The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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CONDE, LOUIS JOSEPH, PRINCE DE, born at Chantilly; served in the Seven Years' War; attended in the antechamber in the palace when Louis XV. lay dying; was one of the first to emigrate on the fall of the Bastille; seized every opportunity to save the monarchy; was declared a traitor to the country, and had his estates confiscated for threatening to restore Louis XVI.; organised troops to aid in the Restoration; settled at Malmesbury, in England, during the Empire; returned to France with Louis XVIII. (1736-1818).

CONDILLAC, ETIENNE BONNOT, a French philosopher, born at Grenoble, of good birth; commenced as a disciple of Locke, but went further, for whereas Locke was content to deduce empirical knowledge from sensation and reflection, he deduced reflection from sensation, and laid the foundation of a sensationalism which, in the hands of his successors, went further still, and swamped the internal in the external, and which is now approaching the stage of self-cancelling zero; he lived as a recluse, and had Rousseau and Diderot for intimate friends (1715-1780).

CONDITIONAL IMMORTALITY, the doctrine that only believers in Christ have any future existence, a dogma founded on certain isolated passages of Scripture.

CONDORCET, MARQUIS DE, a French mathematician and philosopher, born near St. Quentin; contributed to the "Encyclopedie"; was of the Encyclopedist school; took sides with the Revolutionary party in the interest of progress; voted with the Girondists usually; suspected by the extreme party; was not safe even under concealment; "skulked round Paris in thickets and stone-quarries; entered a tavern one bleared May morning, ragged, rough-bearded, hunger-stricken, and asked for breakfast; having a Latin Horace about him was suspected and haled to prison, breakfast unfinished; fainted by the way with exhaustion; was flung into a damp cell, and found next morning lying dead on the floor"; his works are voluminous, and the best known is his "Exquisse du Progres de l'Esprit Humain"; he was not an original thinker, but a clear expositor (1743-1794).

CONDOTTIE'RI, leaders of Italian free-lances, who in the 14th and 15th centuries lived by plunder or hired themselves to others for a share in the spoils.

CONFEDERATE STATES, 11 Southern States of the American Union, which seceded in 1861 on the question of slavery, and which occasioned a civil war that lasted till 1865.

CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE, a confederation of 16 German States, which in 1806 dissolved their connection with Germany and leagued with France, and which lasted till disaster overtook Napoleon in Russia, and then broke up; the Germanic Confederation, or union of all the States, took its place, till it too was dissolved by the defeat of Austria in 1866, and which gave ascendency to Prussia and ensured the erection of the German empire on its ruins.

CONFERENCE, a stated meeting of Wesleyan ministers for the transaction of the business of their Church.

CONFESSIONS OF FAITH, are statements of doctrine very similar to Creeds, but usually longer and polemical, as well as didactic; they are in the main, though not exclusively, associated with Protestantism; the 16th century produced many, including the Sixty-seven Articles of the Swiss reformers, drawn up by Zwingli in 1523; the Augsburg Confession of 1530, the work of Luther and Melanchthon, which marked the breach with Rome; the Tetrapolitan Confession of the German Reformed Church, 1530; the Gallican Confession, 1559; and the Belgic Confession of 1561. In Britain the Scots Confession, drawn up by John Knox in 1560; the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England in 1562; the Irish Articles in 1615; and the Westminster Confession of Faith in 1647; this last, the work of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, has by its force of language, logical statement, comprehensiveness, and dependence on Scripture, commended itself to the Presbyterian Churches of all English-speaking peoples, and is the most widely recognised Protestant statement of doctrine; it has as yet been modified only by the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland, which adopted a Declaratory Statement regarding certain of its doctrines in 1879, and by the Free Church of Scotland, which adopted a similar statement in 1890.

CONFESSIONS OF ROUSSEAU, memoirs published after his death in 1788, in which that writer makes confession of much that was good in him and much that was bad.

CONFESSIONS OF ST. AUGUSTINE, an account which that Father of the Church gives of the errors of his youth and his subsequent conversion.

CONFUCIUS, the Latin form of the name of the great sage of China, Kung Futsze, and the founder of a religion which is based on the worship and practice of morality as exemplified in the lives and teachings of the wise men who have gone before, and who, as he conceived, have made the world what it is, and have left it to posterity to build upon the same basis; while he lived he was held in greater and greater honour by multitudes of disciples, till on his death he became an object of worship, and even his descendants came to be regarded as a kind of sacred caste; he flourished about 550 B.C.

CONGE D'ELIRE, a warrant granted by the Crown to the dean and chapter of a cathedral to elect a particular bishop to a vacant see.

CONGO, the second in length and largest in volume of the African rivers, rises NE. of the Muchinga Mountains in Rhodesia, flows SW. through Lake Bangueola, then N. to the equator; curving in a great semicircle it continues SW., passes in a series of rapids through the coast range, and enters the S. Atlantic by an estuary 6 m. broad. It brings down more water than the other African rivers put together. The largest affluents are the Kassai on the left, and the Mobangi on the right bank; 110 m. are navigable to ocean steamers, then the cataracts intervene, and 250 m. of railway promote transit; the upper river is 2 to 4 m. broad, and navigable for small craft up to Stanley Falls, 1068 m. The name most associated with its exploration is H. M. Stanley; during its course of 3000 m. it bears several names.

CONGO, FRENCH (5,000), a continuous and connected territory extending westward along the right bank of the Congo from Brazzaville to the mouth of the Mobangi, and as far as 4 deg. N. run N. behind the Cameroons, and along the E. of Shari to Lake Tchad.

CONGO FREE STATE embraces most of the basin of the Congo, touching British territory in Uganda and Rhodesia, with a very narrow outlet to the Atlantic at the river mouth. It is under the sovereignty of Leopold II. of Belgium, who, in 1890, made over his rights to Belgium with power to annex the State in 1900. It is nine times the size of Great Britain, and continual native unrest gives great trouble to its administrators. Its waters are open to all nations, and traders exchange manufactured goods for ivory, palm-oil, coffee and caoutchouc, bees-wax and fruits. The climate is tropical, on the lower levels malarial. The population is from 20 to 40 millions. The centre of administration is Boma, 80 m. from the sea.

CONGREGATIONALISM, the ecclesiastical system which regards each congregation of believers in Christ a church complete in itself, and free from the control of the other Christian communities, and which extends to each member equal privileges as a member of Christ's body. It took its rise in England about 1571, and the most prominent name connected with its establishment is that of ROBERT BROWN (q. v.), who seceded from the Church of England and formed a church in Norwich in 1580. The body was called Brownists after him, and Separatists, as well as "Independents." The several congregations are now united in what is called "The Congregational Union of England and Wales."

CONGRESS is a diplomatic conference at which the representatives of sovereign States discuss matters of importance to their several countries, the most celebrated of which are those of Muenster and Osnabrueck, which issued in the treaty of Westphalia in 1648, at the end of the Thirty Years' War; of Rastadt, at the end of Spanish Succession War, in 1797; of Vienna, at the end of Napoleon's wars, in 1815; of Paris, in 1856, at the end of Russian War; and of Berlin, in 1878, at the end of Russo-Turkish war; but the name has come to be applied in federal republics to the legislative assembly which directs national as distinct from State concerns. In the United States, Congress consists of the Senate, elected by the State legislatures and the House of Representatives, elected directly by the people. It meets on the first Monday in December, and receives the President's message for the year. It imposes taxes, contracts loans, provides for national defence, declares war, looks after the general welfare, establishes postal communication, coins money, fixes weights and measures, &c. &c., but it is prohibited from preferential treatment of the several States, establishing or interfering with religion, curtailing freedom of speech, or pursuing towards any citizen, even under legal forms, a course of conduct which is unjust or even oppressive.

CONGRESS, the Belgian Constituent Assembly, 1830-1831.

CONGREVE, RICHARD, author of political tracts, was a pupil of Dr. Arnold's, and a disciple of Comte in philosophy; b. 1818.

CONGREVE, WILLIAM, English comic dramatist, born near Leeds; entered a student of the Middle Temple, but soon abandoned law for literature; the "Old Bachelor" first brought him into repute, and a commissionership of substantial value; the production of "Love for Love" and the "Mourning Bride," a stilted tragedy, added immensely to his popularity, but his comedy "The Way of the World" being coldly received, he gave up writing plays, and only wrote a few verses afterwards; he was held in great esteem by his contemporaries, among others Dryden, Pope, and Steele (1670-1729).

CONGREVE, SIR WILLIAM, an English artillery officer, inventor of the rocket which bears his name (1772-1828).

CONINGSBY, a novel by Disraeli.

CONINGTON, JOHN, classical scholar and professor of Latin at Oxford, born at Boston, translator of the "AEneid" of Virgil, "Odes, Satires, and Epistles" of Horace, and 12 books of the "Iliad" into verse, as well as of other classics; his greatest work is his edition of "Virgil" (1823-1869).

CONISBURGH CASTLE, an old round castle referred to in "Ivanhoe," 5 in. SW. of Doncaster.

CONISTON WATER, a lake 5 m. long and 1/2 m. broad, at the foot of Coniston Fells, in Lancashire, with Brantwood on the E. side of it, the residence of John Ruskin.

CONKLING, ROSCOE, an American politician, a leading man on the Republican side; was a member of the House of Representatives, and also of the Senate; retired from politics, and practised law at New York (1828-1888).

CONNAUGHT (724), a western province of Ireland, 105 m. long and 92 m. broad, divided into five counties; is the smallest and most barren of the provinces, but abounds in picturesque scenery; the people are pure Celts.

CONNAUGHT, DUKE OF, the third son of Queen Victoria, bred for the army, has held several military appointments; was promoted to the rank of general in 1893, and made commander-in-chief at Aldershot; b. 1850.

CONNECTICUT (746), southernmost of the New England States, is washed by Long Island Sound, has New York on the W., Rhode Island on the E., and Massachusetts on the N. It is the third smallest State, rocky and uneven in surface, unfertile except in the Connecticut River valley. Streams abound, and supply motive-power for very extensive manufactures of clocks, hardware, india-rubber goods, smallwares, textiles, and firearms. There are iron-mines in the NW., stone-quarries, lead, copper, and cobalt mines. Climate is healthy, changeable, and in winter severe. Education is excellently provided for. Yale University, at New Haven, is thoroughly equipped; there are several divinity schools, Trinity College at Hartford, and the Wesleyan University at Middleton. The capital is Hartford (53); New Haven (81) is the largest town and chief port. The original colony was a democratic secession from Massachusetts in 1634. The constitution of 1639 was the first written democratic constitution on record. Its present constitution as a State dates from 1818.

CONNECTICUT, a river in the United States which rises on the confines of Canada, and, after a course of 450 m., falls into the Atlantic at Long Island.

CONNEMARA, a wild district with picturesque scenery in W. of co. Galway, Ireland.

CONOLLY, JOHN, physician, born in Lincolnshire, studied at Edinburgh, settled in London, distinguished for having introduced and advocated a more rational and humane treatment of the insane (1794-1866).

CONRAD, CADET OF THE HOUSE OF HOHENZOLLERN, served under the illustrious Barbarossa; proved a capable young fellow under him; married the heiress of the Vohburgs; was appointed Burggraf of Nuernberg, 1170, and prince of the empire; "he is the lineal ancestor of Frederick the Great, twentieth in direct ascent, let him wait till nineteen generations, valiantly like Conrad, have done their part, Conrad will find he has come to this," that was realised in Frederick and his time.

CONRAD, MARQUIS OF TYRE, threw himself into Tyre when beset by Saladin, and held it till Richard Coeur de Lion and Philip Augustus arrived; was assassinated by emissaries of the Old Man of the Mountain in 1192.

CONRAD I., count of Franconia, elected on the extinction of the Carlovingian line Emperor of the Germans, which he continued to be from 911 to 915; fell wounded in battle with the Huns, egged on by a rival.

CONRAD II., the Salic, of the same family as the preceding; elected Emperor of Germany in 1024; reigned 15 years, extending the empire, suppressing disorders, and effecting reforms.

CONRAD III., founder of the Hohenstaufen dynasty; elected Emperor of Germany in 1138; had Henry the Proud, as head of the German Guelfs, for rival; crushed him at Weinsberg; joined Louis VII. of France on a third crusade, and returning, overthrew the Guelfs again, leaving Barbarossa as his heir; d. 1152.

CONRAD OF THUeRINGIA, a proud, quick, fiery-tempered magnate, seized the archbishop of Mainz once, swung him round, and threatened to cut him in two; stormed, plundered, and set fire to an imperial free town for an affront offered him; but admonished of his sins became penitent, and reconciled himself by monastic vow to the Pope and mankind about 1234.

CONRADIN THE BOY, or CONRAD V., the last representative of the Hohenstaufen dynasty of Romish Kaisers, had fallen into the Pope's clutches, who was at mortal feud with the empire, and was put to death by him on the scaffold at Naples, October 25, 1265, the "bright and brave" lad, only 16, "throwing out his glove (in symbolic protest) amid the dark mute Neapolitan multitudes" that idly looked on. See CARLYLE'S "FREDERICK THE GREAT" FOR THE CONRADS.

CONSALVI, Italian cardinal and statesman, born at Rome, secretary of Pius VII.; concluded the Concordat with Napoleon in 1801; represented the Pope at the Congress of Vienna; was a liberal patron of literature, science, and arts; continued minister of the Pope till his death (1757-1824).

CONSCIENCE, HENDRIK, a brilliant Flemish novelist, born at Antwerp; rose to popularity among his countrymen by his great national romance the "Lion of Flanders," a popularity which soon extended all over Europe; his writings display great descriptive power and perfect purity of sentiment (1812-1883).

CONSCRIPT FATHERS, the collective name of members of the Roman Senate, and addressed as such, fathers as seniors and conscripts as enrolled.

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY, the doctrine that, however it may be transformed or dissipated, no fraction of energy is ever lost, that the amount of force, as of matter, in the universe, under all mutation remains the same.

CONSERVATISM, indisposition to change established laws and customs that have wrought beneficially in the past and contributed to the welfare of the country; in practical politics often a very different thing, and regarded by Carlyle in his time "a portentous enbodied sham; accursed of God, and doomed to destruction, as all lies are."

CONSIDERANT, VICTOR PROSPER, a French Socialist and disciple of Fourier; founded a colony in Texas on Fourier's principles, which proved a failure; wrote much in advocacy of his principles, of which the most important is "La Destinee Sociale"; b. 1808.

CONSOLS, the Consolidated Fund, loans to Government made at different times and at different rates of interest, consolidated for convenience into one common loan, bearing interest at 3 per cent., reduced in 1830 to 23/4, and in 1893 to 21/2.

CONSTABLE, a high officer of State in the Roman empire, in France, and in England, charged at one time with military, judicial, and regulative functions.

CONSTABLE, ARCHIBALD, Edinburgh publisher, born in Carnbee, Fife; started as a bookseller near the Cross in Edinburgh; published the Scots Magazine, the Edinburgh Review, and the "Encyclopaedia Britannica," and from 1802 to 1826 the works of Sir Walter Scott, when the bankruptcy connected with the publication of these so affected him that it ruined his health, though he lived after the crash came to start the "Miscellany" which bears his name (1774-1827).

CONSTABLE, HENRY, English poet, author of sonnets, 28 in number, under the title of "Diana" (1560-1612).

CONSTABLE, JOHN, an eminent landscape-painter, born in Suffolk; his works were more generously appreciated in France than in his own country, as they well might be, where they had not, as in England, to stand comparison with those of Turner; but he is now, despite the depreciation of Ruskin, becoming recognised among us as one of our foremost landscapists, and enormous prices have been given of late for his best pictures; some of his best works adorn the walls of the National Gallery; Ruskin allows his art is original, honest, free from affectation, and manly (1776-1837).

CONSTABLE DE BOURBON, Charles, Duc de Bourbon, a brilliant military leader, and a powerful enemy of Francis I.; killed when leading the assault on Rome (1489-1527).

CONSTANCE (16), a city of the Grand-Duchy of Baden, on the S. bank of the Rhine, at its exit from the lake; famous for the seat of the council (1414-1418) which condemned John Huss and Jerome of Prague to death; long famous for its linen manufacture.

CONSTANCE, LAKE, or BODENSEE, partly in Germany and partly in Switzerland; is about 44 m. long and 9 m. broad at most; is traversed by the Rhine from W. to E., is 1306 ft. above sea-level; is surrounded by vineyards, cornfields, and wooded slopes; its waters are hardly ever frozen, and often rise and fall suddenly.

CONSTANT, BENJAMIN, a highly popular French painter of the Realistic school, born at Paris; his first picture was "Hamlet and the King"; afterwards he took chiefly to Oriental subjects, which afforded the best scope for his talent; occupies a high place in the modern French school, and has been promoted to the rank of Officer of the Legion of Honour; b. 1845.

CONSTANT DE REBECQUE, HENRY BENJAMIN DE, a French politician, of liberal constitutional principles, born at Lausanne, of Huguenot parents; settled in Paris at the commencement of the Revolution, where he distinguished himself by his political writings and speeches; was expelled from France in 1802, along with Mme. de Stael, for denouncing the military ascendency of Napoleon; lived for a time at Weimar in the society of Goethe and Schiller; translated Schiller's "Wallenstein"; returned to France in 1814; declared for the Bourbons, and pled in favour of constitutional liberty; he was a supporter of Louis Philippe, and a rationalist in religion, and declared himself opposed to the supernatural element in all religions (1760-1830).

CONSTANTIA, a wine district of Cape Colony under E. flank of Table Mountain.

CONSTANTINE (50), inland city of Algeria, on a rocky height; leather-working its staple industry.

CONSTANTINE, the name of 13 emperors who reigned at Rome or Byzantium between 306 and 1453.

CONSTANTINE I., called the Great, born in Moesia, son of Constantius Chlorus by Helena; on the death of his father at York, where he accompanied him, was proclaimed Emperor by the troops; this title being challenged by Maximian, his father-in-law, and Maxentius, his brother-in-law, he took up arms against first the one and then the other, and defeated them; when one day he saw a cross in the sky with the words By this Conquer in Greek, under this sign, known as the labarum, which he adopted as his standard, he accordingly marched straight to Rome, where he was acknowledged Emperor by the Senate in 312; and thereafter an edict was issued named of Milan, granting toleration to the Christians; he had still to extend his empire over the East, and having done so by the removal of Lucinius, he transferred the seat of his empire to Byzantium, which hence got the name of Constantinople, i. e. Constantine's city; had himself baptized in 337 as a Christian, after having three years before proclaimed Christianity the State religion (274-337).

CONSTANTINE NICOLAIEVITCH, second son of the Czar Nicholas I.; was appointed grand-admiral while but a boy; had command of the Baltic fleet during the Crimean war; came under suspicion of sinister intriguing; became insane, and died in seclusion (1827-1892).

CONSTANTINE PAULOVITCH, Grand-duke of Russia, son of Paul I.; distinguished himself at Austerlitz; was commander-in-chief in Poland, where he ruled as despot; waived his right to the throne in favour of his brother Nicholas (1779-1831).

CONSTANTINE XIII., Palaeologus, the last of the Greek emperors; had to defend Constantinople against a besieging force of 300,000 under Mahomet II., and though he defended it bravely, the city was taken by storm, and the Eastern empire ended in 1543.

CONSTANTINOPLE (1,000), capital of the Turkish empire, on the Bosphorus, situated on a peninsula washed by the Sea of Marmora on the S. and by the Golden Horn on the N., on the opposite side of which creek lie the quarters of Galata and Pera, one of the finest commercial sites in the world; it became the capital of the Roman empire under Constantine the Great, who gave name to it; was capital of the Eastern empire from the days of Theodosius; was taken by the crusaders in 1204, and by Mahomet II. in 1452, at which time the Greek and Latin scholars fled the city, carrying the learning of Greece and Rome with them, an event which led to the revival of learning in Europe, and the establishment of a new era—the Modern—in European history.

CONSTANTIUS CHLORUS, or THE PALE, Roman emperor; after a struggle of three years reunited Britain with the empire, which had been torn from it by Allectus; was equally successful against the Alemanni, defeating them with great loss; died at York, on an expedition against the Picts; was succeeded by Constantine, his son (250-305).

CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY, the legislative body which the National Assembly of France resolved itself into in 1789, a name it assumed from the task it imposed on itself, viz., of making a constitution, a task which, from the nature of it proved impossible, as a constitution is an entity which grows, and is not made, nascitur, non fit.

CONSUELO, the heroine of George Sand's novel of the name, her masterpiece; the impersonation of the triumph of moral purity over manifold temptations.

CONSUL, (1) one of the two magistrates of Rome elected annually after the expulsion of the kings, and invested with regal power; (2) a chief magistrate of the French Republic from 1799 to 1804; (3) one commissioned to protect, especially the mercantile rights of the subjects of a State in foreign country.

CONSULATE, name given to the French Government from the fall of the Directory till the establishment of the Empire. At first there were three provisional consuls, Bonaparte, Sieyes, and Roger Ducos; then three consuls for ten years, Bonaparte, Cambaceres, and Lebrun, which was dissolved with the establishment of the Empire on the 20th May 1804.

CONTARI'NI, an illustrious Venetian family, which furnished eight Doges to the Republic, as well as an array of men eminent in the Church, statecraft, generalship, art, and letters.

CONTE, NICOLAS JACQUES, a French painter; distinguished for his mechanical genius, which was of great avail to the French army in Egypt (1755-1805).

CONTI, an illustrious French family, a younger branch of the house of Bourbon-Conde, all more or less distinguished as soldiers; FRANCOIS LOUIS especially, who was a man of supreme ability both in war and science, and had the merit to be elected king of Poland (1664-1709).

CONTINENTAL SYSTEM, Napoleon's scheme for interdicting all commerce between the Continent and Great Britain, carried out with various issues till the fall of Napoleon. See BERLIN and MILAN DECREES.

CONTRAT, SOCIAL, Rousseau's theory of society that it is based on mere contract, each individual member of it surrendering his will to the will of all, under protection of all concerned, a theory which led to the conclusion that the rule of kings is an usurpation of the rights of the community, and which bore fruit as an explosive in the Revolution at the end of the century.

CONVENTION, NATIONAL, a revolutionary convention in France which, on September 20, 1792, succeeded the Legislative Assembly, proclaimed the Republic, condemned the king to death, succeeded in crushing the royalists of La Vendee and the south, in defeating all Europe leagued against France, and in founding institutions of benefit to France to this day; it was dissolved on October 26, 1795, to make way for the Directory.

CONVERSATIONS LEXICON, a popular German encyclopaedia of 16 vols., started in 1796, and since 1808 published by Brockhaus, in Leipzig.

CONVERSION, "the grand epoch for a man," says Carlyle, "properly the one epoch; the turning-point, which guides upwards, or guides downwards, him and his activities for evermore."

CONVOCATION, an assemblage of the English clergy, with little or no legislative power, summoned and prorogued by an archbishop under authority of the Crown; one under the Archbishop of Canterbury, held at Canterbury, and one under the Archbishop of York, held at York, consisting each of two bodies, an Upper of bishops, and an Under of lesser dignitaries and inferior clergy, in separate chambers, though they originally met in one.

CONWAY, a port in Carnarvon, on the river Conway, with a massive castle, one of those built by Edward I. to keep Wales in check; is a favourite summer resort, and is amid beautiful scenery.

CONWAY, HUGH, the nom de plume of Frederick Fargus, born in Bristol; bred to the auctioneer business; author of "Called Back," a highly sensational novel, and a success; gave up his business and settled in London, where he devoted himself to literature, and the production of similar works of much promise, but caught malarial fever at Monte Carlo and died (1847-1885).

CONWAY, MONCURE, an American writer, born in Virginia; began life as a Unitarian preacher; came to England as a lecturer on war; became leader of the advanced school of thought, so called; was a great admirer of Emerson, and wrote, among other works, "Emerson at Home and Abroad"; b. 1832.

CONYBEARE, WILLIAM DANIEL, an English clergyman, devoted to the study of geology and palaeontology, and a Bampton lecturer (1787-1857).

CONYBEARE, WILLIAM JOHN, son of the preceding; author, along with Dean Howson, of the "Life and Epistles of St. Paul," and of an "Essay on Church Parties" (1815-1857).

COOK, DUTTON, novelist, dramatic author, and critic; born in London, and bred a solicitor; contributed to several periodicals, and the "Dictionary of National Biography" (1822-1883).

COOK, EDWARD T., journalist, born at Brighton; educated at Oxford; had been on the editorial staff of the Pall Mall Gazette and the Westminster Gazette, became, in 1893, editor of the Daily News; is an enthusiastic disciple of Ruskin; wrote "Studies on Ruskin"; b. 1857.

COOK, ELIZA, a writer of tales, verses, and magazine articles; born in Southwark; daughter of a merchant; conducted, from 1849 to 1854, a journal called by her name, but gave it up from failing health; enjoyed a pension of L100 on the Civil List till her death; was the authoress of "The Old Arm-Chair" and "Home in the Heart," both of which were great favourites with the public, and did something for literature and philanthropy by her Journal (1818-1889).

COOK, JAMES, the distinguished English navigator, born at Marton, Yorkshire; was the son of a farm labourer; began sea-faring on board a merchantman; entered the navy in 1755, and in four years became a master; spent some nine years in survey of the St. Lawrence and the coasts of Newfoundland; in 1768, in command of the Endeavour, was sent out with an expedition to observe the transit of Venus, and in 1772 as commander of two vessels on a voyage of discovery to the South Seas; on his return, receiving further promotion, he set out on a third voyage of farther exploration in the Pacific, making many discoveries as far N. as Behring Strait; lost his life, on his way home, in a dispute with the natives, at Owhyhee, in the Sandwich Islands, being savagely murdered, a fate which befell him owing to a certain quickness of temper he had displayed, otherwise he was a man of great kindness of heart, and his men were warmly attached to him (1728-1779).

COOK, JOSEPH, a popular lecturer, born near New York; delivered Monday Lectures at Boston in the discussion of social questions, and the alleged discrepancy between science and religion or revelation; b. 1838.

COOK, MOUNT, the highest point, 12,350 ft., in the Southern Alps, Canterbury Island, New Zealand.

COOK STRAIT, strait between the North and the South Island, New Zealand.

COOKE, SIR ANTONY, an eminent scholar, tutor to Edward VI.; of his daughters, one was married to Lord Burleigh and another to Sir Nicholas Bacon, who became the mother of Lord Bacon (1506-1576).

COOKE, BENJAMIN, composer, born in London; organist in Westminster Abbey; author of "How Sleep the Brave," "Hark! the Lark," and other glees, as well as some excellent church music (1739-1793).

COOKE, GEORGE FREDERICK, an actor, famous for his representation of Richard III.; stood in his day next to Kemble in spite of his intemperate habits (1756-1811).

COOKE, T. P., an actor in melodrama; began life at sea; took to the stage; his most popular representations were William in "Black-eyed Susan" and Long Tom Coffin in the "Pilot" (1786-1864).

COOLGARDIE, a mining district and head-quarters of rich gold-fields in W. Australia.

COOLIES, labourers from India and China, who now emigrate in large numbers, especially from China, often to where they are not wanted, and where they, as in the British Colonies and the United States, are much disliked, as they bring down the wages of native labourers.

COOMASSIE, the capital of the negro kingdom of Ashanti, 130 m. NNW. of Cape Coast Castle; once a large populous place; was much reduced after its capture by Wolseley in 1874, though it is being rebuilt.


COOPER, SIR ASTLEY, English surgeon, born in Norfolk; was great in anatomy and a skilful operator, stood high in the medical profession; contributed much by his writings to raise surgery to the rank of a science; was eminent as a lecturer as well as a practitioner (1768-1841).

COOPER, JAMES FENIMORE, an American novelist, born in Burlington, New Jersey; having a passion for the sea, he entered the navy as a midshipman in 1808, but in three years resigned his commission, married, and settled to literature; his novels, which are well known, achieved instant popularity, made him a great favourite with boys, in which he showed himself an expert in the narration of events, the description of scenes, as well as in the delineation of character; he came to loggerheads with the newspaper press, had recourse to actions for libel, conducted his own cases himself, and was always successful (1789-1851).

COOPER, THOMAS, a self-taught man, born in Leicester; bred a shoemaker; became a schoolmaster, a Methodist preacher, and then a journalist; converted to Chartism; was charged with sedition, and committed to prison for two years; wrote here "Purgatory of Suicides"; after liberation went about lecturing on politics and preaching scepticism; returning to his first faith, he lectured on the Christian evidences, and wrote an autobiography (1805-1892).

COOPER, THOMAS SIDNEY, a distinguished animal-painter, born in Canterbury; struggled with adversity in early life: rose to be supreme in his own department of art; he has written an account of his career; b. 1803.

COOPERAGE, a system of barter which has for some time gone on in the North Seas, consisting of exchange of spirits and tobacco for other goods or money, a demoralising traffic, which endeavours are now being made to suppress.

COOPER'S HILL, a hill of slight elevation near Runnymede, with a Government civil engineering college, originally for the training for the service in India, now for education in other departments of the Government service, forestry especially.

COORG (173), an inland high-lying province, about the size of Kent, on the eastern slope of the W. Ghats, on the SW. border of Mysore, under the Indian Government; it is covered with forests, infested with wild animals; the natives, a fine race, are distinguished for their loyalty to the British.

COOTE, SIR EYRE, a general, born in co. Limerick, Ireland; distinguished himself at Plassey; gained victories over the French in India; afterwards routed Hyder Ali at Porto Novo; died at Madras (1726-1783).

COPE, CHARLES WEST, a painter, born at Leeds; his pictures have for subjects historical or dramatic scenes, and were very numerous; executed the frescoes that adorn the Peers' corridor at Westminster; was professor of Painting to the Royal Academy (1811-1890).

COPE, SIR JOHN, a British general; was in command at Prestonpans, and defeated by the Pretender there in 1745, in connection with which his name is remembered in Scotland as not having been ready when the Highlanders attacked him, by the song "Heigh! Johnnie Cowp, are ye wauken yet?" d. 1760.

COPENHAGEN (380), the capital of Denmark, and the only large town in it; lies low, and is built partly on the island of Seeland and partly on the island of Amager, the channel between which forms a commodious harbour; is a thriving place of manufacture and of trade, as its name "Merchants' Haven" implies; has also a university, an arsenal, and numerous public buildings.

COPERNICUS, NICOLAS, founder of modern astronomy, born at Thorn, in Poland, and educated at Cracow and Bologna; became canon of Frauenburg, on the Frisches Haff; studied medicine; was doctor to a wealthy uncle, with whom he lived, and became his heir when he died; his chief interest lay in the heavenly bodies, and his demonstrations regarding their movements, which yet he deferred publishing till he was near his end; and indeed it was only when he was unconscious and dying that the first printed copy of the work was put into his hands; it was entitled "De Orbium Revolutionibus," and was written in proof of the great first principle of astronomy, that the sun is the centre of the solar system, and that the earth and planets circle round it; the work was dedicated to Pope Paul III., and was received with favour by the Catholic Church, though, strange to say, it was denounced by Luther and Melanchthon as contrary to the Scriptures of truth (1473-1543).

COPIAPO, a river, a village, a city, and a district in Chile.

COPLEY, JOHN SINGLETON, portrait and historical painter, born in Boston, U.S.; painted Washington's portrait at the age of eighteen; came to England in 1776, having previously sent over for exhibition sundry of his works; painted portraits of the king and the queen; began the historical works on which his fame chiefly rests, the most widely known perhaps of which is the "Death of Chatham," now in the National Gallery (1737-1815).

COPPEE, FRANCOIS, a poet, born in Paris; has produced several volumes of poetry, excellent dramas in verse, and tales in prose; his poetry is the poetry of humble life, and "has given poetic pleasure," as Professor Saintsbury says, "to many who are not capable of receiving it otherwise, while he has never sought to give that pleasure by unworthy means"; b. 1842.

COPPER CAPTAIN, a Brummagem captain; the name given to Percy in Beaumont and Fletcher's play, "Rule a Wife and Have a Wife."

COPPER NOSE, name given to Oliver Cromwell, from a brownish tinge on his nose.

COPPERHEADS, secret foes in one's own camp, so called from a set of serpents which conceal their purpose to attack.

COPPERMINE, a river in NW. Canada which falls into the Arctic Ocean after a broken course of 250 m.

COPPET, a Swiss village in the Canton de Vaud, on the Lake of Geneva; celebrated as the abode of Mme. de Stael, her burial-place and that of Necker, her father.

COPTS, the Christian descendants of the ancient Egyptians, who are Monophysites in belief, some regarding the Patriarch of Alexandria and some the Pope as their head; they adhere to the ancient ritual, are prelatic, sacramentarian, and exclusive; they speak Arabic, their original Coptic being as good as dead, though the grammar is taught in the schools.

COPYRIGHT, the sole right of an author or his heirs to publish a work for a term of years fixed by statute, a book for 42 years, or the author's lifetime and 7 years after, whichever is longer; copyright covers literary, artistic, and musical property. By the Act an author must present one copy of his work, if published, to the British Museum, and one copy, if demanded, to the Bodleian Library, Oxford; the University Library, Cambridge; the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh; and Trinity College Library, Dublin.

COQUELIN, BENOIT CONSTANT, a noted French actor, born at Boulogne; played in classical pieces and others, composed for himself in the Theatre Francais from 1860 to 1886; since then in London, S. America, and the United States; without a rival in the broader aspects of comedy; b. 1841.

COQUEREL, ATHANASE, a pastor of the French Reformed Church, born in Paris, where he preached eloquently from 1830 till his death; was elected in 1848 deputy for the Seine to the national Assembly, but retired from political life after the coup d'etat; wrote a reply to Strauss (1795-1858).

COQUEREL, ATHANASE, a Protestant pastor, son of preceding, born at Amsterdam; celebrated for his liberal and tolerant views, too much so for M. Guizot; edited Voltaire's letters on toleration; his chief work, "Jean Calas et sa Famille" (1820-1875).

COQUIMBO (14), capital of a mining province of Chile (176) of the name; exports minerals and cattle.

CORAIS, a distinguished Hellenist, born in Smyrna, of the mercantile class; settled in Paris, where he devoted himself to awakening an interest in Greek literature and the cause of the Greeks (1748-1833).

CORAM, THOMAS, English philanthropist, the founder of the Foundling Hospital, born at Lyme Regis; a man of varied ventures by sea and land; settled in London; was touched by the sufferings of the poor, where, with warm support from Hogarth, he founded the said institution; his charity so impoverished him that he ended his days as an object of charity himself, being dependent on a small annuity raised by subscription (1667-1751).

CORATO (30), a town in a fertile region in S. Italy, 25 m. W. of Bari.

CORBLE-STEPS, or CROW-STEPS, steps ascending the gable of a house, common in old Scotch gables as well as in the Netherlands and elsewhere in old towns.

COR'BULO, a distinguished general under Claudius and Nero, who conquered the Parthians; Nero, being jealous of him, invited him to Corinth, where he found a death-warrant awaiting him, upon which he plunged his sword into his breast and exclaimed, "Well deserved!" in 72 A.D.

CORCY'RA, an Ionian island, now CORFU (q. v.).

CORDAY, CHARLOTTE, a French heroine, born at St. Saturnin, of good birth, granddaughter of Corneille; well read in Voltaire and Plutarch; favoured the Revolution, but was shocked at the atrocities of the Jacobins; started from Caen for Paris as an avenging angel; sought out Marat, with difficulty got access to him, stabbed him to the heart as he sat "stewing in slipper-bath," and "his life with a groan gushed out, indignant, to the shades below"; when arrested, she "quietly surrendered"; when questioned as to her motive, she answered, "I killed one man to save a hundred thousand"; she was guillotined next day (1763-1793).

CORDELIA, the youngest and favourite daughter of King Lear.

CORDELIERS, (1) the strictest branch of the Franciscan Order of Monks, so called from wearing a girdle of knotted cord; (2) also a club during the French Revolution, founded in 1789, its prominent members, Danton, Camille Desmoulins, and Marat; was a secession from the Jacobin Club, which was thought lukewarm, and met in what had been a convent of the Cordeliers monks; it expired with Danton.

CORDERIUS, a grammarian, born in Normandy; being a Protestant settled in Geneva and taught; author of Latin "Colloquies," once very famous (1478-1567).

CORDILLERAS, the name of several chains of mountains in S. America.

CORDITE, a smokeless powder, invented by Sir F. A. Abel, being composed principally of gun-cotton and glycerine.

CORDON BLUE, formerly the badge of the Order of the Holy Ghost, now the badge of highest excellence in a cook.

CORDOUAN, a lighthouse at the mouth of the Gironde.

COR'DOVA (70), a city on the Parana, in the Argentine; also a town (48) in Andalusia, Spain, on the right bank of the Guadalquivir, in a province of the name, 80 m. NE. of Seville; once a Moorish capital, and famous for its manufacture of goat leather; has a cathedral, once a magnificent mosque.

COREA (6,511), an Eastern Asiatic kingdom occupying the mountainous peninsula between the Yellow and Japan Seas, in the latitude of Italy, with Manchuria on its northern border, a country as large as Great Britain. The people, an intelligent and industrious race, are Mongols, followers of Confucius and Buddha. After being for 300 years tributary to China, it passed under Japanese influence, and by the Chinese defeat in the war with Japan, 1894-95, was left independent. The climate is healthy, but subject to extremes; rivers are ice-bound for four months. Wheat, rice, and beans are grown. There are gold, silver, iron, and coal mines, and great mineral wealth. There are extensive manufactures of paper, and some silk industry. Three ports are open to foreigners; but most of the trade is with Japan; exports hides, beans, and paper; imports cotton goods. The capital is Seoul (193).

CORELLI, ARCANGELO, an Italian musical composer, celebrated for his skill on the violin; his compositions mark a new musical epoch; he has been called the father of instrumental music (1653-1713).

CORELLI, MARIE, a novelist, a prolific authoress, and very popular; her first work "The Romance of Two Worlds," one of her latest "The Sorrows of Satan"; b. 1864.

CORFE CASTLE, a village in the Isle of Purbeck, Dorsetshire, round a castle now in ruins, and the scene of martyrdoms and murders not a few in its day.

CORFU (78), the most northerly of the Ionian Islands and the largest, 40 m. long, from 4 to 18 broad; was under the protection of Britain, 1815-64; has since belonged to Greece; has a capital (79) of the same name.

CORIN'NA, a poetess of ancient Greece, born in Boeotia; friend and rival of Pindar; only a few fragments of her poetry remain.

CORINNE, the heroine and title of a novel of Mme. de Stael's, her principal novel, in which she celebrates the praises of the great men and great masterpieces of Italy; her heroine is the type of a woman inspired with poetic ideas and the most generous sentiments.

CORINTH, an ancient city of Greece, and one of the most flourishing, on an isthmus of the name connecting the Peloponnesus with the mainland; a great centre of trade and of material wealth, and as a centre of luxury a centre of vice; the seat of the worship of Aphrodite, a very different goddess from Athene, to whom Athens was dedicated.

CORINTHIANS, EPISTLES TO THE, two epistles of St. Paul to the Church he had established in Corinth, the chief object of which was to cleanse it of certain schisms and impurities that had arisen, and to protest against the disposition of many in it to depart from simple gospel which they had been taught.

CORIOLA'NUS, a celebrated Roman general of patrician rank, who rallied his countrymen when, in besieging Corioli, they were being driven back, so that he took the city, and was in consequence called Coriolanus; having afterwards offended the plebs, he was banished from the city; took refuge among the people he had formerly defeated; joined cause with them, and threatened to destroy the city, regardless of every entreaty to spare it, till his mother, his wife, and the matrons of Rome overcame him by their tears, upon which he withdrew and led back his army to Corioli, prepared to suffer any penalty his treachery to them might expose him.

CORIOLI, a town of ancient Latium, capital of the Volsci.

CORK (73), a fine city, capital of a county (436) of the same name in Munster, Ireland, on the Lee, 11 m. from its mouth; with a magnificent harbour, an extensive foreign trade, and manufactures of various kinds.

CORMENIN, a French statesman and jurist, born at Paris; had great influence under Louis Philippe; his pamphlets, signed Timon, made no small stir; left a work on administrative law in France (1788-1886).

CORMONTAIGNE, a celebrated French engineer, born at Strasburg; successor of Vauban (1696-1752).

CORNARO, an illustrious patrician family in Venice, from which for centuries several Doges sprung.

CORN-CRACKER, the nickname of a Kentucky man.

CORNEILLE, PIERRE, the father of French tragedy, born at Rouen, the son of a government legal official; was bred for the bar, but he neither took to the profession nor prospered in the practice of it, so gave it up for literature; threw himself at once into the drama; began by dramatising an incident in his own life, and became the creator of the dramatic art in France; his first tragedies are "The Cid," which indeed is his masterpiece, "Horace," "Cinna," "Polyeucte," "Rodogune," and "Le Menteur"; in his verses, which are instinct with vigour of conception as well as sublimity of feeling, he paints men as they should be, virtuous in character, brave in spirit, and animated by the most exalted sentiments. Goethe contrasts him with Racine: "Corneille," he says, "delineated great men; Racine, men of eminent rank." "He rarely provokes an interest," says Professor Saintsbury, "in the fortunes of his characters; it is rather in the way that they bear their fortune, and particularly in a kind of haughty disdain for fortune itself... He shows an excellent comic faculty at times, and the strokes of irony in his serious plays have more of true humour in them than appears in almost any other French dramatist" (1606-1684).

CORNEILLE, THOMAS, younger brother of the preceding, a dramatist, whose merits were superior, but outshone by those of his brother (1625-1709).

CORNELIA, the daughter of Scipio Africanus and the mother of the GRACCHI (q. v.), the Roman matron who, when challenged by a rival lady to outshine her in wealth of gems, proudly led forth her sons saying, "These are my jewels"; true to this sentiment, it was as the mother of the Gracchi she wished to be remembered, and is remembered, in the annals of Rome.

CORNELIUS, PETER VON, a distinguished German painter, born at Duesseldorf; early gave proof of artistic genius, which was carefully fostered by his father; spent much time as a youth in studying and copying Raphael; before he was 20 he decorated a church at Neuss with colossal figures in chiaroscuro; in 1810 executed designs for Goethe's "Faust"; in the year after went to Rome, where, along with others, he revived the old art of fresco painting, in which he excelled his rivals; the subjects of these were drawn from Greek pagan as well as Christian sources, his "Judgment" being the largest fresco in the world; the thought which inspires his cartoons, critics say, surpasses his power of execution; it should be added, he prepared a set of designs to illustrate the "Nibelungen" (1787-1867).

CORNELL UNIVERSITY, a university in Ithaca, New York State, founded in 1868 at a cost of L152,000, named after its founder, Ezra Cornell; it supports a large staff of teachers, and gives instruction in all departments of science, literature, and philosophy; it provides education to sundry specified classes free of all fees, as well as means of earning the benefits of the institution to any who may wish to enjoy them.

CORN-LAWS, laws in force in Great Britain regulating the import and export of corn for the protection of the home-producer at the expense of the home-consumer, and which after a long and bitter struggle between these two classes were abolished in 1846.

CORN-LAW RHYMER, THE, EBENEZER ELLIOTT (q. v.) who, in a volume of poems, denounced the corn-laws and contributed to their abolition.

CORNO, MONTE, the highest peak of the Apennines, 9545 ft.

CORNWALL (322), a county in the SW. extremity of England, forming a peninsula between the English and the Bristol Channels, with a rugged surface and a rocky coast, indented all round with more or less deep bays inclosed between high headlands; its wealth lies not in the soil, but under it in its mines, and in the pilchard, mackerel, and other fisheries along its stormy shores; the county town is Bodmin (5), the largest Penzance (12), and the mining centre Truro (11).

CORNWALL, BARRY, the nom de plume of B. W. PROCTER (q. v.).

CORNWALLIS, LORD, an English general and statesman; saw service in the Seven Years' and the American Wars; besieged in the latter at York Town, was obliged to capitulate; became Governor-General of India, and forced Tippoo Sahib to submit to humiliating terms; as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland crushed the rebellion of '98; re-appointed Governor-General of India; died there (1738-1805).

COROMANDEL COAST, E. coast of Hindustan, extending from the Krishna to Cape Comorin.

CORONATION CHAIR, a chair inclosing a stone carried off by Edward I. from Scone in 1296, on which the sovereigns of England are crowned.

COROT, JEAN BAPTISTE, a celebrated French landscape-painter, born at Paris; was 26 years of age before he began to apply himself to art, which he did by study in Italy and Rome, returning to Paris in 1827, where he began to exhibit, and continued to exhibit for nearly 50 years; it was long before his pieces revealed what was in him and the secret of his art; he appeared also as a poet as well as a painter, giving free play to his emotions and moving those of others (1796-1875).

CORPS LEGISLATIF, the lower house of the French legislature, consisting of deputies.

CORPUSCULAR PHILOSOPHY, the philosophy which accounts for physical phenomena by the position and the motions of corpuscles.

CORR, ERIN, an eminent engraver, born in Brussels, of Irish descent; spent 10 years in engraving on copper-plate Rubens's "Descent from the Cross" (1793-1862).

CORRECTOR, ALEXANDER THE, Alexander Cruden, who believed he had a divine mission to correct the manners of the world.

CORREGGIO, ANTONIO ALLEGRI DA, an illustrious Italian painter, born at Correggio, in Modena; founder of the Lombard school, and distinguished among his contemporaries for the grace of his figures and the harmony of his colouring; he has been ranked next to Raphael, and it has been said of him he perfected his art by adding elegance to truth and grandeur; he is unrivalled in chiaroscuro, and he chose his subjects from pagan as well as Christian legend (1494-1534).

CORRIB, LOUGH, an irregularly shaped lake in Galway and Mayo, 25 m. long and from 1 to 6 m. broad, with stone circles near it.

CORRIENTES (300), a province of the Argentine Republic, between the Parana and the Uruguay; also its capital (18), surrounded by orange-groves; so called from the currents that prevail in the river, along which steamers ply between it and Buenos Ayres.

CORRUGATED IRON, in general, sheet-iron coated with zinc.

CORSAIR, THE, a poem of Byron's, in which the author paints himself in heroic colours as an adventurer who drowns reflection in the intoxication of battle.

CORSICA (288), an island belonging to France, in the Mediterranean, ceded to her by Genoa in 1768, but by position, race, and language belongs to Italy; has been subject by turns to the powers that in succession dominated that inland sea; is 116 m. long and 52 broad; it abounds in mountains, attaining 9000 ft.; covered with forests and thickets, which often serve as shelter for brigands; it affords good pasturage, and yields olive-oil and wine, as well as chesnuts, honey, and wax.

CORSICA PAOLI, a native of Corsica, who vainly struggled to achieve the independence of his country, and took refuge in England, where he enjoyed the society of the Johnson circle, and was much esteemed. See PAOLI.

CORSSEN, WILLIAM PAUL, a learned German philologist, born at Bremen; made a special study of the Latin languages, and especially the Etruscan, which he laboured to prove was cognate with that of the Romans and of the races that spoke it (1820-1875).

CORT, an eminent Dutch engraver, went to Venice, lived with Titian; engraved some of his pictures; went to Rome and engraved Raphael's "Transfiguration"; executed over 150 plates, all displaying great accuracy and refinement (1536-1578).

CORTES, the name given in Spain and Portugal to the National Assembly, consisting of nobles and representatives of the nation.

CORTES, a Spanish soldier and conqueror of Mexico, born in Estremadura; went with Velasquez to Cuba; commanded the expedition to conquer Mexico, and by burning all his ships that conveyed his men, cut off all possibility of retreat; having conquered the tribes that he met on landing, he marched on to the capital, which, after a desperate struggle, he reduced, and laid waste and then swept the country, by all which he added to the wealth of Spain, but by his cruelty did dishonour to the chivalry of which Spain was once so proud (1485-1547).

CORTONA, PIETRO DA, an Italian painter, born at Cortona, in Tuscany, and eminent as an architect also; decorated many of the finest buildings in Rome (1596-1669).

CORUNA (34), a fortified town on NW. of Spain, with a commodious harbour, where Sir John Moore fell in 1809 while defending the embarkation of his army against Soult, and where his tomb is.

CORVEE, obligation as at one time enforced in France to render certain services to Seigneurs, such as repairing of roads, abolished by the Contituent Assembly.

CORYAT, THOMAS, an English traveller and wit, who, in his "Crudities," quaintly describes his travels through France and Italy (1577-1617).

CORYBANTES, priests of CYBELE (q. v.), whose religious rites were accompanied with wild dances and the clashing of cymbals.

CORYDON, a shepherd in Virgil, name for a lovesick swain.

CORYPHAEUS, originally the leader of the chorus in a Greek drama, now a leader in any dramatic company, or indeed in any art.

COS (10), an island in the AEgean Sea, birthplace of Hippocrates and Apelles.

COSENZA (18), a town in Calabria, in a deep valley, where Alaric died.

COSIN, JOHN, a learned English prelate, Dean of Peterborough, deposed by the Puritans for his ritualistic tendencies; exiled for 10 years in Paris; returned at the Restoration, and was made Bishop of Durham, where he proved himself a Bishop indeed, and a devoted supporter of the Church which he adorned by his piety (1594-1672).

COSMAS, ST., Arabian physician and patron of surgeons, brother of St. Damian; suffered martyrdom in 303. Festival, Sept. 27.

COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES (i. e. voyager to India), an Egyptian monk of the 6th century, born in Alexandria, singular for his theory of the system of the world, which, in opposition to the Ptolemaic system, he viewed as in shape like that of the Jewish Tabernacle, with Eden outside, and encircled by the ocean, a theory he advanced as in conformity with Scripture.

COSMO I., Grand-duke of Tuscany, head of the Republic of Florence, of which he made himself absolute master, a post he held in defiance of all opposition, in order to secure the independence of the state he governed, as well as its internal prosperity (1519-1574).

COSMOGRAPHY, any theory which attempts to trace the system of things back to its first principle or primordial element or elements.

COSQUIN, EMMANUEL, a French folk-lorist, and author of "Popular Tales of Lorraine," in the introduction to which he argues for the theory that the development as well as the origin of such tales is historically traceable to India; b. 1841.

COSSACKS, a military people of mixed origin, chiefly Tartar and Slav, who fought on horseback, in their own interest as well as that of Russia, defending its interests in particular for centuries past in many a struggle, and forming an important division of the Russian army.

COSTA RICA (262), a small republic of Central America; it is mostly tableland; contains many volcanoes; is chiefly agricultural, though rich in minerals.

COSTARD, a clown in "Love's Labour Lost," who apes the affected court-wits of the time in a misappropriate style.

COSTELLO, LOUISA STUART, an English authoress; her descriptive powers were considerable, and her novels had a historical groundwork (1799-1870).

COSTER, alias LAURENS JANSZOON, born at Haarlem, to whom his countrymen, as against the claims of Gutenberg, ascribe the invention of printing (1370-1440).

COSWAY, RICHARD, a distinguished miniature portrait-painter, born at Tiverton; Correggio his model (1740-1821).

COTE D'OR, a range of hills in the NE. of France, connecting the Cevennes with the Vosges, which gives name to a department (376) famed for its wines.

COTENTIN, a peninsula NW. of Normandy, France, jutting into the English Channel, now forms the northern part of the dep. La Manche, the fatherland of many of the Norman conquerors of England.

COTES, ROGER, an English mathematician of such promise, that Newton said of him, "If he had lived, we should have known something" (1682-1716).

COTES DU NORD (618), a dep. forming part of Brittany; the chief manufacture is linen.

COTIN, THE ABBE, a French preacher, born in Paris; a butt of the sarcasm of Moliere and Boileau (1604-1682)

COTMAN, JOHN SELL, an English painter, born at Norwich; made Turner's acquaintance; produced water-colour landscapes, growing in repute; has been pronounced "the most gifted of the Norwich School" (1782-1842).

COTOPAXI, a volcano of the Andes, in Ecuador, the highest and most active in the world, nearly 20,000 ft., 35 m. SE. of Quito; it rises in a perfect cone, 4400 ft. above the plateau of Quito.

COTSWOLD HILLS, in Gloucestershire, separating the Lower Severn from the sources of the Thames; they are of limestone rock, 50 m. long, and extend N. and S.

COTTA, CAIUS, a distinguished Roman orator, 1st century B.C.; mentioned with honour by Cicero.

COTTA, German publisher, born at Stuttgart; established in Tuebingen; published the works of Goethe, Schiller, Jean Paul, Herder, and others of note among their contemporaries (1764-1832).

COTTIAN ALPS, the range N. of the Maritime between France and Italy.

COTTIN, SOPHIE, a celebrated French authoress; wrote, among other romances, the well-known and extensively translated "Elizabeth; or, the Exiles of Siberia," a wildly romantic but irreproachably moral tale (1773-1807).

COTTLE, JOSEPH, a publisher and author; started business in Bristol; published the works of Coleridge and Southey on generous terms; wrote in his "Early Recollections" an exposure of Coleridge that has been severely criticised and generally condemned (1770-1853).

COTTON, BISHOP, born at Chester; eminent as a master at Rugby under Dr. Arnold, and as head-master at Marlborough College; was appointed Bishop of Calcutta, an office he fulfilled zealously; was drowned in the Ganges; he figures as "the young master" in "Tom Brown's School-days" (1813-1866).

COTTON, CHARLES, a poet, born in Staffordshire; his poetry was of the burlesque order, and somewhat gross; chiefly famous for his translation of "Montaigne's Essays"; was friend and admirer of Isaak Walton, and wrote a supplement to his "Angler" (1630-1687).

COTTON, SIR ROBERT BRUCE, a distinguished antiquary, and founder of the Cottonian Library, now in the British Museum, born at Denton; was a friend of Camden, and assisted him in his great work; was a great book-collector; was exposed to persecution for his presumed share in the publication of an obnoxious book, of which the original was found in his collection; had his books, in which he prided himself, taken from him, in consequence of which he pined and died (1571-1631).

COUCY, an old noble family of Picardy, who had for device, "Roi ne suis, ne duc, ne comte aussi; je suis le sire de Coucy." RAOUL, a court-poet of the family in the 12th century, lost his life at the siege of Acre in the third crusade.

COULOMB, a learned French physicist and engineer, born at Angouleme; the inventor of the torsion balance, and to whose labours many discoveries in electricity and magnetism are due; lived through the French Revolution retired from the strife (1736-1806).

COUNCILS, CHURCH, assemblies of bishops to decide questions of doctrine and ecclesiastical discipline. They are oecumenical, national, or provincial, according as the bishops assembled represented the whole Church, a merely national one, or a provincial section of it. Eastern: Nice, 325 (at which Arius was condemned), 787; Constantinople, 381 (at which Apollinaris was condemned), 553, 680, 869; Ephesus, 431 (at which Nestorius was condemned); Chalcedon, 451 (at which Eutyches was condemned). Western: Lateran, 1123, 1139, 1179, 1215, 1274; Synod of Vienne, 1311; Constance, 1414; Basel, 1431-1443; Trent, 1545-1563; Vatican, 1869.

COURAYES, a French Roman Catholic ecclesiastic who pled on behalf of Anglican orders; was censured; fled to England, where he was welcomed, and received academic honours (1681-1777).

COURBET, a French vice-admiral, born at Abbeville; distinguished himself by his rapid movements and brilliant successes in the East (1827-1885).

COURBET, GUSTAVE, French painter, born at Ornans; took to landscape-painting; was head of the Realistic school; joined the Commune in 1871; his property and pictures were sold to pay the damage done, and especially to restore the Vendome Column; died an exile in Switzerland (1819-1877).

COURIER, PAUL LOUIS, a French writer, born at Paris; began life as a soldier, but being wounded at Wagram, retired from the army, and gave himself to letters; distinguished himself as the author of political pamphlets, written with a scathing irony such as has hardly been surpassed, which brought him into trouble; was assassinated on his estate by his gamekeeper (1772-1825).

COURLAND (637), a partly wooded and partly marshy province of Russia, S. of the Gulf of Riga; the population chiefly German, and Protestants; agriculture their chief pursuit.

COURT DE GEBELIN, a French writer, born at Nimes, author of a work entitled "The Primitive World analysed and compared with the Modern World" (1725-1784).

COURTNEY, WILLIAM, archbishop of Canterbury, no match for Wickliffe in debate, but had his revenge in persecuting his followers (1341-1396).

COURTOIS, JACQUES, a French painter of battle-pieces; became a Jesuit, died a monk (1621-1676).

COURTRAIS (29), a Belgian town on the Lys.

COUSIN, VICTOR, a French philosopher, born in Paris; founder of an eclectic school, which derived its doctrines partly from the Scottish philosophy and partly from the German, and which Dr. Chalmers in his class-room one day characterised jocularly as neither Scotch nor German, but just half seas over; he was a lucid expounder, an attractive lecturer, and exerted no small influence on public opinion in France; had a considerable following; retired from public life in 1848, and died at Cannes; he left a number of philosophic works behind him, the best known among us "Discourses on the True, the Beautiful, and the Good" (1792-1867).

COUSIN MICHAEL, a disparaging designation of our German kindred, as slow, heavy, unpolished, and ungainly.

COUSIN-MONTAUBAN, a French general, commanded the Chinese expedition of 1860, and, after a victory over the Chinese, took possession of Pekin (1796-1878).

COUSINS, SAMUEL, a mezzotint engraver, born at Exeter; engraved "Bolton Abbey," "Marie Antoinette in the Temple," and a number of plates after eminent painters; left a fund to aid poor artists (1801-1880).

COUSTON, the name of three eminent French sculptors: NICOLAS (1658-1733); GUILLAUME, father (1678-1746); and GUILLAUME, son (1716-1777).

COUTHON, GEORGES, a violent revolutionary, one of a triumvirate with Robespierre and St. Just, who would expel every one from the Jacobin Club who could not give evidence of having done something to merit hanging, should a counter-revolution arrive; was paralysed in his limbs from having had to spend a night "sunk to the middle in a cold peat bog" to escape detection as a seducer; trapped for the guillotine; tried to make away with himself under a table, but could not (1756-1794).

COUTTS, THOMAS, a banker, born in Edinburgh, his father having been Lord Provost of that city; joint-founder and eventually sole manager of the London banking house, Coutts & Co.; left a fortune of L900,000 (1735-1822).

COUVADE, a custom among certain races of low culture in which a father before and after childbirth takes upon himself the duties and cares of the mother.

COUZA, PRINCE, born at Galatz, hereditary prince of Moldavia and Wallachia; reigned from 1858 to 1860; died in exile, 1873.

COVENANT, SOLEMN LEAGUE AND, an engagement, with representatives from Scotland, on the part of the English Parliament to secure to the Scotch the terms of their National Covenant, and signed by honourable members in St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, September 25, 1643, on the condition of assistance from the Scotch in their great struggle with the king.

COVENANT, THE NATIONAL, a solemn engagement on the part of the Scottish nation subscribed to by all ranks of the community, the first signature being appended to it in the Greyfriars' Churchyard, Edinburgh, on February 28, 1638, to maintain the Presbyterian Church and to resist all attempts on the part of Charles I. to foist Episcopacy upon it; it was ratified by the Scottish Parliament in 1640, and subscribed by Charles II. in 1650 and 1651.

COVENANTERS, a body of strict Presbyterians who held out against the breach of the Solemn League and Covenant.

COVENT GARDEN, properly Convent Garden, as originally the garden of Westminster Abbey, the great fruit, flower, and vegetable market of London; is one of the sights of London early on a summer morning.

COVENTRY (55), a town in Warwickshire, 181/2 m. SE. of Birmingham; famous for the manufacture of ribbons and watches, and recently the chief seat of the manufacture of bicycles and tricycles; in the old streets are some quaint old houses; there are some very fine churches and a number of charitable institutions.

COVENTRY, SIR JOHN, a member of the Long Parliament; when, as a member of Parliament in Charles II.'s reign, he made reflections on the profligate conduct of the king, he was set upon by bullies, who slit his nose to the bone; a deed which led to the passing of the Coventry Act, which makes cutting and maiming a capital offence (1640-1682).

COVERDALE, MILES, translator of the English Bible, born in Yorkshire; his translation was the first issued under royal sanction, being dedicated to Henry VIII.; done at the instance of Thomas Cromwell, and brought out in 1535, and executed with a view to secure the favour of the authorities in Church and State, displaying a timid hesitancy unworthy of a manly faith in the truth; both he and his translation nevertheless were subjected to persecution, 2500 copies of the latter, printed in Paris, having been seized by the Inquisition and committed to the flames (1487-1568).

COVERLEY, SIR ROGER DE, member of the club under whose auspices the Spectator is professedly edited; represents an English squire of Queen Anne's reign.

COWELL, JOHN, an English lawyer, author of "Institutes of the Laws of England" and of a law dictionary burnt by the common hangman for matter in it derogatory to the royal authority; d. 1611.

COWEN, FREDERICK HYMEN, a popular English composer, born in Kingston, Jamaica; his works consist of symphonies, cantatas, oratories, as well as songs, duets, &c.; is conductor of the Manchester Subscription Concerts in succession to Sir Charles Halle; b. 1852.

COWES, a watering-place in the N. of the Isle of Wight, separated by the estuary of Medina into E. and W.; engaged in yacht-building, and the head-quarters of the Royal Yacht Club.

COWLEY, ABRAHAM, poet and essayist, born in London; a contemporary of Milton, whom he at one time outshone, but has now fallen into neglect; he was an ardent royalist, and catered to the taste of the court, which, however, brought him no preferment at the Restoration; he was a master of prose, and specially excelled in letter-writing; he does not seem to have added much to the literature of England, except as an essayist, and in this capacity has been placed at the head of those who cultivated that clear, easy, and natural style which culminated in Addison (1618-1667).

COWLEY, HENRY WELLESLEY, EARL, an eminent diplomatist, brother of the Duke of Wellington; served as a diplomatist in Vienna, Constantinople, and Switzerland, and was ambassador to France from 1852 to 1867 (1804-1884).

COWPER, WILLIAM, a popular English poet, born at Great Berkhampstead, Hertford, of noble lineage; lost his mother at six, and cherished the memory of her all his days; of a timid, sensitive nature, suffered acutely from harsh usage at school; read extensively in the classics; trained for and called to the bar; was appointed at 32 a clerk to the House of Lords; qualifying for the duties of the appointment proved too much for him, and he became insane; when he recovered, he retired from the world to Huntingdon beside a brother, where he formed an intimacy with a family of the name of Unwin, a clergyman in the place; on Mr. Unwin's death he removed with the family to Olney, in Buckinghamshire, where he lived as a recluse and associated with the Rev. John Newton and Mrs. Unwin; shortly after he fell insane again, and continued so for two years; on his recovery he took to gardening and composing poems, his first the "Olney Hymns," the melancholy being charmed away by the conversation of a Lady Austin, who came to live in the neighbourhood; it was she who suggested his greatest poem, the "Task"; then followed other works, change of scene and associates, the death of Mrs. Unwin, and the gathering of a darker and darker cloud, till he passed away peacefully; it is interesting to note that it is to this period his "Lines to Mary Unwin" and his "Mother's Picture" belong (1731-1800).

COX, DAVID, an eminent landscape painter, rated by some next to Turner, born at Birmingham; began his art as a scene-painter; painted as a landscapist first in water-colour, then in oil; many of his best works are scenes in N. Wales; his works have risen in esteem and value; an ambition of his was to get L100 for a picture, and one he got only L20 for brought L3602 (1793-1830).

COX, SIR GEORGE, an English mythologist, specially distinguished for resolving the several myths of Greece and the world into idealisations of solar phenomena; he has written on other subjects, all of interest, and is engaged with W. T. Brande on a "Dictionary of Science, Literature, and Art"; b. 1827.

COXCIE, MICHAEL, a celebrated Flemish painter, born at Mechlin (1497-1592).

COXE, HENRY OCTAVIUS, librarian, became assistant-librarian of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, in 1838, and ultimately head-librarian in 1860; under his direction the catalogue, consisting of 720 folio volumes, was completed; held this post till his death; has edited several works of value; is one of Dean Burgon's "Twelve Good Men" (1811-1881).

COXE, WILLIAM, a historical writer, heavy but painstaking, born in London; wrote "History of the House of Austria" and the "Memoirs of Marlborough," and on "Sir Robert Walpole and the Pelham Administrations" (1747-1828).

COXWELL, a celebrated English aeronaut; bred a dentist; took to ballooning; made 700 ascents; reached with Glaisher an elevation of 7 m.; b. 1819.

COZENS, JOHN ROBERT, a landscape painter, a natural son of Peter the Great; pronounced by Constable the greatest genius that ever touched landscape, and from him Turner confessed he had learned more than from any other landscapist; his mind gave way at last, and he died insane (1752-1801).

CRABBE, GEORGE, an English poet, born at Aldborough, in Suffolk; began life as apprentice to an apothecary with a view to the practice of medicine, but having poetic tastes, he gave up medicine for literature, and started for London with a capital of three pounds; his first productions in this line not meeting with acceptance, he was plunged in want; appealing in vain for assistance in his distress, he fell in with Burke, who liberally helped him and procured him high patronage, under which he took orders and obtained the living of Trowbridge, which he held for life, and he was now in circumstances to pursue his bent; his principal poems are "The Library," "The Village," "The Parish Register," "The Borough," and the "Tales of the Hall," all, particularly the earlier ones, instinct with interest in the lives of the poor, "the sacrifices, temptations, loves, and crimes of humble life," described with the most "unrelenting" realism; the author in Byron's esteem, "though Nature's sternest painter, yet the best" (1754-1832).

CRACOW (75), a city in Galicia, the old capital of Poland; where the old Polish kings were buried, and the cathedral of which contains the graves of the most illustrious of the heroes of the country and Thorwaldsen's statue of Christ; a large proportion of the inhabitants are Jews.

CRADLE MOUNTAIN, a mountain in the W. of Tasmania.

CRAIG, JOHN, a Scottish Reformer, educated at St. Andrews, and originally a Dominican monk; had been converted to Protestantism by study of Calvin's "Institutes," been doomed to the stake by the Inquisition, but had escaped; the coadjutor in Edinburgh of Knox, and his successor in his work, and left a confession and catechism (1512-1580).

CRAIG, SIR THOMAS, an eminent Scottish lawyer, author of a treatise on the "Jus Feudale," which has often been reprinted, as well as three others in Latin of less note; wrote in Latin verse a poem on Queen Mary's marriage to Darnley (1538-1608).

CRAIGENPUTTOCK, a craig or whinstone hill of the puttocks (small hawks), "a high moorland farm on the watershed between Dumfriesshire and Galloway, 10 m. from Dumfries," the property for generations of a family of Welshes, and eventually that of their heiress, Jane Welsh Carlyle, "the loneliest spot in all the British dominions," which the Carlyles made their dwelling-house in 1828, where they remained for seven years, and where "Sartor" was written. "It is certain," Carlyle says of it long after, "that for living and thinking in I have never since found in the world a place so favourable.... How blessed," he exclaims, "might poor mortals be in the straitest circumstances if their wisdom and fidelity to heaven and to one another were adequately great!"

CRAIK, GEORGE LITTLE, an English author, born in Fife, educated at St. Andrews; settled early in London as a litterateur; was associated with Charles Knight in his popular literary undertakings; was author of the "Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties," and the "History of English Literature and Learning"; edited "Pictorial History of England," contributed to "Penny Cyclopaedia," and became professor of English Literature, Queen's College, Belfast (1799-1866).

CRAIK, MRS., nee MULOCK, born at Stoke-upon-Trent; authoress of "John Halifax, Gentleman," her chief work, which has had, and maintains, a wide popularity; married in 1865 a nephew and namesake of the preceding, a partner of the publishing house of Macmillan & Co.; wrote for the magazines, besides some 14 more novels (1826-1887).

CRAIL, a little old-fashioned town near the East Neuk of Fife, where James Sharp was minister; a decayed fishing-place, now a summer resort.

CRAMER, JOHANN BAPTIST, a distinguished German composer and pianist (1771-1858).

CRANACH, LUCAS, a celebrated German painter, born at Kronach, in the bishopric of Bamberg; was patronised by Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony, whom he accompanied in 1493 to the Holy Land; was engraver as well as painter, skilled in portraiture as well as in historical scenes; was intimately associated with the German reformers Luther and Melanchthon, whose portraits he painted among others; the works of his that remain are chiefly altar-pieces; his chief work is the "Crucifixion" in Weimar, where he died (1472-1553).

CRANE, ICHABOD, a tall, lean, lank, Yankee schoolmaster in Irving's "Legend of Sleepy Hollow."

CRANE, WALTER, poet and painter; has published various illustrated books and poems illustrated by himself, and is an authority on decorative art; b. 1845.

CRANMER, THOMAS, archbishop of Canterbury, born in Nottinghamshire; educated at Jesus College, Cambridge; recommended himself to Henry VIII. by favouring his divorce, writing in defence of it, and pleading for it before the Pope, the latter in vain, as it proved; on his return was elevated to the archbishopric, in which capacity he proved a zealous promoter of the Reformation, by having the Bible translated and circulated, and by the suppression of monasteries; pronounced sentence of divorce of Catharine, and confirmed the king's marriage with Anne Boleyn; by these and other compliances he kept the favour of Henry, but on the accession of Mary he was committed to the Tower and persuaded to recant, and even signed a recantation, but on being called to recant in public, and refusing to do so, he was dragged to the stake, thrust his right hand into the flames, and exclaimed, "Oh, this unworthy hand" (1489-1566).

CRANNOGE, a species of lake-dwelling and stronghold, of which remains are found in Scotland and Ireland.

CRAPAUD, JEAN, a nickname of the Frenchmen.

CRASHAW, RICHARD, a minor poet, born in London; bred for the English Church; went to Paris, where he became a Roman Catholic; fell into pecuniary difficulties, but was befriended by Cowley and recommended to a post; was an imitator of George Herbert, and his poems were of the same class, but more fantastical; his principal poems were "Steps to the Temple" and the "Delights of the Muses"; both Milton and Pope are indebted to him (1616-1650).

CRASSUS, LUCIUS LICINIUS, the greatest Roman orator of his day, became consul 55 B.C.; during his consulship a law was passed requiring all but citizens to leave Rome, an edict which provoked the Social War (140-91 B.C.).

CRASSUS, MARCUS LICINIUS, the triumvir with Pompey and Caesar; was avaricious, and amassed great wealth; appointed to the province of Syria, provoked out of cupidity war with the Parthians, in which he was treacherously slain; Orodes, the king, cut off his head, and poured melted gold into his mouth, saying as he did so, "Now sate thyself with the metal of which thou wert so greedy when alive" (115-53 B.C.).

CRATES, a Greek cynic philosopher, disciple of Diogenes; 4th century B.C.

CRATINUS, a Greek comic poet, born at Athens; limited the actors in a piece to three, and the first to introduce into the drama attacks on public men, wrote also satires on vice (519-424 B.C.).

CRATIPPUS, a Peripatetic philosopher of Mytilene, contemporary of Pompey and Cicero; soothed the sunken spirit of the former after the defeat at Pharsalia with the consolations of philosophy.

CRATYLUS, a dialogue of Plato's on the connection between language and thought.

CRAWFORD, MARION, a novelist, born in Tuscany, of American origin, son of the succeeding; spent a good deal of his early years in India, and now lives partly in New York and partly in Italy; his works, which are numerous, are chiefly novels, his first "Mr. Isaacs" (1882), original and striking; an able writer, and a scholarly; b. 1854.

CRAWFORD, THOMAS, an American sculptor, studied at Rome under Thorwaldsen; his "Orpheus in Search of Eurydice" brought him into notice, and was followed by an array of works of eminent merit; died in London from a tumour on the brain, after being struck with blindness (1814-1857).

CRAWFORD AND BALCARRES, EARL OF, better known as Lord Lindsay, and as the author of "Letters from the Holy Land," "Progression by Antagonism," and "Sketches of the History of Christian Art"; died at Florence, and was entombed at Dunecht, whence his body was abstracted and found again in a wood near by after a seven months' search (1812-1880).

CRAYER, CASPAR DE, a celebrated Flemish painter, born at Antwerp; pictures and altar-pieces by him are to be seen in Brussels and Ghent (1582-1669).

CREAKLE, MR., a bullying schoolmaster in "David Copperfield."

CREASY, SIR EDWARD, chief-justice of Ceylon, author of "The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World," "Rise and Progress of the British Constitution," &c. (1812-1878).

CREATIN, a substance found in the muscles of vertebrate animals, but never in invertebrate.

CREBILLON, a French dramatist, born at Dijon, bred to the law, devoted to literature and the composition of tragedies, of which he produced several, mostly on classical subjects, such as "Atreus and Thyestes," "Electra," of unequal merit, though at times of great power; he ranked next Voltaire among the dramatists of the time (1674-1762).

CRECY, a French village, 12 m. NE. of Abbeville, where Edward III., with 30,000, defeated the French with 68,000, and destroyed the flower of the chivalry of France, Aug. 26, 1346.

CREDIT FONCIER, a system of credit originating in France on the security of land, whereby the loan is repayable so that principal and interest are extinguished at the same time.

CREECH, WILLIAM, an Edinburgh bookseller, for 40 years the chief publisher in the city; published the first Edinburgh edition of Burns's poems (1745-1815).

CREEKS, a tribe of American Indians settled in Indian territory.

CREIGHTON, MANDELL, bishop of London, born at Carlisle; previously bishop of Peterborough; has written on Simon de Montfort, on Wolsey, and on the Tudors and the Reformation, but his great work is the "History of the Papacy from the Great Schism to the Sack of Rome," a work of great value; b. 1843.

CREMIEUX, a French advocate and politician, born at Nimes, of Jewish birth; a member of the Provisional Government of 1848, and of the National Defence in 1870; took a deep interest in the destiny of his race (1796-1880).

CREMONA, old town on the Po, in Lombardy, 46 m. SE. of Milan; interesting for its churches, with their paintings and frescoes; noted at one time for the manufacture of violins.

CREMORNE (37), gardens in Chelsea; a popular place of amusement, now closed.

CREOLE STATE, Louisiana, U.S.

CRESCENT CITY, New Orleans, U.S., as originally occupying a convex bend of the Mississippi.

CRESCENTINI, a celebrated Italian soprano (1769-1846).

CRESCENTIUS, a patrician of Rome who, in the 10th century, sought to destroy the imperial power and restore the republic; on this he was defeated by Otho III., to whom he surrendered on promise of safety, but who hanged and beheaded him; Stephano, his widow, avenged this treachery by accepting Otho as her lover, and then poisoning him.

CRESPI, GIUSEPPE, an Italian painter; copied the works of Correggio, Caracci, and other masters (1665-1747).

CRESWELL, SIR CRESWELL, judge, born in Newcastle; represented Liverpool in Parliament; was raised to the bench by Peel, and, on the establishment of the Divorce Court, was in 1858 named first judge (1794-1863).

CRESWICK, THOMAS, an English landscape painter, born in Sheffield; simple, pleasantly-suggestive, and faithfully-painted scenes from nature were the subjects of his art; was employed a good deal in book illustrations (1811-1869).

CRETE or CANDIA (295), a mountainous island in the Mediterranean, 160 m. long and from 7 to 30 m. broad; in nominal subjection to Turkey after 1669, it was in perpetual revolt. The rising of 1895 led to the intervention of the great powers of Europe, and the Turkish troops having been withdrawn in 1898 under pressure from Great Britain, Russia, France, and Italy, Prince George of Greece was appointed High Commissioner, ruling on behalf of these powers. Turkey still retains the nominal suzerainty.

CRETINISM, a disease prevalent in valleys as those of the Alps, characterised by mental imbecility, and associated with abnormal and arrested physical development.

CREUSA, a wife of AEneas, fell behind her husband, lost her way in escaping from Troy, and perished.

CREUSOT, LE (18), a town in the dep. Saone-et-Loire, near Autun, which owes its importance to the large iron-works established there; is a district rich in coal and iron.

CREUZER, a learned German philologist, born at Marburg; became professor of Ancient History and Philology at Heidelberg; his chief work, and one by which he is most widely known, "Symbolik und Mythologie der Alten Voelker, besonders der Griechen," "Symbolism and Mythology of Ancient Peoples, especially the Greeks"; left an autobiography (1771-1858).

CREWE (29), a town in Cheshire, 43 m. SE. of Liverpool, a great railway junction, and where the London and North-Western Railway Company have their works.

CRICHTON, JAMES, surnamed The Admirable, a Scotchman of gentle, even noble birth, educated at St. Andrews, had George Buchanan for tutor; early developed the most extraordinary gifts of both body and mind; travelled to Paris, Rome, Venice, Milan, and Mantua; astonished every one by his strength and skill as an athlete, and his dexterity and agility in debate; at Mantua he became tutor to the son of the Duke, when one night he was attacked in the streets by a band of masked men, whom he overcame by his skill, recognised his pupil among them, and presented to him his sword, upon which, it is said, the young man immediately ran him through with it (1560-1585).

CRIEFF (5), a town in Perthshire, at the foot of the Grampians, 18 m. W. of Perth, amid exquisite scenery; has a climate favourable for invalids.

CRILLON, a French military captain, born at Mars, in Provence; distinguished himself through five reigns, those of Henry II., Francis II., Charles IX., Henry III., and Henry IV., of the last of whom he became companion in arms, who designated him Le brave des braves, and who wrote to him this famous note after the victory of Arques: "Where were you, brave Crillon? we have conquered, and you were not there." (1541-1615).

CRIMEA (250), a peninsula in the S. of Russia, almost surrounded by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, being connected with the mainland by the narrow isthmus of Perekop; has a bold and precipitous coast 650 m. in length; is barren in the N., but fertile and fruitful in the S.; population chiefly Russians and Tartars.

CRIMEAN WAR, a war carried on chiefly in the Crimea, on the part of Turkey aided by Britain and France, in which Sardinia eventually joined them, against the encroachments of Russia in the E., and which was proclaimed against Russia, March 24, 1854, and ended by the fall of Sebastopol, September 8, 1855, the treaty of peace following having been signed at Paris, March 1856.

CRINAN CANAL, a canal for vessels of light burden, 9 m. long, from Loch Fyne, in Argyllshire, constructed to avoid sailing round the Mull of Kintyre, thereby saving a distance of 115 m.

CRISPI, FRANCESCO, an Italian statesman, born in Sicily; co-operated with Garibaldi in the Sicilian Revolution, and since active as a member of the Government in the kingdom of Italy; b. 1819.

CRISPIN, the patron saint of shoemakers, of noble birth, who with his brother had to flee from persecution in Rome to Gaul, where they settled at Soissons; preached to the people and supported themselves by shoemaking; they finally suffered martyrdom in 287. Festival, Oct. 25.

CRITIAS, a pupil of Socrates, who profited so little by his master's teaching that he became the most conspicuous for his cruelty and rapacity of all the thirty tyrants set up in Athens by the Spartans (450-402 B.C.).

CRITON, a rich Athenian, friend and disciple of Socrates; supported him by his fortune, but could not persuade him to leave the prison, though he had procured the means of escape.

CROA'TIA AND SLAVONIA (2,201), a Hungarian crownland, lying between the Drave and Save, tributaries of the Danube, and stretching westward to the Adriatic. It is half as large as Ireland, wooded and mountainous, with marshy districts along the river courses. The soil is fertile, growing cereals, fibres, tobacco, and grapes; silkworms and bees are a source of wealth; horses, cattle, and swine are raised in large numbers. The province is poor in minerals, and lacks a harbour. The people are Slavs, of Roman Catholic faith; backward in education, but showing signs of progress.

CROCKETT, SAMUEL RUTHERFORD, novelist, born near New Galloway, Kirkcudbright; bred for the Church, and for some time Free Church minister at Penicuik, Midlothian, a charge he resigned in 1895, having previously published a volume of sketches entitled "The Stickit Minister," which was so received as to induce him to devote himself to literature, as he has since done with more or less success; b. 1859.

CROESUS, the last of the kings of Lydia, in the 6th century B.C.; celebrated for his wealth, so that his name became a synonym for a man overwhelmed by the favours of fortune; being visited by Solon, he asked him one day if he knew any one happier than he was, when the sage answered, "No man can be counted happy till after death." Of the truth of this Croesus had ere long experience; being condemned to death by Cyrus, who had defeated him and condemned him to be burnt, and about to be led to the burning pile, he called out thrice over the name of Solon; when Cyrus, having learned the reason, moved with pity, ordered his release, retained him among his counsellors, and commended him when dying to the care of his son.

CROKER, JOHN WILSON, a politician and man of letters, born in Galway, though of English descent; bred for the bar; wrote in advocacy of Catholic emancipation; represented Downpatrick in Parliament; was in 1809 appointed Secretary to the Admiralty, a post he held for 20 years; was one of the founders of the Quarterly Review, to which, it is said, he contributed 200 articles; edited Boswell's "Life of Johnson" with Notes; was an obstinate Tory, satirised by Disraeli and severely handled by Macaulay; founded the Athenaeum Club (1780-1857).

CROKER, T. CROFTON, Irish folk-lorist, born in Cork; held a well-paid clerkship in the Admiralty; collected and published stories, legends, and traditions of the S. of Ireland; he wrote with a humour which was heartily Irish; his most original work being "The Adventures of Barney Mahoney"; he was a zealous antiquary; he was a brilliant conversationalist (1798-1854).

CROLL, JAMES, a geologist, born near Coupar-Angus; contributed materially to geology by his study of the connection between alterations of climate and geological changes (1821-1890).

CROLY, GEORGE, a versatile author; designed for the Church; took to literature, and wrote in all kinds, poetry, biography, and romance; his best romance "Salathiel"; died rector of St. Stephen's, Walbrook (1780-1860).

CROMARTY, a county in the N. of Scotland, consisting of ten fragments scattered up and down Ross-shire; the county town, the birthplace of Hugh Miller, being on the N. side of Cromarty Firth, which opens eastward into the Moray Firth, and forms a large harbour 1 m. long and 7 broad, protected at the mouth by two beetling rocks called Sutors, one on each side, 400 and 463 ft. high.

CROME, JOHN, usually called Old Crome, a landscape-painter, born in Norwich, of poor parents; began as a house-painter and then a drawing-master; one of the founders of the Norwich Society of Artists; took his subjects from his native county, and treated them with fidelity to nature; his pictures have risen in value since his death (1768-1821).

CROMPTON, SAMUEL, inventor of the spinning-mule, born near Bolton; for five years he worked at his project, and after he got it into shape was tormented by people prying about him and trying to find out his secret; at last a sum was raised by subscription to buy it, and he got some L60 for it, by which others became wealthy, while he had to spend, and end, his days in comparative poverty, all he had to subsist on being a life annuity of L63 which some friends bought him (1753-1827).

CROMWELL, OLIVER, Lord-Protector of the commonwealth of England, born at Huntingdon, the son of Robert Cromwell, the younger son of Sir Henry Cromwell, and of Elizabeth Steward, descended from the royal family of Scotland, their third child and second boy; educated at Huntingdon and afterwards at Cambridge; left college at his father's death, and occupied himself in the management of his paternal property; entered Parliament in 1629, and represented Cambridge in 1640, where to oppose the king he, by commission in 1642 from Essex, raised a troop of horse, famous afterwards as his "Ironsides"; with these he distinguished himself, first at Marston Moor in 1644, and next year at Naseby; crushed the Scots at Preston in 1648, who had invaded the country in favour of the king, now in the hands of the Parliament, and took Berwick; sat at trial of the king and signed his death-warrant, 1649; sent that same year to subdue rebellion in Ireland, he sternly yet humanely stamped it out; recalled from Ireland, he set out for Scotland, which had risen up in favour of Charles II., and totally defeated the Scots at Dunbar, Sept. 3, 1650, after which Charles invaded England and the Royalists were finally beaten at Worcester, Sept. 3, 1651, upon which his attention was drawn to affairs of government; taking up his residence at Hampton Court, his first step was to dissolve the Rump, which he did by military authority in 1653; a new Parliament was summoned, which also he was obliged to dismiss, after being declared Lord-Protector; from this time he ruled mainly alone, and wherever his power was exercised, beyond seas even, it was respected; at last his cares and anxieties proved too much for him and wore him out, he fell ill and died, Sept. 3, 1658, the anniversary of his two great victories at Dunbar and Worcester; they buried him in Westminster, but his body was dug up at the Restoration, hanged at Tyburn, and buried under the gallows; such treatment his body was subjected to after he was gone, and for long after he was no less ignobly treated by several succeeding generations as a hypocrite, a fanatic, or a tyrant; but now, thanks to Carlyle, he is come to be regarded as one of the best and wisest rulers that ever sat on the English throne (1599-1658). See "Cromwell's Letters and Speeches," edited by Carlyle.

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