of Scottish extraction; among his oil-paintings are "Mokanna Unveiling," "All Hallow Eve," "Bohemian Gipsies," and the "Banquet Scene in Macbeth," his last work being a series of cartoons painted in fresco for the palace of Westminster illustrative of the glories of England (1811-1870).
MACMAHON, DUKE OF MAGENTA, marshal of France, born at Sully, of Irish descent, second President of the third French republic from 1873 to 1879; distinguished himself in Algeria and at the Crimea, and took part in the Franco-German War to his defeat and capture (1808-1893).
MACPHERSON, JAMES, a Gaelic scholar, born in Ruthven, Inverness-shire; identified with the publication of the poems of Ossian, the originals of which he professed to have discovered in the course of a tour through the Highlands, and about the authenticity of which there has been much debate, though they were the making of his fortune; he was buried in Westminster Abbey at his own request and expense (1738-1796).
MACRAME LACE, a coarse lace made of twine, used to decorate furniture generally.
MACREADY, WILLIAM CHARLES, English tragedian, born in London; he began his career as an actor in Birmingham in the character of Romeo, and was enthusiastically received on his first appearance in London; was distinguished for his impersonation of Shakespeare's characters, but suffered a good deal from professional rivalries; leased in succession Covent Garden and Drury Lane theatres with pecuniary loss, and when he took farewell of the stage he was entertained at a banquet, attended by a host of friends eminent in both art and literature (1793-1873).