The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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LANCASTER, JOSEPH, educationist, born in Southwark, and founder of the Monitorial System; had a chequered career, died in poverty (1778-1838).

LANCELOT OF THE LAKE, one of the Knights of the Round Table, famous for his gallantry and his amours with Queen Guinevere; was called of the Lake because educated at the court of the LADY OF THE LAKE (q. v.); he turned hermit in the end, and died a holy man.

LAND LEAGUE, an organisation founded by DAVITT (q. v.) in Ireland in 1879 to deal with the land question, and suppressed in 1881 as illegal.

LANDAMAN, name given to the chief magistrate in certain Swiss cantons, also to the President of the Swiss Diet.

LANDER, RICHARD, African explorer, born in Truro, Cornwall; accompanied Clapperton as his servant; along with his brother John discovered the lower course of the Niger; on the third expedition was wounded in a conflict with the natives, and died at Fernando Po (1804-1834).

LANDES, sandy plains along the French coast between the Garonne and the Pyrenees, covered with heath and broom.

LANDGRABBER, name given in Ireland to one in the possession or occupancy of land from which another has been evicted.

LANDGRAVE, title given to certain counts of the old German empire who had the rank of princes.

LANDON, LETITIA ELIZABETH, known as L. E. L., authoress, born in Chelsea; a charming woman, who wrote well both in verse and prose; was Mrs. Hemans's successor; having taken prussic acid by mistake had a tragic end (1802-1838).

LANDOR, WALTER SAVAGE, eminent literary man, born in Warwick, a man of excitable temperament, which involved him in endless quarrels leading to alienations, but did not affect his literary work; figured first as a poet in "Gebir" and "Count Julian," to the admiration of Southey, his friend, and De Quincey, and ere long as a writer of prose in his "Imaginary Conversations," embracing six volumes, on which recent critics have bestowed unbounded praise, Swinburne in particular; he died in Florence separated from his family, and dependent on it there for six years; Carlyle visited him at Bath in 1850, and found him "stirring company; a proud, irascible, trenchant, yet generous, veracious, and very dignified old man; quite a ducal or royal man in the temper of him" (1775-1864).

LAND'S END, a bold promontory of granite rock on the SW. coast of Cornwall.

LANDSEER, SIR EDWIN HENRY, greatest English animal-painter, born in London, the son of an engraver and writer on art, trained by his father, sketched animals before he was six years old, and exhibited in the Royal Academy before thirteen; in his early years he portrayed simply the form and colour and movement of animal life, but after his twenty-first year he added usually some sentiment or idea; elected A.R.A. in 1826, and R.A. in 1830; he was knighted in 1853; five years later he won a gold medal in Paris; in 1859 he modelled the Trafalgar Square lions; after 1861 he suffered from mental depression, and declined the Presidency of the Royal Academy in 1866 (1802-1873).

LANDSTURM, the name given to the last reserve in the German army, which is never called out except in time of war.

LANDTHING, the name of the Upper House in the Danish Parliament.

LANDWEHR, a military force in Germany and Austria held in reserve against a time of war, when it is called out to do ordinary military duty. In Germany those capable of bearing arms have to serve in it five years after completing their seven years' term of regular service.

LANE, EDWARD WILLIAM, eminent Arabic scholar, born at Hereford; set out for Egypt in 1825; studied the language and manners, and returned in 1828; published in 1836 an "Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians"; translated in 1840 "The Arabian Nights," and spent seven years in Egypt preparing an Arabic Lexicon which he had all but finished when he died; it was completed and edited by S. Lane-Poole (1801-1876).

LANFRANC, archbishop of Canterbury, born at Pavia; went to France, entered the monastery of Bec, and became prior in 1046, and was afterwards, in 1062, elected prior of the abbey of St. Stephen at Caen; and came over to England with William the Conqueror, who appointed him to the archbishopric rendered vacant by the deposition of Stigand; he was William's trusted adviser, but his influence declined under Rufus; d. 1089.

LANFREY, PIERRE, historian, born at Chambery; wrote an elaborate History of Napoleon to, it is reckoned, the irreparable damage of its hero (1828-1877).

LANG, ANDREW, a versatile writer, born in Selkirk; has distinguished himself in various departments of literary work, as a poet, a folk-lorist, a writer of fancy tales, a biographer, and a critic; has composed "Ballads and Lyrics of Old France," "Ballads in Blue China"; has translated Homer into musical prose, and written the Lives of Sir Stafford Northcote and John Gibson Lockhart; he began his literary career as a journalist, and his assiduity as a writer has never relaxed; b. 1844.

LANGE, FRIEDRICH, German philosopher, born near Solingen, son of the following; became professor at Marburg; wrote a "History of Materialism" of great value (1828-1875).

LANGE, JOHANN PETER, a German theologian, born near Elberfeld; became professor at Bonn; his works are numerous, but is best known by his "Life of Christ" and his "Christian Dogmatic" (1802-1884).

LANGHORNE, JOHN, an English divine and poet, horn at Kirkby Stephen; was a prebend of Wells Cathedral; wrote a poem entitled "Genius and Virtue," and executed with a brother a translation of Plutarch's Lives (1735-1779).

LANGLAND, or LANGLEY, WILLIAM, the presumed author of the "Vision of Piers Plowman," and who lived in the 14th century.

LANGRES (10), a French town, strongly fortified, near the sources of the Marne, rich in antiquities, and one of the oldest towns in France; has manufactures and a considerable trade.

LANGTON, STEPHEN, archbishop of Canterbury, born in England but educated in France; a man of ability and scholarly attainments; in 1206 visited Rome, was made Cardinal by Innocent III., presented to the Archbishopric, and consecrated at Viterbo in 1207; King John refused to acknowledge him, and the kingdom was put under an interdict, a quarrel which it took five years to settle; established in the primacy, the prelate took up a constitutional position, and mediated between the king and the barons to the advancement of political liberty; d. 1228.

LANGUEDOC, a province in the S. of France, annexed to the French crown in 1361, and now divided into nine departments, borders on the Rhone.

LANKA, name given to Ceylon in the Hindu mythology.

LANNES, JEAN, DUC DE MONTEBELLO, marshal of France, born at Lectoure; was much esteemed by Napoleon, whom he zealously supported; went with him to Egypt, was with him at Marengo, distinguished himself at Austerlitz and in Spain, and fell mortally wounded at Essling (1769-1809).

LANSDOWNE, HENRY, THIRD MARQUIS OF, liberal politician, born in London; educated at Edinburgh and Cambridge; sat in the Commons as member for Calne from 1801 and for Cambridge from 1806, and succeeded to the peerage in 1809; on the accession of the Liberals to power he joined the Cabinet of Canning, presided at the Foreign Office in Goderich's administration, became President of the Council under Lord Grey in 1830, and, twice refusing the Premiership, was a member of every Liberal Government till 1858, when he retired from public life; he was the trusted adviser of his party, and friend of the Queen till his death (1780-1863).

LANSDOWNE, HENRY, FIFTH MARQUIS OF, Liberal statesman, grandson of the above, educated at Oxford; succeeded to the peerage in 1866, and held office in Liberal Governments, Lord of the Treasury 1868-72, Under-Secretary for War 1872-74, and Under-Secretary for India 1880; he was Governor-General of Canada 1883-88, and Viceroy of India 1888-94; in 1895 he joined Lord Salisbury's ministry as a Liberal-Unionist, becoming Secretary for War; b. 1845.

LANTERNE, LA, a stout lamp-iron at the corner of a street in Paris, used by the mob for extemporised executions during the Revolution by Lynch law.

LAOCOeON, a priest of Apollo, in Troy, who having offended the god by, for one thing, advising the Trojans not to admit the wooden horse of the Greeks within the walls, was, with his two sons, while engaged in sacrificing to Poseidon, strangled to death in the coils of two enormous serpents sent to kill him, a subject which is the theme of one of the grandest relics of ancient sculpture now in existence and preserved in the Vatican.

LAODAMIA, a Grecian lady, who accompanied her husband to the Trojan War, and who, on his death on the field, begged the gods to restore him to her for three hours, a prayer which was granted, but with the result that at the end of the time she died along with him and accompanied him on his return to Hades.

LAODICEA. Eight ancient cities bore this name; the chief, situated on the Lycus, in Phrygia, lay on the way between Ionia and the Euphrates; was a city of great commerce and wealth, the seat of schools of art, science, medicine, and philosophy, and of an early Christian bishopric; though the Church was stigmatised in the Revelation, two councils assembled here in A.D. 363 and 476, the former of which influenced the determination of the canon of both Testaments; the city, destroyed by the Mohammedan invasions, is now in ruins.

LAOMEDON, the founder of Troy, who persuaded Apollo and Neptune to assist him in building the walls, but refused the recompense when the work was finished, in consequence of which the latter sent a monster to ravage the country, which could be propitiated only by the annual sacrifice to it of a young maid, till one year the lot fell on Hermione, the king's daughter, when Hercules, persuaded by the king, slew the monster and delivered the maiden.

LAOTZE (i. e. the old Philosopher), a Chinese sage, born in the province of Ho-nan about 565 B.C., a contemporary of Confucius, who wrote the celebrated "Tao-te-King," canon, that is, of the Tao, or divine reason, and of virtue, one—and deservedly so on account of its high ethics—of the sacred books of China; he was the founder of one of the three principal religions of China, Confucianism and Buddhism being the other two, although his followers, the Tao-sze as they are called, are now degenerated into a set of jugglers.

LA PEROUSE, a celebrated French navigator, born near Albi, in Languedoc; after distinguished services in the navy was in 1785 sent with two frigates on a voyage of discovery by Louis XVI.; "the brave navigator" went forth, sailing along the Pacific shores of America and Asia as far as Botany Bay, but never returned; "the seekers search far seas for him in vain; he has vanished trackless into blue immensity, and only some mournful mysterious shadow of him hovers long in all heads and hearts" (1741-1788).

LAPITHAE, a race inhabiting the mountains of Thessaly; subject to Perithous, who, on the occasion of his marriage with Hippodamia, invited his kinsfolk the Centaurs to the feast, but these, under intoxication from the wine, attempting to carry off the bride and other women, were set on by the Lapithae and, after a bloody struggle, overpowered.

LAPLACE, a celebrated French mathematician, born at Beaumont-en-Auge, Normandy; the son of a farmer; after teaching in his native place went to Paris (1767), where he became professor in the Royal Military School; becoming member of the Academie des Sciences in 1785, he attained a position among mathematicians and astronomers almost equal to Newton's; his "Three Laws" demonstrated the stability of the solar system; he published many treatises on lunar and planetary problems, electricity, magnetism, and a Nebula-hypothesis; his "Mecanique Celeste" is unrivalled in that class of work; surviving the Revolution he became implicated in politics without success or credit; he received his marquisate from Louis XVIII. in 1817, when he became President of the French Academy; "LAGRANGE (q. v.) has proved that on Newton's theory of gravitation the planetary system would endure for ever; Laplace, still more cunningly, even guessed that it could not have been made on any other scheme" (1749-1827).

LAPLAND (28), a stretch of country in the N. of Europe, between the Atlantic and the White Sea; is divided between Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia. Its climate is very severe; mountainous in the W., it becomes more level in the E., where are many marshes, lakes, and rivers; the summer is never dark, and there are six to eight weeks of winter never light. The Lapps, of whom 18,000 are in Norwegian Lapland, are closely allied to the Finns, small of stature, thick lipped, and with small piercing eyes; proverbially uncleanly, not very intelligent, are good-natured, but untruthful and parsimonious; nominally Christian, but very superstitious; they are kindly treated by both Norway and Sweden. The mountain Lapps are nomads, whose wealth consists of herds of reindeer, which supply nearly all their wants. The sea Lapps live by fishing. The forest and river Lapps, originally nomads, have adopted a settled life, domesticated their reindeer, and taken to hunting and fishing.

LA PLATA (65), a new city, founded in 1884 as capital of the prov. of Buenos Ayres, 30 m. SE. of Buenos Ayres city; rapidly built, it has continued to grow, and has now some handsome buildings, a college, and cotton and woollen manufactures; a canal connects it with the La Plata River.

LA PLATA RIVER, a broad estuary in South America, from 28 to 140 m. broad and 200 m. long, with Uruguay on the N. and the Argentine Republic on the S., through which the Uruguay and Parana rivers pour into the Atlantic; it is much exposed to storms; its best harbour is at Monte Video.

LAPSI, name given to apostates in the early Christian Church.

LAPUTA, a flying island inhabited by speculative philosophers, visited by Gulliver in his "Travels," who, when their minds began to be too much absorbed in their studies, were wakened up by a set of attendants called "Flappers" armed with dried bladders full of small pebbles or "dried peas" attached to the end of a stick, with which they struck them gently about the mouth and ears.

LARDNER, DIONYSIUS, a popular scientist, born in Dublin; wrote a number of scientific works; edited a Cyclopedia, being a series of volumes on scientific subjects; was professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy in University College, London, but from a misdemeanour had to vacate his chair and emigrate to America (1793-1859).

LARDNER, NATHANIEL, an English divine, ecclesiastically a Presbyterian but theologically a Unitarian, author of "Credibility of the Gospel History" and "Jewish and Heathen Testimonies" in favour of Christianity (1684-1768).

LARES, household deities of the Romans; originally deified ancestors of the families whose family life they protected, and images of whom were kept in some shrine in the house near the hearth. Besides these domestic lares, there were public lares, who were protectors of the whole community. Both classes were objects of worship.

LARISSA (13), the capital of Thessaly, in Greece; stands in a sandy plain; is the seat of a Greek archbishop; has mosques as well as churches.

LA ROCHEFOUCAULD, FRANCOIS, DUC DE, a great maxim writer, member of a French family of Angoumois, born at Paris; played a conspicuous part in the war of the Fronde; was present at several engagements, and was wounded twice over, and retired at length in shattered health; he passed the rest of his days at court, where he enjoyed the society of the most distinguished ladies of the time; his "Maxims" appeared in 1665, and were immediately appreciated; they bear one and all on ethical subjects, and are the fruit of a life of large and varied commerce with the race (1613-1680).

LA ROCHEJAQUELEIN, HENRI, COMTE DE, a celebrated Vendean royalist; the peasants of La Vendee having in 1792 risen in the royal cause, he placed himself at the head of them, and after gaining six victories was killed fighting in single combat while defending Nouaille (1772-1794).

LAROUSSE, PIERRE, a celebrated French grammarian and lexicographer; best known by his "Grand Dictionnaire Universel du xix^{me} Siecle" (1817-1875).

LARRY, DOMINIQUE JEAN, BARON, a celebrated military surgeon; distinguished for the organisation he instituted of the "flying ambulance" for the care of the wounded in battle; accompanied Napoleon to Egypt; served in the Russian campaign; was wounded and taken prisoner at Waterloo; wrote treatises on army surgery (1766-1842).

LA SALLE, ROBERT CAVELIER SIEUR DE, a French explorer, born at Rouen; set out from Canada and explored the North American continent along the course of the Mississippi as far as the Gulf of Mexico, planting the French flag at what he thought was, but was not, the mouth of the river; was assassinated by one of his retinue in the end (1640-1687).

LASCARS, East Indians serving as seamen on board of British vessels, who have proved very tractable, and make excellent sailors; they are mostly Mohammedans.

LASCARSIS, CONSTANTINO, an eminent Greek scholar, born in Phrygia; on the fall of Constantinople in 1453 came with his brother John to Italy, published a Greek grammar, opened a school at Rome and Naples for Greek and Rhetoric, and did much to propagate in Italy a taste for Hellenic literature (1445-1535).

LAS CASAS, BARTHOLOME DE, a celebrated Spanish priest, surnamed the Apostle of the Indians, born at Seville; visited the West Indies early under Columbus; took a deep interest in the natives; was grieved to see the usage they were subjected to there, as well as elsewhere, under the rule of Spain, and spent his life in persuading his countrymen to adopt a more lenient and humane treatment; crossed the ocean twelve times on their behalf; was made Bishop of Chiapa, in Mexico, in 1554; died in Madrid (1474-1566).

LAS CASES, French historiographer; became attached to Napoleon and accompanied him to St. Helena, and after his death published his Memorial of St. Helena, with an account of Napoleon's life and the treatment he was subjected to there (1766-1842).

LASCO, JOHANNES, a Protestant Reformer, born in Poland; studied at Rome and Bologna, and entered holy orders; became acquainted with Erasmus at Basel, and joined the Reformation movement; settled at Emden; accepted an invitation from Cranmer to London, and ministered to a Protestant congregation there, but left it on the accession of Mary, and in 1556 returned to Poland and contributed largely to the movement already begun there (1490-1560).

LAS PALMAS (17), the capital of the Canary Islands, on the NE. of the Grand Canary, the second largest of the group; is the seat of the Government, and a health resort.

LASSALLE, FERDINAND, founder of Socialism in Germany, born at Breslau, of Jewish parents; attended the universities of Breslau and Berlin; became a disciple of Hegel; took part in the Revolution of 1848, and was sent to prison for six months; in 1861 his "System of Acquired Rights" started an agitation of labour against capital, and he was again thrown into prison; on his release founded an association to secure universal suffrage and other reforms; returning to Switzerland he conceived a passionate affection for a lady betrothed to a noble whom she was compelled to marry, and whom he challenged, but by whom he was mortally wounded in a duel (1825-1864).

LASSELL, WILLIAM, astronomer, born at Bolton, discovered the satellite of Neptune, and the eighth satellite of Saturn, in an observatory of his own, with instruments of his own construction (1799-1880).

LASSEN, CHRISTIAN, eminent Orientalist, born at Bergen; studied Pali with Burnouf in Paris; became professor of Indian Languages and Literature in Bonn; contributed largely to our knowledge of cuneiform inscriptions, and wrote, among other works, an epoch-making work entitled "Indische Alterthumskunde."

LASSO, a well-plaited strip of hide, with a noose, to catch wild horses or cattle with.

LATAKIA (10), a seaport on the coast of Syria; exports a tobacco of a fine quality, to which it gives name.

LATEEN SAIL, a triangular sail common on the Mediterranean.

LATERAN, the palace, originally a basilica, built by Constantine in Rome about 333, the residence of the Pope till 1308, and from which no fewer than five Ecumenical Councils receive their names as held in it, namely, those of 1123, 1139, 1179, 1215, and 1518; the church, called the Church of St. John Lateran, is the cathedral church of Rome.

LATHAM, ROBERT GORDON, ethnologist and philologist, born at Billingborough Vicarage, Lincolnshire, graduated at Cambridge 1832. and became Fellow of King's College; qualifying in medicine he held appointments in the London hospitals, but meanwhile was attracted to philology and ethnology, appointed professor of English Language and Literature in University College, London, 1839, and director of the ethnological department of the Crystal Palace, 1852; in 1862 he affirmed, against the most weighty authorities, that the Aryan stock is originally European, not Asian, a view which has since found favour; he published his "English Language" in 1841, and "The Natural History of the Varieties of Mankind" in 1850, and was pensioned in 1863 (1812-1888).

LATIMER, HUGH, Bishop of Worcester, born near Leicester; studied at Cambridge, and entered the Church, but soon adopted the Reformed doctrines, gained the favour of Henry VIII. by approving of his divorce, and was appointed bishop; by his labours in Worcester as a preacher of the Reformed faith he lost the royal favour, and was twice committed to the Tower for his obstinacy, he the while resigning his appointment; under Edward VI. his zeal as a preacher had full scope, but under Mary his mouth was gagged, and he was burnt at the stake along with Ridley, opposite Balliol College, Oxford (1490-1545).

LATIN UNION, a convention in 1865, between France, Italy, Belgium, Switzerland, and Greece, to establish an international monetary standard.

LATITUDINARIANS, the name given to a body of theologians belonging to the Church of England who, at the end of the 17th century, sought, in the interest of religion, to affiliate the dogmas of the Church, with the principles of philosophy as grounded on reason; they were mostly of the school of Plato, and among their leaders were Cudworth and Henry More.

LATONA, the Latin name for Greek LETO (q. v.).

LATOUR D'AUVERGNE, CORRET DE, a French grenadier, born in Brittany; celebrated for his intrepidity and his self-sacrificing patriotism; distinguished himself in the wars of the Revolution; would accept no promotion, and declined even the title of "First Grenadier of the Republic" which Bonaparte wished to confer on him, but by which he is known to posterity (1743-1800).

LATRIELLE, PIERRE ANDRE, French naturalist, born at Brives, in Correze; one of the founders of the science of Entomology; succeeded Lamarck as professor in Natural History in the Jardin des Plantes; wrote several works on entomology (1762-1833).

LATRIA, the name given in Catholic theology to the worship of God, as distinguished from DULIA (q. v.), their name for the worship of saints.

LATTER-DAY PAMPHLETS, a series of pamphlets published by Carlyle in 1850, in vehement denunciation of the political, social, and religious imbecilities and injustices of the period.


LAUD, WILLIAM, archbishop of Canterbury, born at Reading, son of a clothier; studied at and became a Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, was ordained in 1601; early gave evidence of his High-Church proclivities and his hostility to the Puritans, whom for their disdain of forms he regarded as the subverters of the Church; he rose by a succession of preferments, archdeaconship of Huntingdon one of them, to the Primacy, but declined the offer of a cardinal's hat at the hands of the Pope, and became along with Strafford a chief adviser of the unfortunate Charles I.; his advice did not help the king out of his troubles, and his obstinate, narrow-minded pedantry brought his own head to the block; he was beheaded for treason on Tower Hill, Jan. 10, 1645; he "could see no religion" in Scotland once on a visit there, "because he saw no ritual, and his soul was grieved" (1573-1645).

LAUDERDALE, JOHN MAITLAND, DUKE OF, Scottish Secretary under Charles II., professed Covenanting sympathies in his youth, and attended the Westminster Assembly of Divines as a Commissioner for Scotland 1643; succeeding to the earldom in 1645 he joined the Royalists in the Civil War, was made prisoner at Worcester 1651, and confined for nine years; receiving his Scottish office at the Restoration he devoted himself to establishing by every means the absolute power of the king in Church and State; his measures were responsible for the rising of 1666 and in part for that of 1677; but he made the Episcopal Church quite subservient; appointed to the Privy Council, he sat in the "Cabal" ministry, was made duke in 1672, and in spite of intrigues and an attempt to censure him in the Commons, remained in power till 1680; he was shrewd, clever, witty, sensual, and unscrupulous; then and still hated in Scotland (1616-1682).

LAUENBURG (49), a duchy of N. Germany, between Holstein and Mecklenburg, was annexed to Prussia in 1876.

LAUGHING PHILOSOPHER, a name given to Democrates of Abdera for a certain flippancy he showed.

LAUNCESTON (17), on the Tamar, the second city in Tasmania, is the chief port and market in the N., a fine city, carrying on a good trade with Australian ports, and serving as a summer resort to Melbourne.

LAURA, a young Avignonese married lady, for whom Petrarch conceived a Platonic affection, and who exercised a lifelong influence over him.

LAUREATE, POET, originally an officer of the royal household whose business it was to celebrate in an ode any joyous occasion connected with royalty, originally the sovereign's birthday; it is now a mere honour bestowed by royalty on an eminent poet.

LAURIER, SIR WILFRED, Premier of Canada since 1896, and the first French-Canadian to attain that honour, born in St. Lin; bred for the bar, soon rose to the top of his profession; elected in 1871 as a Liberal to the Quebec Provincial Assembly, where he came at once to the front, and elected in 1874 to the Federal Assembly, he became distinguished as "the silver-tongued Laurier," and as the Liberal leader; his personality is as winning as his eloquence, and he stood first among all the Colonial representatives at Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee in 1897; b. 1841.

LAUSANNE (33), a picturesque town on the slopes of the Jura, 1 m. from the N. shore of Lake Geneva, is the capital of the Swiss canton of Vaud; noted for its educational institutions and museums, and for its magnificent Protestant cathedral; it has little industry, but considerable trade, and is a favourite tourist resort; here took place the disputation between Calvin, Farel, and Viret, and here Gibbon wrote the "Decline and Fall."

LAVA, a general term for all rocks originating in molten streams from volcanoes, includes traps, basalts, pumice, and others; the surface of a lava stream cools and hardens quickly, presenting a cellulose structure, while below the heat is retained much longer and the rock when cooled is compact and columnar or crystalline; the largest recorded lava flow was from Skaptar Joekull, Iceland, in 1783.

LAVALETTE, COUNT DE, French general, born at Paris; condemned to death after the Restoration as an accomplice of Napoleon, he was saved from death by the devotion of his wife, who was found in the prison instead of him on the morning appointed for his execution (1769-1830).

LA VALLIERE, DUCHESSE DE, a fascinating woman, born at Tours, who became the mistress of Louis XIV.; supplanted by another, she became a Carmelite nun in 1674 in the Carmelite nunnery in Paris, and continued doing penance there as would seem till her death (1644-1710).

LAVATER, JOHANN KASPAR, German clergyman, a mystic thinker and writer on physiognomy, born at Zurich; wrote "Outlooks to Eternity," and a work on physiognomy, or the art of judging of character from the features of the face (1741-1804).

LAVOISIER, ANTOINE LAURENT, one of the founders of modern chemistry, born in Paris; to prosecute his researches accepted the post of farmer-general in 1769, introduced in 1776 improvements in manufacturing gunpowder, discovered the composition of the air and the nature of oxygen, applied the principles of chemistry to agriculture, and indicated the presence and action of these principles in various other domains of scientific inquiry; called to account for his actions as farmer-general, one in particular "putting water in the tobacco," and condemned to the guillotine; he in vain begged for a fortnight's respite to finish some experiments, "the axe must do its work" (1742-1794).

LAW, JOHN, financier and speculator, son of a goldsmith and banker, born at Edinburgh; was early noted for his calculating power; visiting London in 1691 he got into debt, sold his estate, killed a man in a duel, and escaped to Amsterdam, where he studied finance; came to Scotland with financial proposals for the Government in 1700, but they were refused, and he spent some years on the Continent as a gambling adventurer; in 1716 he and his brother William started a private bank in Paris, the success of which induced the Regent Orleans in 1718 to institute the "Royal Bank of France," with Law as director; next year he floated the "Mississippi Scheme" for the settlement of Louisiana, but after a show of success the scheme proved a bubble; he had to fly to Brussels, his property being confiscated; he died at Venice, poor, but scheming to the end (1671-1729).

LAW, WILLIAM, author of "A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life," born at Kingscliffe, Northamptonshire, son of a grocer; entered Cambridge in 1705; became a Fellow, and took orders in 1711; became associated with the family of the elder Gibbon, father of the historian, in 1727, and spent ten years with them as tutor, friend, and spiritual director; in 1740 he retired to Kingscliffe, where he spent the remainder of his life in seclusion, shared by Miss Hester Gibbon, the historian's aunt, and Mrs. Hutcheson, a widow of means, occupying themselves much with charitable schemes; Law was an able theologian and dialectician, and an exponent of German mysticism; his writings contributed greatly to the evangelical revival (1686-1761).

LAWRENCE, JOHN, LORD, the "Saviour of India," born of Irish parentage at Richmond, Yorkshire; entered the Bengal Civil Service in 1829, and on the annexation of the Punjab was appointed Commissioner and afterwards Lieutenant-Governor; by his justice and the reforms he carried through he so won the esteem of the Sikhs that at the Mutiny he was able to disarm the Punjab mutineers, raise 50,000 men, and capture Delhi; returning to England he received a pension of L1000 a year, was made successively baronet and Privy Councillor, and sent out again as Governor-General of India in 1863; his rule was characterised by wise policy and sound finance; he disapproved of English interference in Afghan affairs; he was raised to the peerage in 1869 (1811-1879).

LAWRENCE, ST., a deacon of the Church at Rome, who suffered martyrdom in the time of Valerian, 258, by being broiled on a gridiron, which he is represented in Christian art as holding in his hand.

LAY BROTHER, a member of a monastery under the three monastic vows, but not in holy orders.

LAYAMON, early English poet who flourished in the 12th century, and was by his own account priest near Bewdley, on the Severn; was author of a long poem or chronicle of 32,250 lines called "Brut d'Angleterre," and which is of interest as showing how Anglo-Saxon passed into the English of Chaucer.

LAYARD, SIR AUSTEN HENRY, English traveller and diplomatist, born at Paris; spent his boyhood in Italy, and studied law in London; between 1845 and 1847 he conducted excavations at the ruins of Nineveh, securing for the British Museum its famous specimens of Assyrian art, and on his return published works on "Nineveh and its Remains" and "Monuments of Nineveh"; he received the freedom of London, Oxford gave him D.C.L., and Aberdeen University chose him for Lord Rector; entering Parliament in 1852, he sat for Aylesbury and for Southwark, and was Under-secretary for Foreign Affairs 1861-06; in 1809 he was sent as ambassador to Madrid, and from 1877 till 1880 represented England at Constantinople, where his philo-Turkish sympathies provoked much comment; he was a noted linguist (1817-1894).

LAZZARONI, an indolent class of waifs under a chief who used to lounge about Naples, and proved formidable in periods of revolution; they subsisted partly by service as messengers, porters, &c., and partly as beggars.


LEAGUE, THE, specially a coalition organised in 1576 by the Duke of Guise to suppress the Reformed religion in France by denying civil and religious liberty to the Huguenots, and specially to prevent the accession of Henry IV. as a Protestant to the throne.

LEAMINGTON (27), a fashionable Warwickshire watering-place of modern date on the Learn, 15 m. SE. of Birmingham. It has chalybeate, saline, and sulphurous springs, to which visitors have gathered since the end of 18th century; brewing and kitchen-range making are carried on; Leamington and Warwick return one member of Parliament.


LEANING TOWER, specially a campanile of white marble at Pisa, in Italy, 178 ft. in height, and which leans 14 ft. off the perpendicular.

LEAR, a legendary British king, the hero of one of Shakespeare's tragedies, the victim of the unnatural conduct of two of his daughters.

LEAR, EDWARD, English painter, and author of "Book of Nonsense," composed for the grandchildren of the Earl of Derby in 1848, and after of "More Nonsense Rhymes," which were widely popular with young people; painted landscapes in Greece and Asia Minor (1812-1888).

LEATHER STOCKING, NATTY, a character in Cooper's novel the "Pioneers," "a melodious synopsis of man and nature in the West."

LEATHES, STANLEY, prebendary of St Paul's, born in Bucks; has held several clerical appointments; is professor of Hebrew in King's College, London, and is author of a number of works bearing on Christianity; b. 1830.

LEBANON (i. e. "the White Mountain"), a range on the northern border of Palestine, which rises to a height of 10,000 ft., and is divided into two by a valley, the ancient Coele-Syria, which the Leontes and Orontes water, the eastern range being called Anti-Lebanon.

LE BRUN, CHARLES, a celebrated French painter, born in Paris; studied in Rome, settled in Paris, and patronised by Colbert; he exercised for about 40 years a great influence on the art of the period; he decorated Versailles and the Louvre, but with the death of his patron he sunk into obscurity and pined and died (1619-1690).

LECHLER, GOTTHARD VICTOR, theologian, born in Wuertemberg; was professor at Leipzig; wrote "History of Deism," "Life of Wiclif," and "Apostolic and Post-Apostolic Times" (1811-1888).

LECKY, WILLIAM EDWARD HARTPOLE, historian and suggestive writer, born near Dublin; represents Dublin University in Parliament; is the author of "Leaders of Public Opinion," 1861; "The Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe," 1865; the "History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne," 1869; and the "History of the Eighteenth Century," 1878-90; b. 1838.

LECLAIRE, EDME-JEAN, French economist, and experimentalist in the matter of the union of capital and labour; adopted the system of profit-sharing in 1842, with important results (1801-1872).

LE CLERC, JOHN, otherwise Johannes Clericus, liberal Swiss theologian and controversialist, born at Geneva; studied philosophy and theology there, and at Paris and London; became professor in the Remonstrant Seminary in Amsterdam in 1684, but lost his speech in 1728; his voluminous writings include commentaries on the whole Bible, which contained opinions on the authorship and composition of the Pentateuch, and the inspiration of the wisdom books, then startling but since much in favour (1657-1736).

LECONTE DE LISLE, a French poet, a Creole, born in the Isle of Bourbon, author of "Poesies Barbares" and "Poesies Antiques," and translator of Homer, Sophocles, Theocrates, and other classics; his translations are wonderfully faithful to the originals (1820-1894).

LECTERN, a stand with a desk for a book from which the service is read in a church.

LEDA, in the Greek mythology the wife of the Spartan king Tyndareus, who was visited by Zeus in the form of a swan and became the mother of Castor and Pollux; was frequently the subject of ancient art.

LEDRU-ROLLIN, ALEXANDRA AUGUSTE, a French democrat, born near Paris; called to the bar in 1830; became a leader of the democratic movement in the reign of Louis Philippe, and gained the title of the "Tribune of the Revolution"; in 1848 he became a member of the Provisional Government; was Minister of the Interior; secured for France the privilege of universal suffrage; his opposition to Louis Napoleon obliged him to seek refuge in England, where he took part in a general democratic movement, and an amnesty being granted, he returned to France in 1870; was elected to the Assembly, but his power was gone; died suddenly (1807-1874).

LEE, ROBERT EDWARD, Confederate general in the American Civil War, born at Stratford, Virginia, son of a soldier of old and distinguished family, and educated at West Point; became captain of Engineers in 1838; he distinguished himself in the Mexican War of 1846; was from 1852 till 1855 head of the U.S. Military Academy; was in active service again in Texas 1855-59 as an officer of Cavalry; on the secession of the Southern States, though disapproving of the war, deeming Virginia to have a claim before the Union to his loyalty, resigned his commission, and was appointed general, third in rank, by the Confederate Congress of Virginia, 1861; after various services he succeeded General Johnston in command of the army at Richmond; won the seven days' battle against M'Clellan; invaded Maryland and Pennsylvania, but was forced to surrender with 28,000 men to Grant at Appomatox, in Virginia, April 9, 1865; forfeiting his estates he became President of the Washington University (since called Washington and Lee), Lexington, Virginia, which post he held till his death; he was a man of devout religious faith, a high sense of duty, great courage and ability as a soldier (1807-1870).

LEE, ROBERT, a Scottish theologian, born at Tweedmouth; was minister of Old Greyfriars, Edinburgh, and professor of Biblical Criticism in the University; reformed the Presbyterian worship to some extent on the Anglican model, and suffered no small persecution at the hands of the conservative party in the Church for these innovations; his proclivities otherwise were rationalistic (1804-1868).

LEE, SAMUEL, English Orientalist, born in Shropshire; professor in Cambridge first of Arabic and then of Hebrew; was the author of a Hebrew grammar and lexicon, and a translation of the Book of Job (1783-1852).

LEECH, JOHN, English artist, born in London; was educated at the Charterhouse, and a fellow pupil there of Thackeray's; displayed early a turn for caricature; produced a set of illustrations for the "Ingoldsby Legends"; joined the staff of Punch in 1844, and remained a member of it till his death; here he distinguished himself by his cartoons and his humorous illustrations of scenes and characters of English life and society, and showed himself an artist more than a caricaturist; his work was not limited to Punch; he contributed illustrations also to Once a Week, the Illustrated London News, and other publications of the time (1817-1864).

LEEDS (368), fifth city in England, largest in Yorkshire, on the Aire, 25 m. SW. of York, in the West Riding; has been noted for its textile industry since the 16th century, now its woollen manufactures of all kinds are the largest in England, and besides other industries, there are very large manufactures of ready-made clothing, leather, boots and shoes, and iron. There are many fine buildings: St. Peter's Church is the largest; St. John's, consecrated in 1634, still retains the fittings of a "Laudean" church. There is a magnificent infirmary, a grammar-school, and art-gallery. The Yorkshire College is affiliated with Victoria University. Dr. Priestley was a native. A Parliamentary borough only since 1832, it now returns five members.

LEEDS, THOMAS OSBORNE, DUKE OF, English statesman, son of a Yorkshire baronet, after the Restoration entered Parliament as member for York and supporter of King and Church; his advance was rapid till he was Lord High Treasurer and Earl of Danby in 1674; constantly intriguing, he was impeached by the Commons in 1678, and kept for five years in the Tower without trial; returning to public life he opposed James II.'s policy regarding the Church, and joined in the movement which set William of Orange on the English throne; appointed President of the Council, he was again guilty of corrupt practices; he became Duke of Leeds in 1694, but in 1695 was impeached a second time, and though he again escaped condemnation he never regained power (1631-1712).

LEEUWENHOEK, ANTON VAN, an early microscopist, born at Delft; the instrument he used was of his own construction, but it was the means of his arriving at important discoveries, one of the most so that of capillary circulation; stoutly opposed the theory of spontaneous generation (1632-1673).

LEFORT, FRANCOIS JACOB, Russian officer, born in Geneva, son of a merchant; after serving in France and Holland, in 1675 entered the service and gained the favour of Peter the Great, organised the army on the French model, laid the foundation of a navy, and died commander-in-chief both of the land forces and the navy (1656-1699).

LEFT, THE, the opposition in a Continental Legislative Assembly, as sitting on the left of the chair; also the liberal section of a philosophical school.

LEGALISM, adherence to the strict letter of the law often in disregard of the spirit and even in defiance of it.

LE GALLIENNE, RICHARD, poet, journalist, and critic, born in Liverpool, of a Guernsey family; has been connected with and contributed to several London journals; is author of "My Lady's Sonnets," "George Meredith: some Characteristics," "The Religion of a Literary Man," &c.; is successful as a lecturer as well as a litterateur; b. 1866.

LEGATE, the title of the Pope's representative or ambassador; in medieval times this office was attached to certain bishoprics, and the bishops were styled legati nati; besides these there were legati a latere, generally cardinals, and legati missi, or nuncios specially appointed; legates used to claim full papal jurisdiction within their provinces, which caused many disputes; now they are ambassadors for spiritual purposes at Roman Catholic Courts—Vienna, Muenich, Madrid, Lisbon, and Paris—and do not interfere with the authority of the bishops.

LEGENDRE, ADRIEN MARIE, brilliant French mathematician, contemporary of Lagrange and Laplace, born at Toulouse; obtained the professorship of Mathematics in the Military School at Paris, and was elected to the Academy of Sciences in 1783; he was one of the commissioners to determine the length of the metre, and held many posts under the Republic and the Empire; among many works his best known is the "Elements of Geometry" (1794), translated into English by Carlyle (1752-1833).

LEGGE, JAMES, a Chinese scholar, born in Huntly, Aberdeenshire; studied at King's College, Aberdeen; was sent out as missionary to the Chinese by the London Missionary Society in 1839, laboured for 30 years at Hong-Kong, and became professor of the Chinese Language and Literature at Oxford in 1876; edited with a translation and notes the Chinese classics, the "four Shu," and the "five King," and gave lectures on the religions of China as compared with Christianity; b. 1815.

LEGHORN (106), a flourishing Italian seaport, on the W. coast, 60 m. from Florence; is a fine city, with broad streets and many canals; its exports include wine, silk, oil, marble, and straw hats; it imports spirits, sugar, and machinery; it does a large and increasing coasting trade, and manufactures coral ornaments; its prosperity dates from the 15th century; it was a free port till 1868.

LEGION, among the ancient Romans a body of soldiers consisting of three lines, the hastati, the principes, and the triarii, ranged in order of battle one behind the other, each divided into ten maniples, and the whole numbering from 4000 to 6000 men; to each legion was attached six military tribunes, who commanded in rotation, each for two months; under Marius the three lines were amalgamated, and the whole divided into ten cohorts of three maniples each; under the original arrangement the hastati were young or untrained men, the principes men in their full manhood, and the triarii veterans.

LEGION OF HONOUR, an order of merit instituted on republican principles on May 10, 1802, by Bonaparte when First Consul in recompense of civil and military services to the country; it originally consisted of four classes, but now comprehends five: grand crosses, grand officers, commanders, officers, and chevaliers, each, of military or naval men, with pensions on a descending scale and all for life; their badge, a white star of five rays, bearing on the obverse an image of the republic and on the reverse two tricolor flags.

LEGITIMISTS, a name given to supporters of the Bourbon dynasty in France as opposed to the Orleanists, who supported the claims of Louis Philippe.

LEIBNITZ, German philosopher, mathematician, and man of affairs, born in Leipzig; studied law and took the degree of Doctor of Laws at Altorf; spent a good part of his life at courts, visited Paris and London and formed a friendship with the savans in both cities, and finally settled in Hanover, where he moved much in the circle of the Electress Sophia and her daughter Sophia Charlotte, the Prussian Queen, whom he entertained with his philosophy of the "infinitely little," as it has been called; he discovered with Newton the basis of the differential calculus, and concocted the system of monods (his "Monodology"), between which and the soul, he taught, there existed a "pre-established harmony," issuing in the cosmos; he was an optimist, and had for his motto the oft-quoted phrase, "Everything is for the best in the best of possible worlds"; his principal works in philosophy are his "Theodicee," written at the instance of Sophia Charlotte and in refutation of Bayle, and his "Monodologie," written on the suggestion of Prince Eugene (1646-1716).

LEICESTER (209), county town of Leicestershire, on the Soar, 40 m. E. of Birmingham; is an ancient town, with several historic buildings; has grown rapidly of late owing to its hosiery, boot and shoe, and iron-founding industries; it sends two members to Parliament.

LEICESTER, ROBERT DUDLEY, EARL OF, Queen Elizabeth's favourite, fifth son of the Duke of Northumberland; won the queen's favour by his handsome appearance and courtly address; received many offices and honours, and on the death, under suspicious circumstances, of his Countess, Amy Robsart, aspired to her hand; still favoured, in spite of his unpopularity in the country, he was proposed as husband to Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1563; he married the dowager Lady Sheffield in 1573, and afterwards bigamously the Countess of Essex; after a short term of disfavour he was appointed commander in the Netherlands, and subsequently at Tilbury Fort, but proved an incapable soldier (1532-1588).

LEICESTERSHIRE (374), English midland county, bounded by Nottingham, Lincoln, Rutland, Northampton, Warwick, and Derby shires; is an undulating upland watered by the Soar, and mostly under pasture. Leicester cattle and sheep are noted, and its Stilton cheeses. There are coal deposits and granite and slate quarries in the N. The chief towns are Leicester, the county town, Loughborough, and Hinckley.

LEIGH, AURORA, the heroine of Mrs. Browning's poem of the same name. She styled it "a novel in verse," and wrote of it, it is "the most mature of my works, and the one into which my highest convictions upon Life and Art have entered."

LEIGHTON, FREDERICK, LORD, eminent English artist, born at Scarborough; studied in the chief art-centres of the Continent; his first exhibit at the Royal Academy being "Cimabue's Madonna carried in Procession through Florence," which was followed by a numerous array of others of classic merit, and showing the scholar as well as the artist; he distinguished himself in sculpture as well as painting, and died President of the Royal Academy after being ennobled (1830-1897).

LEIGHTON, ROBERT, a Scottish theologian, the son of a Puritan clergyman in London, who wrote a book against prelacy, and suffered cruelly at the hands of Laud in consequence; studied at Edinburgh; entered the Church, and became Presbyterian minister at Newbattle in 1641, but resigned in 1653; was made Principal of Edinburgh University; reluctantly consented to accept a bishopric, and chose the diocese of Dunblane, but declined all lordship connected with the office; was for a time archbishop of Glasgow; retired to England in 1674, and lived ten years afterwards with a widowed sister in Sussex; he was a most saintly man, and long revered as such by the Scottish people; his writings, which are highly imaginative, were much admired by Coleridge (1611-1684).

LEIOTRICHI, a primitive race of people distinguished by their smooth hair.

LEIPZIG (357), in the W. of Saxony, and largest city of that kingdom; is the third city in Germany. The old portion is narrow and quaint, with historic buildings; the new is well built, with splendid edifices. It is the seat of the supreme court of the Empire, of an old university which has a magnificent library and well-equipped medical school, and of one of the finest conservatories of music in Europe. Its chief trade is in books, furs, leather, and cloth, and its chief industries type-founding and pianoforte-making. It was the birthplace of Leibnitz and Wagner, and is associated also with Bach and Mendelssohn.

LEITH (68), chief seaport in E. of Scotland, on the Forth, contiguous to Edinburgh and the port of it; is an old, unattractive, but busy town. The harbour comprises five docks. The imports are corn, flour, wines, sugar, and fruit; the exports, coal, iron, paraffin, and whisky. There are shipbuilding and engineering works, breweries, distilleries, and other industries. Leith Fort, between the town and Newhaven, is the head-quarters of the artillery for Scotland.

LEITHA, an Austrian stream which flows NE. and falls into the Danube E. of Vienna; divides Cis-Leithan from Trans-Leithan.

LELAND, CHARLES, an American writer, born at Philadelphia; bred to the bar, but left law for literature, and contributed to the journals; has taken interest in and written on the industrial arts, social science, folk-lore, the gypsies, &c.; his works are numerous, and of a humorous or burlesque character, and include "The Poetry and Mystery of Dreams," "The Legends of Birds," "Hans Breitmann's Ballads," &c.; b. 1824.

LELAND, JOHN, English antiquary, born in London; travelled much on the Continent and amassed vast learning; held a commission from Henry VIII. to examine the antiquities and libraries of England, in fulfilment of which charge he spent six years in collecting a world of things that would otherwise have been lost, and the rest of his life, till he went insane, in arranging them (1506-1552).

LELAND, JOHN, a Nonconformist minister, born in Wigan; wrote chiefly in defence of Christianity against the attacks of the Deists (1691-1766).

LELY, SIR PETER, a painter, born in Westphalia; settled in London; took to portrait-painting, and was patronised by Charles I. and II., as well as by Cromwell; he painted the portraits of his patrons, and the beauties of Charles II.'s court; was Vandyck's successor (1618-1680).


LEMBERG (128), the capital of Austrian Galicia, from its central position and ready communication with rivers and railways, enjoys an extensive trade; Polish is the prevailing language; there is a flourishing university, and of the population 40,000 are Jews.

LEMMING RAT, a rodent, which "travelling in myriads seawards from the hills," as seen in Norway, "turns not to the right or the left, eats its way through whatever will eat, and climbs over whatever will not eat, and perishes before reaching the sea, its consistent rigidly straight journey, a journey nowhither." See the Application in the "Latter Pamphlet," No. 6.

LEMNOS (30), an island plateau in the AEgean Sea, 30 m. SW. of the Dardanelles, Turkish since 1657; produces corn, wine, and tobacco, and is a place of exile for Turkish prisoners; the population is mostly Greek; chief town Kastro (3), on the W. coast.

LEMON, MARK, editor of Punch from 1843 to his death, born in London; began his career as a dramatist, story-teller, and song-writer, writing 60 pieces for the stage and 100 songs (1809-1870).

LEM'URES, a name given by the Romans to the spirits of the dead, and who, such of them as are ghosts of the wicked, wander about at night as spectres, and tormented themselves, torment and frighten the living.

LENCLOS, NINON DE, a woman celebrated for wit and beauty, born in Paris, whose salon in the city was frequented by all the notable personages of the period; she was a woman of superior mental endowments as well as polished manners, but of loose morality and want of heart (1616-1705).

LENNEP, JACOB VAN, a Dutch dramatist and novelist, born at Amsterdam; bred to the bar and practised as a lawyer; was a devoted student of English literature, and executed translations from English poets; was called by his countrymen the Walter Scott of Holland (1802-1868).

LENNOX, an ancient district of Scotland that included Dumbartonshire and part of Stirlingshire.

LENORE, the heroine of a celebrated ballad by Buerger, the German lyric poet, a maiden whose lover dies and whose spectre appears to her on horseback and carries her off mounted behind him.

LENORMANT, FRANCOIS, a distinguished archaeologist, born at Paris, a man of genius and of vast learning; his chief works "Manuel d'Histoire Ancienne de l'Orient," "Lettres Assyriologues," "Les Premieres Civilisations," and "Les Sciences Occultes en Asie" (1837-1883).

LENS, a piece of glass adapted as convex or concave so as to change the direction of the rays of light passing through it and magnify or diminish the apparent size of an object.

LENT, a period of fasting previous to Easter, at first lasting only 40 hours, was gradually extended to three, four, or six days, then different Churches extended it to three and six: weeks; in the 6th century Gregory the Great fixed it for the West at 40 days from Ash Wednesday to Easter, excluding Sundays; in the Eastern Church it begins on the Monday after quinquagesima and excludes both Saturdays and Sundays; in the Anglican Church the season is marked by special services, but the fast is not rigidly kept.

LENTHALL, WILLIAM, Speaker of the Long Parliament; is famous for his answer to the demand of Charles to point out to him five members he had come to arrest, "May it please your Majesty," said he, failing on his knees, "I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak but as the House directs me" (1591-1662).

LEO, the fifth sign of the zodiac, which the sun enters on July 22.

LEO, the name of six emperors of the East, of which the chief was Leo III., surnamed the Isaurian, born in Isauria; raised to the imperial throne by the army, defeated by sea and land the Saracens who threatened Constantinople; ruled peacefully for nine years, when he headed the ICONOCLAST MOVEMENT (Q. V.), which provoked hostility and led to the revolt of Italy from the Greek empire; d. 741.

LEO, the names of 13 popes: L. I., ST., Pope from 410 to 461; L. II., ST., pope from 682 to 683; L. III., Pope from 795 to 816; L. IV., pope from 847 to 855; L. V., Pope in 903; L. VI., Pope from 928 to 929; L. VII., Pope from 936 to 939; L. VIII., Pope from 963 to 965; L. IX., ST., Pope from 1049 to 1054; L. X., pope from 1513 to 1521; L. XI., Pope in 1605; L. XII., Pope from 1823 to 1829; L. XIII., Pope since 1878. Of these only the following deserve mention:—

LEO I., saint, surnamed the GREAT; was distinguished for his zeal against heretics, presided at two councils, and persuaded Attila to retire from Rome on his invasion of Italy, as he persuaded Genseric four years later to moderate the outrages of his troops in the city; his letters are in evidence of the jurisdiction of the Roman over the universal Church. Festival, Nov. 10.

LEO III., proclaimed Charlemagne emperor of the West in 800; driven in 799 from the papal chair by a conspiracy, he was reinstated by Charlemagne, who next year visited the city and was crowned by him emperor.

LEO IX., saint; was elected at the Diet of Worms in 1048, welcomed at Rome, and applied himself zealously to the reform of Church discipline; being defeated in the field by Guiscard, suffered a 10 years' imprisonment, fell ill and died.

LEO X., Giovanni de' Medici, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, sovereign of Florence; was distinguished as a patron of art, science, and letters, and as occupant of the chair of St. Peter at the outbreak of the Reformation, and as by his issue of indulgences for the replenishment of his treasure provoking the movement and rousing the ire of Luther, which set the rest of Europe on fire.

LEO XIII., 257th Pope of Rome, born at Carpineto; distinguished at college in mathematics, physics, and philosophy; took holy orders in 1837, was nuncio to Belgium in 1843, became bishop of Perugia in 1846, cardinal 1853, and Pope in 1878; holds to his rights as Pope both secular and spiritual; believes in the Catholic Church as the only regenerator of society, and hails every show of encroach it makes on the domain of Protestantism as promise of its universal restoration; b. 1810.

LEON, an ancient kingdom in the NE. of Spain, united with Castile in 1230, with a capital of the same name 256 m. NW. of Madrid. Also the name of a city in Nicaragua and another in Mexico.

LEONARDO DA VINCI, celebrated painter and sculptor of the Florentine school, born at Vinci in the Val d'Arno; showed early a wonderful aptitude for art; studied under Andrea del Verrocchio, but so surpassed him in his work as to drive him to renounce the painter's art; his great work, executed by him at Milan, was the famous picture of the "Last Supper," which he painted in oil about 1497 on the wall of the refectory of the Dominican convent of the Madonna delle Grazie; it perished from the dampness of the wall almost as soon as it was finished, but happily copies were taken of it before decay had ruined it; besides, Leonardo did in 1503 at Florence the famous cartoon of the Battle of the Standard; he was a man of imposing personal appearance, of very wide range of ability, and distinguished himself in engineering as well as art; he wrote a "Treatise on Painting," which has been widely translated (1452-1519).

LEONIDAS, king of Sparta from 491 to 480 B.C.; opposed Xerxes, the Persian, who threatened Greece with a large army, and kept him at bay at the Pass of Thermopylae with 300 Spartans and 5000 auxiliaries till he was betrayed by EPHIALTES (q. v.), when he and his 300 threw themselves valiantly on the large host, and perished fighting to the last man.

LEONIDS, meteors which descend in showers during November in certain years, their chief centre being the constellation Leo.

LEOPARDI, GIACOMO, modern Italian poet, born near Ancona; a precocious genius; an omnivorous reader as a boy, and devoted to literature; of a weakly constitution, he became a confirmed invalid, and died suddenly; had sceptical leanings; wrote lyrics inspired by a certain sombre melancholy (1788-1837).

LEOPOLD I., king of the Belgians, son of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg; in his youth served in the Russian army; visited England in 1815, and married Princess Charlotte, who died two years later; he declined the throne of Greece in 1830, but accepted that of the Belgians in 1831, and proved a wise, firm, constitutional sovereign; in 1832 he married the French princess Louise; he was succeeded by his son Leopold II. (1790-1865).

LEOPOLD II., king of the Belgians, born at Brussels, son and successor of Leopold I.; has travelled much in Europe and Asia Minor; founded, and is now ruler of, the Congo Free State; married in 1853 the Archduchess Maria of Austria, by whom he has had three daughters; b. 1835.

LEPSIUS, KARL RICHARD, a celebrated Egyptologist, born in Prussian Saxony; took at first to the study of philology under Bopp, but early devoted himself to the study of the antiquities of Egypt; headed in 1842 an expedition of research among the monuments under the king of Prussia, which occupied five years, and was fertile in important results, among others the production of a work in 12 vols. on the subject entitled "Denkmaeleraus Egypten und Ethiopien," issued between 1849 and 1860; he was the author also of works on philology (1810-1884).

LERNAEAN HYDRA, a monster with nine heads, one of them immortal, that infested a swamp near Lernae, and which Hercules was required to slay as one of his twelve labours, only as often as he cut off one head two grew on, but with the assistance of Iolcus his servant he singed off the eight mortal ones, cut down the ninth, and buried it under a huge rock.

LERWICK (31), the capital of Shetland, on the E. of Mainland; fishing and knitting the chief industries.

LE SAGE, ALAIN RENE, French dramatist and novelist, born at Sarzeau, in Brittany; educated at a Jesuit school at Vannes; went to Paris in 1692; studied the Spanish language and literature, and produced translations of Spanish works and imitations; some of his dramas attained great popularity, and one in particular, the "Turcaret," a satire on the time generally, and not merely, as represented, on financiers of the period, gave offence; but the works by which he is best known are his novels "Le Diable Boiteux" and "Gil Blas," his masterpiece (1668-1747).

LESBOS (36), modern name Mytilene, a mountainous island, the largest on the Asia Minor coast, 10 m. off shore and 20 m. N. of the Gulf of Symrna; has a delightful climate, disturbed by earthquakes, fertile soil, and produces fine olive-oil. In ancient Greek days it was a cradle of literature, the home of Sappho, and famous for its wine; Turkish since 1462, its population is mostly Greek; chief town Castro (12), on the E. coast.

LESE-MAJESTY, name given to a crime against the sovereign.

LESLIE, name of a Scottish family distinguished in Scottish history as well as for military service in foreign parts.

LESLIE, CHARLES, non-juring controversial divine, born in Dublin, wrote "A Short and Easy Method with the Jews," and another with the Deists (1650-1722).

LESLIE, SIR JOHN, natural philosopher and professor, born at Largo, Fifeshire; educated at St. Andrews and Edinburgh University; visited America in 1788, and returned to London 1790; for fifteen years he was engaged in scientific investigation, invented several instruments, and published his "Inquiry into the Nature of Heat," for which he received the Rumford Medal from the Royal Society; appointed to the chair of Mathematics in Edinburgh in 1805, he was transferred to that of Natural Philosophy in 1819; continued his researches and inventions, and shortly before his death was knighted (1766-1832).

LESPINASSE, a French lady, born in Lyons, famous for her wit, to whom D'Alembert was much attached, and the centre of a learned circle in Paris in her time (1731-1776).

LESSEPS, FERDINAND DE, French diplomatist, born at Versailles; conceived the scheme of connecting the Red Sea with the Mediterranean in 1854, and saw it finished as the Suez Canal in 1869; projected a similar scheme for a canal at Panama, but it ended in failure, disgrace, and ruin to the projectors as well as others (1805-1894).

LESSING, GOTTHOLD EPHRAIM, a German author, and founder of modern German literature, born at Kamenz, Saxony, son of the pastor there; sent to study theology at Leipzig, studied hard; conceived a passion for the stage; wrote plays and did criticisms; wrote an essay on Pope; took English authors as his models, revolted against those of France; made it his aim to inaugurate or rather revive a purely German literature, and produced examples regarded as classics to this day; his principal dramas, all conceived on the soil, are "Miss Sara Sampson," "Mina von Barnhelm," "Emilia Galotti," and "Nathan der Weise," and his principal prose works are his "Fables" and "Laocoon," a critical work on art still in high repute (1729-1781).

L'ESTRANGE, SIR ROGER, a zealous Royalist, born in Norfolk; was for his zeal in the royal cause committed to prison; having escaped, he was allowed to live in retirement under Cromwell, but woke up a vigorous pamphleteer and journalist in the old interest at the Restoration, "wounding his Whig foes very sorely, and making them wince"; he translated Josephus, Cicero's "Offices," Seneca's "Morals," the "Colloquies" of Erasmus, and Quevedo's "Visions," his most popular work (1616-1704).

LETHE (i. e. oblivion), in the Greek mythology a stream in the nether world, a draught of the waters of which, generally extended to the ghosts of the dead on their entrance into Pluto's kingdom, obliterated all recollection of the past and its sorrows.

LETO (i. e. the hidden one), one of the Titan brood, who became by Zeus the mother of Apollo and Artemis, and for whose confinement, in her persecution by Hera, Poseidon by a stroke of his trident fixed the till then floating island of Delos to the sea-bottom.

LETTER OF MARQUE, a commission to the captain of a merchant ship or a privateer to make reprisals on an enemy's ships or property.

LETTERS PATENT, a document under seal of the government granting some special privilege to a person.

LETTRES DE CACHET (i. e. sealed letters), warrants of imprisonment, issued prior to the Revolution, sealed with the private seal of the king, in contradistinction from lettres patentees, which were sealed by the Great Seal of the kingdom. See CACHET, LETTRE DE.

LEUCIPPUS, a Greek philosopher of the 6th century B.C., the founder of the Atomic theory of things, of which DEMOCRITUS (q. v.) was the chief expounder.

LEUCTRA, a village in Boeotia, to the S. of Thebes, where in 371 B.C. Epaminondas and his Thebans overthrew the ascendency of Sparta.

LEUTHEN, a village in the W. of Breslau, in Silesia, where Frederick the Great defeated the Austrians with great loss in 1757.

LEVANA, the title of a book by Jean Paul on the education of children; title from the name of a Roman goddess, the protectress of foundlings.

LEVANT (i. e. the Rising), a name given to the E. of the Mediterranean and the regions adjoining by the western peoples of the Mediterranean.

LEVEE, a morning reception held by the sovereign or some one of high rank.

LEVELLERS, a party of violent red-hot Republicans, led on by John Lilburne, who appeared in the time of the Commonwealth, but were suppressed by Cromwell.

LEVER, CHARLES JAMES, a novelist, born at Dublin, was by profession a physician; author of a numerous series of Irish stories written in a rollicking humour, "Harry Lorrequer" and "Charles O'Malley" among the chief; was a contributor to and for some time editor of Dublin University Magazine; held ultimately various consular appointments abroad, and after that wrote with success in a more sober style (1806-1872).

LEVERRIER, URBAN JEAN JOSEPH, French astronomer, born at St. Lo; distinguished in chemistry before he devoted himself to astronomy; rose to eminence in the latter science by a paper on the variations in the orbits of the planets, and was led to the discovery of the planet Neptune from perturbations in the orbit of the planet Uranus; he indicated the spot where the planet would be found, and it was actually discovered a few days after by Galle at Berlin (1811-1877).

LEVI, LEON, commercial economist, born at Ancona; settled in England and was naturalised; drew attention to the want of commercial organisation, and to whose pleading the first chamber of commerce, that of Liverpool, owes its existence; became professor of Commercial Law in King's College, London (1821-1888).

LEVIRITE LAW, a law among the Jews which ordained if a husband died without issue that his brother should take his widow to wife and raise up seed to him (Deut. xxv. 5-10).

LEVITES, a body of men divided into courses, the servants of the priests in the worship of the Temple of Jerusalem; they were not permitted to enter the sanctuary or serve at the altar, their duties being limited to keeping watch over the Temple, slaying the victims, and making other preparations for the sacred services.

LEVITICAL DEGREES, relationships that preclude marriage, so called as presumably fixed by the Levitical priesthood of the Jews.

LEVITICUS, the third book of the Pentateuch, so called as containing the laws and ordinances appointed to regulate the services of the sanctuary as conducted by a priesthood of the tribe of Levi, the narrative portion of it recording the consecration of Aaron and his sons, the death of Nadab and Abihu, and the stoning of the blasphemer, embracing a period of only one year, and the legislation of it no longer issuing from Mount Sinai, but from the door of the Tabernacle.

LEWALD, FANNY, an eminent German novelist, born at Koenigsberg, of Jewish parents; professed Christianity and was married to Adolf Stahr; was a realist in art and a zealous woman's rights advocate (1811-1889).

LEWES (11), the county town of Sussex, finely situated on a slope of the South Downs, 10 m. NE. of Brighton; was the scene of a victory of Simon de Montfort in 1264 over the forces of Henry III.; has a trade in corn and malt, and tanneries.

LEWES, GEORGE HENRY, a versatile man of letters, born in London, the son of an actor; wrote a "Biographical History of Philosophy" from the Positivist standpoint, published originally in 1845, and a "Life of Goethe" in 1855, "Seaside Studies," "Problems of Life and Mind," &c., and edited the Fortnightly Review; he did much to popularise both science and philosophy; though a married man with children, formed a connection with George Eliot, and died in her house (1817-1878).

LEWIS, SIR GEORGE CORNWALL, English statesman and political philosopher, born in London; held several important posts under and in the governments of the day; wrote on "Early Roman History," "The Influence of Authority on Matters of Opinion," "The Best Form of Government," "Ancient Astronomy," &c. (1806-1863).

LEWIS, MATTHEW GREGORY, romancer, familiarly known as Monk Lewis from the name of his principal novel, the "Monk," which was written, along with others, in Mrs. Radcliffe's vein and immensely popular, and literally swarmed with ghosts and demons (1773-1818).

LEYDEN, one of the chief towns of Holland and characteristically Dutch, 15 m. NW. of The Hague, with a famous university founded by the Prince of Orange in 1576, containing the richest natural history museum in the world; it is noted for the bravery and power of endurance of its inhabitants, manifest for a whole year (1573-74) during the War of Independence.

LEYDEN, JOHN, poet and Orientalist, born in Denholm, son of a shepherd; bred for the Church, his genius and abilities attracted the notice of influential people; was introduced to Scott, and assisted him in his "Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border"; went to India as a military surgeon; studied and prelected on the native dialects; became a judge in Calcutta; died of fever (1775-1811).

LEYDEN, JOHN OF, leader of the Anabaptists in Muenster, born in The Hague; beset with his followers, who regarded him as a prophet, in Muenster, he was taken alive after a siege of six months and tortured to death in 1536.

LEYDEN, LUCAS VAN, an eminent early Dutch painter and engraver, born in Leyden; succeeded in every branch of painting, and, like Duerer, engraved his own pictures; his works are highly valued, and some of them very rare; he spent his means in high living and died young, only 39 (1494-1533).

LEYDEN JAR, an electric condenser, a cylindrical glass bottle lined inside and outside with metal to within a short distance from the top, while a brass rod connected with the inside coating extends upward through a wooden stopper terminating in a knob.

LEYS SCHOOL, the Cambridge school founded in 1875 to supply under unsectarian religious influences a high-class education, the founders of it having been chiefly members of the Methodist body.

LHASSA (seat of the gods) (50), the capital of Thibet, and the metropolis of the Buddhist world in the Chinese Empire, stands in the middle of a plain 11,900 ft. above the sea-level; on a hill in the NW. of the centre of the city, a conical hill called Potala, amid temples and palaces, is the residence of the Grand Lama; the monasteries are 15 in number, and the priests 20,000, and it is the centre of the caravan trade.


LI, a Chinese mile, equal to one-third of an English mile.

LIA-FAIL, the stone of destiny on which the Irish kings used to be crowned, which was at length removed to Scone, in Perthshire, and is now in Westminster under the coronation chair, having been removed thither by Edward I.

LIBERALISM, MODERN, "practically summed up" by Ruskin, in "the denial or neglect of the quality and intrinsic worth in things, the incapacity of discerning or refusal to discern worth and unworth in anything, and least of all in man."

LIBERAL-UNIONIST, one of the Liberal party in English politics, which in 1886 quitted the Liberal ranks and joined the Conservative party in opposition to the Home Rule policy of Mr. Gladstone.

LIBERATIONIST, one who advocates the emancipation of the Church from State control.

LIBERIA (1,500), a negro republic on the Grain Coast of Africa, founded in 1822 by American philanthropists as a settlement for freedmen, with a constitution after the model of the United States.

LIBERTY, FRATERNITY, AND EQUALITY, the trinity of modern democracy, and which first found expression as a political creed in the French Revolution, of which the first term is now held to require definition, the second to have only a sentimental basis, and the third to be in violation of the fact of things; universal suffrage is the expression of it politically.

LIBRATION, the name given to certain apparent movements in the moon as if it swayed like a balance both in latitude and longitude in its revolution round the earth.

LIBRI-CARRUCCI, COUNT, Italian mathematician; professor at Pisa, but obliged to resign for his liberal opinions and take refuge in France, where he was made professor at the Sorbonne, was a kleptomaniac in the matter of books (1803-1869).

LIBYA, a name by the early geographers to the territory in Africa which lay between Egypt, Ethiopia, and the shores of the Atlantic.

LICHFIELD (8), ancient ecclesiastical town in Staffordshire, 15 m. SE. of Stafford, an episcopal see since 656, with a cathedral in Early English style, recently completely restored; has an ancient grammar school, a museum, and school of art; the birthplace of Samuel Johnson; its industries are brewing, coachbuilding, and implement making.

LICHTENBERG, GEORG CHRISTOPH, German physicist and satirist, born near Darmstadt; was educated at Goettingen, and appointed professor there in 1770; he wrote a commentary on Hogarth's copperplates; his reputation in Germany as a satirist is high (1742-1799).

LICINIUS, CAIUS, a Roman tribune and consul, of plebeian birth, author of several laws intended to minimise the distinction politically between patrician and plebeian, in office between 376 and 361 B.C.

LICK OBSERVATORY, an observatory built at the expense of James Lick, an American millionaire, on one of the peaks of Mount Hamilton, California, with a telescope that has the largest object-glass of any in the world.

LICTOR, an officer in Rome who bore the FASCES (q. v.) before a magistrate when on duty.

LIDDELL, HENRY GEORGE, Greek lexicographer, graduated at Oxford in 1833; was tutor of Christ Church, and in 1845 appointed professor of Moral Philosophy; he was successively Head-master of Winchester, Dean of Christ Church, and Vice-Chancellor of Oxford from 1870 to 1874; his great work is a Greek lexicon (first edition 1843, last 1883), of which he was joint-author with Dr. Robert Scott, and which is the standard work of its kind in English; b. 1811.

LIDDON, HENRY PARRY, canon of St. Paul's, London, born in Hants; educated at Christ Church, Oxford; eminent both as a scholar and a preacher; author of an eloquent course of lectures, the Bampton, "On the Divinity of Jesus Christ"; belonged to the Liberal section of the High-Church party (1829-1890).

LIEBIG, BARON VON, eminent German chemist, born at Darmstadt; in 1824 attracted the attention of Alexander von Humboldt by a paper before the Institute of France on fulminates, and was appointed to the chair of Chemistry in Giessen, where he laboured 28 years, attracting students from all quarters, and where his laboratory became a model of many others elsewhere; wrote a number of works on chemistry, inorganic and organic, animal and agricultural, and their applications, as well as papers and letters; accepted a professorship in Muenich in 1852, and in 1860 was appointed President of the Muenich Academy of Sciences (1803-1873).

LIEGE (160), a town in Belgium and capital of the Walloons, in a very picturesque region at the confluence of the Ourthe with the Meuse, the busiest town in Belgium and a chief seat of the woollen manufacture; it is divided in two by the Meuse, which is spanned by 17 bridges; it is the centre of a great mining district, and besides woollens has manufactures of machinery, and steel and iron goods.

LIEGNITZ (46), a town in Silesia, 40 m. NW. of Breslau, where Frederick the Great gained a victory over the Austrians in 1760.

LIFEGUARDS, the British royal household troops, consisting of cavalry and infantry regiments.

LIGHTFOOT, JOHN, Orientalist and divine, born at Stoke-upon-Trent, son of a clergyman, educated at Cambridge; took orders and was rector of Ashley, Staffordshire, till 1642; next year he was one of the most influential members of the Westminster Assembly; in 1652 he was made D.D., was Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge in 1653, and subsequently prebendary of Ely; one of England's earlier Hebrew scholars, the great work of his life was the "Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae," published in large part posthumously (1602-1675).

LIGHTFOOT, JOSEPH BARBER, bishop of Durham, born at Liverpool; was a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, was eminent among English scholars as a New Testament exegete, became bishop of Durham in 1879; died at Bournemouth (1828-1889).

LIGNY, a village 13 m. from Charleroi, where Napoleon defeated Bluecher two days before the battle of Waterloo while Wellington and Marshal Ney were engaged at Quatre Bras.

LIGUORI, ST. ALPHONSE MARIA DI, founder of the Redemptorists, born at Naples of a noble family; bred to the law, but devoted himself to a religious life, received holy orders, lived a life of austerity, and gave himself up to reclaim the lost and instruct the poor and ignorant; was a man of extensive learning, and found time from his pastoral labours to contribute extensively to theological literature and chiefly casuistry, to the extent of 70 volumes; was canonised in 1839; the order he founded is called by his own name as well (1696-1787).

LIGURIAN REPUBLIC, a name given by Bonaparte to the republic of Genoa, founded in 1797.

LI HUNG CHANG, an eminent and enlightened Chinese statesman; is favourable to European culture and intercourse with Europe; was sent as a special envoy to the Czar's coronation in 1896, and afterwards visited other countries in Europe, including our own, and the States and Canada; b. 1823.

LILBURNE, JOHN, a victim of the Star-Chamber in the time of Charles I., and exposed on the pillory as well as fined and imprisoned; joined the Parliamentary ranks and fought for the Commonwealth, but as an Independent indulged in violent harangues against Cromwell, and was committed to the Tower, but on his release turned Quaker (1618-1657).

LILITH or LILIS, the name of Adam's first wife, whom, according to Jewish tradition, he had before Eve, and who bore him in that wedlock the whole progeny of aerial, aquatic, and terrestrial devils, and who, it seems, still wanders about the world bewitching men to like issue and slaying little children not protected by amulets against her.

LILLE (161), chief town in the department of Nord, in the extreme N. of France, 60 m. inland from Calais, an ancient and at present very strong fortress, is in a fertile district; the town, rebuilt in modern times, has a Catholic university, a medical school, library, and art gallery, and thriving industries, linen, cotton, tobacco, sugar, and many others.

LILLIPUT, a country inhabited by a very diminutive race of men not larger in size than a man's finger, visited by Gulliver in his travels.

LILLO, GEORGE, English dramatist, born in London, by trade a jeweller; wrote seven comedies, of which "The Fatal Curiosity" and "George Barnwell" are the best and the best appreciated (1693-1739).

LILLY, WILLIAM, an English astrologer, born in Leicestershire, who made gain by his fortune-telling during the Commonwealth period especially, but got into trouble afterwards as a presumed mischief-maker (1602-1681).

LIMA (200), capital of Peru, 6 m. inland from Callao, its port, a picturesque but somewhat shabby city, 700 ft. above the sea-level, regularly built, with many plazas; has a cathedral and 70 churches; trade is in the hands of foreigners, mostly Germans, and industries are unimportant; it was founded by Pizarro, and his bones lie buried in the cathedral.

LIMBURG, in the basin of the Meuse, formerly a duchy, was after various fortunes divided in 1839 into Belgian Limburg (225), on the W. of the river, capital Hasselt (13), and Dutch Limburg (262), on the E., capital Maestricht (33); partly moorland and partly arable, it has coal, iron, sugar, and tobacco industries.

LIMBUS or LIMBO, according to Catholic theologians a region on the confines of Hades tenanted, the limbus patrum, by the souls of good men who died before Christ's advent, and the limbus infantium, by the souls of unbaptized infants, both of whom await there the resurrection morn to join the ransomed in heaven.

LIMELIGHT, a bright light caused by making a stream of two gases, oxygen and nitrogen, play in a state of ignition on a piece of compact quicklime.

LIMERICK (159), Irish county on the S. of the Shannon estuary, between Tipperary and Kerry, watered by the Mulcai, Maigue, and Deel; hilly in the S., is mostly fertile, and under corn and green crops; cattle are reared and dairy products exported; some woollens and paper manufactured. There are many antiquities. Limerick (37), the county town, on the Shannon, is the fourth Irish seaport, and manufactures a little lace.

LIMITED LIABILITY, liability on the part of the shareholders of a joint-stock company limited by the amount of their shares.

LIMOGES (68), chief town in the dep. of Haute-Vienne, on the Vienne River, 250 m. S. of Paris; has a Gothic cathedral; is one of the chief manufacturing towns of France. Its porcelain and woollen cloths are widely famed; it has a large transit trade; it gives name to a fine kind of surface enamel, which was brought to perfection there.

LINCOLN (44), capital of Lincolnshire, on the Witham, 130 m. N. of London; is a very old and quaint city, with one of the finest cathedrals in England, and many historic buildings. Its annual spring horse-fair is among the largest in the world. It manufactures agricultural instruments, and trades in flour. Its stands on the Oolitic Ridge, and commands a wide view of the Trent Valley.

LINCOLN, ABRAHAM, sixteenth President of the United States, born near Hodgensville, Kentucky; spent his boyhood there and in the Indiana forests, and picked up some education in the backwoods schools; passed some years in rough work; he was clerk in a store at New Salem, Illinois; became village postmaster and deputy county surveyor, and began to study law; from 1834 to 1842 he led the Whigs in the State legislature, and in 1846 entered Congress; he prospered as a lawyer, and almost left politics; but the opening of the slavery question in 1854 recalled him, and in a series of public debates with Stephen Douglas established his reputation as debater and abolitionist; unsuccessful in his candidature for the Senate, he was nominated by the Republicans for the Presidency, and elected 1860; his election was the signal for the secession of the Southern States; Lincoln refused to recognise the secession, accepted the war, and prosecuted it with energy; on New Year's day, 1863, he proclaimed the emancipation of the negroes, and was re-elected President in 1864, but shortly after his second inauguration was assassinated; he was a man of high character, straightforward, steadfast, and sympathetic (1809-1865).


LINCOLNSHIRE (473), maritime county in the E. of England, between the Humber and the Wash, next to Yorkshire in size, consists of upland country in the W., chalk downs in the E., and fens in the S., but these well reclaimed and cultivated. It is watered by the Trent, Witham, and Welland, and crossed by numerous canals. Iron abounds in the W.; sheep, cattle, and horses are raised. Grimsby is a shipping and fishing centre. Sir Isaac Newton and Lord Tennyson were born in the county, which has many historic associations.

LINCRUSTA WALTON, a plastic material invented by Walton, capable of being moulded into raised patterns for decorating walls, &c.

LIND, JENNY (Madame Otto Goldschmidt), the Swedish nightingale, born at Stockholm; giving evidence of her power of song in childhood, she was put under a master at nine; too soon put to practise in public, her voice at twelve showed signs of contracting, but after four years recovered its full power, when, appearing as Alice in "Robert le Diable," the effect was electric; henceforth her fame was established, and followed her over the world; in 1844 she made a round of the chief cities of Germany; made her first appearance in London in 1847, and visited New York in 1851, where she married, and then left the stage for good, to appear only now and again at intervals for some charitable object; she was plain looking, and a woman of great simplicity both in manners and ways of thinking (1821-1882).

LINDLEY, JOHN, distinguished botanist, born near Norwich; wrote extensively on botany according to the natural system of classification, and did much to popularise the study; was professor of the science in London University (1799-1865).

LINDSAY, name of a Scottish family of Norman extraction, and that first figures in Scottish history in the reign of David I.

LINDSAY or LYNDSAY, SIR DAVID, OF THE MOUNT, Scottish poet, born at the Mount, near Cupar, Fife, at the grammar-school of which he was educated, as afterwards at St. Andrews University; was usher to James V. from his childhood, and knighted by him after he came of age; did diplomatic work in England, France, the Netherlands, and Denmark; is famous as the author of, among others, three poems, the "Satire of the Three Estates," "Dialogues between Experience and a Courtier," and the "History of Squire Meldrum," of which the first is the most worthy of note, and is divided into five parts, the main body of it a play of an allegorical kind instinct with conventional satire; without being a partisan of the Reformation, his works, from the satire in them being directed against the Church, contributed very materially to its reception in Scotland approximately (1490-1555).

LINGA, a symbol in the phallus worship of the East of the male or generative power in nature. This worship prevails among the Hindu sect of the Givas or Sivas, and the symbol takes the form of the pistil of a flower, or an erect cylindrical stone.

LINGARD, JOHN, historian, born at Winchester, the son of a carpenter; besides a work on the "Antiquity of the Anglo-Saxon Church," wrote a "History of England from the Roman Invasion to the Reign of William III.," the first written that shows anything like scholarly accuracy, and fairly impartial, though the author's religious views as a Roman Catholic, it is alleged, distort the facts a little (1771-1851).

LINGUA FRANCA, a jargon composed of a mixture of languages used in trade intercourse.

LINLITHGOW (4), the county town of Linlithgowshire, 16 m. W. of Edinburgh, on the S. shore of a loch of the name, with a palace, the birthplace of James V.; the county (52) lying on the S. shore of the Forth, and rich in minerals.

LINNAEUS, or more properly LINNE, KARL VON, great Swedish naturalist, specially in the department of botany, a branch to the study of which he was devoted from his earliest years; he was the founder of the system of the classification of plants which bears his name, and which is determined by the number and disposition of the reproductive organs, but which is now superseded by the natural system of Jussieu; he was professor at Upsala, and his works on his favourite subject were numerous, and extended far and wide his reputation as a naturalist (1707-1778).

LINNELL, JOHN, English painter, painted portraits at first, but in the end landscapes, of which last "The Windmill" and a wood scene are in the National Gallery; he was a friend and an admirer of William Blake (1807-1882).

LINOLEUM, a floorcloth, being a composition of cork and linseed oil with chloride of silver.

LINOTYPE, a contrivance for setting and casting words or lines for printing.

LINZ (47), the capital of the crownland of Upper Austria, on the right bank of the Danube; a busy commercial place, a great railway centre, and the seat of the manufacture of woollen goods, linen, tobacco, &c.; is also of great strategical importance in time of war.

LION, THE, the king of animals, was the symbol of power, courage, and virtue, and in Christian art of the resurrection; is in general, as Mr. Fairholt remarks, "a royal symbol, and in emblem of dominion, command, magnanimity, vigilance, and strength; representing when couchant sovereignty, when rampant magnanimity, when passant resolution, when guardant prudence, when saliant valour, when sciant counsel, and when regardant circumspection."

LIP'ARI ISLANDS (22), a group of islands of volcanic origin, 12 in number, off the N. coast of Sicily, in two of which, Vulcano and Stromboli, the volcanic force is still active, the latter emitting clouds of steam at intervals of five minutes.

LIPPE (128), an old N. German principality, the principal towns of which are Detmold, Lemgo, and Horn.

LIPPI, FILIPPINO, Italian painter, son of the succeeding; is presumed to have been a pupil of BOTTICELLI'S (q. v.); his earliest known work is the "Vision of St. Bernard" in Florence, and he executed various works in Bologna, Genoa, and Rome; painted frescoes and altar-pieces, and scenes in the lives of St. Peter and St. Paul (1460-1504).

LIPPI, FRA FILIPPO, Italian painter, born at Florence; left an orphan, was brought up in a monastery, where his talent for art was developed and encouraged; went to Ancona, was carried off by pirates, but procured his release by his skill in drawing, and returning to Italy practised his art in Florence and elsewhere, till one day he eloped with a novice in a nunnery who sat to him for a Madonna, by whom he became the father of a son no less famous than himself; he prosecuted his art amid poverty with zeal and success to the last; distinguished by Ruskin (Fors xxiv. 4) as the only monk who ever did good painter's work; he had Botticelli for a pupil (1412-1469).

LIPSIUS, JUSTUS, an erudite Belgian scholar, with fast and loose religious principles; was the author of numerous learned works (1547-1579).

LIPSIUS, RICHARD ADELBERT, distinguished German theologian, born in Gera; professor in succession at Vienna, Kiel, and Jena; wrote on dogmatics, the philosophy of religion, and New Testament criticism (1830-1892).

LISBON (301), the capital of Portugal, a magnificent town, built on the N. bank of the Tagus, 9 m. from its mouth, extends along the banks of the river 9 m. and inland 5 m.; it boasts of an array of fine buildings and squares, a number of literary and scientific institutions, and a spacious harbour; is remarkable for a marble aqueduct which brings water more than 10 m. across the valley of Alcantara; the manufactures include tobacco, soap, wool, and chemicals, and the exports wine, oil, and fruits; it suffered from an earthquake of great violence in 1755, by which the greater part of the city was destroyed, and from 30,000 to 40,000 of the inhabitants were killed.

LISTER, JOSEPH, LORD, eminent surgeon, born at Upton, Essex; the founder of modern antiseptic surgery, and is as such reckoned among the world's greatest benefactors; was President of the British Association in 1896, and is surgeon-extraordinary to the Queen; b. 1827.

LISTON, JOHN, an English actor of low comedy, and long famous on the London stage, to which he was introduced by Charles Kemble; d. 1846.

LISTON, ROBERT, a celebrated surgeon, born in Linlithgowshire; studied in Edinburgh and London; was distinguished as an operator; was professor of Clinical Surgery in University College, London, and author of "Elements of Surgery" and "Practical Surgery" (1794-1847).

LISZT, ABBE FRANZ, famous pianist, a Hungarian by birth; born with a genius for music, his first efforts at composition were not successful, and it was not till he heard what Paganini made of the violin that he thought what might be made of the piano, and that he devoted himself to the culture of piano music, with the result that he not only became the first pianist himself, but produced a set of compositions that had the effect of raising the art to the highest pitch of perfection; he was a zealous Catholic, and took holy orders, but this did not damp his ardour or weaken his power as a musician; he spent the greater part of his life at Weimar, but he practised his art far and wide, and his last visit to England in 1886, the year on which he died, created quite a flutter in musical circles (1811-1886).

LITANY, a form of supplication in connection with some impending calamity in which the prayer of the priest or officiating clergyman is responded to by the congregation.

LITERATURE, defined by Carlyle "as an 'apocalypse of nature,' a revealing of the 'open secret,' a 'continuous revelation' of the God-like in the terrestrial and common, which ever endures there, and is brought out now in this dialect, now in that, with various degrees of clearness ... there being touches of it (i. e. the God-like) in the dark stormful indignation of a Byron, nay, in the withered mockery of a French sceptic, his mockery of the false, a love and worship of the true ... how much more in the sphere harmony of a Shakespeare, the cathedral music of a Milton; something of it too in those humble, genuine, lark-notes of a Burns, skylark starting from the humble furrow far overhead into the blue depths, and singing to us so genuinely there."

LITHUANIA, formerly a grand-duchy occupying portions of the valleys of the Dwina, Niemen, Dnieper, and Bug; for centuries connected with Poland; passed to Russia in 1814. The Lithuanians are a distinct race of the Indo-European stock, fair and handsome, with a language of their own, and a literature rich in folk-lore and songs. Of a strong religious temperament, they embraced Christianity late (13th century), and still retain many pagan superstitions; formerly serfs, they are now a humble peasantry engaged in agriculture, cattle-breeding, and bee-keeping.

LITMUS, a colouring matter obtained from certain lichens; extensively used in chemical experiments to detect acids, for instance.

LITTLE CORPORAL, a name given to Bonaparte after the battle of Lodi from his small stature, he being only 5 ft. 2 in.

LITTLE ENGLANDERS, those politicians who hold that English statesmen should concern themselves with England only and its internal affairs.

LITTLETON, SIR THOMAS, English jurist of the 15th century; was recorder of Coventry in 1450, judge of Common Pleas 1466, and knighted in 1475; his work on "Tenures" was the first attempt to classify the law of land rights, and was the basis of the famous "Coke upon Littleton"; d. 1481.

LITTRE, a celebrated French scholar, physician, philologist, and philosopher, born in Paris; wrote on medical subjects, and translated Hippocrates; was of the Positivist school in philosophy, and owes his fame chiefly to his "Dictionnaire de la Langue Francaise," published in 1863-72, and on which he spent forty years' labour (1801-1881).

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