The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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ANTIVA'RI, a fortified seaport lately ceded to Montenegro.

ANTOFAGAS'TA (7), a rising port in Chile, taken from Bolivia after the war of 1879; exports silver ores and nitrate of soda.

ANTOMMAR'CHI, Napoleon's attached physician at St. Helena, wrote "The Last Moments of Napoleon" (1780-1838).

ANTONELLI, CARDINAL, the chief adviser and Prime Minister of Pope Pius IX., accompanied the Pope to Gaeta, came back with him to Rome, acting as his foreign minister there, and offered a determined opposition to the Revolution; left immense wealth (1806-1876).

ANTONEL'LO, of Messina, Italian painter of the 15th century, introduced from Holland oil-painting into Italy (1414-1493).

ANTONI'NUS, ITINERARY OF, a valuable geographical work supposed of date 44 B.C.

ANTONI'NUS, Marcus Aurelius, Roman emperor, successor to the following, and who surpassed him in virtue, being also of the Stoic school and one of its most exemplary disciples, was surnamed the "philosopher," and has left in his "Meditations" a record of his religious and moral principles (121-180).

ANTONI'NUS PIUS, a Roman emperor, of Stoic principles, who reigned with justice and moderation from 138 to 161, during which time the Empire enjoyed unbroken peace.

ANTONI'NUS, WALL OF, an earthen rampart about 36 m. in length, from the Forth to the Clyde, in Scotland, as a barrier against invasion from the north, erected in the year 140 A.D.

ANTO'NIUS, MARCUS, a famous Roman orator and consul, slain in the civil war between Marius and Sulla, having sided with the latter (143-87 B.C.).

ANTO'NIUS, MARCUS (Mark Antony), grandson of the preceding and warm partisan of Caesar; after the murder of the latter defeated Brutus and Cassius at Philippi, formed a triumvirate with Octavius and Lepidus, fell in love with the famous Cleopatra, was defeated by Octavius in the naval battle of Actium, and afterwards killed himself (83-30 B.C.).

AN'TONY, ST., a famous anchorite of the Thebaid, where from the age of thirty he spent 20 years of his life, in a lonely ruin by himself, resisting devils without number; left his retreat for a while to institute monasteries, and so became the founder of monachism, but returned to die; festival, Jan. 17 (251-351).

ANTONY OF PADUA, a Minorite missionary to the Moors in Africa; preached to the fishes, who listened to him when no one else would; the fishes came in myriads to listen, and shamed the pagans into conversion, says the fable; festival, June 13 (1195-1234)

ANTRAIGUES, COUNT D', one of the firebrands of the French Revolution; "rose into furor almost Pythic; highest where many were high," but veered round to royalism, which he at length intrigued on behalf of—to death by the stiletto (1765-1812).

ANT'RIM (471), a maritime county in the NE. of Ulster, in Ireland; soil two-thirds arable, linen the chief manufacture, exports butter, inhabitants mostly Protestant.

ANTWERP (240), a large fortified trading city in Belgium, on the Scheldt, 50 m. from the sea, with a beautiful Gothic cathedral, the spire 402 ft. high; the burial-place of Rubens; has a large picture-gallery full of the works of the Dutch and Flemish artists.

ANU'BIS, an Egyptian deity with the body of a man and the head of a jackal, whose office, like that of Hermes, it was to see to the disposal of the souls of the dead in the nether world, on quitting the body.

ANWARI, a Persian lyric poet who flourished in the 12th century.

AN'YTUS, the most vehement accuser of Socrates; banished in consequence from Athens, after Socrates' death.

AOS'TA (5), a town of Italy, N. of Turin, in a fertile Alpine level valley, but where goitre and cretinism prevail to a great extent; the birthplace of Anselm.

APA'CHES, a fierce tribe of American Indians on the S. and W. of the United States; long a source of trouble to the republic.

APEL'LES, the most celebrated painter of antiquity; bred, if not born, at Ephesus; lived at the court of Alexander the Great; his great work "APHRODITE ANADYOMENE" (q. v.); a man conscious, like Duerer, of mastery in his art, as comes out in his advice to the criticising shoemaker to "stick to his last."

AP'ENNINES, a branch of the Alps extending, with spurs at right angles, nearly through the whole length of Italy, forming about the middle of the peninsula a double chain which supports the tableland of Abruzzi.

APES, DEAD SEA, dwellers by the Dead Sea who, according to the Moslem tradition, were transformed into apes because they turned a deaf ear to God's message to them by the lips of Moses, fit symbol, thinks Carlyle, of many in modern time to whom the universe, with all its serious voices, seems to have become a weariness and a humbug See "PAST AND PRESENT," BK. III. CHAP. III.

APH'IDES, a family of insects very destructive to plants by feeding on them in countless numbers.

APHRODI'TE, the Greek goddess of love and beauty, wife of Hephaestos and mother of Cupid; sprung from sea-foam; as queen of beauty had the golden apple awarded her by Paris, and possessed the power of conferring beauty, by means of her magic girdle, the cestus, on others.

API'CIUS, the name of three famous Roman epicures, the first of whom was contemporary with Sulla, the second with Augustus, and the third with Trajan.

A'PION, an Alexandrian grammarian of the 1st century, and an enemy of the Jews, and hostile to the privileges conceded them in Alexandria.

A'PIS, the sacred live bull of the Egyptians, the incarnation of Osiris; must be black all over the body, have a white triangular spot on the forehead, the figure of an eagle on the back, and under the tongue the image of a scarabaeus; was at the end of 25 years drowned in a sacred fountain, had his body embalmed, and his mummy regarded as an object of worship.

APOCALYPTIC WRITINGS, writings composed among the Jews in the 2nd century B.C., and ascribed to one and another of the early prophets of Israel, forecasting the judgments ordained of God to overtake the nation, and predicting its final deliverance at the hands of the Messiah.

APOCRYPHA, THE, a literature of sixteen books composed by Jews, after the close of the Hebrew canon, which though without the unction of the prophetic books of the canon, are instinct, for most part, with the wisdom which rests on the fear of God and loyalty to His law. The word Apocrypha means hidden writing, and it was given to it by the Jews to distinguish it from the books which they accepted as canonical.

APOL'DA (20), a town in Saxe-Weimar with extensive hosiery manufactures; has mineral springs.

APOLLINA'RIS, bishop of Laodicea, denied the proper humanity of Christ, by affirming that the Logos in Him took the place of the human soul, as well as by maintaining that His body was not composed of ordinary flesh and blood; d. 390.

APOLLO, the god par excellence of the Greeks, identified with the sun and all that we owe to it in the shape of inspiration, art, poetry, and medicine; son of Zeus and Leto; twin brother of Artemis; born in the island of DELOS (q. v.), whither Leto had fled from the jealous Hera; his favourite oracle at Delphi.

APPLLODO'RUS (1), an Athenian painter, the first to paint figures in light and shade, 408 B.C.; (2) a celebrated architect of Damascus, d. A.D. 129; and (3), an Athenian who wrote a well-arranged account of the mythology and heroic age of Greece.

APOLLONIUS OF RHODES, a grammarian and poet, flourished in the 3rd century B.C., author of the "Argonautica," a rather prosaic account of the adventures of the Argonauts.

APOLLONIUS OF TYANA, a Pythagorean philosopher, who, having become acquainted with some sort of Brahminism, professed to have a divine mission, and, it is said, a power to work miracles; was worshipped after his death, and has been compared to Christ; d. 97.

APOL'LOS, a Jew of Alexandria, who became an eloquent preacher of Christ, and on account of his eloquence rated above St. Paul.

APOLLYON, the destroying angel, the Greek name for the Hebrew Abaddon.

APOLOGETICS, a defence of the historical verity of the Christian religion in opposition to the rationalist and mythical theories.

APOSTATE, an epithet applied to the Emperor Julian, from his having, conscientiously however, abjured the Christian religion established by Constantine, in favour of paganism.

APOSTLE OF GERMANY, St. Boniface; A. OF IRELAND, St. Patrick; OF THE ENGLISH, St. Augustine; OF THE FRENCH, St. Denis; OF THE GAULS, Irenaeus; OF THE GENTILES, St. Paul; OF THE GOTHS, Ulfilas; OF THE INDIAN, John Eliot; OF THE SCOTS, Columba; OF THE NORTH, Ansgar; OF THE PICTS, St. Ninian; OF THE INDIES, Francis Xavier; OF TEMPERANCE, Father Mathew.

APOSTLES, THE FOUR, picture of St. John, St. Peter, St. Mark, and St. Paul, in the museum at Muenich, painted by Albert Duerer.

APOSTOLIC FATHERS, Fathers of the Church who lived the same time as the Apostles: Clemens, Barnabas Polycarp, Ignatius, and Hermas.

APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION, the derivation of episcopal power in an unbroken line from the Apostles, a qualification believed by High Churchmen to be essential to the discharge of episcopal functions and the transmission of promised divine grace.

APPALA'CHIANS, a mountainous system of N. America that stretches NE. from the tablelands of Alabama to the St. Lawrence, and includes the Alleghanies and the Blue Mountains; their utmost height, under 7000 feet; do not reach the snow-line; abound in coal and iron.

APPENZELL' (67), a canton in the NE. of Switzerland, enclosed by St. Gall, divided into Outer Rhoden, which is manufacturing and Protestant, and Inner Rhoden, which is agricultural and Catholic; also the name of the capital.

AP'PIAN, an Alexandrian Greek, wrote in 2nd century a history of Rome in 24 books, of which 11 remain.

AP'PIAN WAY, a magnificent highway begun by Appius Claudius, 312 B.C., and finished by Augustus, from Rome to Brundusium.

APPLE OF DISCORD, a golden apple inscribed with the words, "To the most Beautiful," thrown in among the gods of Olympus on a particular occasion, contended for by Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite, and awarded by Paris of Troy, as referee, to Aphrodite, on promise that he would have the most beautiful woman of the world for wife.

APPLEBY, the county town of Westmorland, on the Eden; is a health resort.

APPLEGATH, AUGUSTUS, inventor of the vertical printing-press (1788-1871).

APPLETON (11), a city of Wisconsin, U.S., on the Fox River.

APPLETON, CH. EDWARD, founder and editor of the Academy (1841-1879).

APPOMATTOX COURTHOUSE, a village in Virginia, U.S., where Gen. Lee surrendered to Gen. Grant in 1865.

APRAXEN, COUNT, a celebrated naval commander under Peter the Great and his right-hand man in many enterprises (1671-1728).

APRIL, the fourth month of the year, the month of "opening of the light in the days, and of the life of the leaves, and of the voices of the birds, and of the hearts of men."

AP'TERYX, a curious New Zealand bird with rudimentary wings, plumage like hair, and no tail.

APULE'IUS, a student of Plato, of N. African birth, lived in the 2nd century; having captivated a rich widow, was charged at one time with sorcery; his most celebrated work was the "Golden Ass," which contains, among other stories, the exquisite apologue or romance of PSYCHE and CUPID (q. v.).

APU'LIA (1,797), an ancient province in SE. of Italy, which extends as far N. as Monte Gargano, and the scene of the last stages in the second Punic war.

APU'RE, a river in Venezuela, chief tributary of the Orinoco, into which it falls by six branches.

AQUA TOFA'NA, Tofana's poison, some solution of arsenic with which a Sicilian woman called Tofana, in 17th century, poisoned, it is alleged, 600 people.

AQUA'RIUS, the Water-bearer, 11th sign of the Zodiac, which the sun enters Jan. 21.

AQUAVIVA, a general of the Jesuits of high authority (1543-1615).

A'QUILA (20), capital of the province of Abruzzo Ulteriora, on the Alterno, founded by Barbarossa; a busy place.

A'QUILA, a Judaised Greek of Sinope, in Pontus, executed a literal translation of the Old Testament into Greek in the interest of Judaism versus Christianity in the first half of the 2nd century A.D.

A'QUILA, GASPAR, a friend of Luther who aided him in the translation of the Bible.

AQUILEIA, an Italian village, 22 m. W. of Trieste, once a place of great importance, where several councils of the Church were held.

AQUI'NAS, THOMAS, the Angelic Doctor, or Doctor of the Schools, an Italian of noble birth, studied at Naples, became a Dominican monk despite the opposition of his parents, sat at the feet of Albertus Magnus, and went with him to Paris, was known among his pupils as the "Dumb Ox," from his stubborn silence at study, prelected at his Alma Mater and elsewhere with distinguished success, and being invited to assist the Council at Lyons, fell sick and died. His "Summa Theologiae," the greatest of his many works, is a masterly production, and to this day of standard authority in the Romish Church. His writings, which fill 17 folio vols., along with those of Duns Scotus, his rival, constitute the high-water mark of scholastic philosophy and the watershed of its divergence into the PHILOSOPHICO-SPECULATIVE THOUGHT on the one hand, and the ETHICO-PRACTICAL OR REALISM OF MODERN TIMES on the other, q. v. (1226-1274).

AQUITAINE', a division of ancient Gaul between the Garonne and the Pyrenees, was from the time of Henry II. till 1453 an appanage of the English crown.

ARABELLA STUART, a cousin of King James I., the victim all her days of jealousy and state policy, suspected of aspiring to the crown on the death of Queen Elizabeth, was shut up in the Tower of London, where she died bereft of reason in 1615 at the age of 38.

ARABESQUE, an ornamentation introduced by the Moors, consisting of imaginary, often fantastic, mathematical or vegetable forms, but exclusive of the forms of men and animals.

ARA'BI, AHMED PASHA, leader of an insurrectionary movement in Egypt in 1882; he claimed descent from the Prophet; banished to Ceylon; b. 1839.

ARABIA (12,000), the most westerly peninsula of Asia and the largest in the world, being one-third the size of the whole of Europe, consisting of (a) a central plateau with pastures for cattle, and fertile valleys; (b) a ring of deserts, the Nefud in the N., stony, the Great Arabian, a perfect Sahara, in the S., sandy, said sometimes to be 600 ft. deep, and the Dahna between; and (c) stretches of coast land, generally fertile on the W. and S.; is divided into eight territories; has no lakes or rivers, only wadies, oftenest dry; the climate being hot and arid, has no forests, and therefore few wild animals; a trading country with no roads or railways, only caravan routes, yet the birthland of a race that threatened at one time to sweep the globe, and of a religion that has been a life-guidance to wide-scattered millions of human beings for over twelve centuries of time.

ARABIA FELIX, the W. coast of Arabia, contains YEMEN and EL HEJAZ (q. v.), and is subject to Turkey.


ARABIAN NIGHTS, or the Thousand and One Nights, a collection of tales of various origin and date, traceable in their present form to the middle of the 15th century, and first translated into French by Galland in 1704. The thread on which they are strung is this: A Persian monarch having made a vow that he would marry a fresh bride every night and sacrifice her in the morning, the vizier's daughter obtained permission to be the first bride, and began a story which broke off at an interesting part evening after evening for a thousand and one nights, at the end of which term the king, it is said, released her and spared her life.

ARABS, THE, "a noble-gifted people, swift-handed, deep-hearted, something most agile, active, yet most meditative, enthusiastic in their character; a people of wild, strong feelings, and iron restraint over these. In words too, as in action, not a loquacious people, taciturn rather, but eloquent, gifted when they do speak, an earnest, truthful kind of men, of Jewish kindred indeed, but with that deadly terrible earnestness of the Jews they seem to combine something graceful, brilliant, which is not Jewish." Such is Carlyle's opinion of the race from whom Mahomet sprang, as given in his "Heroes."


ARACH'NE, a Lydian maiden, who excelled in weaving, and whom Athena changed into a spider because she had proudly challenged her ability to weave as artistic a work; she had failed in the competition, and previously hanged herself in her despair.

ARAD (42), a fortified town in Hungary, seat of a bishop, on the right bank of the Maros; manufactures tobacco, trades in cattle and corn.

ARAF, the Mohammedan sheol or borderland between heaven and hell for those who are from incapacity either not morally bad or morally good.

ARAFAT', a granite hill E. of Mecca, a place of pilgrimage as the spot where Adam received his wife after 200 years separation from her on account of their disobedience to the Lord in deference to the suggestion of Satan.

AR'AGO, FRANCOIS, an eminent physicist and astronomer, born in the S. of France, entered the Polytechnic School of Paris when seventeen, elected a member of the Academy of Sciences at the early age of twenty-three, nominated Director of the Observatory in 1830, was member of the Provisional Government in 1848, refused to take the oath to Louis Napoleon after the coup d'etat, would rather resign his post at the Observatory, but was retained, and at his death received a public funeral (1786-1853).

ARAGO, JACQUES, a brother of the preceding, a litterateur and a traveller, author of a "Voyage Round the World" (1790-1855).

AR'AGON (925), a territory in the NE. of Spain, traversed by the Ebro, and divided as you proceed southward into the provinces of Huesca, Saragossa, and Teruel, mountainous in the N.; with beautiful fertile valleys, rather barren, in the S; was a kingdom till 1469.

ARAGUAY, an affluent of the Tocantins, in Brazil, which it joins after a course of 1000 m., augmented by subsidiary streams.

ARAKAN (671), a strip of land in British Burmah, on the E. of the Bay of Bengal, 400 m. long and from 90 to 15 m. broad, a low, marshy country; produces and exports large quantities of rice, as well as sugar and hemp. The natives belong to the Burman stock, and are of the Buddhist faith, though there is a sprinkling of Mohammedans among them.

ARAL, THE SEA OF, a lake in Turkestan, 265 m. long and 145 broad, larger than the Irish Sea, 150 m. E. of the Caspian; has no outlet, shallow, and is said to be drying up.

ARAM, EUGENE, an English school-usher of scholarly attainments, convicted of murder years after the act and executed 1759, to whose fate a novel of Bulwer Lytton's and a poem of Hood's have lent a romantic and somewhat fictitious interest.

ARAMAEA, the territories lying to NE. of Palestine, the inhabitants of which spoke a Semitic dialect called Aramaic, and improperly Chaldee.

ARAMA'IC, the language of Palestine in the days of Christ, a Semitic dialect that has now almost entirely died out.

ARAMAE'ANS, a generic name given to the Semitic tribes that dwelt in the NE. of Palestine, also to those that dwelt at the mouths of the Euphrates and the Tigris.

ARAN, VAL D', a Pyrenean valley, source of the Garonne, and one of the highest of the Pyrenees.

ARAN ISLANDS, three islands with antique relics across the mouth of Galway Bay, to which they form a breakwater.

ARANDA, COUNT OF, an eminent Spanish statesman, banished the Jesuits, suppressed brigandage, and curtailed the power of the Inquisition, was Prime Minister of Charles IV., and was succeeded by Godoy (1719-1798).

ARANJU'EZ (8), a town 28 m. SE. of Madrid, long the spring resort of the Spanish Court.

AR'ANY, JANOS, a popular Hungarian poet of peasant origin, attained to eminence as a man of letters (1819-1882).

AR'ARAT, a mountain in Armenia on which Noah's ark is said to have rested, 17,000 ft. high, is within Russian territory, and borders on both Turkey and Persia.

ARA'TUS, native of Sicyon, in Greece, promoter of the Achaean League, in which he was thwarted by Philip of Macedon, was poisoned, it is said, by his order (271-213 B.C.); also a Greek poet, author of two didactic poems, born in Cilicia, quoted by St Paul in Acts xvii. 28.

ARAUCA'NIA (88), the country of the Araucos, in Chile, S. of Concepcion and N. of Valdivia, the Araucos being an Indian race long resistant but now subject to Chilian authority, and interesting as the only one that has proved itself able to govern itself and hold its own in the presence of the white man.

ARAUCA'RIA, tall conifer trees, natives of and confined to the southern hemisphere.

ARBE'LA, a town near Mosul, where Alexander the Great finally defeated Darius, 331 B.C.

ARBROATH (22), a thriving seaport and manufacturing town on the Forfarshire coast, 17 m. N. of Dundee, with the picturesque ruins of an extensive old abbey, of which Cardinal Beaton was the last abbot. It is the "Fairport" of the "Antiquary."

ARBUTHNOT, JOHN, a physician and eminent literary man of the age of Queen Anne and her two successors, born in Kincardineshire, the friend of Swift and Pope and other lights of the time, much esteemed by them for his wit and kind-heartedness, joint-author with Swift, it is thought, of the "Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus" and the "History of John Bull" (1667-1735).

AR'CACHON (7), a popular watering-place, with a fine beach and a mild climate, favourable for invalids suffering from pulmonary complaints, 34 m. SW. of Bordeaux.

ARCA'DIA, a mountain-girt pastoral tableland in the heart of the Morea, 50 m. long by 40 broad, conceived by the poets as a land of shepherds and shepherdesses, and rustic simplicity and bliss, and was the seat of the worship of Artemis and Pan.

ARCA'DIUS, the first emperor of the East, born in Spain, a weak, luxurious prince, leaving the government in other hands (377-405).

ARCESILA'US, a Greek philosopher, a member of the Platonic School and founder of the New Academy, who held in opposition to the Stoics that perception was not knowledge, denied that we had any accurate criterion of truth, and denounced all dogmatism in opinion.

ARCHAEOLOGY, the study or the science of the monuments of antiquity, as distinct from palaeontology, which has to do with extinct organisms or fossil remains.

ARCHANGEL (19), the oldest seaport of Russia, on the Dvina, near its mouth, on the White Sea, is accessible to navigation from July to October, is connected with the interior by river and canal, and has a large trade in flax, timber, tallow, and tar.

ARCHANGELS, of these, according to the Koran, there are four: Gabriel, the angel who reveals; Michael, the angel who fights; Azrael, the angel of death; Azrafil, the angel of the resurrection.

ARCHELA'US, king of Macedonia, and patron of art and literature, with whom Euripides found refuge in his exile, d. 400 B.C.; a general of Mithridates, conquered by Sulla twice over; also the Ethnarch of Judea, son of Herod, deposed by Augustus, died at Vienne.

ARCHER, JAMES, portrait-painter, born in Edinburgh, 1824.

ARCHER, WM., dramatic critic, born in Perth, 1856.

AR'CHES, COURT OF, an ecclesiastical court of appeal connected with the archbishopric of Canterbury, the judge of which is called the dean.

AR'CHIL, a purple dye obtained from lichens.

ARCHIL'OCHUS, a celebrated lyric poet of Greece; of a satiric and often bitter vein, the inventor of iambic verse (714-676 B.C.).

ARCHIMA'GO, a sorcerer in Spenser's "Faerie Queene," who in the disguise of a reverend hermit, and by the help of Duessa or Deceit, seduces the Red-Cross Knight from Una or Truth.

ARCHIME'DES OF SYRACUSE, the greatest mathematician of antiquity, a man of superlative inventive power, well skilled in all the mechanical arts and sciences of the day. When Syracuse was taken by the Romans, he was unconscious of the fact, and slain, while busy on some problem, by a Roman soldier, notwithstanding the order of the Roman general that his life should be spared. He is credited with the boast: "Give me a fulcrum, and I will move the world." He discovered how to determine the specific weight of bodies while he was taking a bath, and was so excited over the discovery that, it is said, he darted off stark naked on the instant through the streets, shouting "Eureka! Eureka! I have found it! I have found it!" (287-212 B.C.).

ARCHIMED'ES SCREW, in its original form a hollow spiral placed slantingly to raise water by revolving it.

ARCHIPEL'AGO, originally the AEgean Sea, now the name of any similar sea interspersed with islands, or the group of islands included in it.

ARCHITRAVE, the lowest part of an entablature, resting immediately on the capital.

AR'CHON, a chief magistrate of Athens, of which there were nine at a time, each over a separate department; the tenure of office was first for life, then for ten years, and finally for one.

ARCHY'TAS OF TARENTUM, famous as a statesman, a soldier, a geometrician, a philosopher, and a man; a Pythagorean in philosophy, and influential in that capacity over the minds of Plato, his contemporary, and Aristotle; was drowned in the Adriatic Sea, 4th century B.C.; his body lay unburied on the shore till a sailor humanely cast a handful of sand on it, otherwise he would have had to wander on this side the Styx for a hundred years, such the virtue of a little dust, munera pulveris, as Horace calls it.

ARCIS'-SUR-AUBE (3), a town 17 m. N. of Troyes, in France, birthplace of Danton; scene of a defeat of Napoleon, March 1814.

AR'COT, the name of two districts, N. and S., in the Presidency of Madras; also chief town (11) in the district, 65 m. SW. of Madras; captured by Clive in 1787; once the capital of the Carnatic.

ARCTIC OCEAN, a circular ocean round the N. Pole, its diameter 40 deg., with low, flat shores, covered with ice-fields, including numerous islands; the Gulf Stream penetrates it, and a current flows out of it into the Atlantic.

ARCTU'RUS, star of the first magnitude and the chief in the N. constellation Booetes.

ARDECHE, an affluent of the Rhone, source in the Cevennes; gives name to a department traversed by the Cevennes Mountains.

ARDEN, a large forest at one time in England, E. of the Severn.

ARDEN, ENOCH, hero of a poem by Tennyson, who finds, on his return from the sea, after long absence, his wife, who believed him dead, married happily to another; does not disclose himself, and dies broken-hearted.

ARDENNES, a forest, a tract of rugged woodland on the confines of France and Belgium; also department of France (325), on the borders of Belgium.

AR'DOCH, a place in Perthshire, 7 m. from Crieff, with the remains of a Roman camp, the most complete in Britain.

ARENDS, LEOPOLD, a Russian of literary ability, inventor of a system of stenography extensively used on the Continent (1817-1882).

AREOPAGITICA, a prose work of Milton's, described by Prof. Saintsbury as "a magnificent search for the Dead Truth."

AREOP'AGUS, the hill of Ares in Athens, which gave name to the celebrated council held there, a tribunal of 31 members, charged with judgment in criminal offences, and whose sentences were uniformly the awards of strictest justice.

AREQUI'PA (35), a city in Peru, founded by Pizarro in 1536, in a fruitful valley of the Andes, 8000 ft. above the sea, 30 m. inland; is much subject to earthquakes, and was almost destroyed by one in 1868.

A'RES, the Greek god of war in its sanguinary aspects; was the son of Zeus and Hera; identified by the Romans with Mars, was fond of war for its own sake, and had for sister Eris, the goddess of strife, who used to pander to his passion.

ARETAE'US, a Greek physician of 1st century; wrote a treatise on diseases, their causes, symptoms, and cures, still extant.

ARETHU'SA, a celebrated fountain in the island of Ortygia, near Syracuse, transformed from a Nereid pursued thither from Elis, in Greece, by the river-god Alphaeus, so that the waters of the river henceforth mingled with those of the fountain.

ARETI'NO, PIETRO, called the "Scourge of Princes," a licentious satirical writer, born at Arezzo, in Tuscany, alternately attached to people and repelled from them by his wit, moved from one centre of attraction to another; settled in Venice, where he died after an uncontrollable fit of laughter which seized him at the story of the adventure of a sister (1492-1557).

AREZZO (44), an ancient Tuscan city, 38 m. SE. of Florence, and eventually subject to it; the birthplace of Maecenas, Michael Angelo, Petrarch, Guido, and Vasari.

AR'GALI, a sheep of Siberia, as large as a moderately-sized ox, with enormous grooved curving horns, strong-limbed, sure-footed, and swift.

ARGAN', the hypochondriac rich patient in Moliere's "Le Malade Imaginaire."

ARGAND, a Swiss physician and chemist, born at Geneva; inventor of the argand lamp, which, as invented by him, introduced a circular wick (1755-1803).

ARGELAN'DER, a distinguished astronomer, born at Memel, professor at Bonn; he fixed the position of 22,000 stars, and recorded observations to prove that the solar system was moving through space (1799-1874).

AR'GENS, MARQUIS D', a French soldier who turned to letters, author of sceptical writings, of which the best known is entitled "Lettres Juives" (1704-1771).

ARGENSON, RENE-LOUIS, MARQUIS D', French statesman, who left "Memoirs" of value as affecting the early and middle part of Louis XV.'s reign (1694-1757).

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC, or ARGENTINA (4,000), a confederation like that of the United States of 14 states and 9 territories, occupying the eastern slopes of the Andes and the vast level plain extending from them to the Atlantic, bounded on the N. by Bolivia and Paraguay; its area ten times that of Great Britain and Ireland; while the population includes 600,000 foreigners, Italians, French, Spaniards, English, and Germans.

AR'GO, the fifty-oared ship of the ARGONAUTS (q. v.).

AR'GOLIS, the north-eastern peninsula of the Morea of Greece, and one of the 13 provinces of Greece, is 12 m. long by 5 m. broad.

AR'GON, a new element lately discovered to exist in a gaseous form in the nitrogen of the air.

ARGONAUTICA, the title of a poem on the Argonautic expedition by Apollonius of Rhodes.

AR'GONAUTS, the Greek heroes, sailors in the Argo, who, under the command of Jason, sailed for Colchis in quest of the golden fleece, which was guarded by a dragon that never slept, a perilous venture, but it proved successful with the assistance of Medea, the daughter of the king, whom, with the fleece, Jason in the end brought away with him to be his wife.

ARGONNE', FOREST OF, "a long strip of rocky mountain and wild wood" in the NE. of France, within the borders of which the Duke of Brunswick was outwitted by Dumouriez in 1792.

AR'GOS (9), the capital of Argolis, played for long a prominent part in the history of Greece, but paled before the power of Sparta.

AR'GUS, surnamed the "All-seeing," a fabulous creature with a hundred eyes, of which one half was always awake, appointed by Hera to watch over Io, but Hermes killed him after lulling him to sleep by the sound of his flute, whereupon Hera transferred his eyes to the tail of the peacock, her favourite bird. Also the dog of Ulysses, immortalised by Homer; he was the only creature that recognised Ulysses under his rags on his return to Ithaca after twenty years' absence, under such excitement, however, that immediately after he dropped down dead.

ARGUS, a pheasant, a beautiful Oriental game-bird, so called from the eye-like markings on its plumage.

ARGYLL (74), a large county in the W. of Scotland, consisting of deeply indented mainland and islands, and abounding in mountains, moorlands, and lochs, with scenery often picturesque as well as wild and savage.

ARGYLL, a noble family or clan of the name of Campbell, the members of which have held successively the title of Earl, Marquis, and Duke, their first patent of nobility dating from 1445, and their earldom from 1453.

ARGYLL, ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL, 1ST MARQUIS OF, sided with the Covenanters, fought against Montrose, disgusted with the execution of Charles I., crowned Charles II. at Scone, after the Restoration committed to the Tower, was tried and condemned, met death nobly (1598-1661).

ARGYLL, ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL, 9TH EARL OF, son of the preceding, fought for Charles II., was taken prisoner, released at the Restoration and restored to his estates, proved rebellious at last, and was condemned to death; escaped to Holland, made a descent on Scotland, was captured and executed in 1685.

ARGYLL, GEORGE JOHN DOUGLAS CAMPBELL, 8TH DUKE OF, as Marquis of Lorne took a great interest in the movement which led to the Disruption of the Church of Scotland in 1843, a Whig in politics, was a member of the Cabinets of Aberdeen, Palmerston, and Gladstone; of late has shown more Conservative tendencies; takes a deep interest in the scientific theories and questions of the time; wrote, among other works, a book in 1866 entitled "The Reign of Law," in vindication of Theism, and another in the same interest in 1884 entitled "The Unity of Nature"; b. 1824.

ARGYLL, JOHN CAMPBELL, 2ND DUKE OF, favoured the Union, was created an English peer, fought under Marlborough, opposed the return of the Stuarts, defeated Mar at Sheriffmuir, ruled Scotland under Walpole (1678-1743).

ARIAD'NE, daughter of Minos, king of Crete, gave to Theseus a clue by which to escape out of the labyrinth after he had slain the Minotaur, for which Theseus promised to marry her; took her with him to Naxos and left her there, where, according to one tradition, Artemis killed her, and according to another, Dionysos found her and married her, placing her at her death among the gods, and hanging her wedding wreath as a constellation in the sky.

ARIANISM, the heresy of ARIUS (q. v.).

ARIA'NO (12), a city with a fine cathedral, 1500 ft. above the sea-level, NE. of Naples; has a trade in wine and butter.

ARI'CA, a seaport connected with Tacna, S. of Peru, the chief outlet for the produce of Bolivia; suffers again and again from earthquakes, and was almost destroyed in 1832.

ARIEGE, a department of France, at the foot of the northern slopes of the Pyrenees; has extensive forests and is rich in minerals.

A'RIEL, in Shakespeare's "Tempest," a spirit of the air whom Prospero finds imprisoned by Sycorax in the cleft of a pine-tree, and liberates on condition of her serving him for a season, which she willingly engages to do, and does.

ARIEL, an idol of the Moabites, an outcast angel.

ARIES, the Ram. the first of the signs of the Zodiac, which the sun enters on March 21, though the constellation itself, owing to the precession of the equinoxes, is no longer within the limits of the sign.

ARI'ON, a lyrist of Lesbos, lived chiefly at the court of Periander, Corinth; returning in a ship from a musical contest in Sicily laden with prizes, the sailors plotted to kill him, when he begged permission to play one strain on his lute, which being conceded, dolphins crowded round the ship, whereupon he leapt over the bulwarks, was received on the back of one of them, and carried to Corinth, arriving there before the sailors, who, on their landing, were apprehended and punished.

ARIOS'TO, LUDOVICO, an illustrious Italian poet, born at Reggio, in Lombardy; spent his life chiefly in Ferrara, mostly in poverty; his great work "ORLANDO FURIOSO" (q. v.), published the first edition, in 40 cantos, in 1516, and the third in 46 cantos, in 1532; the work is so called from the chief subject of it, the madness of Roland induced by the loss of his lady-love through her marriage to another (1474-1532).

ARIOVISTUS, a German chief, invaded Gaul, and threatened to overrun it, but was forced back over the Rhine by Caesar.

ARISTAE'US, a son of Apollo, the guardian divinity of the vine and olive, of hunters and herdsmen; first taught the management of bees, some of which stung Eurydice to death, whereupon the nymphs, companions of Orpheus, her husband, set upon his bees and destroyed them. In this extremity Aristaeus applied to Proteus, who advised him to sacrifice four bullocks to appease the manes of Eurydice; this done, there issued from the carcasses of the victims a swarm of bees, which reconciled him to the loss of the first ones.

ARISTAR'CHUS OF SAMOS, a Greek astronomer, who first conceived the idea of the rotundity of the earth and its revolution both on its own axis and round the sun, in promulgating which idea he was accused of impiously disturbing the serenity of the gods (280 B.C.).

ARISTARCHUS OF SAMOTHRACE, a celebrated Greek grammarian and critic, who devoted his life to the elucidation and correct transmission of the text of the Greek poets, and especially Homer (158-88 B.C.).

ARISTE'AS, a sort of Wandering Jew of Greek fable, who turns up here and there in Greek tradition, and was thought to be endowed with a soul that could at will leave and enter the body.

ARISTI'DES, an Athenian general and statesman, surnamed The Just; covered himself with glory at the battle of Marathon; was made archon next year, in the discharge of the duties of which office he received his surname; was banished by ostracism at the instance of his rival, Themistocles; recalled three years after the invasion of Xerxes, was reconciled to Themistocles, fought bravely at Salamis, and distinguished himself at Plataea; managed the finances of the State with such probity that he died poor, was buried at the public charges, and left the State to provide for his children.

ARISTION, a philosopher, tyrant of Athens, put to death by order of Sylla, 86 B.C.

ARISTIP'PUS OF CYRENE, founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy, a disciple of Socrates; in his teaching laid too much emphasis on one principle of Socrates, apart from the rest, in insisting too exclusively upon pleasure as the supreme good and ultimate aim of life.

ARISTOBU'LUS I., son of John Hyrcanus, first of the Asmonaean dynasty in Judea to assume the name of king, which he did from 104-102 B.C., a pronounced Helleniser; A. II., twice carried captive to Rome, assassinated 50 B.C.; A. III., last of Asmonaean dynasty, drowned by Herod in the Jordan, 34 B.C.

ARISTODE'MUS, king of Messenia, carried on for 20 years a war with Sparta, till at length finding resistance hopeless he put an end to his life on the tomb of his daughter, whom he had sacrificed to ensure the fulfilment of an oracle to the advantage of his house; d. 724 B.C. Also a Greek sculptor, 4th century B.C.

ARISTOM'ENES, a mythical king of Messenia, celebrated for his struggle with the Spartans, and his resistance to them on Mount Ira for 11 years, which at length fell to the enemy, while he escaped and was snatched up by the gods; died at Rhodes.

ARISTOPHANES, the great comic dramatist of Athens, lived in the 5th century B.C.; directed the shafts of his wit, which were very keen, against all of whatever rank who sought in any way to alter, and, as it was presumed, amend, the religious, philosophical, social, political, or literary creed and practice of the country, and held up to ridicule such men as Socrates and Euripides, as well as Cleon the tanner; wrote 54 plays, of which 11 have come down to us; of these the "Clouds" aim at Socrates, the "Acharnians" and the "Frogs" at Euripides, and the "Knights" at Cleon; d. 384 B.C.

AR'ISTOTLE, a native of Stagira, in Thrace, and hence named the Stagirite; deprived of his parents while yet a youth; came in his 17th year to Athens, remained in Plato's society there for 20 years; after the death of Plato, at the request of Philip, king of Macedon, who held him in high honour, became the preceptor of Alexander the Great, then only 13 years old; on Alexander's expedition into Asia, returned to Athens and began to teach in the Lyceum, where it was his habit to walk up and down as he taught, from which circumstance his school got the name of Peripatetic; after 13 years he left the city and went to Chalcis, in Euboea, where he died. He was the oracle of the scholastic philosophers and theologians in the Middle Ages; is the author of a great number of writings which covered a vast field of speculation, of which the progress of modern science goes to establish the value; is often referred to as the incarnation of the philosophic spirit (385-322 B.C.).

ARISTOX'ENUS OF TARENTUM, a Greek philosopher, author of the "Elements of Harmony," the only one of his many works extant, and one of the oldest writers on music; contemporary of Aristotle.

A'RIUS, a presbyter of Alexandria in the 4th century, and founder of Arianism, which denied the consubstantiality of the Son with the Father in the so-called Trinity, a doctrine which hovered for a time between acceptance and rejection throughout the Catholic Church; was condemned first by a local synod which met at Alexandria in 321, and then by a General Council at Nice in 325, which the Emperor Constantine attended in person; the author was banished to Illyricum, his writings burned, and the possession of them voted to be a crime; after three years he was recalled by Constantine, who ordered him to be restored; was about to be readmitted into the Church when he died suddenly, by poison, alleged his friends—by the judgment of God, said his enemies (280-336).

ARIZO'NA (59), a territory of the United States N. of Mexico and W. of New Mexico, nearly four times as large as Scotland, rich in mines of gold, silver, and copper, fertile in the lowlands; much of the surface a barren plateau 11,000 ft. high, through which the canon of the Colorado passes. See CANON.

ARK OF THE COVENANT, a chest of acacia wood overlaid with gold, 21/2 cubits long and 11/2 in breadth; contained the two tables of stone inscribed with the Ten Commandments, the gold pot with the manna, and Aaron's rod; the lid supported the mercy-seat, with a cherub at each end, and the shekinah radiance between.

ARKANS'AS (1,128), one of the Southern States of America, N. of Louisiana and W. of the Mississippi, a little larger than England; rich in metals, grows cotton and corn.

ARKWRIGHT, SIR RICHARD, born at Preston, Lancashire; bred to the trade of a barber; took interest in the machinery of cotton-spinning; with the help of a clockmaker, invented the spinning frame; was mobbed for threatening thereby to shorten labour and curtail wages, and had to flee; fell in with Mr. Strutt of Derby, who entered into partnership with him; prospered in business and died worth half a million. "French Revolutions were a-brewing; to resist the same in any way, Imperial Caesars were impotent without the cotton and cloth of England; and it was this man," says Carlyle, "that had to give to England the power of cotton" (1732-1792).

ARLBERG, a mountain mass between the Austrian provinces of Vorarlberg and Tyrol, pierced by a tunnel, one of the three that penetrate the Alps, and nearly four miles in length.

ARLES (14), a city, one of the oldest in France, on the Rhone, 46 m. N. of Marseilles, where Constantine built a palace, with ruins of an amphitheatre and other Roman works; the seat of several Church Councils.

AR'LINCOURT, VISCOUNT D', a French romancer, born near Versailles (1789-1856).

AR'LINGTON, HENRY BENNET, EARL OF, served under Charles I., and accompanied Charles II. in his exile; a prominent member of the famous Cabal; being impeached when in office, lost favour and retired into private life (1618-1685).

AR'LON (8), a prosperous town in Belgium, capital of Luxemburg.

ARMA'DA, named the Invincible, an armament fitted out in 1588 by Philip II. of Spain against England, consisting of 130 war-vessels, mounted with 2430 cannon, and manned by 20,000 soldiers; was defeated in the Channel on July 20 by Admiral Howard, seconded by Drake, Hawkins, and Frobisher; completely dispersed and shattered by a storm in retreat on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland, the English losing only one ship; of the whole fleet only 53 ships found their way back to Spain, and these nearly all hors de combat.

ARMAGEDDON, a name given in Apocalypse to the final battlefield between the powers of good and evil, or Christ and Antichrist.

ARMAGH (143), a county in Ulster, Ireland, 32 m. long by 20 m. broad; and a town (18) in it, 33 m. SW. of Belfast, from the 5th to the 9th century the capital of Ireland, as it is the ecclesiastical still; the chief manufacture linen-weaving.

ARMAGNAC, a district, part of Gascony, in France, now in dep. of Gers, celebrated for its wine and brandy.

ARMAGNACS, a faction in France in time of Charles VI. at mortal feud with the Bourguignons.

ARMATO'LES, warlike marauding tribes in the mountainous districts of Northern Greece, played a prominent part in the War of Independence in 1820.


ARME'NIA, a country in Western Asia, W. of the Caspian Sea and N. of Kurdistan Mts., anciently independent, now divided between Turkey, Russia, and Persia, occupying a plateau interspersed with fertile valleys, which culminates in Mt. Ararat, in which the Euphrates and Tigris have their sources.

ARMENIANS, a people of the Aryan race occupying Armenia, early converted to Christianity of the Eutychian type; from early times have emigrated into adjoining, and even remote, countries, and are, like the Jews, mainly engaged in commercial pursuits, the wealthier of them especially in banking.

ARMENTIERES (27), a manufacturing and trading town in France, 12 m. N. of Lille.

ARMI'DA, a beautiful enchantress in Tasso's "Jerusalem Delivered," who bewitched Rinaldo, one of the Crusaders, by her charms, as Circe did Ulysses, and who in turn, when the spell was broken, overpowered her by his love and persuaded her to become a Christian. The Almida Palace, in which she enchanted Rinaldo, has become a synonym for any merely visionary but enchanting palace of pleasure.


ARMIN'IUS, or HERMANN, the Deliverer of Germany from the Romans by the defeat of Varus, the Roman general, in 9 A.D., near Detmold (where a colossal statue has been erected to his memory); killed in some family quarrel in his 37th year.

ARMINIUS, JACOBUS, a learned Dutch theologian and founder of Arminianism, an assertion of the free-will of man in the matter of salvation against the necessitarianism of Calvin (1560-1609).

ARMOR'ICA, a district of Gaul from the Loire to the Seine.

ARMSTRONG, JOHN, a Scotch doctor and poet, born in Roxburghshire, practised medicine in London; friend of poet Thomson, as well as of Wilkes and Smollett, and author of "The Art of Preserving Health" (1709-1779).

ARMSTRONG, WILLIAM GEORGE, LORD, born at Newcastle, produced the hydraulic accumulator and the hydraulic crane, established the Elswick engine works in the suburbs of his native city, devoted his attention to the improvement of heavy ordnance, invented the Armstrong gun, which he got the Government to adopt, knighted in 1858, and in 1887 raised to the peerage; b. 1810.

AR'NAUD, HENRI, a pastor of the Vaudois, turned soldier to rescue, and did rescue, his co-religionists from their dispersion under the persecution of the Count of Savoy; but when the Vaudois were exiled a second time, he accompanied them in their exile to Schomberg, and acted pastor to them till his death (1641-1721).

ARNAULD, ANTOINE, the "great Arnauld," a French theologian, doctor of the Sorbonne, an inveterate enemy of the Jesuits, defended Jansenism against the Bull of the Pope, became religious director of the nuns of Port Royal des Champs, associated here with a circle of kindred spirits, among others Pascal; expelled from the Sorbonne and banished the country, died at Brussels (1612-1694).

ARNAULD, MARIE ANGE'LIQUE, La Mere Angelique as she was called, sister of the preceding and abbess of the Port Royal, a victim of the persecutions of the Jesuits to very death (1624-1684).

ARNDT, ERNST MORITZ, a German poet and patriot, whose memory is much revered by the whole German people, one of the first to rouse his countrymen to shake off the tyranny of Napoleon; his songs and eloquent appeals went straight to the heart of the nation and contributed powerfully to its liberation; his "Geist der Zeit" made him flee the country after the battle of Jena, and his "Was ist des Deutschen Vaterland?" strikes a chord in the breast of every German all the world over (1710-1860).

ARNDT, JOHN, a Lutheran theologian, the author of "True Christianity," a work which, in Germany and elsewhere, has contributed to infuse a new spirit of life into the profession of the Christian religion, which seemed withering away under the influence of a lifeless dogmatism (1553-1621).

ARNE, THOMAS AUGUSTINE, a musical composer of versatile genius, produced, during over 40 years, a succession of pieces in every style from songs to sonatas and oratorios, among others the world-famous chorus "Rule Britannia"; Mrs. Cibber was his sister (1719-1778).

ARN'HEIM (51), the capital of Guelderland, is situated on the right bank of the Rhine, and has a large transit trade.

ARNIM, BETTINE VON, sister of Clemens Brentano, wife of Ludwig Arnim, a native of Frankfort; at 22 conceived a passionate love for Goethe, then in his 60th year, visited him at Weimar, and corresponded with him afterwards, part of which correspondence appeared subsequently under the title of "Goethe's Correspondence with a Child" (1785-1859).

ARNIM, COUNT, ambassador of Germany, first at Rome and then at Paris; accused in the latter capacity of purloining State documents, and sentenced to imprisonment; died in exile at Nice (1824-1881).

ARNIM, LUDWIG ACHIM VON, a German poet and novelist (1781-1831).

ARNO, a river of Italy, rises in the Apennines, flows westward past Florence and Pisa into the Mediterranean, subject to destructive inundations.

ARNOBIUS, an African rhetorician who, in the beginning of the 4th century, embraced Christianity, and wrote a book in its defence, still extant, and of great value, entitled "Disputations against the Heathen."

ARNOLD, BENEDICT, an American military general, entered the ranks of the colonists under Washington during the War of Independence, distinguished himself in several engagements, promoted to the rank of general, negotiated with the English general Clinton to surrender an important post entrusted to him, escaped to the English ranks on the discovery of the plot, and served in them against his country; d. in England in 1801.

ARNOLD, MATTHEW, poet and critic, eldest son of Thomas Arnold of Rugby; professor of Poetry in Oxford from 1857 to 1867; inspector of schools for 35 years from 1851; commissioned twice over to visit France, Germany, and Holland, to inquire into educational matters there; wrote two separate reports thereon of great value; author of "Poems," of a highly finished order and showing a rich poetic gift, "Essays on Criticism," "Culture and Anarchy," "St. Paul and Protestantism," "Literature and Dogma," &c.; a man of culture, and especially literary culture, of which he is reckoned the apostle; died suddenly at Liverpool. He was more eminent as a poet than a critic, influential as he was in that regard. "It is," says Swinburne, "by his verse and not his prose he must be judged," and is being now judged (1822-1888).

ARNOLD, SIR EDWIN, poet and journalist, familiar with Indian literature; author of the "Light of Asia," "Light of the World," and other works in prose and verse; b. 1832, at Gravesend.

ARNOLD, THOMAS, head-master of Rugby, and professor of Modern History at Oxford; by his moral character and governing faculty effected immense reforms in Rugby School; was liberal in his principles and of a philanthropic spirit; he wrote a "History of Rome" based on Niebuhr, and edited Thucydides; his "Life and Correspondence" was edited by Dean Stanley (1795-1842).

ARNOLD OF BRESCIA, an Italian monk, and disciple of Abelard; declaimed against the temporal power of the Pope, the corruptions of the Church, and the avarice of the clergy; headed an insurrection against the Pope in Rome, which collapsed under the Pope's interdict; at last was burned alive in 1156, and his ashes thrown into the Tiber.

ARNOLD OF WINKELRIED, the Decius of Switzerland, a peasant of the canton of Unterwald, who, by the voluntary sacrifice of his life, broke the lines of the Austrians at Sempach in 1386 and decided the fate of the battle.

ARNOTT, DR. NEIL, a native of Arbroath, author of the "Elements of Physics" and of several hygienic inventions (1788-1874).

AROU'ET, the family name of Voltaire; his name formed by an ingenious transposition he made of the letters of his name, Arouet l. j. (jeune).

AR'PAD, the national hero of Hungary; established for the Magyars a firm footing in the country; was founder of the Arpad dynasty, which became extinct in 1301; d. 907.

ARPI'NO (ARPINIUM), an ancient town in Latium, S. of Rome, birthplace of Cicero and Marius.

ARQUA, a village 12 m. SW. of Padua, where Petrarch died and was buried.

ARRACK, a spirituous liquor, especially that distilled from the juice of the cocoa-nut tree and from fermented rice.

AR'RAH, a town in Bengal, 36 m. from Patna; famous for its defence by a handful of English and Sikhs against thousands during the Mutiny.

ARRAN (4), largest island in the Firth of Clyde, in Buteshire; a mountainous island, highest summit Goatfell, 2866 ft, with a margin of lowland round the coast; nearly all the property of the Duke of Hamilton, whose seat is Brodick Castle.

ARRAS (20), a French town in the dep. of Pas-de-Calais, long celebrated for its tapestry; the birthplace of Damiens and Robespierre.

AR'RIA, a Roman matron, who, to encourage her husband in meeting death, to which he had been sentenced, thrust a poniard into her own breast, and then handed it to him, saying, "It is not painful," whereupon he followed her example.

AR'RIAN, FLAVIUS, a Bithynian, a friend of Epictetus the Stoic, edited his "Enchiridion"; wrote a "History of Alexander the Great," and "Periplus," an account of voyages round the Euxine and round the Red Sea; b. 100, and died at an advanced age.


ARRU ISLANDS (15), a group of 80 coralline islands, belonging to Holland, W. of New Guinea; export mother-of-pearl, pearls, tortoise-shell, &c.

AR'SACES I., the founder of the dynasty of the Arsacidae, by a revolt which proved successful against the Seleucidae, 250 B.C.

ARSACIDAE, a dynasty of 31 Parthian kings, who wrested the throne from Antiochus II., the last of the Seleucidae, 250 B.C.

ARSIN'OE, the name of several Egyptian princesses of antiquity; also a prude in Moliere's "Misanthrope."

ARTA, GULF OF, gulf forming the NW. frontier of Greece.

ARTS, THE. There are three classes of these, the Liberal, the Fine, and the Mechanical: the Liberal, implying scholarship, graduation in which is granted by universities, entitling the holder to append M.A. to his name; the Mechanical, implying skill; and the Fine, implying the possession of a soul, discriminated from the mechanical by the word spiritual, as holding of the entire, undivided man, heart as well as brain.

ARTAXER'XES, the name of several Persian monarchs: A. I., called the "Long-handed," from his right hand being longer than his left; son of Xerxes I.; concluded a peace with Greece after a war of 52 years; entertained Themistocles at his court; king from 465 to 424 B.C. A. II., MNEMON, vanquished and killed his brother Cyrus at Cunaxa in 401, who had revolted against him; imposed in 387 on the Spartans the shameful treaty of ANTALCIDAS (q. v.); king from 405 to 359 B.C. A. III., OCHUS, son of the preceding, slew all his kindred on ascending the throne; in Egypt slew the sacred bull Apis and gave the flesh to his soldiers, for which his eunuch Bagsas poisoned him; king from 359 to 338 B.C. A. IV., grandson of Sassan, founder of the dynasty Sassanidae; restored the old religion of the Magi, amended the laws, and promoted education; king from A.D. 223 to 232.

ARTE'DI, a Swedish naturalist, assisted Linnaeus in his "Systema Naturae"; his own great work, "Ichthyologia," published by Linnaeus after his death (1703-1735).

AR'TEGAL, the impersonation and champion of Justice in Spenser's "Faerie Queene."

AR'TEMIS, in the Greek mythology the daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo, born in the Isle of Delos, and one of the great divinities of the Greeks; a virgin goddess, represented as a huntress armed with bow and arrows; presided over the birth of animals, was guardian of flocks, the moon the type of her and the laurel her sacred tree, was the Diana of the Romans, and got mixed up with deities in other mythologies.

ARTEMI'SIA, queen of Halicarnassus, joined Xerxes in his invasion of Greece, and fought with valour at Salamis, 440 B.C. A. II., also queen, raised a tomb over the grave of her husband Mausolus, regarded as one of the seven wonders of the world, 355 B.C.

ARTEMI'SIUM, a promontory N. of Euboea, near which Xerxes lost part of his fleet, 480 B.C.


ARTESIAN WELLS, wells made by boring for water where it is lower than its source, so as to obtain a constant supply of it.

AR'TEVELDE, JACOB VAN, a wealthy brewer of Ghent, chosen chief in a revolt against Count Louis of Flanders, expelled him, made a treaty with Edward III. as lord-superior of Flanders, was massacred in a popular tumult (1300-1345).

ARTEVELDE, PHILIP VAN, son of the preceding, defeated Louis II. and became king; but with the help of France Louis retaliated and defeated the Flemings, and slew him in 1382.

ARTFUL DODGER, a young thief, an expert in the profession in Dickens' "Oliver Twist."

AR'THUR, a British prince of wide-spread fame, who is supposed to have lived at the time of the Saxon invasion in the 6th century, whose exploits and those of his court have given birth to the tradition of the Round Table, to the rendering of which Tennyson devoted so much of his genius.

ARTHUR, CHESTER ALAN, twenty-first president of the United States, a lawyer by profession, and a prominent member of the Republican party (1830-1886).

ARTHUR, PRINCE, DUKE OF BRITTANY, heir to the throne of England by the death of his uncle Richard I.; supplanted by King John.

ARTHUR SEAT, a lion-shaped hill 822 ft., close to Edinburgh on the E., from the top of which the prospect is unrivalled; "the blue, majestic, everlasting ocean, with the Fife hills swelling gradually into the Grampians behind it on the N.; rough crags and rude precipices at our feet ('where not a hillock rears its head unsung'), with Edinburgh at their base, clustering proudly over her rugged foundations, and covering with a vapoury mantle the jagged, black, venerable masses of stone-work, that stretch far and wide, and show like a city of fairyland"—such the view Carlyle had in a clear atmosphere of 1826, whatever it may be now.

ARTICLES, THE THIRTY-NINE, originally Forty-Two, a creed framed in 1562, which every clergyman of the Church of England is bound by law to subscribe to at his ordination, as the accepted faith of the Church.

ARTIST, according to a definition of Ruskin, which he prints in small caps., "a person who has submitted to a law which it was painful to obey, that he may bestow a delight which it is gracious to bestow."

ARTISTS, PRINCE OF, Albert Duerer, so called by his countrymen.

AR'TOIS, an ancient province of France, comprising the dep. of Pas-de-Calais, and parts of the Somme and the Nord; united to the crown in 1659.

ARTOIS, MONSEIGNEUR D', famed, as described in Carlyle's "French Revolution," for "breeches of a new kind in this world"; brother of Louis XVI., and afterwards CHARLES X. (q. v.).

AR'UNDEL (2), a municipal town in Sussex, on the Arun, 9 m. E. of Chichester, with a castle of great magnificence, the seat of the Earls of Arundel.

ARUNDEL, THOMAS, successively bishop of Ely, Lord Chancellor, archbishop of York, and archbishop of Canterbury; a persecutor of the Wickliffites, but a munificent benefactor of the Church (1353-1414).

ARUNDEL MARBLES, ancient Grecian marbles collected at Smyrna and elsewhere by the Earl of Arundel in 1624, now in the possession of the University of Oxford, the most important of which is one from Paros inscribed with a chronology of events in Grecian history from 1582 to 264 B.C.; the date of the marbles themselves is 263 B.C.

ARUNS, son of Tarquinus Superbus, who fell in single combat with Brutus.

ARUWI'MI, an affluent of the Congo on the right bank below the Stanley Falls.

ARVA'TES, FRATRES, a college of twelve priests in ancient Rome whose duty it was to make annual offerings to the Lares for the increase of the fruits of the field.

ARVE, a river that flows through the valley of Chamouni and falls into the Rhone below Geneva.

ARVEYRON, an affluent of the Arve from the Mer de Glace.

AR'YANS, or Indo-Europeans, a race that is presumed to have had its primitive seat in Central Asia, E. of the Caspian Sea and N. of the Hindu-Kush, and to have branched off at different periods north-westward and westward into Europe, and southward into Persia and the valley of the Ganges, from which sprung the Greeks, Latins, Celts, Teutons, Slavs, on the one hand, and the Persians and Hindus on the other, a community of origin that is attested by the comparative study of their respective languages.

AR'ZEW, a seaport in Algeria, 22 m. from Oran, with Roman remains; exports grain and salt.

ASAFOE'TIDA, a fetid inspissated sap from an Indian umbelliferous tree, used in medicine.

ASAPH, a musician of the temple at Jerusalem.

ASAPH, ST., a town in Flintshire, 20 m. from Chester; seat of a bishopric.

ASBES'TOS, an incombustible mineral of a flax-like fibrous texture, which has been manufactured into cloth, paper, lamp-wick, steam-pipes, gas-stoves, &c.

ASBJOeRN'SEN, a Dane, distinguished as a naturalist, and particularly as a collector of folk-lore, as well as an author of children's stories (1812-1885).

AS'BURY, FRANCIS, a zealous, assiduous Methodist preacher and missionary, sent to America, was consecrated the first bishop of the newly organised Methodist Church there (1745-1816).

AS'CALON, one of the five cities of the Philistines, much contested for during the Crusades.

ASCA'NIUS, the son of AEneas, who trotted non passibus aequis ("with unequal steps") by the side of his father as he escaped from burning Troy; was founder of Alba Longa.

AS'CAPART, a giant conquered by Bevis of Southampton, though so huge as to carry Bevis, his wife, and horse under his arm.

ASCENSION, a bare volcanic island in the Atlantic, rising to nearly 3000 ft., belonging to Britain, 500 m. NW. of St. Helena, and 900 m. from the coast of Africa; a coaling and victualling station for the navy.

ASCHAF'FENBURG (14), an ancient town of Bavaria, on the Main, 20 m. from Frankfort, with an old castle and cathedral.

ASCHAM, ROGER, a Yorkshireman, Fellow of Cambridge, a good classical, and particularly Greek, scholar; wrote a book on archery, deemed a classic, entitled "Toxophilus," for which Henry VIII. settled a pension on him; was tutor and Latin secretary to Queen Elizabeth, and much esteemed by her; his chief work, the "Schoolmaster," an admirable treatise on education, held in high regard by Dr. Johnson, the sum of which is docendo discas, "learn by teaching" (1515-1560).

ASCHERSLE'BEN (22), a manufacturing town in the Magdeburg district of Prussia.

ASCLEPI'ADES, a Bithynian who practised medicine with repute at Rome in Cicero's time, and was great in hygiene.

AS'COT, a racecourse in Berks, 6 m. SW. of Windsor, the races at which, instituted by Queen Anne, take place a fortnight after the Derby.

AS'GARD, the garden or heaven of the Asen or gods in the Norse mythology, in which each had a separate dwelling, and who held intercourse with the other spheres of existence by the bridge Bifroest, i. e. the rainbow.

ASGILL, JOHN, an eccentric Englishman, wrote a book to prove that death was due to want of faith, and to express his belief that he would be translated, and translated he was, to spend 30 years, apparently quite happily, writing pamphlets, and end his days in the debtors' prison.

ASH, JOHN, a dissenting divine, author of an English dictionary, valuable for the number of obsolete and provincial words contained in it (1724-1779).

ASH'ANTI, or ASHANTEE, a negro inland kingdom in the Upper Soudan, N. of Gold Coast territory, wooded, well watered, and well cultivated; natives intelligent, warlike, and skilful; twice over provoked a war with Great Britain, and finally the despatch of a military expedition, which led to the submission of the king and the appointment of a British Resident.

ASHBURNHAM, JOHN, a member of the Long Parliament, a faithful adherent and attendant of Charles I., and assistant to him in his troubles (1603-1671).

ASHBURNHAM, 5TH EARL OF, collected a number of valuable MSS. and rare books known as the Ashburnham Collection; d. 1878.

ASHBURTON, ALEXANDER BARING, LORD, second son of Sir Francis Baring, a Liberal politician, turned Conservative, member of Peel's administration in 1834-35, sent special ambassador to the United States in 1842; concluded the boundary treaty of Washington, known as the Ashburton Treaty; in his retirement "a really good, solid, most cheery, sagacious, simple-hearted old man" (1774-1848).

ASHBURTON, WILLIAM BINGHAM BARING, son of the preceding, "a very worthy man," an admirer, and his wife, Lady Harriet, still more, of Thomas Carlyle (1797-1844).

ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH, a small market-town 17 m. W. of Leicester, figures in "Ivanhoe," with the ruins of a castle in which Queen Mary was immured.

ASHDOD, a maritime Philistine city 20 m. S. of Jaffa, seat of the Dagon worship.

ASHE'RA, an image of ASTARTE (q. v.), and associated with the worship of that goddess.

ASH'MOLE, ELIAS, a celebrated antiquary and authority on heraldry; presented to the University of Oxford a collection of rarities bequeathed to him, which laid the foundation of the Ashmolean Collection there (1617-1692).

ASHMUN, JEHUDI, an American philanthropist, founder of the Negro Republic of Liberia, on the W. coast of Africa (1794-1828).


ASH'TON-UNDER-LYNE (47), a cotton-manufacturing town near Manchester.

ASIA, the largest of the four quarters of the globe, and as good as in touch with the other three; contains one-third of all the land, which, from a centre of high elevations, extensive plains, and deep depressions, stretches southward into three large peninsulas separated by three immense arms of the sea, and eastward into three bulging masses and three pronounced peninsulas forming seas, protected by groups of islands; with rivers the largest in the whole world, of which four flow N., two SE., and eight S.; with a large continental basin, also the largest in the world, and with lakes which though they do not match those of America and Africa, strikingly stand at a higher level as we go E.; with every variety of climate, with a richly varied flora and fauna, with a population of 840,000,000, being the half of that of the globe, of chiefly three races, Caucasian, Mongolian, and Malay, at different stages of civilisation, and as regards religion, by far the majority professing the faith of Brahma, Buddha, Mahomet, or Christ.

ASIA MINOR, called also ANATOLE', a peninsular extension westward of the Armenian and Kurdistan highlands in Asia, bounded on the N. by the Black Sea, on the W. by the Archipelago, and on the S. by the Levant; indented all round, mainland as well as adjoining islands, with bays and harbours, all more or less busy centres of trade; is as large as France, and consists of a plateau with slopes all round to the coasts; has a population of over 28,000,000.

ASKEW, ANNE, a lady of good birth, a victim of persecution in the time of Henry VIII. for denying transubstantiation, tortured on the rack and burnt at the stake, 1546.

ASKEW, ANTONY, a physician and classical scholar, a collector of rare and curious books (1722-1774).

ASMODE'US, a mischievous demon or goblin of the Jewish demonology, who gloats on the vices and follies of mankind, and figures in Le Sage's "Le Diable Boiteux," or the "Devil on Two Sticks," as lifting off the roofs of the houses of Madrid and exposing their inmost interiors and the secret doings of the inhabitants.

ASMONAE'ANS, a name given to the Maccabees, from Asmon, the place of their origin.

ASO'KA, a king of Behar, in India; after his accession in 264 B.C. became an ardent disciple of Buddha; organised Buddhism, as Constantine did Christianity, into a State religion; convened the third great council of the Church of that creed at Patna; made a proclamation of this faith as far as his influence extended, evidence of which is still extant in pillars and rocks inscribed with his edicts in wide districts of Northern India; d. 223 B.C.

ASP, a poisonous Egyptian viper of uncertain species.

ASPA'SIA, a woman remarkable for her wit, beauty, and culture, a native of Miletus; being attracted to Athens, came and settled in it; became the wife of Pericles, and her home the rendezvous of all the intellectual and wise people of the city, Socrates included; her character was often both justly and unjustly assailed.

AS'PERN, a village in Austria, on the Danube, 4 m. NE. of Vienna, where a charge of the Austrians under the Archduke Charles was defeated by Napoleon, May 21, 1809, and Marshal Lannes killed.

ASPHALT, a mineral pitch of a black or brownish-black colour, consisting chiefly of carbon; also a limestone impregnated with bitumen, and more or less in every quarter of the globe.

ASPHALTIC LAKE, the DEAD SEA (q. v.), so called from the asphalt on its surface and banks.

AS'PHODEL, a lily plant appraised by the Greeks for its almost perennial flowering, and with which they, in their imagination, covered the Elysian fields, called hence the Asphodel Meadow.

ASPHYX'IA, suspended respiration in the physical life; a term frequently employed by Carlyle to denote a much more recondite, but a no less real, corresponding phenomenon in the spiritual life.

ASPINWALL, a town founded by an American of the name in 1800, at the Atlantic extremity of the Panama railway; named Colon, since the Empress Eugenie presented it with a statue of Columbus.

ASPROMON'TE, a mountain close by Reggio, overlooking the Strait of Messina, near which Garibaldi was defeated and captured in 1862.

ASQUINI, COUNT, a rural economist who did much to promote silk culture in Italy (1726-1818).

ASSAB BAY, a coaling-station belonging to Italy, on the W. coast of the Red Sea.

ASSAM' (5,500), a province E. of Bengal, ceded to Britain after the Burmese war in 1826; being an alluvial plain, with ranges of hills along the Brahmapootra, 450 m. long and 50 broad; the low lands extremely fertile and productive, and the hills covered with tea plantations, yielding at one time, if not still, three-fourths of the tea raised in India.

ASSAROTTI, an Italian philanthropist, born at Genoa; the first to open a school for deaf-mutes in Italy, and devoted zealously his fortune and time to the task (1753-1821).

AS'SAS, NICOLAS, captain of the French regiment of Auvergne, whose celebrity depends on a single act of defiance: having entered a wood to reconnoitre it the night before the battle of Kloster Kampen, was suddenly surrounded by the enemy's (the English) soldiers, and defied with bayonets at his breast to utter a cry of alarm; "Ho, Auvergne!" he exclaimed, and fell dead on the instant, pierced with bayonets, to the saving of his countrymen.

ASSASSINS, a fanatical Moslem sect organised in the 11th century, at the time of the Crusades, under a chief called the Old Man of the Mountain, whose stronghold was a rock fortress at Alamut, in Persia, devoted to the assassination of all enemies of the Moslem faith, and so called because they braced their nerves for their deeds of blood by draughts of an intoxicating liquor distilled from hashish (the hemp-plant). A Tartar force burst upon the horde in their stronghold in 1256, and put them wholesale to the sword.

ASSAYE', a small town 46 m. NE. of Aurungabad, where Sir Arthur Wellesley gained a victory over the Mahrattas in 1803.

ASSEGAI, a spear or javelin of wood tipped with iron, used by certain S. African tribes with deadly effect in war.

ASSEMBLY, GENERAL, the chief court of the Presbyterian Church, a representative body, half clergymen and half laymen, which sits in Edinburgh for ten days in May, disposes of the general business of the Church, and determines appeals.

ASSEMBLY, NATIONAL, the Commons section of the States-General of France which met on May 5, 1789, constituted itself into a legislative assembly, and gave a new constitution to the country.

ASSEMBLY, WESTMINSTER, a body composed of 140 members, of which 117 were clergymen, convened at Westminster to determine questions of doctrine, worship, and discipline in the National Church, and which held its sittings, over 1100 of them, from July 1, 1643, to Feb. 22, 1649, with the result that the members of it were unanimous in regard to doctrine, but were divided in the matter of government.

ASSEMANI, GIUSEPPE, a learned Syrian Maronite, librarian of the Vatican, wrote an account of Syrian writers (1687-1768); STEPHANO, nephew, held the same office, wrote "Acta Sanctorum Martyrum" (1707-1782).

ASSER, JOHN, monk of St. David's, in Wales, tutor, friend, and biographer of Alfred the Great; is said to have suggested the founding of Oxford University; d. 909.

ASSIEN'TO, a treaty with Spain to supply negroes for her colonies, concluded in succession with the Flemings, the Genoese, a French company, the English, and finally the South Sea Company, who relinquished their rights in 1750 on compensation by Spain.

AS'SIGNATS, bills or notes, to the number of 45 thousand million, issued as currency by the revolutionary government of France in 1790, and based on the security of Church and other lands appropriated by it, and which in course of time sunk in value, to the ruin of millions.

ASSINIBOI'A, a province in Canada between Saskatchewan and the United States.

ASSINIBOINES, certain aborigines of Canada; the few of whom that remain do farming on the banks of the Saskatchewan.

ASSI'SI (3), a town in Central Italy, 12 m. SE. of Perugia, the birthplace and burial-place of St. Francis, and the birthplace of Metastasio; it was a celebrated place of resort of pilgrims, who sometimes came in great numbers.

ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS, a connection in the mind between two ideas, such that the consciousness of one tends to recall the other, a fact employed to explain certain recondite psychological phenomena.

ASSOUAN', the ancient Syene, the southernmost city of Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile, near the last cataract.

ASSOUCY, D', a French burlesque poet ridiculed by Boileau (1604-1679).

ASSUMPTION, FEAST OF THE, festival in honour of the translation of the Virgin Mary to heaven, celebrated on the 15th of August, the alleged day of the event.

ASSUR, mythical name of the founder of Assyria.

ASSYR'IA, an ancient kingdom, the origin and early history of which is uncertain, between the Niphates Mountains of Armenia on the N. and Babylonia on the S., 280 m. long and 150 broad, with a fertile soil and a population at a high stage of civilisation; became a province of Media, which lay to the E., in 606 B.C., and afterwards a satrapy of the Persian empire, and has been under the Turks since 1638, in whose hands it is now a desert.

ASSYRIOLOGY, the study of the monuments of Assyria, chiefly in a Biblical interest.

ASTAR'TE, or ASHTORETH, or IST'AR, the female divinity of the Phoenicians, as Baal was the male, these two being representative respectively of the conceptive and generative powers of nature, and symbolised, the latter, like Apollo, by the sun, and the former, like Artemis or Diana, by the moon; sometimes identified with Urania and sometimes with Venus; the rites connected with her worship were of a lascivious nature.

ASTER, of Amphipolis, an archer who offered his services to Philip of Macedon, boasting of his skill in bringing down birds on the wing, and to whom Philip had replied he would accept them when he made war on the birds. Aster, to be revenged, sped an arrow from the wall of a town Philip was besieging, inscribed, "To the right eye of Philip," which took effect; whereupon Philip sped back another with the words, "When Philip takes the town, Aster will hang for it," and he was true to his word.

AS'TEROIDS, or Planetoids, small planets in orbits between those of Mars and Jupiter, surmised in 1596, all discovered in the present century, the first on Jan. 1, 1801, and named Ceres; gradually found to number more than 200.

AS'TI (33), an ancient city in Piedmont, on the Tanaro, 26 m. SE. from Turin, with a Gothic cathedral; is noted for its wine; birthplace of Alfieri.

ASTLEY, PHILIP, a famous equestrian and circus manager, along with Franconi established the Cirque Olympique in Paris (1742-1814).

ASTOLFO, a knight-errant in mediaeval legend who generous-heartedly is always to do greater feats than he can perform; in "Orlando Furioso" he brings back Orlando's lost wits in a phial from the moon, and possesses a horn that with a blast can discomfit armies.

ASTON, LUISE, German authoress, championed the rights of women, and went about in male attire; b. 1820.

ASTON MANOR (54), a suburb of Birmingham.

ASTOR, JOHN JACOB, a millionaire, son of a German peasant, who made a fortune of four millions in America by trading in furs (1763-1848). His son doubled his fortune; known as the "landlord of New York" (1792-1875).

ASTOR, WILLIAM WALDORF, son of the preceding, devoted to politics; came to London, 1891; became proprietor of the Pall Mall Gazette and Budget in 1893; b. 1848.

ASTO'RIA, in Oregon, a fur-trading station, with numerous salmon-tinning establishments.

ASTRAE'A, the daughter of Zeus and Themis, the goddess of justice; dwelt among men during the Golden Age, but left the earth on its decline, and her sister Pudicitia along with her, the withdrawal explained to mean the vanishing of the ideal from the life of man on the earth; now placed among the stars under the name of Virgo.

ASTRAEA REDUX, the name given to an era which piques itself on the return of the reign of justice to the earth.

AS'TRAKHAN (43), a Russian trading town on the Volga, 40 m. from its mouth in the Caspian Sea, of which it is the chief port.

ASTRAL BODY, an ethereal body believed by the theosophists to invest the animal, to correspond to it, and to be capable of BILOCATION (q. v.)

ASTRAL SPIRITS, spirits believed to animate or to people the heavenly bodies, to whom worship was paid, and to hover unembodied through space exercising demonic influence on embodied spirits.

ASTROLOGY, a science founded on a presumed connection between the heavenly bodies and human destiny as more or less affected by them, a science at one time believed in by men of such intelligence as Tacitus and Kepler, and few great families at one time but had an astrologer attached to them to read the horoscope of any new member of the house.

ASTRUC, JEAN, a French physician and professor of medicine in Paris, now noted as having discovered that the book of Genesis consists of Elohistic and Jehovistic portions, and who by this discovery founded the modern school called of the Higher Criticism (1681-1766).

ASTU'RIAS (579), an ancient province in the N. of Spain, gives title to the heir to the crown, rich in minerals, and with good fisheries; now named Oviedo, from the principal town.

ASTY'AGES, last king of the Medes; dethroned by Cyrus, 549 B.C.

ASTY'ANAX, the son of Hector and Andromache; was cast down by the Greeks from the ramparts after the fall of Troy, lest he should live and restore the city.

ASUN'CION, or ASSUMPTION (18), the capital of Paraguay, on the left bank of the Paraguay, so called from having been founded by the Spaniards on the Feast of the Assumption in 1535.

ASURAS, THE, in the Hindu mythology the demons of the darkness of night, in overcoming whom the gods asserted their sovereignty in the universe.

ASYMPTOTE, a line always approaching some curve but never meeting it.

ATACA'MA, an all but rainless desert in the N. of Chile, abounding in silver and copper mines, as well as gold in considerable quantities.

ATAHUALPA, the last of the Incas of Peru, who fell into Pizarro's hands through perfidy, and was strangled by his orders in 1533, that is, little short of a year after the Spaniards landed in Peru.

ATALAN'TA, a beautiful Grecian princess celebrated for her agility, the prize of any suitor who could outstrip her on the racecourse, failure being death; at last one suitor, Hippomenes his name, accepted the risk and started along with her, but as he neared the goal, kept dropping first one golden apple, then another, provided him by Venus, stooping to lift which lost her the race, whereupon Hippomenes claimed the prize.

AT'AVISM, name given to the reappearance in progeny of the features, and even diseases, of ancestors dead generations before.

ATBA'RA, or Black River, from the Highlands of Abyssinia, the lowest tributary of the Nile, which it joins near Berber.

ATE', in the Greek mythology the goddess of strife and mischief, also of vengeance; was banished by her father Zeus, for the annoyance she gave him, from heaven to earth, where she has not been idle since.

ATHABA'SCA, a province, a river, and a lake in British N. America.

ATHALIA, the queen of Judah, daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, celebrated for her crimes and impiety, for which she was in the end massacred by her subjects, 9th century B.C.

ATHANASIAN CREED, a statement, in the form of a confession, of the orthodox creed of the Church as against the Arians, and damnatory of every article of the heresy severally; ascribed to Athanasius at one time, but now believed to be of later date, though embracing his theology in affirmation of the absolute co-equal divinity of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost in the Trinity.

ATHANASIUS, Christian theologian, a native of Alexandria, and a deacon of the Church; took a prominent part against Arius in the Council at Nice, and was his most uncompromising antagonist; was chosen bishop of Alexandria; driven forth again and again from his bishopric under persecution of the Arians; retired into the Thebaid for a time; spent the last 10 years of his life as bishop at Alexandria, where he died; his works consist of treatises and orations bearing on the Arian controversy, and in vindication of the doctrine of the Trinity viewed in the most absolute sense (296-373).

ATHEISM, disbelief in the existence of God, which may be either theoretical, in the intellect, or practical, in the life, the latter the more common and the more fatal form of it.

ATHEISM, MODERN, ascribed by Ruskin to "the unfortunate persistence of the clergy in teaching children what they cannot understand, and in employing young consecrate persons to assert in pulpits what they do not know."

ATHELNEY, ISLE OF, an island in a marsh near the confluence of the Tone and Parret, Somerset; Alfred's place of refuge from the Danes.

ATHE'NA, the Greek virgin goddess of wisdom, particularly in the arts, of war as of peace, happily called by Ruskin the "'Queen of the Air,' in the heavens, in the earth, and in the heart"; is said to have been the conception of Metis, to have issued full-armed from the brain of Zeus, and in this way the child of both wisdom and power; wears a helmet, and bears on her left arm the aegis with the Medusa's head; the olive among trees, and the owl among animals, were sacred to her.

ATHENAEUM, a school of learning established in Rome about 133 by Hadrian.

ATHENAEUS, a Greek writer of the 3rd century, wrote a curious miscellany of a book entitled "Deipnosophistae, or the Suppers of the Learned," extant only in an imperfect state.

ATHENAG'ORAS, an able Christian apologist of the 2nd century, was Athenian and a pagan by birth, but being converted to Christianity, wrote an apology in its defence, and a treatise on the resurrection of the dead.

ATH'ENS, the capital of Attica, and the chief city of ancient Greece, at once the brain and the heart of it; the resort in ancient times of all the able and wise men, particularly in the domain of literature and art, from all parts of the country and lands beyond; while the monuments of temple and statue that still adorn it give evidence of a culture among the citizens such as the inhabitants of no other city of the world have had the genius to surpass, though the name Athens has been adopted by or applied to several cities, Edinburgh in particular, that have been considered to rival it in this respect, and is the name of over twenty places in the United States. The two chief monuments of the architecture of ancient Athens, both erected on the Acropolis, are the PARTHENON (q. v.), dedicated to Athena, the finest building on the finest site in the world, and the Erechtheum, a temple dedicated to Poseidon close by; is the capital (100) of modern Greece, the seat of the government, and the residence of the king.

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