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The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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FROEBEL, FRIEDRICH, a devoted German educationist on the principles of Pestalozzi, which combined physical, moral, and intellectual training, commencing with the years of childhood; was the founder of the famous Kindergarten system (1782-1852).

FROGMORE, a royal palace and mausoleum in Windsor Park, the burial-place of Prince Albert.

FROISSART, JEAN, a French chronicler and poet, born at Valenciennes; visited England in the reign of Edward III., at whose Court, and particularly with the Queen, he became a great favourite for his tales of chivalry, and whence he was sent to Scotland to collect more materials for his chronicles, where he became the guest of the king and the Earl of Douglas; after this he wandered from place to place, ranging as far as Venice and Rome, to add to his store; he died in Flanders, and his chronicles, which extend from 1322 to 1400, are written without order, but with grace and naivete (1337-1410).

FROMENTIN, EUGENE, an eminent French painter and author, born at Rochelle; was the author of two travel-sketches, and a brilliant novel "Dominique" (1820-1876).

FRONDE, a name given to a revolt in France opposed to the Court of Anne of Austria and Mazarin during the minority of Louis XIV. The war which arose, and which was due to the despotism of Mazarin, passed through two phases: it was first a war on the part of the people and the parlement, called the Old Fronde, which lasted from 1648 till 1649, and then a war on the part of the nobles, called the New Fronde, which lasted till 1652, when the revolt was crushed by Turenne to the triumph of the royal power. The name is derived from the mimic fights with slings in which the boys of Paris indulged themselves, and which even went so far as to beat back at times the civic guard sent to suppress them.

FROUDE, HURRELL, elder brother of the succeeding, a leader in the Tractarian movement; author of Tracts IX. and LXIII. (1803-1836).

FROUDE, JAMES ANTHONY, an English historian and man of letters, born at Totnes, Devon; trained originally for the Church, he gave himself to literature, his chief work being the "History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada," in 12 vols., of which the first appeared in 1854 and the last in 1870, but it is with Carlyle and his "Life of Carlyle" that his name has of late been most intimately associated, and in connection with which he will ere long honourably figure in the history of the literature of England, though he has other claims to regard as the author of the "Nemesis of Faith," "Short Studies on Great Subjects," a "Life of Caesar," a "Life of Bunyan," "The English in Ireland in the Eighteenth Century," and "English Seamen in the Sixteenth Century"; he ranks as one of the masters of English prose, and as a man of penetration, insight, and enlarged views, if somewhat careless about minor details (1818-1894).

FROUDE, WILLIAM, another brother, a civil engineer, assistant to Brunel; made important discoveries in hydro-dynamics of great practical avail (1810-1879).

FRY, MRS. ELIZABETH, philanthropist, born at Norwich, third daughter of John Gurney, the Quaker banker; married Joseph Fry of Plashet, Essex; devoted her life to prison reform and the reform of criminals, as well as other benevolent enterprises; she has been called "the female Howard" (1780-1845).

FUAD-MAHMED, PASHA, a Turkish statesman, diplomatist, and man of letters; studied medicine, but soon turned himself to politics; was much esteemed and honoured at foreign courts, at which he represented Turkey, for his skill, sagacity, and finesse; became Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1852; was hostile to the pretensions of Russia, and gave umbrage to the Czar; published a Turkish grammar, which is received with favour (1814-1869).

FUDGE FAMILY, THE, a satiric piece by Thomas Moore, published in 1818.

FUENTES, COUNT, a Spanish general and statesman, eminent both in war and diplomacy; commanded the Spanish infantry at the siege of Rocroi when he was eighty-two, borne on a litter in the midst of the fight, and perished by the sword, the Great Conde having attacked the besiegers (1560-1643).

FUERO-FUEGO, a Wisigoth Spanish law of the 7th century, a curious monument of the legislation of the Middle Ages.

FUGGER, the name of a family of Augsburg who rose from the loom by way of commerce to great wealth and eminence in Germany, particularly under the Emperors Maximilian and Charles V., the real founder of the wealth being Jacob, who died 1409.

FULHAM, a suburb of London, on the Middlesex bank of the Thames, opposite Putney, with the palace and burying-place of the bishops of London.

FULLAH, a people of the Upper Soudan whose territory extends between Senegal and Darfur, a race of superior physique and intelligence, and of a certain polish of manners, and with Caucasian type of feature.

FULLER, ANDREW, an eminent Baptist minister, born in Cambridgeshire, was settled at Kettering, and a zealous controversialist in defence of the gospel against hyper-Calvinism on the one hand and Socinianism on the other, but he is chiefly distinguished in connection with the foundation of the Baptist Missionary Society, to which he for most part devoted the energies of his life (1754-1815).

FULLER, MARGARET, an American authoress, born at Cambridgepont, Mass., a woman of speculative ability and high aims, a friend of Emerson, and much esteemed by Carlyle, though he thought her enthusiasm extravagant and beyond the range of accomplishment; she was one of the leaders of the transcendental movement in America; visited Europe, and Italy in particular; engaged there in the struggle for political independence; married the young Marquis of Ossoli; sailed for New York, and was drowned with her husband and child on the sand-bars of Long Island (1810-1850).

FULLER, THOMAS, historian, divine, and wit, born in Northamptonshire, son of the rector of Sarum; entering into holy orders, he held in succession several benefices in the Church of England, and was a prebend in Salisbury Cathedral; taking sides with the king, he lost favour under the Commonwealth; wrote a number of works, in which one finds combined gaiety and piety, good sense and whimsical fancy; composed among other works the "History of the Holy War," a "History of the Crusades," "The Holy and the Profane States," the "Church History of Great Britain," and the "Worthies of England," the last his principal work, and published posthumously; he was a man of great shrewdness, broad sympathies, and a kindly nature; was an author much admired by Charles Lamb (1608-1661).

FULTON, ROBERT, an American engineer, born in Pennsylvania; began life as a miniature portrait and landscape painter, in which he made some progress, but soon turned to engineering; he was one of the first to apply steam to the propulsion of vessels, and devoted much attention to the invention of submarine boats and torpedoes; he built a steamboat to navigate the Hudson River, with a very slow rate of progress however, making only five miles an hour (1615-1765).

FUM, a grotesque animal figure, six cubits high, one of four presumed to preside over the destinies of China.

FUNCHAL (19), the capital of Madeira, at the head of a bay on the S. coast, and the base of a mountain 4000 ft. high, extends a mile along the shore, and slopes up the sides of the mountain; famous as a health resort, more at one time than now.

FUNDY BAY, an arm of the sea between New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; it is of difficult navigation owing to the strong and rapid rush of the tides.

FUeNEN (221), the second in size of the Danish islands, separated from Zealand on the E. by the Great Belt and from Jutland on the W. by the Little Belt; is flat except on S. and W., fertile, well cultivated, and yields crops of cereals.

FURIES. See ERINNYES.

FURNIVALL, FREDERICK JAMES, English barrister, born at Egham, in Surrey; devoted to the study of Early and Middle English Literature; founder and director of numerous societies for promoting the study of special works, such as the Early English Text, Chaucer, Ballad, and New Shakespeare Societies, and editor of publications in connection with them; was in his early days a great authority on boating and boat-building; b. 1825.

FUeRST, JULIUS, a distinguished German Orientalist, born in Posen, of Jewish descent; a specialist in Hebrew and Aramaic; author of a Hebrew and Chaldee Manual (1805-1873).

FUeRST, WALTER, of Uri, a Swiss patriot, who, along with William Tell, contributed to establish the liberty and independence of Switzerland; d. 1317.

FUSELI, HENRY, properly FUSOLI, a famous portrait-painter, born at Zurich; coming to England at the age of 22, he became acquainted with Sir Joshua Reynolds, who advised him to go to Rome; after eight years spent in study of the Italian masters, and Michael Angelo in particular, he returned to England and became an R.A.; he painted a series of pictures, afterwards exhibited as the "Milton Gallery" (1741-1825).

FUST JOHANN, a rich burgher of Mainz, associated with Gutenberg and Schoeffer, to whom along with them the invention of printing has been ascribed; d. 1466.

FYNE, LOCH, an Argyllshire arm of the sea, extending N. from Bute to Inveraray, and from 1 m. to 5 m. broad; famed for its herrings.

FYZABAD (78), capital of Oudh, in India, at one time, 78 m. E. of Lucknow; much decayed.



G

GABELENTZ, HANS CONON VON DER, a distinguished German philologist, born at Altenburg: was master, it is said, of 80 languages, contributed treatises on several of them, his most important work being on the Melanesian (1807-1874).

GABELLE, an indirect tax, specially one on salt, the term applied to a State monopoly in France in that article, and the exaction in connection with which was a source of much discontent; the people were obliged to purchase it at government warehouses and at extravagant, often very unequal, rates; the impost dates from 1286; was abolished in 1789.

GABELSBERGER, FRANZ XAVIER, inventor of the shorthand in use in German countries as well as elsewhere (1789-1849).

GABERLUNZIE, a licensed beggar, or any of the mendicant class, so called from the wallet he carried.

GABINUS, a Roman tribune in 66 B.C., afterwards consul; party to the banishment of Cicero, 57 B.C.

GABOON and FRENCH CONGO (5,000), a French Colony in W. Africa fronting the Atlantic, between the Cameroon country and the Congo State, and stretching inland as far as the head-waters of the Congo River; in the NW. is the great Gaboon estuary, 40 m. long and 10 broad at its mouth, with Libreville on its N. bank; along the coast the climate is hot and unhealthy, but it improves inland; the natives belong to the Bantu stock; the French settled in it first in 1842, but only since the explorations of De Brazza in 1876-86 have they begun to extend and colonise it.

GABRIEL, an angel, one of the seven archangels, "the power of God," who is represented in the traditions of both the Jews and the Moslems as discharging the highest functions, and in Christian tradition as announcing to the Virgin Mary her election of God to be the mother of the Messiah; he ranks fully higher among Moslems than Jews.

GABRIEL, a French architect, born in Paris (1710-1782).

GABRIELLES D'ESTREES, the mistress of Henry IV. of France, who for State reasons was not allowed to marry her (1571-1599).

GAD, one of the Jewish tribes inhabiting the E. of the Jordan.

GADAMES or GHADAMES (7 to 10), an oasis and town in Africa, situated in the SW. corner of Tripoli, on the N. border of the Sahara; the fertility of the oasis is due to hot springs, from which the place takes its name; high walls protect the soil and the fruit of it, which is abundant, from sand-storms; it is an entrepot for trade with the interior; the inhabitants are Berber Mohammedans.

GADDI, GADDO, a Florentine painter and worker in mosaic, friend of Cimabue and Giotto (1239-1312).

GADDI, TADDEO, son of the preceding, and pupil of Giotto both in architecture and fresco-painting (1300-1366).

GADDI, AGNOLO, son of the preceding, and a painter of frescoes (1350-1396).

GADES, the ancient name of CADIZ (q. v.).

GADSHILL, an eminence in Kent, 3 m. NW. of Rochester, associated with the name of Falstaff, also of Dickens, who resided here from 1856 to 1870, and where he died.

GAETA (17), a fortified seaport of S. Italy, finely situated on a steep promontory 50 m. NW. of Naples; it was a favourite watering-place of the ancient Roman nobility, and the beauty of its bay is celebrated by Virgil and Horace; it is rich in classic remains, and in its day has witnessed many sieges; the inhabitants are chiefly employed with fishing and a light coast trade.

GAGE, THOMAS, English general, son of Viscount Gage; he served in the Seven Years' War, and took part in 1755 in Braddock's disastrous expedition in America; in 1760 he became military governor of Montreal, and three years later commander-in-chief of the British forces in America; as governor of Massachusetts he precipitated the revolution by his ill-timed severity, and after the battle of Bunker's Hill was recalled to England (1721-1787).

GAIA or GE, in the Greek mythology the primeval goddess of the earth, the alma mater of living things, both in heaven and on earth, called subsequently Demeter, i. e. Gemeter, Earth-mother.

GAILLARD, French historian, born at Amiens; devoted his life to history (1726-1806).

GAINSBOROUGH, THOMAS, one of England's greatest artists in portrait and landscape painting, born at Sudbury, Suffolk; he early displayed a talent for drawing, and at 14 was sent to London to study art; when 19 he started as a portrait-painter at Ipswich, having by this time married Margaret Burr, a young lady with L200 a year; patronised by Sir Philip Thicknesse, he removed in 1760 to Bath, where he rose into high favour, and in 1774 he sought a wider field in London; he shared the honours of painting portraits with Reynolds and of landscape with Wilson; his portraits have more of grace, if less of genius, than Reynolds, while his landscapes inaugurated a freer and more genial manner of dealing with nature, while as a colourist Ruskin declares him the greatest since Rubens; among his most famous pictures are portraits of Mrs. Siddons, the Duchess of Devonshire, and the Hon. Mrs. Graham, "Shepherd Boy in the Shower," "The Seashore," &c. (1727-1788).

GAIUS, a Roman jurist of the 2nd century, whose "Institutes" served for the basis of Justinian's.

GALAHAD, SIR, son of Lancelot, one of the Knights of the Round Table; distinguished for the immaculate purity of his character and life; was successful in his search for the Holy Graal.

GALAOR, a hero of Spanish romance, brother of Amadis de Gaul, the model of a courtly paladin, and always ready with his sword to avenge the wrongs of the widow and the orphan.

GALAPAGOS, a sparsely populated group of islands (13 in number), barren on the N., but well wooded on the S., situated on the equator, 600 m. W. of Ecuador, and which, although belonging to Ecuador, all bear English names, bestowed upon them, it would appear, by the buccaneers of the 17th century; Albemarle Island makes up more than half of their area; they are volcanic in formation, and some of their 2000 craters are not yet inactive; their fauna is of peculiar scientific interest as exhibiting many species unknown elsewhere; besides the islands proper there is a vast number of islets and rocks.

GALATA, a faubourg of Constantinople where the European merchants reside.

GALATEA, a nymph whom Polyphemus made love to, but who preferred Acis to him, whom therefore he made away with by crushing him under a rock, in consequence of which the nymph threw herself into the sea.

GALATIA, a high-lying Roman province in Asia Minor that had been invaded and taken possession of by a horde of Gauls in the 3rd century B.C., whence the name.

GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO THE, an epistle of St. Paul to the churches in Galatia, which was an especial favourite with Luther, as, with its doctrine of spiritual freedom in Christ, it might well be, for it corroborated the great revelation first made to him by a neighbour monk; "man is not saved by singing masses, but by the grace of God"; it is a didactic epistle, in assertion, on the one hand, of freedom from the law, and, on the other, of the power of the spirit.

GALATZ or GALACZ (59), the great river-port of Roumania, on the Danube, 8 m. above the Sulina mouth of the river and 166 m. NE. of Bucharest; the new town is well laid out, and contains some fine buildings; its harbour is one of the finest on the Danube; a great export trade is carried on in cereals, while textiles and metals are the chief imports.

GALAXY, the Milky Way, a band of light seen after sunset across the heavens, consisting of an innumerable multitude of stars, or suns rather, stretching away into the depths of space.

GALBA, a Roman emperor from June 68 to January 69, elected at the age of 70 by the Gallic legions to succeed Nero, but for his severity and avarice was slain by the Praetorian guard, who proclaimed Otho emperor in his stead.

GALE, THEOPHILUS, a Nonconformist divine; author of the "Court of the Gentiles," in which he attempts to prove that the theology and philosophy of the Gentiles was borrowed from the Scriptures (1628-1678).

GALE, THOMAS, dean of York; edited classics, wrote on early English history (1636-1702).

GALEN, or CLAUDIUS GALENUS, a famous Greek physician, born at Pergamus, in Illyria, where, after studying in various cities, he settled in 158; subsequently he went to Rome, and eventually became physician to the emperors M. Aurelius, L. Verus, and Severus; of his voluminous writings 83 treatises are still extant, and these treat on a varied array of subjects, philosophical as well as professional; for centuries after his death his works were accepted as authoritative in the matter of medicine (131-201).

GALE'RIUS, VALERIUS MAXIMUS, Roman emperor, born in Dacia, of lowly parentage; rose from a common soldier to be the son-in-law of the Emperor Diocletian, who in 292 raised him to the dignity of a Caesar; in 305, on the death of Diocletian, he became head of the Eastern Empire, which he continued to be till his death in 311; his name is associated with a cruel persecution of the Christians under Diocletian.

GALGACUS, a Caledonian chief defeated by Agricola at the battle of the Grampians in 85, after a desperate resistance.

GALIA'NI, FERDINANDO, an Italian political economist, man of letters, and a wit; held with honour several important offices under the Neapolitan Government; was attache to the embassy at Paris, and the associate of Grimm and Diderot (1728-1787).

GALICIA, 1, an old province (1,919) of Spain, formerly a kingdom in the NW. corner of it, fronting the Bay of Biscay and the Atlantic; now divided into the four minor provinces, Coruna, Lugo, Orense, Pontevedra; the county is hilly, well watered, fertile, and favoured with a fine climate, but cultivated only very partially; some mining is carried on. 2, A crownland (6,607) in the NE. of Austria, between Russia and the Carpathians; the inhabitants are mainly Slavs, but there is a goodly number of Jews, Germans, Poles, &c.; the land is fertile, consists chiefly of extensive plains, well watered by the Dneister and other large rivers, and yields abundance of cereals, while one-fourth is covered with forest; timber is largely exported, and salt; many of the useful metals are found, and productive petroleum wells; it has an independent Diet, but an Austrian governor; Austria annexed it in 1772.

GALILAEANS, a fanatical sect, followers of one Judas of Galilee, who fiercely resented the taxation of the Romans, and whose violence contributed to induce the latter to vow the extermination of the whole race.

GALILEE, the northern division of Palestine, divided into Upper, hilly, Lower, level, about 60 m. long and 30 broad.

GALILEE, SEA OF, an expansion of the Jordan, 121/2 m. long, and at the most 8 m. broad, enclosed by steep mountains, except on NW.

GALILEO, an illustrious Italian mathematician, physicist, and astronomer, born at Pisa, demonstrated the isochronism of the pendulum, invented the thermometer and the hydrostatic balance, propounded the law of falling bodies, constructed the first astronomical telescope, and by means of it satisfied himself of, and proved, the truth of the Copernican doctrine, that the sun and not the earth is the centre of the planetary system, and that the earth revolves round it like the other planets which reflect its light; his insistence on this truth provoked the hostility of the Church, and an ecclesiastical decree which pronounced the Copernican theory heresy; for the profession of it he was brought to the bar of the Inquisition, where he was compelled to forswear it by oath, concluding his recantation, it is said, with the exclamation, "still, it moves"; before his end he became blind, and died in Florence at 78, the year Newton was born (1564-1642).

GALITZIN, the name of a Russian family distinguished for their ability and success in both war and peace from the 16th century onwards.

GALL, FRANZ JOSEPH, the founder of phrenology, born at Tiefenbronn, on the borders of Baden and Wuertemberg; in 1785 he established himself as a physician in Vienna, where for many years he carried on a series of elaborate investigations on the nature of the brain and its relation to the outer cranium, visiting with that view lunatic asylums, &c.; in 1796 he gave publicity to his views in a series of lectures in Vienna, which were, however, condemned as subversive of morality and religion; being joined by Spurzheim, who adopted his theories, he undertook a lecturing tour through a large part of Europe, and eventually settled at Paris, where he published his phrenological work "Fonctions du Cerveau"; it is a curious fact that on his death his skull was found to be twice the usual thickness, and that there was a tumour in the cerebellum (1758-1828).

GALL, ST., an Irish monk who, about 585, accompanied St. Columban to France in his missionary labours, banished from which he went to Switzerland, and founded a monastery on the Lake of Constance, which bore his name; d. about 646.

GALLAND, ANTOINE, French Orientalist, born in Picardy, professor of Arabic in the College of France; was the first to translate the "Arabian Nights" into any European tongue (1646-1715).

GALLAS, an Ethiopian race occupying the S. and E. of Abyssinia, energetic, intelligent, and warlike; follow mostly pastoral occupations; number over four millions, and are mostly heathens.

GALLE or POINT DE GALLE (33), fortified seaport town, prettily situated on a rocky promontory in the SW. of Ceylon; there is a good harbour, but the shipping, which at one time was extensive, has declined since the rise of Colombo.

GALLICAN CHURCH, the Catholic Church in France which, while sincerely devoted to the Catholic faith and the Holy See, resolutely refused to concede certain rights and privileges which belonged to it from the earliest times; it steadfastly contended that infallibility was vested not in the Pope alone, but in the entire episcopal body under him as its head; maintained the supreme authority of general councils and that of the holy canons in the government of the Church, and insisted that there was a distinction between the temporal and the spiritual power; contentions summed up in a declaration of the French clergy in 1682, the body of whom opposed to which are known by the name of "Ultramontanists."

GALLICANISM, the name given to the contention of the GALLICAN CHURCH (q. v.).

GALLIENUS, PUBLIUS LICINIUS, Roman Emperor from 260 to 268, and for seven years (253-260) associated in the government with his father, the Emperor Valerian; under his lax rule the empire was subjected to hostile inroads on all sides, while in the provinces a succession of usurpers, known as the Thirty Tyrants, sprang up, disowning allegiance, and aspiring to the title of Caesar; in his later years he roused himself to vigorous resistance, but in 268 was murdered by his own soldiers whilst pressing the rebel Aureolus at the siege of Milan.

GALLIGANTUA, the wizard giant slain by Jack the Giant-killer.

GALLIO, the Roman proconsul of Achaia in the days of St. Paul, before whom the Jews of Corinth brought an appeal against the latter, but which he treated with careless indifference as no affair of his, in consequence of which his name has become the synonym of an easy-going ruler or prince.

GALLIPOLI, 1, a fortified seaport town (8) in Southern Italy, 59 m. S. of Brindisi; stands on a rocky islet in the Gulf of Taranto, close to the mainland, with which it is connected by a bridge of 12 arches; a fine cathedral and huge tanks hewn out of the solid rock for the storage of olive-oil are objects of interest. 2, A seaport (15) of Turkey in Europe, stands on a peninsula of the same name at the western end of the Sea of Marmora, at the mouth of the Dardanelles, 90 m. S. of Adrianople; it was the first city captured by the Turks in Europe (1356), and is now the naval arsenal of Turkey and head-quarters of the Turkish navy.

GALLOWAY, a district in the SW. of Scotland, co-extensive with Wigtown and Kirkcudbright, though formerly of considerably greater extent; the lack of mineral wealth has retarded its development, and the industry of the population is limited chiefly to agriculture, the rearing of sheep and cattle, and fishing, and it is still noted for a small but hardy breed of horses called Galloways; the province derives its name from Gall-Gael, or foreign Gaels, as the early inhabitants were called, who up to the time of the Reformation maintained the characteristics, language, &c., of a distinct people; in 1455 Galloway ceased to exist as a separate lordship; in the extreme S. of Wigtown is the bold and rocky promontory, the MULL OF GALLOWAY, the extremity of the peninsula called the Rhinns of Galloway; the Mull, which is the most southerly point in Scotland, rises to a height of 210 ft., and is crowned by a powerful lighthouse.

GALSWINTHE, the sister of Brunhilda and the second wife of Chilperic I.; was strangled to death in 568.

GALT, JOHN, Scotch novelist, born at Irvine; educated at Greenock, where he held a post in the Custom-house for a time; essayed literature, wrote "The Ayrshire Legatees," "The Annals of the Parish," "Sir Andrew Wylie," "The Entail," and "The Provost"; died of paralysis at Greenock; Carlyle, who met him in London in 1832, says, "He had the air of a broad, gaucie, Greenock burgher; mouth indicating sly humour and self-satisfaction; eyes, old and without lashes, gave me a wae interest for him; says little, but that little peaceable, clear, and gutmuethig" (1779-1839).

GALVANISED IRON, plate-iron coated with zinc, which renders it less liable to be affected by moisture and subject to corrosion.

GALVANISM, the mere contact with two dissimilar metals, the science of what is now called Voltaic or current electricity, produced, as in the above instance, from the contact of dissimilar metals, especially that of acids on metals.

GALVANI, LUIGI, an Italian physician, born at Bologna; celebrated for his discoveries in animal magnetism called after him Galvanism, due to an observation he made of the convulsive motion produced in the leg of a recently-killed frog (1737-1798).

GALVESTON (38), the chief seaport of Texas, situated on a low island of the same name at the entrance of Galveston Bay into the Gulf of Mexico; it has a splendid harbour, and is an important centre of the cotton trade, ranking as the third cotton port of the world; the city is well laid out, and is the see of a Roman Catholic bishop; it has a medical college and several foundries.

GALWAY (215), a maritime county in the W. of Ireland, in the province of Connaught; Lough Corrib (25 m. long) and Lough Mask (12 m. long), stretching N. and S., divide the county into East and West districts; the former is boggy, yet arable; the latter, including the picturesque district known as CONNEMARA, is wild and hilly, and chiefly consists of bleak morass and bogland; its rocky and indented coast affords excellent harbourage in many places; the Suck, Shannon, and Corrib are the chief rivers; the Slieve Boughta Mountains in the S. and in the W. the Twelve Pins (2395 ft.) are the principal mountains; fishing, some agriculture, and cattle-rearing are the chief employments; it contains many interesting cromlechs and ruins.

GALWAY (14), the capital of Connaught and of the county of that name; is situated on the N. side of Galway Bay, at the mouth of the Corrib River, 50 m. NW. of Limerick; it is divided into the old and new town, and contains several interesting ecclesiastical buildings, e. g. the cruciform church of St. Nicholas (1320), and is the seat of a Queen's College; fishing is an important industry, while wool and black marble are exported.

GAMA, VASCO DA, a famous Portuguese navigator, the discoverer of the route to India round the Cape of Good Hope, born at Sines, in Portugal, of good family; he seems to have won the favour of King Emmanuel at an early age, and already an experienced mariner, was in 1497 despatched on his celebrated voyage, in which he rounded the Cape; on that occasion he made his way to Calicut, in India, where he had to contend with the enmity of the natives, stirred against him by jealous Arabian merchants; in 1499 he returned to Lisbon, was received with great honour, and had conferred on him an array of high-sounding titles; three years later he was appointed to the command of an expedition to Calicut to avenge the massacre of a small Portuguese settlement founded there a year previous by Cabrat; in connection with this expedition he founded the colonies of Mozambique and Sofala, and after inflicting a cruel punishment upon the natives of Calicut, he returned to Lisbon in 1503; the following 20 years of his life were spent in retirement at Evora, but in 1524 he was appointed viceroy of Portuguese India, a position he held only for a short time, but sufficiently long to re-establish Portuguese power in India; he died at Cochin; the incidents of his famous first voyage round the Cape are celebrated in Camoens' memorable poem "The Lusiad" (1469-1525).

GAMALIEL, a Jewish rabbi, the instructor of St. Paul in the knowledge of the law, and distinguished for his tolerant spirit and forbearance in dealing with the Apostles in their seeming departure from the Jewish faith.

GAMBETTA, LEON MICHEL, a French republican leader, born at Cahors, of Italian descent; intended for the Church, to which he evinced no proclivity; he early showed a penchant for politics and adopted the profession of law, in the prosecution of which he delivered a speech which marked him out as the coming man of the French republic, from the spirit of hostility it manifested against the Empire; at the fall of the Empire he stood high in public regard, assumed the direction of affairs, and made desperate attempts to repel the invading Germans; though he failed in this, he never ceased to feel the shame of the loss of Alsace and Lorraine, and strove hard to recover them, but all his efforts proved ineffectual, and he died in Dec. 31, to the grief of the nation (1838-1882).

GAMBIA, 1, a river of W. Africa, that flows through Senegambia and discharges itself into the Atlantic at Bathurst after a course of more than 1400 m. into a splendid estuary which, in some parts, has a breadth of 27 m. but contracts to 2 m. at the seaward end; light craft can ascend as far as Barraconda, 400 m. from the mouth. 2. A British settlement (15) lying along the banks of the Gambia as far as Georgetown, with a protectorate to Barraconda (pop. 50); it enjoys a separate government under a British administrator, and produces hides, cotton, rice, &c.

GAMBIER, JAMES, LORD, British admiral, born in the Bahamas; at 22 he was created a post-captain; in 1781 distinguished himself in an engagement against the French at Jersey; and again under Lord Howe in 1794 he rendered material service in repulsing the French off Ushant; in the following year he was made rear-admiral, and in 1799 vice-admiral; for his gallant conduct as commander of the English fleet at the bombardment of Copenhagen he was made a baron; a dispute with Lord Cochrane at the battle of Aix Roads against the French led to his being court-martialled, but he was honourably acquitted; on the accession of William IV. he was made admiral of the fleet (1756-1833).

GAMP, SARAH, a nurse in "Martin Chuzzlewit," famous for her bulky umbrella, and for confirming her opinions of things by a constant reference to the authority of an imaginary Mrs. Harris.

GANDO (5,000), a native State traversed by the Niger in Western Soudan, lying upon the NW. border of Sokoto, of which it is a dependency; like Sokoto it has been brought within the sphere of influence of the British Royal Niger Company; the inhabitants belong to the Fulah race, and profess the Mohammedan religion; Gando is also the name of the capital, an active centre of the cotton trade.

GANEGA, the Hindu god with an elephant's head and four arms; the inspirer of cunning devices and good counsel, afterwards the patron of letters and learned men.

GANELON, a count of Mayence, one of Charlemagne's paladins; trusted by him but faithless, and a traitor to his cause; is placed by Dante in the lowest hell.

GANGES, the great sacred river of India, which, though somewhat shorter than the Indus, drains a larger area and traverses a more fertile basin; it has its source in an ice-cave on the southern side of the Himalayas, 8 m. above Gangotri, at an elevation of 13,800 ft. above the sea-level; at this its first stage it is known as the Bhagirathi, and not until 133 m. from its source does it assume the name of Ganges, having already received two tributaries; issuing from the Himalayas at Sukhi, it flows in a more or less southerly course to Allahabad, where it receives the Jumna, and thence makes its way by the plains of Behar and past Benares to Goalanda, where it is joined by the Brahmaputra; the united stream, lessened by innumerable offshoots, pursues a SE. course till joined by the Meghna, and under that name enters the Bay of Bengal; its most noted offshoot is the HOOGHLY (q. v.), which pursues a course to the S. of the Meghna; between these lies the Great Delta, which begins to take shape 220 m. inland from the Bay of Bengal; the Ganges is 1557 m. in length, and offers for the greater part an excellent waterway; it is held in great reverence as a sacred stream whose waters have power to cleanse from all sin, while burial on its banks is believed to ensure eternal happiness.

GANGES CANAL, constructed mainly for the purpose of irrigating the arid land stretching between the Ganges and the Jumna Rivers, originally extended from Hardwar to Cawnpore and Etawah, but has since been greatly enlarged, and at present (including branches) has a total extent of 3700 m., of which 500 m. are navigable; it has contributed to mitigate suffering caused by famines by affording a means of distributing ready relief.

GANGRENE, the first stage of mortification in any part of a living body.

GANGWAY, a passage in the House of Commons, running across the house, which separates the independent members from the supporters of the Government and the Opposition.

GANYMEDES, a beautiful youth, whom Zeus, attracted by his beauty, carried off, disguised as an eagle, to heaven, conferred immortality on, and made cup-bearer of the gods instead of Hebe.

GAO, KARVEH or KARVAH, a Persian blacksmith, whose sons had been slain to feed the serpents of the reigning tyrant, raised his leather apron on a spear, and with that for a standard excited a revolt; the revolt proved successful, and the apron became the standard of the new dynasty, which it continued to be till supplanted by the crescent.

GARAY, JANOS, Hungarian poet, born at Szegszard; his life was spent chiefly in Pesth, where he held a post in the university library; he published a number of dramas which show traces of German influence, and was also the author of a book of lyrics as well as tales (1812-1853).

GARCIA, MANUEL, a noted singer and composer, born at Seville; in 1808 he went to Paris with a reputation already gained at Madrid and Cadiz; till 1824 he was of high repute in London and Paris as an operatic tenor; and in the following year visited the United States; when on the road between Mexico and Vera Cruz he was robbed of all his money; he spent his closing years in Paris as a teacher of singing, his voice being greatly impaired by age as well as fatigue; his eldest daughter was the celebrated Madame Malibran (1775-1832).

GARCIAS, DON PEDRO, a mythical don mentioned in the preface to "Gil Blas" as buried with a small bag of doubloons, and the epitaph, "Here lies interred the soul of licentiate Pedro Garcia."

GARCILASO, called the INCA, as descended from the royal family of Peru; lived at Cordova; wrote "History of Peru," as well as a "History of Florida" (1530-1568).

GARCILASO DE LA VEGA, a Spanish poet, born in Toledo, a soldier by profession; accompanied Charles V. on his expeditions; died fighting bravely in battle; his poems consist of sonnets, elegies, &c., and reveal an unexpected tenderness (1503-1536).

GARCIN DE TASSY, Indian Orientalist, born at Marseilles (1794-1878).

GARD (419), a dep. in the S. of France, between the Cevennes and the Rhone; slopes to the Rhone and the sea, with a marshy coast; produces wine and olives, and is noted for its silkculture and breed of horses.

GARDA, LAGO DI, the largest of the Italian lakes; stretches, amidst beautiful Alpine scenery, between Lombardy and Venetia. It is 35 m. long, and from 2 to 10 broad. Its water is remarkably clear, and has a depth of 967 ft. It is studded with many picturesque islands, and is traversed by steamers.

GARDE NATIONALE, of France, a body of armed citizens organised in Paris in 1789 for the defence of the citizen interest, and soon by extensions throughout the country became a force of great national importance; the colours they adopted were the famous tricolor of red, white, and blue, and their first commandant was Lafayette. In 1795 they helped to repress the Paris mob, and under Napoleon were retained in service. They played a prominent part in the Revolutions of 1830 and 1848, supporting the revolutionists; but in 1852 their powers were curtailed, and in 1871 they were dissolved by the National Assembly.

GARDES SUISSES, a celebrated corps of the French army, formed in 1616 for defence of royalty, and numbering 2000. During the great Revolution they gallantly defended the Louvre, but were overawed and overpowered almost to annihilation by the infuriated Paris mob. "Their work to die, and they did it," at that moment. The corps was finally disbanded in 1830.

GARDINER, COLONEL JAMES, soldier, captain of dragoons, noted for his bravery and piety; served under Marlborough; fell at Prestonpans; his Life was written by Dr. Doddridge, and is much prized by religious people (1688-1745).

GAIRDNER, JAMES, historian, born in Edinburgh, Assistant-Keeper Record Office, London; edited a series of historical documents, and wrote among other historical works the "Life and Reign of Richard III."; b. 1828.

GARDINER, SAMUEL RAWSON, English historian, born at Ropley, Hants; his chief historical works include "History of England" in the reign of James I. and Charles I.; "History of the Civil War," in four vols., and the "History of the Protectorate," on which he is still engaged; a most impartial and accurate historian; b. 1829.

GARDINER, STEPHEN, bishop of Winchester, born at Bury St. Edmunds; was secretary to Wolsey; promoted the divorce of Queen Catharine, and made bishop; imprisoned in the Tower under Edward VI.; restored to his see, and made Chancellor under Mary (1483-1555).

GARFIELD, JAMES ABRAM, President of the United States, born in Orange, Ohio; reared amid lowly surroundings; at the age of ten began to help his widowed mother by working as a farmservant; an invincible passion for learning prompted him to devote the long winters to study, till he was able as a student to enter Hiram College, and subsequently to William's College, Massachusetts, where, in 1856, he graduated; in the following year he became President of Hiram College, and devoting his attention to the study of law, in 1859 became a member of the State Senate; he took an active part on the side of the Federalists in the Civil War, and distinguished himself in several engagements, rising to be major-general; in his thirty-third year he entered Congress, and soon came to the front, acting latterly as leader of the Republican party; in 1880 he became a member of the Senate, and in the same year was elected to the Presidency; he signalised his tenure of the presidential office by endeavouring to purify and reform the civil service, but this attempt drew on him the odium of a section of his party, and on the 2nd July 1881 he was shot down by Charles Guiteau, a disappointed place-hunter; after a prolonged struggle with death he succumbed on the 19th of September (1831-1881).

GARGANTUA, a gigantic personage, in Rabelais, of preternally lusty appetite and guzzling and gourmandising power; lived several centuries, and begat Pantagruel.

GARIBALDI, Italian patriot, began life as a sailor, associated himself enthusiastically with Mazzini for the liberation of his country, but being convicted of conspiracy fled to South America, where, both as a privateer and a soldier, he gave his services to the young republics struggling there for life; returned to Europe, and took part in the defence of Rome against France, but being defeated fled to New York, to return to the Isle of Caprera, biding his time; joined the Piedmontese against Austria, and in 1860 set himself to assist in the overthrow of the kingdom of Naples and the union of Italy under Victor Emmanuel, landing in Calabria and entering Naples, driving the royal forces before him without striking a blow, after which he returned to his retreat at Caprera, ready still to draw sword, and occasionally offering it again, in the cause of republicanism (1807-1882).

GARMENT OF GOD, LIVING, Living Nature, so called by Goethe, nature being viewed by him as the garment, or vesture, with which God invests Himself so as to reveal and impart Himself to man.

GARNET, a well-known precious stone of a vitreous lustre, and usually of a dark-red colour, resembling a ruby, but also found in various other shades, e. g. black, green, and yellow. The finest specimens are brought from Ceylon, Pegu, and Greenland. The species of garnet crystal known as Pyrope, when cut in the shape of a tallow drop, is called a carbuncle.

GARNET, HENRY, a noted Jesuit, son of a Nottingham schoolmaster, implicated in the Gunpowder Plot; bred in the Protestant faith, he early turned Catholic and went abroad and joined the Jesuit order; in 1588 he returned to England as Superior of the English Jesuits, and engaged in various intrigues; on the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot he was arrested, found guilty of cognisance of the Plot, and executed (1555-1606).

GARNETT, RICHARD, philologist, born at Otley, Yorkshire, Keeper of the Printed Books in the British Museum, and one of the founders of the Philological Society, and contributor to its Proceedings (1789-1850).

GARNETT, RICHARD, an acute critic, born in Lichfield, son of preceding; long associated with the book department of the British Museum; an admirer of Shelley, and biographer of Carlyle and Emerson; b. 1835.

GARONNE, an important river of SW. France, which rises in the Val d'Aran in the Spanish Pyrenees; 26 m. from its source it enters France near Pont du Roi, and after it passes Toulouse flows in a north-westerly direction; joined by the Dordogne, 20 m. below Toulouse, it gradually widens into the Gironde estuary, which opens on the Bay of Biscay; it has a length of 346 m., and is freely navigable as far as Toulouse.

GARRICK, DAVID, a famous English actor and dramatist, born at Hereford; was educated at Lichfield, the home of his mother, and was for some months in his nineteenth year a pupil of Samuel Johnson; in 1737 he accompanied Johnson to London, with the intention of entering the legal profession, but soon abandoned the purpose, and started in the wine business with his brother; in 1741 he commenced his career as an actor, making his first appearance at Ipswich; in the autumn of the same year he returned to London, and as Richard III. achieved instant success; with the exception of a sojourn upon the Continent for two years, his life was spent mainly in the metropolis in the active pursuit of his profession; in 1747 he became patentee, along with James Lacy, of Drury Lane Theatre, which he continued to direct until his retirement from the stage in 1776; three years later he died, and was buried in Westminster Abbey; he was the author of many comedies and farces, which, however, are of no great merit, but his abiding fame rests upon his powers as an actor, his remarkable versatility enabling him to act with equal ease and success in farce, comedy, and tragedy; his admirable naturalness did much to redeem the stage from the stiff conventionalism under which it then laboured; his wife, Eva Maria Violette, a celebrated dancer of Viennese birth, whom he married in 1740, survived him till 1822, dying at the advanced age of 98 (1717-1779).

GARRISON, WILLIAM LLOYD, American journalist and abolitionist, born at Newburyport, Mass.; in his native town he rose to be editor of the Herald at 19, and five years later became joint-editor of the Genius of Universal Emancipation; his vigorous denunciation of slavery involved him in a charge of libel and brought about his imprisonment, from which he was liberated by a friend paying his fine; at Boston, in 1831, he founded his celebrated Liberator, a paper in which he unweariedly, and in the face of violent threats, advocated his anti-slavery opinions till 1865, when the cause was won; he visited England on several occasions in support of emancipation, and in 1868 his great labours in the cause were recognised by a gift of 30,000 dollars from his friends (1804-1879).

GARTER, THE MOST NOBLE ORDER OF THE, a celebrated order of knighthood instituted in 1344 by King Edward III.; the original number of the knights was 26, of whom the sovereign was head; but this number has been increased by extending the honour to descendants of George I., II., and III., and also to distinguished foreigners; it is the highest order of knighthood, and is designated K.G.; the insignia of the order includes surcoat, mantle, star, &c., but the knights are chiefly distinguished by a garter of blue velvet worn on the left leg below the knee, and bearing the inscription in gold letters Honi soit qui mal y pense, "Evil be to him that evil thinks"; election to the order lies with the sovereign.

GARTH, SIR SAMUEL, a distinguished physician, born in co. Durham; had an extensive practice; author of a mock-heroic poem entitled "The Dispensary" (1661-1718).

GASCOIGNE, SIR WILLIAM, English judge, born at Gawthorpe, Yorkshire; during Richard II.'s reign he practised in the law courts, and in 1397 became king's serjeant; three years later he was raised to the Lord Chief-Justiceship; his single-eyed devotion to justice was strikingly exemplified in his refusal to pass sentence of death on Archbishop Scrope; the story of his committing Prince Henry to prison, immortalised by Shakespeare, is unauthenticated (1350-1419).

GASCONY, an ancient province of SW. France, lying between the Atlantic, the Pyrenees, and the Garonne; it included several of the present departments; the province was of Basque origin, but ultimately became united with Aquitaine, and was added to the territory of the French crown in 1453; the Gascons still retain their traditional characteristics; they are of dark complexion and small in stature, vivacious and boastful, but have a high reputation for integrity.

GASKELL, MRS., nee STEVENSON, novelist and biographer, born at Cheyne Row, Chelsea; authoress of "Mary Barton," "Ruth," "Silvia's Lovers," &c., and the "Life of Charlotte Bronte," her friend (1810-1865).

GASSENDI, PIERRE, a French mathematician and philosopher, born in Provence; declared against scholastic methods out of deference to the empirical; controverted the metaphysics of Descartes; became the head of a school opposed to him; adopted the philosophy of Epicurus and contributed to the science of astronomy, and was the friend of Kepler, Galileo, and Hobbes; was a great admirer of Bayle, the head of his school, a school of Pyrrhonists, tending to materialism (1592-1655).

GASSNER, JOHANN JOSEPH, a noted "exorcist," born at Bludenz, in the Tyrol; while a Catholic priest at Kloesterle he gained a wide celebrity by professing to "cast out devils" and to work cures on the sick by means simply of prayer; he was deposed as an impostor, but the bishop of Ratisbon, who believed in his honesty, bestowed upon him the cure of Bendorf (1727-1779).

GATAKER, THOMAS, an English divine, member of the Westminster Assembly; disapproved of the introduction of the Covenant, declared for Episcopacy, and opposed the trial of Charles I. (1574-1654).

GATE OF TEARS, the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, so called from the shipwrecks frequent in it.

GATES, HORATIO, an American general, born at Maldon, Essex, in England; served as an English officer in America till the peace of 1763, and then retired to Virginia; in the War of Independence he fought on the side of America, and, as commander of the northern army, defeated the English at Saratoga in 1777; so great was his popularity in consequence of this victory that ill-advised efforts were made to place him over Washington, but in 1780 he suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of the British at Camden, and was court-martialled; acquitted in 1782, he again retired to Virginia, and subsequently in 1800 removed to New York, having first emancipated and provided for his slaves (1728-1806).

GATESHEAD (86), an English town, situated on the Tyne, on N. border of Durham; it is united to Newcastle by three bridges spanning the river; it contains some handsome and interesting buildings, besides extensive iron-works, foundries, soap, glass, and chemical manufactories; it was here Defoe lived when he wrote "Robinson Crusoe."

GATH, Goliath's town, a city of the Philistines, on a cliff 12 m. NE. of Ashdod.

GATLING, RICHARD JORDAN, the inventor of the Gatling gun, born in Hertford County, N. Carolina, U.S.; he was bred to and graduated in medicine, but in 1849 settled in Indianapolis and engaged in land and railway speculation; his famous machine-gun, capable of firing 1200 shots a minute, was brought out in 1861; another invention of his is a steam-plough; b. 1818.

GATTY, MRS., writer of tales for young people, "Parables from Nature," and editor of Aunt Judy's Magazine; daughter of the chaplain of the Victory, Nelson's ship at Trafalgar, in whose arms Nelson breathed his last (1809-1873).

GAUCHOS, a name bestowed upon the natives of the pampas of S. America; they are of Indo-Spanish descent, and are chiefly engaged in pastoral pursuits, herding cattle, &c.; they are dexterous horsemen, and are courteous and hospitable; the wide-brimmed sombrero and loose poncho are characteristic articles of their dress.

GAUDEN, JOHN, bishop of Worcester; protested against the trial of Charles I., and after his execution published "EIKON BASILIKE" (q. v.), or the "Portraiture of his Sacred Majesty in his Solitude and Sufferings," which he declared was written by him (1605-1669).

GAUL, the name the ancients gave to two distinct regions, the one CISALPINE GAUL, on the Roman side of the Alps, embracing the N. of Italy, as long inhabited by Gallic tribes; and the other TRANSALPINE GAUL, beyond the Alps from Rome, and extending from the Alps to the Pyrenees, from the ocean to the Rhine, inhabited by different races; subdued by Julius Caesar 58-50 B.C., and divided by Augustus into four provinces.

GAUNT, JOHN OF, Duke of Lancaster, third son of Edward III., born at Ghent, who in 1362 succeeded to the estates of his father-in-law, the Duke of Lancaster; having in 1372 married, as his second wife, the daughter of the king of Castile, he made an unsuccessful attempt to seize the Castilian throne; in the later years of Edward III.'s reign he took an active part in public affairs, and by his opposition to the national party and overbearing conduct towards the Commons made himself obnoxious to the people; for selfish motives he for a time supported Wycliffe, but in 1381 the Peasant Revolt drove him into Scotland; in 1386 he made another ineffectual attempt to gain the crown of Castile; in his later years he was engaged in various embassies in France (1339-1399).

GAUR or LAKHNAUTI, the ancient capital of Bengal, now in ruins, but with Hindu remains of exceptional interest, is situated 4 m. S. of Malda, between the rivers Ganges and Mahananda; the city is believed to have been founded in the 11th century; it fell into decay after the Mogul conquest in 1575, but pestilence and the deflection of the Ganges into a new channel accelerated its fate.

GAUSS, KARL FRIEDRICH, a celebrated German mathematician and astronomer, born at Brunswick; was director of the observatory at Goettingen for 40 years; was equally great on theory of numbers and practice of calculation; he made important discoveries in magnetism, and was pronounced by Laplace the greatest mathematician in Europe (1775-1855).

GAUTAMA, the name of the family Buddha belonged to, a Rajput clan which at the time of his birth was settled on the banks on the Rohini, a small affluent of the Gogra, about 137 m. N. of Benares.

GAUTIER, THEOPHILE, a distinguished French poet, novelist, and critic, born at Tarbes; began life as a painter, but turning to literature soon attracted the attention of Sainte-Beuve by some studies in the old French authors; by-and-by he came under the influence of Victor Hugo, and in 1830 started his career as a poet by the publication of "Albertus," five years after which appeared his famous novel "Mademoiselle de Maupin"; for many years he was engaged in the work of art criticism for the Paris newspapers, and those of his critiques dealing with the drama have been republished, and fill six vols.; both as poet and novelist his works have been numerous, and several delightful books of travel in Spain, Turkey, Algeria, &c., have come from his pen; as a literary artist Gautier has few equals to-day in France, but his work is marred by a lax and paradoxical philosophy of life, which has, by his more enthusiastic admirers, been elevated into a "cult" (1811-1872).

GAUTIER AND GARGUILLE, all the world and his wife.

GAVARNI, PAUL, the nom de plume of Sulpice Guillaume Chevalier, caricaturist, born in Paris; began life as an engineer's draughtsman, but soon turned his attention to his proper vocation as a cartoonist; most of his best work appeared in Le Charivari, but some of his bitterest and most earnest pictures, the fruit of a visit to London, appeared in L'Illustration; he also illustrated Balzac's novels, and Sue's "Wandering Jew" (1801-1866).

GAVAZZI, ALESSANDRO, an Italian anti-papal agitator, born at Bologna; admitted into the order of Barnabite monks; he became professor of Rhetoric at Naples; one of the most energetic supporters of Pius IX. in his liberal policy, he afterwards withdrew his allegiance; joined the Revolution of 1848, and ultimately fled to England on the occupation of Rome by the French; as an anti-papal lecturer he showed considerable oratorical powers; delivered addresses in Italian in England and Scotland against the papacy, which were received with enthusiasm, although in Canada they led to riots; he was taken by some for an Italian Knox; "God help them," exclaimed Carlyle, who regarded him as a mere wind-bag (1809-1889).

GAVELKIND, descent of property to all the sons alike, the oldest to have the horse and arms and the youngest the homestead.

GAWAIN, SIR, one of the Knights of the Round Table, King Arthur's nephew; celebrated for his courtesy and physical strength.

GAY, JOHN, an English poet, born at Barnstaple the same year as Pope, a friend of his, to whom he dedicated his "Rural Sports"; was the author of a series of "Fables" and the "Beggar's Opera," a piece which was received with great enthusiasm, and had a run of 63 nights, but which gave offence at Court, though it brought him the patronage of the Duke and Duchess of Queensberry, with whom he went to reside, and tinder whose roof he died; was buried in Westminster (1688-1732).

GAYA (80), chief town of a district of the same name in Bengal, on the Phalgu, 57 m. S. of Patna; it is a great centre of pilgrimage for Hindus, and has associations with Buddha; 100,000 pilgrims visit it annually.

GAY-LUSSAC, LOUIS JOSEPH, French chemist and physicist, born at St. Leonard, Haute-Vienne; at the Polytechnic School, Paris, his abilities attracted the attention of BERTHOLLET (q. v.), who appointed him his assistant in the government chemical works at Arcueil; here he assiduously employed himself in chemical and physical research, in connection with which he made two balloon ascents; in 1809 he became professor of Chemistry at the Paris Polytechnic School; in 1832 was elected to a similar chair at the Jardin des Plantes; seven years later was created a peer of France, while in 1829 he became chief assayer to the Mint; his name is associated with many notable discoveries in chemistry and physics, e. g. the law of volumes, isolation of cyanogen, &c. (1778-1850).

GAZA, a Philistine town, the gates of which Samson carried off by night; situated on a mound at the edge of the desert, 5 m. from the sea, a considerable place to this day.

GAZETTE THE, an official newspaper in which government and legal notices are published, issued on Tuesdays and Fridays; originally a Venetian newspaper, the first of the kind so called as issued for a farthing.

GEBIR or GEBER, the name under which several works on alchemy and chemistry were written by Jabir ihn Haijan, an Arabic alchemist of the 8th century; his birthplace is unknown, but he is said to have lived at Damascus and Kufa.

GED, WILLIAM, the inventor of stereotyping, born in Edinburgh, where he carried on business as a goldsmith; he endeavoured to push his new process of printing in London by joining in partnership with a capitalist, but, disappointed in his workmen and his partner, he returned despondent to Edinburgh; an edition of Sallust and two prayer-books (for Cambridge) were stereotyped by him (1699-1749).

GEDDES, ALEXANDER, biblical scholar, born at Arradowl, Banffshire; was trained for the Catholic Church, and after prosecuting his studies at Paris was appointed to the charge of a Catholic congregation at Auchinhalrig; ten years later he was deposed for heresy, and removing to London took to literary work; his most notable performance is his unfinished translation of the Scriptures, and the notes appended, in which he reveals a very pronounced rationalistic conception of holy writ; this work, which anticipated the views of such men as Eichhorn and Paulus, lost him his status as a priest, although to the end he professed a sincere belief in Christianity; he was the author of volumes of poems, &c. (1737-1802).

GEDDES, JENNY, an Edinburgh worthy who on 23rd July 1637 immortalised herself by throwing her stool at the head of Laud's bishop as he proceeded from the desk of St. Giles's in the city to read the Collect for the day, exclaiming as she did so, "Deil colic the wame o' thee, fause loon, would you say Mass at my lug," which was followed by great uproar, and a shout, "A Pape, a Pape; stane him"; "a daring feat, and a great," thinks Carlyle, "the first act of an audacity which ended with the beheading of the king."

GEEFS, GUILLAUME, Belgian sculptor, born at Antwerp; executed a colossal work at Brussels, "Victims of the Revolution," and numerous statues and busts as well as imaginative productions; had two brothers distinguished also as sculptors (1806-1860).

GEELONG (24), a prettily laid out city of Victoria, on Corio Bay, 45 m. SW. of Melbourne. The gold discoveries of 1851 gave a stimulus to the town, which is now a busy centre of the wool trade, and has tanneries and paper works, &c. The harbourage is excellent, and in summer the town is a favourite resort as a watering-place.

GEFLE (25), a seaport, and the third commercial town in Sweden; capital of the laen of Gefleborg; is situated on an inlet of the Gulf of Bothnia, midway between Fahlun and Upsala; has an interesting old castle, a school of navigation, and, since a destructive fire in 1869, has been largely rebuilt.

GEHENNA, the valley of Hinnom, on the S. of Jerusalem, with TOPHET (q. v.) at its eastern end; became the symbol of hell from the fires kept burning in it night and day to consume the poisonous gases of the offal accumulated in it.

GEHENNA BAILIFFS, ministers of hell's justice, whose function is to see to and enforce the rights of hell.

GEIBEL, EMANUEL VON, a celebrated German poet, born at Luebeck; was professor of AEsthetics at Muenich; the tender, sentimental passion that breathed in his poetry procured for him a wide-spread popularity, especially among women (1815-1884).

GEIGER, ABRAHAM, an eminent Hebrew scholar and Rabbi, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, and editor of the Zeitschrift fuer juedische Theologie; strove hard to break down the barrier of Jewish exclusiveness (1810-1874).

GEIJER, ERIK GUSTAV, great Swedish historian, born in Vermland; held a post in the Record Office, Stockholm; was a poet as well as a historian, his principal work being "History of the Swedish People" (1783-1847).

GEIKIE, SIR ARCHIBALD, geologist, born at Edinburgh; at the age of 20 he joined the Geological Survey of Scotland, and in 1867 became director; in 1870 he became Murchison professor of Geology at Edinburgh, and in 1881 was appointed chief director of the Geological Survey of Great Britain; in 1801 he was knighted, and from 1892 to 1893 was President of the British Association; he is the author of various works on geology, written with great lucidity, as well as essays much appreciated; b. 1835.

GEIKIE, JAMES, geologist, brother of the preceding, born at Edinburgh; in 1882, after serving 21 years in the Geological Survey of Scotland, he succeeded his brother in the chair of Geology at Edinburgh; his principal work as a scientist is "The Great Ice Age"; his literary sympathies appear in his admirable volume of translations of, "Songs and Lyrics of Heine"; b. 1839.

GEILER VON KAISERBERG, JOHANN, a famous German pulpit orator, born at Schaffhausen; Strasburg was the principal scene of his labours; his writings, though numerous, are rare, among them the "Narrenschiff, or Ship of Fools" (1453-1510).

GELASIUS I., ST., Pope from 492 to 496; a vigorous man and strong assertor of the supremacy of the chair of St. Peter; G. II., also Pope from 1118 to 1119.

GELL, SIR WILLIAM, archaeologist, born at Hopton, Derbyshire; after graduating at Cambridge was elected to a Fellowship at Emmanuel College; his passion for classical antiquities led him latterly to settle in Italy, which bore fruit in various valuable works on the topography and antiquities of Troy, Pompeii, Rome, Attica, &c.; he had for some time previously been chamberlain to Queen Caroline, and appeared as a witness at her trial (1777-1836).

GELLERT or KILLHART, a famous dog which figures in Welsh tradition of the 13th century, and whose devotion and sad death are celebrated in a fine ballad written by the Hon. William Robert Spencer (1796-1834). The story is as follows: Prince Llewellyn on returning one day from the chase discovered the cradle of his child overturned and blood-stains on the floor. Immediately concluding that Gellert, whom he had left in charge of the child, had been the culprit, he plunged his sword into the breast of the dog and laid it dead. Too late he found his child safe hidden in the blankets, and by its side the dead body of an enormous wolf. Gellert's tomb is still pointed out in the village of Beddgelert on the S. of Snowdon. A story similar even to details is current in the traditionary lore of many other lands.

GELLERT, CHRISTIAN, a German poet, fabulist, and moralist, born in Saxony; professor of Philosophy at Leipzig; distinguished for the influence of his character and writings on the literature of the period in Germany, in the effect of it culminating in the literature of Schiller and Goethe; Frederick the Great, who had an interview with him, pronounced him the most rational of German professors (1715-1769).

GELLUS, AULUS, a Latin grammarian, born at Rome; author of "Noctes Atticae," a miscellany professing to have been composed in a country house near Athens during winter nights, and ranging confusedly over topics of all kinds, interesting as abounding in extracts from ancient writings no longer extant.

GELON, tyrant of Syracuse from 484 to 478 B.C.; rose from the ranks, gained a victory in 480 B.C. on the day of the battle of Salamis over a large host of Carthaginians who had invaded Sicily; d. 478 B.C., leaving behind him an honoured memory.

GEMARA, the second part of the Talmud, being a body of notes, comments, &c. on the Mishna or text.

GEMINI, the Twins, two stars in the southern hemisphere named Castor and Pollux; also the name of a sign of the zodiac.

GENDARMES (i. e. men-at-arms), a military police in France organised since the Revolution, and charged with maintaining the public safety. The gendarmerie is considered a part of the regular army, and is divided into legions and companies; but the pay is better than that of an ordinary soldier. In the 14th and 15th centuries the name was applied to the heavy French cavalry, and later to the royal bodyguard of the Bourbons.

GENESIS, the first book in the Bible, so called in the Septuagint, as containing an account of the origin of the world, of the human family, and of the Jewish race; a book of the oldest date possessing any human interest.

GENEVA: 1. The smallest canton (106) of Switzerland, situated at the western extremity of the lake of the name; the surface is hilly, but not mountainous, and is watered by the Rhone and Arve; the soil is unfertile, but the patient industry of the inhabitants has made it fruitful; the cultivation of the vine, fruit-growing, and the manufacture of watches, &c., are the chief industries; 85 per cent, of the people speak French. 2. Capital (78) of the canton, occupies a splendid geographical position at the south-western end of the lake, at the exit of the Rhone; the town existed in Caesar's time, and after being subject in turn to Rome and Burgundy, ere long won its independence in conjunction with Bern and Freiburg. In Calvin's time it became a centre of Protestantism, and its history, down to the time of its annexation by Napoleon in 1798, is mainly occupied with the struggles between the oligarchical and democratic factions. On the overthrow of Napoleon it joined the Swiss Confederation. Since 1847 the town has been largely rebuilt, and handsomely laid out. Among many fine buildings are the Transition Cathedral of St. Peter (1124), the Academy founded by Calvin and others. The Rhone flows through it, and compasses an island which forms part of the city. It has many literary and historical associations, and was the birthplace of Rousseau.

GENEVA, LAKE OF, or LAKE LEMAN, stretches in crescent shape between Switzerland and France, curving round the northern border of the French department of Haute-Savoie; length, 45 m.; greatest breadth, 9 m.; maximum depth, 1022 ft. On the French side precipitous rocks descend to the water's edge, and contrast with the wooded slopes of the north. The water is of a deep-blue colour; many streams flow into it, notably the Rhone, which flows out at Geneva.

GENEVIEVE, the patron saint of Paris, born at Nanterre; by her prayer the city, then called LUTETIA (q. v.) was saved from the ravages of Attila (422-512) and his Huns.

GENGHIS KHAN (i. e. Very Mighty Ruler), a celebrated Mongol conqueror, born near Lake Baikal, the son of a Mongol chief; his career as a soldier began at the age of 13, an age at which he boldly assumed the reins of government in succession to his father; by his military skill and daring example he gradually raised his people to a position of supremacy in Asia, and established by means of them a kingdom which, at his death, stretched from the Volga to the Pacific, and from Siberia to the Persian Gulf; he regarded himself as commissioned by Heaven to conquer the world, a destiny which he almost fulfilled (1162-1227).

GENLIS, STEPHANIE FELICITE, COMTESSE DE, a celebrated French novelist, born at Champceri, near Autun, Burgundy; at the age of 16 she was married to the Comte de Genlis, who eventually fell a victim to the fury of the Revolution; in 1770 she was a lady-in-waiting to the Duchesse de Chartres, and 12 years later became governess to the children of the Duc d'Orleans, amongst whom was the future king of the French, Louis-Philippe; the Revolution drove her to Switzerland, but on the elevation of Napoleon she returned to Paris, and received from him a pension, which continued to be paid her even under the restored Bourbon dynasty: she was a voluminous writer of moral tales, comedies, &c., and her works amount to about 90 vols., among them the celebrated "Memoirs" of her life and times; she was ill-natured, and in her "Memoirs" inaccurate, as well as prejudiced (1746-1830).

GEN'OA (138), a city and chief commercial seaport of Italy, built at the foot of the Apennines as they slope down to the gulf of the name. The encircling hills behind, which are strongly fortified, form a fine background to the picturesquely laid-out city. There is excellent harbourage for the extensive shipping, and an active export and import trade is carried on. In the city are iron-works, cotton and cloth mills, match factories, &c.; the streets are narrow and irregular, but many of the buildings, especially the ducal palaces and the cathedral, are of great historical and architectural interest; there is an excellent university, a public library, and an Academy of Fine Arts; Columbus was born here.

GENRE PAINTING, name given to paintings embracing figures as they appear in ordinary life and in ordinary situations.

GENS, the name among the Romans for what we understand by the word clan as consisting of families.

GENS BRACCATA, the Gauls, from wearing braccae or breeches.

GENS TOGATA, the Roman, from wearing the TOGA (q. v.) as their distinguishing dress.

GEN'SERIC, king of the Vandals, son of Godigiselus, founder of the Vandal kingdom in Spain, and bastard brother of Gunderic, whom he succeeded in A.D. 429; from Spain he crossed to Africa, and in conjunction with the Moors added to his kingdom the land lying W. of Carthage, ultimately gaining possession of Carthage itself; he next set himself to organise a naval force, with which he systematically from year to year pillaged Spain, Italy, Greece, and the opposite lands of Asia Minor, sacking Rome in 455; until his death in 477 he continued master of the seas, despite strenuous efforts of the Roman emperors to crush his power.

GENTILLY, a southern suburb of Paris, once a village beyond the fortifications.

GENTLE SHEPHERD, a famous pastoral by Allan Ramsay, with some happy descriptive scenes and a pleasant delineation of manners, published in 1723.

GENTLE SHEPHERD, a nickname George Grenville bore from a retort of the elder Pitt one day in Parliament.

GENTLEMEN-AT-ARMS, next to the yeomen of the guard the oldest corps in the British army, is the bodyguard of the sovereign; was formed by Henry VIII. in 1509; now consists of a captain, lieutenant, standard-bearer, adjutant, and 40 members, whose duties are limited to attendance at State ceremonies.

GENTZ, FRIEDRICH VON, German politician and author, born at Breslau; while in the Prussian civil service he warmly sympathised with the French Revolution, but his zeal was greatly modified by perusal of Burke's "Reflections," a treatise he subsequently translated, and in 1802 entered the Austrian public service; in the capacity of a political writer he bitterly opposed Napoleon, but for other purposes his pen and support were at the service of the highest bidder; he was secretary at the Congress of Vienna, and held a similar post in many of the subsequent congresses (1764-1832).

GEOFFREY OF MONMOUTH, a celebrated chronicler and ecclesiastic of the 12th century, born in Monmouth, where he was educated in a Benedictine monastery; in 1152 he was made bishop of St. Asaph; his Latin "Chronicon sive Historia Britonum" contains a circumstantial account of British history compiled from Gildas, Nennius, and other early chroniclers, interwoven with current legends and pieced together with additions from his own fertile imagination, the whole professing to be a translation of a chronicle found in Brittany; this remarkable history is the source of the stories of King Lear, Cymbeline, Merlin, and of Arthur and his knights as they have since taken shape in English literature; d. about 1154.

GEOFFREY SAINT-HILAIRE, ETIENNE, zoologist and biologist, born at Etampes; he was educated for the Church, but while studying theology at Paris his love for natural science was awakened, and the study of it henceforth became the ruling passion of his life; was made professor of Zoology in the Museum of Natural History in Paris; accompanied Napoleon to Egypt as a member of the scientific commission, and returned with rich collections, while his labours were rewarded by his election to the Academy of Sciences; a scientific mission to Portugal in 1808 next engaged him, and a year later he was nominated to the chair of Zoology in the Faculty of Sciences at Paris; the main object of his scientific writing was to establish, in opposition to the theories of his friend Cuvier, his conception of a grand unity of plan pervading the whole organic kingdom (1772-1844).

GEOFFRIN, MARIE THERESE, a French patroness of letters, born at Paris, the daughter of a valet-de-chambre; in her fifteenth year she married a wealthy merchant, whose immense fortune she inherited; her love of letters—which she cherished, though but poorly educated herself—and her liberality soon made her salon the most celebrated in Paris; the encyclopedists, Diderot, D'Alembert, and Marmontel, received from her a liberal encouragement in their great undertaking; Walpole, Hume, and Gibbon were among her friends; and Stanislas Poniatowsky, who became king of Poland, acknowledged her generosity to him by styling himself her son and welcoming her royally to his kingdom (1699-1777).

GEORGE I., king of Great Britain from 1714 to 1727, and first of the Hanoverian line; son of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, and of Sophia, granddaughter of James I. of England; born in Hanover; in 1682 he married his cousin, the Princess Sophia Dorothea of Zell, and in 1698 became Elector of Hanover; he co-operated actively with Marlborough in opposing the schemes of Louis XIV., and commanded the Imperial forces; in accordance with the Act of Settlement, he succeeded to the English throne on the death of Queen Anne; his ignorance of English prevented him taking part in Cabinet councils, a circumstance which had important results in the growth of constitutional government, and the management of public affairs during his reign devolved chiefly upon Sir Robert Walpole; the abortive Jacobite rising of 1715, the South Sea Bubble (1720), and the institution of Septennial Parliaments (1716), are among the main events of his reign; in 1694 he divorced his wife on account of an amour with Count Koenigsmark, and kept her imprisoned abroad till her death in 1724, while he himself during these years lived in open profligacy with his mistresses (1660-1727).

GEORGE II., king of Great Britain from 1727 to 1760, and Elector of Hanover, born in Hanover, son of preceding; in 1705 he married Caroline of Anspach, and in 1714 was declared Prince of Wales; he joined his father in the struggle with Louis XIV., and distinguished himself on the side of the Allies at the battle of Oudenarde; the period of his reign is one of considerable importance in English history; Walpole and subsequently Pitt were the great ministers of the age; war was waged against Spain and France; the last Jacobite rising was crushed at Culloden (1746); English power was established in Canada by the brilliant victory of Wolfe at Quebec (1759); an empire was won in India by Clive; the victory of Minden (1759) was gained in the Seven Years' War; Methodism sprang up under Wesley and Whitfield; while a great development in literature and art took place; against these, however, must be set the doubling of the National Debt, mainly due to the Seven Years' War, and a defeat by the French at Fontenoy (1745) (1683-1760).

GEORGE III., king of Great Britain from 1760 to 1820, and king of Hanover (Elector from 1760 to 1815), eldest son of Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales, and grandson of preceding, born in London; in 1761 he married Princess Charlotte Sophia of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, by whom he had fifteen children; more English in sentiment and education than his two predecessors, George's main interest was centred in his English kingdom, and never during his long life did he once set foot in his Hanoverian possessions; the purity of his domestic life, his devotion to England, and the pathos attaching to his frequent fits of insanity, won him the affections of his people, an affection, however, sorely tried by his obstinate blundering; the 60 years of his reign present a succession of domestic episodes, far-reaching in their consequences to England and to the civilised world; the conclusion of the Seven Years' War left England predominant in North America, and with increased colonial possessions in the West Indies, &c., but under the ill-guided and obstinate policy of Lord North she suffered the loss of her American colonies, an event which also involved her in war with France and Spain; in 1787 the famous trial of WARREN HASTINGS (q. v.) began, and two years later came the French Revolution; the great struggle with Napoleon followed, and gave occasion for the brilliant achievements of Nelson and Wellington; during these long years of war the commercial prosperity of England never slackened, but through the inventions of Hargreaves, Arkwright, and Compton increased by leaps and bounds; freedom of the press was won by Wilkes; and in 1802 the union with Ireland took place; the majestic figure of Pitt stands out amidst a company of brilliant politicians that included Burke and Fox and Sheridan; literature is represented by a line of brilliant writers that stretches from Johnson to Keats, and includes the names of Burns, Cowper, Shelley, and Byron (1738-1820).

GEORGE IV., king of Great Britain and of Hanover from 1820 to 1830, eldest son of the preceding, born in London; in consequence of his father's insanity he became Regent in 1810; a tendency to profligacy early displayed itself in an intrigue with Mrs. Robinson, an actress; and two years afterwards in defiance of the Royal Marriage Act he secretly married MRS. FITZHERBERT (q. v.), a Roman Catholic; in 1795 he publicly espoused Princess Caroline of Brunswick, whom later he endeavoured to divorce; a Burmese War (1823), the victory of Admiral Codrington at Navarino (1827), the Repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts (1828), and the passing of the Catholic Emancipation Bill (1829), were occurrences of some importance in an uneventful reign (1762-1830).

GEORGE I., king of Greece, son of King Christian of Denmark, and brother of the Princess of Wales; became king of Greece in 1864; b. 1845.

GEORGE, HENRY, an American writer on social and economic questions, born in Philadelphia; he first tried life on the sea, but in 1858 settled in California as a printer, and there married; in course of time he took to journalism, became an editor, and zealously addressed himself to the discussion of public affairs; his peculiar views on the question of land reform were set forth in "Our Land and Land Policy," published in 1870, and nine years later appeared his more famous and widely popular work "Progress and Poverty," in which he promulgated the theory that to the increase in economic rent and land values is due the lack of increase in wages and interest which the increased productive power of modern times should have ensured; he proposed the levying of a tax on land so as to appropriate economic rent to public uses, and the abolition of all taxes falling upon industry and thrift; he lectured in Great Britain and Ireland, Australia, &c.; in 1887 founded the Standard paper in New York; he died during his candidature for the mayoralty of Greater New York (1839-1897).

GEORGE, ST., the patron saint of chivalry and of England; adopted as such in the reign of Edward III.; believed to have been born in Armorica, and to have suffered martyrdom under Diocletian in A.D. 303; he is represented as mounted on horseback and slaying a DRAGON (q. v.), conceived as an incarnation of the evil one.

GEORGETOWN: 1 (53), capital of British Guiana, at the mouth of the Demerara River; is the see of an Anglican bishop; is neatly laid out, and has some handsome buildings, but is considered unhealthy; the staple industries are sugar and coffee. 2 (14), a port of entry in the District of Columbia, on the Potomac, 2 m. NW. of Washington; is a terminus of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal.

GEORGIA: 1 (1,837), one of the 13 original States of the American Union, lies to the S., fronting the Atlantic between Florida and S. Carolina; is divided into 136 counties, Atlanta being the capital and Savannah the chief port; it is well watered with rivers; is low and swampy for some miles inland, but it rises into plateaux in the interior, and the Appalachians and Blue Mountains intersect it in the NW.; excellent crops of wheat and fruit are grown among the hills, rice in the lowlands, while immense quantities of cotton are raised on the islands skirting the coast; the vast forests of pitch-pine supply an increasing lumber trade; the mountain lands are rich in minerals; the State was named after George II. in 1733 by the founder, James Oglethorpe. 2, The former name of an independent kingdom, which extended along the southern slopes of the Caucasus, and which, since the beginning of the century, has belonged to Russia under the name of Gruzia, and now forms the central portion of Russian Transcaucasia; the Georgians number at present about a million; they are a people of splendid physique, whose history reaches back to the time of Alexander the Great, and who attained their zenith in the 12th century; subsequently they suffered from Persian and Turkish invasion, and eventually, as we have said, fell into the hands of Russia; at present there is a Georgian literature growing, especially in Tiflis, if that is any sign of advance.

GERA (30), a thriving city on the White Elster, 35 m. SW. of Leipzig; has broad streets and fine buildings, with a castle; chief manufactures woollen.

GERAINT, SIR, one of the Knights of the Round Table, the husband of Enid, whose fidelity he for a time distrusted, but who proved herself a true wife by the care with which she nursed him when he was wounded.

GERARD, ETIENNE MAURICE, COMTE, marshal of France, born at Damvillers, Lorraine; in 1791 he entered the army and fought under Bernadotte in various campaigns; at Austerlitz he won his brigade, and subsequently fought at Jena, Erfurt, and Wagram; he joined Napoleon after his flight from Elba, and was wounded at Wavre; on the downfall of the Emperor he quitted France, but returned in 1817; in 1822 he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies, and in 1831 assisted in driving the Dutch out of Flanders; he was War Minister under Louis Philippe (1773-1855).

GERARD, FRANCOIS PASCAL SIMON, BARON, painter, born at Rome, of French and Italian parentage; came to Paris when a youth, where he studied painting under David; in 1795 his "Blind Belisarius" brought him to the front, whilst subsequent work as a portrait-painter raised him above all his contemporaries; his masterpiece, "Entry of Henri IV. into Paris," brought him a barony at the hands of Louis XVIII.; his historical paintings, characterised by minute accuracy of detail, include "Napoleon in his Coronation Robes," "Battle of Austerlitz," &c. (1770-1837).

GERHARDT, KARL FRIEDRICH, chemist, born at Strasburg; after a training at Carlsruhe and Leipzig, worked in Liebig's laboratory at Giessen; in 1838 he began lecturing in Paris, and made experiments along with Cahours on essential oils, which bore fruit in an important treatise; in 1844 he received the chair of Chemistry at Montpellier, but returned to Paris four years later; there he matured and published his theories of types, homologous series, &c., which have greatly influenced the science of chemistry; in 1855 he became professor of Chemistry in Strasburg (1816-1856).

GERHARDT, PAUL, a celebrated German hymn-writer of the Lutheran Church, born at Graefenhainichen, in Saxony; in 1657 he became dean of St. Nicholas in Berlin, an appointment he held till 1666, when he was deposed for his embittered opposition to the union of the Lutheran and Reformed Churches; he was subsequently pastor at Luebben; his hymns, 123 in number, rank amongst the finest of their class (1607-1676).

GERIZZIM, a mountain of 2848 ft. in height in the S. of the valley of Shechem, opposite EBAL (q. v.), and from the slopes of which the blessings were responded to by half the tribes of Israel on their arrival in Canaan (Josh. viii. 30-35); the Samaritans erected a temple on this mountain, ruins of which still remain.

GERM THEORY, the doctrine that certain diseases are due to fermentation caused by the presence of germs in the system in the form of minute organisms called bacteria.

GERMAN CATHOLICS, a sect formed in 1844 by secession from the Catholic Church of Germany, under the leadership of Johann Ronge, on account of the mummery under papal patronage connected with the exhibition of the Holy Coat of Treves and the superstitious influence ascribed to it.

GERMAN VOLTAIRE, name given sometimes to Wieland and sometimes, but less appropriately, to Goethe.

GERMANICUS, CAESAR, Roman general, son of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia, daughter of Mark Antony; he served with distinction under his uncle Tiberius in Dalmatia and Pannonia; was awarded a triumph, and in A.D. 12 was elected consul; his success and popularity as leader of the army on the Rhine provoked the jealousy of Tiberius, who transferred him to the East, where he subsequently died; his son Caligula succeeded Tiberius on the imperial throne (15 B.C.-A.D. 19).

GERMANY (49,428), constituted an empire in 1871, occupies a commanding position in Central Europe, and stretches from Switzerland in the S. to the German Ocean and Baltic Sea on the N.; Austria lies to the SE., Russia to the NE., while France, Belgium, and the Netherlands flank the W.; is made up of 26 States of widely varying size and importance, comprising four kingdoms (of which Prussia is by far the largest and most influential), six grand-duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free towns (Luebeck, Bremen, Hamburg), and one imperial province, Alsace-Lorraine; the main physical divisions are (1) the great lowland plain stretching from the centre to the Baltic and North Sea, well watered by the Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, Vistula, and their tributaries, in which, bating large sandy tracts, agriculture employs a large class, and cereals, tobacco, and beetroot are raised; (2) the mountainous district, in the interior of which the Fichtelgebirge is the central knot, in which vast forests abound, and rich deposits of coal, fire-clays, iron, and other metals are worked, giving rise to iron-works and potteries; (3) the basin of the Rhine, on the W., where the vine is largely cultivated, and extensive manufactures of silks, cottons, and hardware are carried on; fine porcelain comes from Saxony and vast quantities of beer from Bavaria; Westphalia is the centre of the steel and iron works; throughout Germany there are 26,000 m. of railway line (chiefly State railways), 57,000 m. of telegraph line, while excellent roads, canals, and navigable rivers facilitate communication; 65 per cent. of the people are Protestants; education is compulsory and more highly developed than in any other European country; the energies of the increasing population have in recent years found scope for their action in their growing colonial possessions; the military system imposes upon every German a term of seven years' service, three in active service, and the remainder in the reserve, and till his forty-sixth year he is liable to be called out on any great emergency; under the emperor the government is carried on by a Federal Council, the members of which are appointed by the governments of the various estates, and the Reichstag, elected by universal suffrage and ballot for three years.

GEROME, LEON, a celebrated French painter, born at Vesoul; he studied at Paris under Paul Delaroche, with whom he subsequently travelled in Italy; he travelled in the East and familiarised himself with Eastern scenes; in 1863 he was appointed professor of Painting in the Paris School of Fine Arts; among his most famous pictures, all characterised by vivid colouring and strong dramatic effect, are "The Age of Augustus and the Birth of Christ," "Roman Gladiators in the Amphitheatre," "Cleopatra and Caesar," &c.; b. 1824.

GERRY, ELBRIDGE, American statesman, born in Marblehead, Mass.; in 1773, eight years after graduating at Harvard, he was elected to the Massachusetts Assembly, and in 1789 to the first National Congress; as envoy to France in 1797 he assisted in establishing diplomatic relations with that country, and after his recall in 1810 was chosen governor of his native State; during his tenancy of this office, by an unfair redistribution of the electoral districts in the State he gave undue advantage to his own political party, a proceeding which led to the coining of the word "gerrymandering"; subsequently he held office as Vice-President of the Republic (1744-1814).

GERSON, JOHN CHARLIER DE, an eminent ecclesiastical scholar, born at Gerson, in the diocese of Rheims; in 1395 he became chancellor of his old university at Paris, and earned in that office a high reputation for learning, becoming known as Doctor Christianissimus; he was a prominent member of the councils of Pisa and Constance, advocating, as a remedy for the Western Schism, the resignation of the rival Popes; in consequence of his denunciation of the Duke of Burgundy for the murder of the Duke of Orleans he was forced to become a refugee in Germany for some time, but finally retired into the monastery of Lyons; his various works reveal an intellect of keen intelligence, but somewhat tinged with a cloudy mysticism (1363-1429).

GERSTAeCKER, FRIEDRICH, German author and traveller, born in Hamburg; when 21 he emigrated to New York, and for six years led a wandering life in different parts of America, working the while now at one occupation now at another, a narrative of which he published on his return to Germany; in 1849 he undertook a journey round the world which occupied him three years; in 1860-61 he crossed S. America; in 1862 he was in Africa with Duke Ernst of Gotha, and in 1863 in Central America; his many writings, descriptive of these countries, exhibit a fresh and graphic style, and have had a wide popularity; he is the author also of several thrilling stories (1816-1872).

GERVASE OF TILBURY, a mediaeval historical writer, born at Tilbury, in Essex; said to have been a nephew of King Henry II.; he held a lectureship in Canon Law at Bologna, and through the influence of Emperor Otto IV. was made marshal of the kingdom of Arles; he was the author of "Otia Imperiala," a historical and geographical work; d. about 1235.

GERVINUS, GEORG GOTTFRIED, German historian and Shakespearian critic, born at Darmstadt; he was elected to the chair of History at Goettingen in 1836, an appointment which was cancelled the following year by his signing the protest against the abolition of the Hanoverian constitution; in 1844 he was appointed honorary professor at Heidelberg, and subsequently contributed greatly to the establishment of constitutional liberty in Germany by means of his writings and by founding the Deutsche Zeitung there; in 1848 he became a member of the National Assembly, but shortly afterwards withdrew, disgusted with the course things were taking; he now engaged in literary studies, the fruit of which appeared in his celebrated volumes of Shakespearian criticism (1805-1871).

GERYON, a king of Erytheia (i. e. red island), on the western borders of the world, with three bodies and three heads, who had a herd of oxen guarded by a giant shepherd and his dog, the two-throated Orthros, which were carried off by Hercules at the behest of his fate.

GESENIUS, an eminent German Hebraist and Biblical scholar, born in Prussian Saxony, whose labours form an epoch in the study of the Hebrew Scriptures; was 30 years professor of the language in Halle; produced a Hebrew Grammar and Lexicon, and commentary on Isaiah on rationalistic lines (1785-1842).

GESNER, KONRAD VON, Swiss scholar and naturalist, born at Zurich; hampered by ill-health and poverty in his youth, he yet contrived by unremitting diligence to obtain an excellent education at Strasburg, Bourges, and Paris; in his twenty-first year he obtained an appointment in Zurich University, and in 1537 became professor of Greek at Lausanne; abandoning the idea he entertained of entering the Church, he determined to adopt the medical profession instead, graduated at Basel in 1540, and a year later went to Zurich to occupy the chair of Natural History and to practise as a doctor; his chief works are the "Bibliotheca Universalis" (a catalogue and summary of all Hebrew, Greek, and Latin works then known to exist), and the "Historia Animalium"; these monuments of learning have won him the cognomen of the German Pliny (1516-1565).

GESSLER, ALBRECHT, a governor of the forest cantons of Switzerland, who figures in Swiss legend as an oppressor who was shot as related in the tradition of Tell.

GESSNER, SALOMON, Swiss poet and artist, born at Zurich; served an apprenticeship to a bookseller in Berlin, and after a sojourn in Hamburg returned to Zurich, where the rest of his life was spent; he published several volumes of poetry, chiefly pastoral and of no great value; his "Death of Abel" is his most notable performance; his paintings are mainly landscapes of a conventional type, several of which he engraved, revealing better abilities as an engraver than as an artist (1730-1788).

GESTA ROMANORUM (the exploits of the Romans), a collection of short didactic stories, not however solely Roman, written in the Latin tongue, probably towards the close of the 13th century, the authorship of which is uncertain, though it is generally recognised as of English origin; the stories are characterised by naive simplicity, and have served as materials for many notable literary productions; thus Shakespeare owes to this work the plot of Pericles and the incidents of the caskets and the pound of flesh in the "Merchant of Venice," Parnell his "Hermit," Byron his "Three Black Crows," and Longfellow his "King Robert of Sicily."

GETHSEMANE, somewhere on the E. of Kedron, half a mile from Jerusalem, at the foot of Mount Olivet, the scene of the Agony of Christ.

GETTYSBURG (3), a town in Pennsylvania, built on a group of hills 50 m. SW. of Harrisburg; during the Civil War it was the scene of General Meade's famous victory over the Confederates under General Lee on July 3, 1863.

GEYSER, fountains which from time to time, under the expansion of steam, eject columns of steam and hot water, and which are met with in Iceland, North America, and New Zealand, of which the most remarkable is the Great Geyser, 70 m. N. of Reikiavik, in Iceland, which ejects a column of water to 60 ft. in height, accompanied with rumblings underground; these eruptions will continue some 15 minutes, and they recur every few hours.

GFROeRER, AUGUST FRIEDRICH, a learned German historian, born in the Black Forest; educated for the Protestant ministry; in 1828, after residence at Geneva and Rome, started as a tutor of theology, and two years later became librarian at Stuttgart; published a number of historical works, including a "Life of Gustavus Adolphus," "Pope Gregory VII.," a "History of Primitive Christianity," "Church History to the Fourteenth Century"; in this last work he showed a strong leaning to Catholicism; was appointed to the chair of History in the university of Freiburg; was elected to the Frankfort parliament, and finally openly professed the Catholic faith (1803-1861).

GHATS, or GHAUTS, EASTERN AND WESTERN, two mountain ranges running parallel with the E. and W. coasts of S. India, the latter skirting the Malabar coast between 30 and 40 m. from the sea, rising to nearly 5000 ft., and exhibiting fine mountain and forest scenery, and the former skirting the E. of the Deccan, of which tableland it here forms the buttress, and has a much lower mean level; the two ranges converge into one a short distance from Cape Comorin.

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