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The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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CINCINNATUS, LUCIUS QUINCTIUS, an old hero of the Roman republic, distinguished for the simplicity and austerity of his manners; was consul in 460 B.C., and on the defeat of a Roman army by the AEqui, called to the dictatorship from the plough, to which he returned on the defeat of the AEqui; he was summoned to fill the same post a second time, when he was 80, on the occasion of the conspiracy of Maelius, with the like success.

CINCINNATUS, THE ORDER OF, an American order founded by officers of the revolutionary army at its dissolution in 1753; was denounced by Franklin as anti-republican in its spirit and tendency; it still survives in a feeble way; the order is hereditary.

CINCINNATUS OF THE AMERICANS, George Washington.

CINDERELLA (the little cinder-girl), the youngest member of a family who must drudge at home while her elder sisters go to balls, till one day a fairy befriends her and conveys her to a ball, where she shines as the centre of attraction, and wins the regard of a prince. On quitting the hall she leaves a slipper behind her, by means of which she is identified by the prince, who finds that hers is the only foot that the slipper will fit, and marries her. The story in one version or another is a very ancient and wide-spread one.

CINEAS, the minister of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus; was the ablest orator of his time, and his master was in the habit of saying of him, that his eloquence had gained him more cities than his own arms; sent on a mission to Rome, the senate refused to hear him, lest his eloquence should prove too fascinating.

CINGALESE, a native of Ceylon.

CINNA, LUCIUS CORNELIUS, a Roman patrician, a friend and supporter of Marius; drove Sulla from Rome and recalled Marius from exile; participated in the murders which followed his recall, and after the death of Marius was assassinated when organising an expedition against Sulla, 84 B.C.

CINNABAR, a sulphide of mercury from which the mercury of commerce is obtained.

CINQ-MARS, HENRI, MARQUIS DE, a French courtier, a favourite of Louis XIII.; a man of handsome figure and fascinating manners; died on the scaffold for conspiring with his friend De Thou against Richelieu (1620-1642).

CINQUE CENTO (lit. five hundred), the Renaissance in literature and art in the 16th century, the expression 5 hundred standing for 15 hundred.

CINQUE PORTS, the five ports of Hastings, Romney, Hythe, Dover, and Sandwich, to which were added Winchelsea and Rye, which possessed certain privileges in return for supplying the royal power with a navy; the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports is only an honorary dignity.

CINTRA, a Portuguese town, 17 m. NW. of Lisbon, where a much reprobated convention between the French under Marshal Junot and the English under Sir Hew Dalrymple was signed in 1808, whereby the former were let off with all their arms and baggage on condition of evacuating Portugal.

CIPANGO, an island on the Eastern Ocean, described by Marco Polo as a sort of El Dorado, an object of search to subsequent navigators, and an attraction among the number to Columbus, it is said.

CIPRIANI, an Italian painter and etcher, born in Florence; settled in London; was an original member of the Royal Academy, and designed the diploma (1727-1785).

CIRCARS, THE, a territory in India along the coast of the Bay of Bengal, from 18 to 100 m. wide; ceded first to the French and in 1766 to the East India Company, now of course under the Crown, and forming part of the Madras Presidency.

CIRCASSIA, a territory on the Western Caucasus, now subject to Russia; celebrated for the sturdy spirit of the men and the beauty of the women; the nobles professing Mohammedanism and the lower classes a certain impure form of Christianity; they are of the Semite race, and resemble the Arabs in their manners.

CIRCE, a sorceress who figures in the "Odyssey." Ulysses having landed on her isle, she administered a potion to him and his companions, which turned them into swine, while the effect of it on himself was counteracted by the use of the herb moly, provided for him by Hermes against sorcery; she detained him with her for years, and disenchanted his companions on his departure.

CIRCEAN POISON, a draught of any kind that is magically and fatally infatuating, such as the effect often of popular applause.

CIRCUITS, districts outside of London into which England is divided for judicial purposes, for the trial of civil as well as criminal cases connected with them; are seven in number—the Midland, the Oxford, the North-Eastern, the South-Eastern, the Northern, the Western, and North Wales and South Wales; the courts are presided over by a judge sent from London, or by two, and are held twice a year, or oftener if the number of cases require it.

CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD, the course of the blood from the heart through the arteries to the minute vessels of the body, and from these last through the veins back to the heart again.

CIRCUMCISION, the practice of cutting away the foreskin, chiefly of males, as observed by the Jews and the Mohammedans, as well as other nations of remote antiquity; regarded by some as a mark of belonging to the tribe, and by others as a sacrifice in propitiation by blood.

CIRCUMLOCUTION OFFICE, a name employed by Dickens in "Little Dorrit" to designate the wearisome routine of public business.

CISALPINE GAUL, territory occupied by Gauls on the Italian or south side of the Alps.

CISALPINE REPUBLIC, a republic so called on both sides of the Po, formed out of his conquests by Napoleon, 1797; became the Italian Republic in 1802, with Milan for capital, and ceased to exist after the fall of Napoleon.

CISLEITHANIA, Austria proper as distinguished from Hungary, which is called Transleithania, on account of the boundary between them being formed by the river Leitha.

CISTERCIANS, a monastic order founded by Abbot Robert in 1098 at Citeaux, near Dijon; they followed the rule of St. Benedict, who reformed the Order after it had lapsed; became an ecclesiastical republic, and were exempt from ecclesiastical control; contributed considerably to the progress of the arts, if little to the sciences.

CITHAERON, a wood-covered mountain on the borders of Boeotia and Attica; famous in Greek legend.

CITIES OF REFUGE, among the Jews; three on the E. and three on the W. of the Jordan, in which the manslayer might find refuge from the avenger of blood.

CITIES OF THE PLAIN, Sodom and Gomorrah, with adjoining cities under the like doom.

CITIZEN KING, Louis Philippe of France, so called as elected by the citizens of Paris.

CITY OF BELLS, Strasburg.

CITY OF CHURCHES, Brooklyn, now incorporated with New York.

CITY OF DESTRUCTION, Bunyan's name for the world as under divine judgment.

CITY OF GOD, Augustine's name for the Church as distinct from the cities of the world, and the title of a book of his defining it.

CITY OF PALACES, Calcutta and Rome.

CITY OF THE PROPHET, Medina, where Mahomet found refuge when driven out of Mecca by the Koreish and their adherents.

CITY OF THE SEVEN HILLS, Rome, as built on seven hills—viz., the Aventine, Coelian, Capitoline, Esquiline, Palatine, Quirinal, and Viminal.

CITY OF THE SUN, BAALBEK (q. v.); and a work by Campanella, describing an ideal republic, after the manner of Plato and Sir Thomas More.

CITY OF THE VIOLET CROWN, Athens.

CIUDAD REAL (royal city) (13), a Spanish town in a province of the same name, 105 m. S. of Madrid, where Sebastian defeated the Spaniards in 1809.

CIUDAD RODRIGO (8), a Spanish town near the Portuguese frontier, 50 m. SW. of Salamanca; stormed by Wellington, after a siege of 11 days, in 1812, for which brilliant achievement he earned the title of Earl in England, and Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo in Spain.

CIVA, or SIVA, the third member of the Hindu Trinity, the destroyer of what Vishnu is the preserver and Brahma is the creator, is properly Brahma undoing what he has made with a view to reincarnation.

CIVIL LAW, a system of laws for the regulation of civilised communities formed on Roman laws, digested in the pandects of Justinian.

CIVIL LIST, the yearly sum granted by the Parliament of England at the commencement of each reign for the support of the royal household, and to maintain the dignity of the Crown: it amounts now to L385,000.

CIVIL SERVICE, the paid service done to the State, exclusive of that of the army and navy.

CIVILIS, CLAUDIUS, a Batavian chief who revolted against Vespasian, but on defeat was able to conclude an honourable peace.

CIVITA VECCHIA (11), a fortified port on the W. coast of Italy, 40 m. NW. of Rome, with a good harbour, founded by Trajan; exports wheat, alum, cheese, &c.

CLACKMANNANSHIRE (28), the smallest county in Scotland, lies between the Ochils and the Forth; rich in minerals, especially coal.

CLAIR, ST., a lake 30 m. long by 12 broad, connecting Lake Erie with Lake Huron.

CLAIRAUT, ALEXIS CLAUDE, a French mathematician and astronomer, born at Paris, of so precocious a genius, that he was admitted to the Academy of Sciences at the age of 18; published a theory of the figure of the earth, and computed the orbit of Halley's comet (1713-1765).

CLAIRVAUX, a village of France, on the Aube, where St. Bernard founded a Cistercian monastery in 1115, and where he lived and was buried; now used as a prison or reformatory.

CLAIRVOYANCE, the power ascribed to certain persons in a mesmeric state of seeing and describing events at a distance or otherwise invisible.

CLAN, a tribe of blood relations descended from a common ancestor, ranged under a chief in direct descent from him, and having a common surname, as in the Highlands of Scotland; at bottom a military organisation for defensive and predatory purposes.

CLAN-NA-GAEL, a Fenian organisation founded at Philadelphia in 1870, to secure by violence the complete emancipation of Ireland from British control.

CLAPHAM, a SW. suburb of London, in the county of Surrey, 4 m. from St. Paul's, and inhabited by a well-to-do middle-class community, originally of evangelical principles, and characterised as the Clapham Set.

CLAPPERTON, CAPTAIN HUGH, an African explorer, born at Annan; bred in the navy, joined two expeditions into Central Africa to ascertain the length and course of the Niger, but got no farther than Sokoto, where he was attacked with dysentery and died (1788-1827).

CLAeRCHEN, a female character in Goethe's "Egmont."

CLARE (124), a county in Munster, Ireland; also an island at the mouth of Clew Bay, county Mayo.

CLARE, JOHN, the peasant poet of Northamptonshire, born near Peterborough; wrote "Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery," which attracted attention, and even admiration, and at length with others brought him a small annuity, which he wasted in speculation; fell into despondency, and died in a lunatic asylum (1793-1864).

CLARE, ST., a virgin and abbess, born at Assisi; the founder of the Order of Poor Clares (1193-1253). Festival, Aug. 12.

CLAREMONT, a mansion in Surrey, 14 m. SW. of London, built by Lord Clive, where Princess Charlotte lived and died, as also Louis Philippe after his flight from France; is now the property of the Queen, and the residence of the Duchess of Albany.

CLARENCE, DUKE OF, brother of Edward IV.; convicted of treason, he was condemned to death, and being allowed to choose the manner of his death, is said to have elected to die by drowning in a butt of Malmsey wine (1459-1478).

CLARENCEUX, or CLARENCIEUX, the provincial king-at-arms, whose jurisdiction extends from and includes all England S. of the Trent.

CLARENDON, a place 2 m. SE. of Salisbury, where the magnates of England, both lay and clerical, met in 1164 under Henry II. and issued a set of ordinances, called the Constitutions of Clarendon, 16 in number, to limit the power of the Church and assert the rights of the crown in ecclesiastical affairs.

CLARENDON, EDWARD HYDE, Earl of, sat in the Short Parliament and the Long on the popular side, but during the Civil War became a devoted Royalist; was from 1641 one of the chief advisers of the king; on the failure of the royal cause, took refuge first in Jersey, and then in Holland with the Prince of Wales; contributed to the Restoration; came back with Charles, and became Lord Chancellor; fell into disfavour, and quitted England in 1667; died at Rouen; wrote, among other works, a "History of the Great Rebellion," dignifiedly written, though often carelessly, but full of graphic touches and characterisations especially of contemporaries; it has been called an "epical composition," as showing a sense of the central story and its unfolding. "Few historians," adds Prof. Saintsbury, "can describe a given event with more vividness. Not one in all the long list of the great practitioners of the art has such skill in the personal character" (1608-1674).

CLARENDON, GEORGE VILLIERS, EARL OF, a Whig statesman; served as a cabinet minister under Lord Melbourne, Lord John Russell twice, Lord Aberdeen, Lord Palmerston, and Mr. Gladstone; held the office of Foreign Secretary under the three preceding; was Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland at the time of the potato failure, and represented Britain at the Congress of Paris; died in harness, deeply lamented both at home and abroad (1800-1870).

CLARETIE, JULES, a French journalist, novelist, dramatic author, and critic, born at Limoges; has published some 40 volumes of causeries, history, and fiction; appointed Director of the Theatre Francais in 1893; b. 1840.

CLARISSA HARLOWE, the heroine of one of Richardson's novels, exhibiting a female character which, as described by him, is pronounced to be "one of the brightest triumphs in the whole range of imaginative literature," is described by Stopford Brooke "as the pure and ideal star of womanhood."

CLARK, SIR ANDREW, an eminent London physician, born near Cargill, in Perthshire, much beloved, and skilful in the treatment of diseases affecting the respiratory and digestive organs (1826-1893).

CLARK, SIR JAMES, physician to the Queen, born in Cullen; an authority on the influence of climate on chronic and pulmonary disease (1788-1870).

CLARK, THOMAS, chemist, born in Ayr; discovered the phosphate of soda, and the process of softening hard water (1801-1867).

CLARKE, ADAM, a Wesleyan divine, of Irish birth; a man of considerable scholarship, best known by his "Commentary" on the Bible; author also of a "Bibliographical Dictionary" (1762-1832).

CLARKE, CHARLES COWDEN, a friend of Lamb, Keats, and Leigh Hunt; celebrated for his Shakespearian learning; brought out an annotated Shakespeare, assisted by his wife; lectured on Shakespeare characters (1787-1877).

CLARKE, DR. SAMUEL, an English divine, scholar and disciple of Newton, born at Norwich; author, as Boyle lecturer, of a famous "Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God," as also independently of "The Evidences of Natural and Revealed Religion"; as a theologian he inclined to Arianism, and his doctrine of morality was that it was congruity with the "eternal fitness of things" (1675-1729).

CLARKE, EDWARD DANIEL, a celebrated English traveller, born in Sussex; visited Scandinavia, Russia, Circassia, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Greece; brought home 100 MSS. to enrich the library of Cambridge, the colossal statue of the Eleusinian Ceres, and the sarcophagus of Alexander, now in the British Museum; his "Travels" were published in six volumes (1769-1822).

CLARKE, HENRI, Duc de Feltre, of Irish origin, French marshal, and minister of war under Napoleon; instituted the prevotal court, a pro re nata court without appeal (1767-1818).

CLARKE, MARY COWDEN, nee Novello, of Italian descent, wife of Charles Cowden, assisted her husband in his Shakespeare studies, and produced amid other works "Concordance to Shakespeare," a work which occupied her 16 years (1809-1898).

CLARKE, WILLIAM GEORGE, English man of letters; Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; edited the "Cambridge Shakespeare," along with Mr. Aldis Wright (1821-1867).

CLARKSON, THOMAS, philanthropist, born in Wisbeach, Cambridgeshire; the great English anti-slavery advocate, and who lived to see in 1833 the final abolition in the British empire of the slavery he denounced, in which achievement he was assisted by the powerful advocacy in Parliament of Wilberforce (1760-1846).

CLASSIC RACES, the English horse-races at Newmarket—Derby, the Oaks, and the St. Leger.

CLASSICS, originally, and often still, the standard authors in the literature of Greece or Rome, now authors in any literature that represent it at its best, when, as Goethe has it, it is "vigorous, fresh, joyous, and healthy," as in the "Nibelungen," no less than in the "Iliad."

CLAUDE, JEAN, a French Protestant controversial divine, a powerful antagonist of Bossuet and other Catholic writers, allowed only 24 hours to escape on the eve of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, though other Protestant ministers were allowed 15 days (1619-1687).

CLAUDE LORRAINE, a great landscape painter, born in Lorraine, of poor parents, and apprenticed to a pastry-cook; went as such to Rome; became servant and colour-grinder to Tassi, who instructed him in his art; by assiduous study of nature in all her aspects attained to fame; was eminent in his treatment of aerial perspective, and an artist whom it was Turner's ambition to rival; he was eminent as an etcher as well as a painter; Turner left one of his finest works to the English nation on condition that it should hang side by side of a masterpiece of Claude, which it now does; his pictures are found in every gallery in Europe, and a goodly number of them are to be met with in England; there are in the St. Petersburg gallery four pieces of exquisite workmanship, entitled "Morning," "Noon," "Evening," and "Twilight" (1600-1682).

CLAUDIAN, a Latin epic poet of the 4th century, born in Alexandria, panegyrist of Stilicho on his victory over Alaric; a not unworthy successor of Catullus and Propertius, though his native tongue was Greek.

CLAUDIUS, APPIUS, a Roman decemvir and patrician in 451 B.C.; outraged Virginia, a beautiful plebeian damsel, whom her father, on discovering of the crime, killed with a knife snatched from a butcher's stall, rousing thereby the popular rage against the decemvir, who was cast into prison, where he put an end to himself, 449 B.C.

CLAUDIUS, APPIUS, censor in 312-307 B.C.; wrought important changes in the Roman constitution; set on foot the construction of the Appian Way and the Appian Aqueduct, named after him.

CLAUDIUS I, TIBERIUS DRUSUS, surnamed GERMANICUS, brother of Tiberius, emperor of Rome from 41 to 54, born at Lyons; after spending 50 years of his life in private, occupying himself in literary study, was, on the death of Caligula, raised very much against his wish by the soldiers to the imperial throne, a post which he filled with honour to himself and benefit to the State; but he was too much controlled by his wives, of whom he had in succession four, till the last of them, Agrippina, had him poisoned to make way for her son Nero.

CLAUDIUS II., surnamed GOTHICUS, Roman emperor from 268 to 270; an excellent prince and a good general; distinguished himself by his ability and courage against the Goths and other hordes of barbarians.

CLAUSEL, BERTRAND, marshal of France, born at Mirepoix; served under Napoleon in Holland, Italy, Austria, and Spain; was defeated at Salamanca, executing thereafter a masterly retreat; left France for America in 1815 on the fall of Napoleon, to whom he was devoted; returned in 1830, became commander-in-chief in Algeria, and ultimately governor (1772-1842).

CLAUSEWITZ, KARL VON, a Prussian general, born at Burg; distinguished himself against Napoleon in Russia in 1812; an authority on the art of war, on which he wrote a treatise in three volumes, entitled "Vom Krieg" (1780-1831).

CLAUSIUS, RUDOLF, an eminent German physicist, born at Koeslin, in Pomerania; professor of Natural Philosophy at Bonn; specially distinguished for his contributions to the science of thermo-dynamics, and the application of mathematical methods to the study, as also to electricity and the expansion of gases (1822-1888).

CLAVERHOUSE, JOHN GRAHAM OF, VISCOUNT DUNDEE, commenced life as a soldier in France and Holland; on his return to Scotland in 1677 was appointed by Charles II. to the command of a troop to suppress the Covenanters; was defeated at Drumclog 1679, but by the help of Monmouth had his revenge at Bothwell Brig; affected to support the Revolution, but intrigued in favour of the Stuarts; raised in Scotland a force in their behalf; was met at Killiecrankie by General Mackay, where he fell (1643-1689).

CLAVIERE, Minister of Finance in France after Necker, born at Geneva; projector of the Moniteur; friend of Mirabeau; committed suicide in prison (1735-1793).

CLAVIJE'RO, a Jesuit missionary, born in Vera Cruz; laboured for 40 years as missionary in Mexico; on the suppression of his Order went to Italy, and wrote a valuable work on Mexico (1718-1793).

CLAVIGO, a drama by Goethe in five acts, the first work to which he put his name; was received with disfavour.

CLAVILENO, Don Quixote's wooden horse.

CLAY, HENRY, an American statesman, born in Virginia; bred for the bar, and distinguished for his oratory; was for many years Speaker of the House of Representatives; was a supporter of war with Britain in 1812-15, and party to the treaty which ended it; was an advocate of protection; aspired three times unsuccessfully to the Presidency; his public career was a long one, and an honourable (1777-1852).

CLEAR THE CAUSEWAY RIOTS, bickerings in the streets of Edinburgh in 1515 between the rival factions of Angus and Arran, to the utter rout of the former, or the Douglas party.

CLEANTHES, a Stoic philosopher, born at Assos, in Troas, of the 3rd century B.C.; wrought as a drawer of water by night that he might earn his fee as pupil of Zeno's by day; became Zeno's successor and the head of his school; regarded "pleasure as a remission of that moral energy of the soul, which alone is happiness, as an interruption to life, and as an evil, which was not in accordance with nature, and no end of nature."

CLEAR, CAPE, a headland S. of Clear Island, most southerly point of Ireland, and the first land sighted coming from America.

CLEARCHUS, a Spartan general who accompanied Cyrus on his expedition against Artaxerxes; commanded the retreat of the Ten Thousand; was put to death by Tissaphernes in 401 B.C., and replaced by Xenophon.

CLEARING-HOUSE, a house for interchanging the respective claims of banks and of railway companies.

CLEISHBOTHAM, JEDEDIAH, an imaginary editor in Scott's "Tales of My Landlord."

CLELIA, a Roman heroine, who swam the Tiber to escape from Porsenna, whose hostage she was; sent back by the Romans, she was set at liberty, and other hostages along with her, out of admiration on Porsenna's part of both her and her people.

CLEMENCEAUX, GEORGES BENJAMIN, French politician, born in La Vendee; bred to medicine; political adversary of Gambetta; proprietor of La Justice, a Paris journal; an expert swordsman; b. 1841.

CLEMENCET, CHARLES, a French Benedictine, born near Autun; one of the authors of the great chronological work, "Art de Verifier les Dates," and wrote the history of the Port Royal (1703-1778).

CLEMENCIN, DIEGO, a Spanish statesman and litterateur; his most important work a commentary on "Don Quixote."

CLEMENS, SAMUEL LANGHORNE, an American humorist with the pseudonym of "Mark Twain," born at Florida, Missouri, U.S.; began his literary career as a newspaper reporter and a lecturer; his first book "The Jumping Frog"; visited Europe, described in the "Innocents Abroad"; married a lady of fortune; wrote largely in his peculiar humorous vein, such as the "Tramp Abroad"; produced a drama entitled the "Gilded Age," and compiled the "Memoirs of General Grant"; b. 1835.

CLEMENS ALEXANDRINUS, one of the Greek Fathers of the Church, of the 2nd and 3rd centuries; had Origen for pupil; brought up in Greek philosophy; converted in manhood to Christianity from finding in his appreciation of knowledge over faith confirmations of it in his philosophy, which he still adhered to; his "Stromata" or "Miscellanies" contain facts and quotations found nowhere else.

CLEMENT, the name of 14 popes: C. I., Pope from 91 to 100; one of the Apostolic Fathers; wrote an Epistle to the Church of Corinth, with references to the Canonical books. C. II., Pope from 1046 to 1047. C. III., pope from 1187 to 1191. C. IV., Pope from 1265 to 1268. C. V., Bertrand de Goth, Pope from 1305 to 1314; transferred the seat of the Papacy to Avignon, and abolished the Order of the Knights Templars. C. VI. Pope from 1342 to 1352; resided at Avignon. C. VII., Giulio de Medici, Pope from 1523 to 1534; celebrated for his quarrels with Charles V. and Henry VIII., was made prisoner in Rome by the Constable of Bourbon; refused to sanction the divorce of Henry VIII., and brought about the schism of England from the Holy See. C. VIII., Pope from 1592 to 1605; a patron of Tasso's; readmitted Henry IV. to the Church and the Jesuits to France. C. IX., Pope from 1667 to 1669. C. X., pope from 1670 to 1676. C. XI., Pope from 1700 to 1721; as Francesco Albani opposed the Jansenists; issued the bull Unigenitus against them; supported the Pretender and the claims of the Stuarts. C. XII., Pope from 1738 to 1740. C. XIII., Pope from 1758 to 1769. C. XIV., Pope from 1769 to 1774, Ganganelli, an able, liberal-minded, kind-hearted, and upright man; abolished the Order of the Jesuits out of regard to the peace of the Church; his death occurred not without suspicions of foul-play.

CLEMENT, French critic, born at Dijon, surnamed by Voltaire from his severity the "Inclement" (1742-1812).

CLEMENT, a French manufacturer and savant, born near Dijon; author of a memoir on the specific heat of the gases (1779-1841).

CLEMENT, JACQUES, a Dominican monk; assassinated Henry III. of France in 1589.

CLEMENT, ST., St. Paul's coadjutor, the patron saint of tanners; his symbol an anchor.

CLEMENTI, MUZIO, a musical composer, especially of pieces for the pianoforte, born in Rome; was the father of pianoforte music; one of the foremost pianists of his day; was buried in Westminster (1752-1832).

CLEMENTINE, THE LADY, a lady, accomplished and beautiful, in Richardson's novel, "Sir Charles Grandison," in love with Sir Charles, who marries another he has no partiality for.

CLEOBULUS, one of the seven sages of Greece; friend of Plato; wrote lyrics and riddles in verse, 530 B.C.

CLEOM'BROTUS, a philosopher of Epirus, so fascinated with Plato's "Phaedon" that he leapt into the sea in the expectation that he would thereby exchange this life for a better.

CLEOME'DES, a Greek astronomer of the 1st or 2nd century; author of a treatise which regards the sun as the centre of the solar system and the earth as a globe.

CLEOMENES, the name of three Spartan kings.

CLEOMENES, an Athenian sculptor, who, as appears from an inscription on the pedestal, executed the statue of the Venus de Medici towards 220 B.C.

CLEON, an Athenian demagogue, surnamed the Tanner, from his profession, which he forsook that he might champion the rights of the people; rose in popular esteem by his victory over the Spartans, but being sent against Brasidas, the Spartan general, was defeated and fell in the battle, 422 B.C.; is regarded by Thucydides with disfavour, and by Aristophanes with contempt, but both these writers were of the aristocracy, and possibly prejudiced, though the object of their disfavour had many of the marks of the vulgar agitator, and stands for the type of one.

CLEOPA'TRA, Queen of Egypt, a woman distinguished for her beauty, her charms, and her amours; first fascinated Caesar, to whom she bore a son, and whom she accompanied to Rome, and after Caesar's death took Mark Antony captive, on whose fall and suicide at Actium she killed herself by applying an asp to her arm, to escape the shame of being taken to Rome to grace the triumph of the victor (69-30 B.C.).

CLEOPATRA'S NEEDLE, an obelisk of 186 tons weight and 681/2 ft. high, brought from Alexandria to London in 1878, and erected on the Thames Embankment, London.

CLERC, or LECLERC, JEAN, a French theologian of the Arminian school, born at Geneva; a prolific author; wrote commentaries on all the books of the Old Testament, on lines since followed by the Rationalist school or Neologians of Germany (1657-1736).

CLERFAYT, COMTE DE, an Austrian general, distinguished in the Seven Years' War; commanded with less success the Austrian army against the French armies of the Revolution (1733-1798).

CLERK, JOHN, OF ELDIN, of the Penicuik family, an Edinburgh merchant, first suggested the naval manoeuvre of "breaking the enemy's lines," which was first successfully adopted against the French in 1782 (1728-1812).

CLERK, JOHN, son of preceding, a Scottish judge, under the title of Lord Eldin, long remembered in Edinburgh for his wit (1757-1832).

CLERKENWELL (66), a parish in Finsbury, London, originally an aristocratic quarter, now the centre of the manufacture of jewellery and watches.

CLERMONT, ROBERT, COMTE DE, sixth son of St. Louis, head of the house of Bourbon.

CLERMONT FERRAND (45), the ancient capital of Auvergne and chief town of the dep. Puy-de-Dome; the birthplace of Pascal, Gregory of Tours, and Dessaix, and where, in 1095, Pope Urban II. convoked a council and decided on the first Crusade; it has been the scene of seven Church Councils.

CLERMONT-TONNERRE, Marquis, minister of France under the Restoration of the Bourbons (1779-1865).

CLERY, Louis XVI.'s valet, who waited on him in his last hours, and has left an account of what he saw of his touching farewell with his family.

CLEVELAND, a hilly district in the North Riding of Yorkshire, rich in iron-stone.

CLEVELAND (381), the second city of Ohio, on the shores of Lake Erie, 230 m. NE. of Cincinnati; is built on a plain considerably above the level of the lake; the winding Cuyahoga River divides it into two parts, and the industrial quarters are on the lower level of its banks; the city is noted for its wealth of trees in the streets and parks, hence called "The Forest City," and for the absence of tenement houses; it has a university, several colleges, and two libraries; it is the terminus of the Ohio Canal and of seven railways, and the iron ore of Lake Superior shores, the limestone of Lake Erie Islands, and the Ohio coal are brought together here, and every variety of iron manufacture carried on; there is a great lumber market, and an extensive general trade.

CLEVELAND, GROVER, President of the United States, born in New Jersey, son of a Presbyterian minister; bred for the bar; became President in the Democratic interest in 1885; unseated for his free-trade leaning by Senator Harrison, 1889; became the President a second time in 1893; retired in 1897.

CLEVELAND, JOHN, partisan of Charles I.; imprisoned for abetting the Royalist cause against the Parliament, but after some time set at liberty in consequence of a letter he wrote to Cromwell pleading that he was a poor man, and that in his poverty he suffered enough; he was a poet, and used his satirical faculty in a political interest, one of his satires being an onslaught on the Scots for betraying Charles I.; d. 1650.

CLEVES (10), a Prussian town 46 m. NW. of Duesseldorf, once the capital of a duchy connected by a canal with the Rhine; manufactures textile fabrics and tobacco.

CLICHY (30), a manufacturing suburb of Paris, on the NW. and right bank of the Seine.

CLIFFORD, GEORGE, Earl of Cumberland, a distinguished naval commander under Queen Elizabeth, and one of her favourites (1558-1605).

CLIFFORD, JOHN, D.D., Baptist minister in London, author of "Is Life Worth Living?" b. 1836.

CLIFFORD, PAUL, a highwayman, the subject of a novel by Bulwer Lytton, who was subdued and reformed by the power of love.

CLIFTON (13), a fashionable suburb of Bristol, resorted to as a watering-place; romantically situated on the sides and crest of high cliffs, whence it name.

CLIMACTERIC, THE GRAND, the 63rd year of a man's life, and the average limit of it; a climacteric being every seven years of one's life, and reckoned critical.

CLINKER, HUMPHRY, the hero of Smollett's novel, a poor waif, reduced to want, who attracts the notice of Mr. Bramble, marries Mrs. Bramble's maid, and proves a natural son of Mr. Bramble.

CLINTON, GEORGE, American general and statesman; was governor of New York; became Vice-President in 1804 (1739-1812).

CLINTON, SIR HENRY, an English general; commanded in the American war; censured for failure in the war; wrote an exculpation, which was accepted (1738-1795).

CLINTON, HENRY FYNES, a distinguished chronologist, author of "Fasti Hellenici" and "Fasti Romani" (1781-1852).

CLIO, the muse of history and epic poetry, represented as seated with a half-opened scroll in her hand.

CLISSON, OLIVIER DE, constable of France under Charles VI.; companion in arms of Du Gueselin, and victor at Roosebeke (1326-1407).

CLISTHENES, an Athenian, uncle of Pericles, procured the expulsion of Hippias the tyrant, 510 B.C., and the establishment of OSTRACISM (q. v.).

CLITUS, a general of Alexander, and his friend, who saved his life at the battle of Granicus, but whom, at a banquet, he killed when heated with wine, to his inconsolable grief ever afterwards.

CLIVE, ROBERT, LORD CLIVE AND BARON PLASSEY, the founder of the dominion of Britain in India, born in Shropshire; at 19 went out a clerk in the East India Company's service, but quitted his employment in that capacity for the army; distinguishing himself against the rajah of Tanjore, was appointed commissary; advised an attack on Arcot, in the Carnatic, in 1751; took it from and held it against the French, after which, and other brilliant successes, he returned to England, and was made lieutenant-colonel in the king's service; went out again, and marched against the nabob Surajah Dowlah, and overthrew him at the battle of Plassey, 1757; established the British power in Calcutta, and was raised to the peerage; finally returned to England possessed of great wealth, which exposed him to the accusation of having abused his power; the accusation failed; in his grief he took to opium, and committed suicide (1725-1774).

CLODIUS, a profligate Roman patrician; notorious as the enemy of Cicero, whose banishment he procured; was killed by the tribune Milo, 52 B.C.

CLODOMIR, the second son of Clovis, king of Orleans from 511 to 524; fell fighting with his rivals; his children, all but one, were put to death by their uncles, Clotaire and Childebert.

CLOOTZ, ANACHARSIS, Baron Jean Baptiste de Clootz, a French Revolutionary, born at Cleves; "world-citizen"; his faith that "a world federation is possible, under all manner of customs, provided they hold men"; his pronomen Anacharsis suggested by his resemblance to an ancient Scythian prince who had like him a cosmopolitan spirit; was one of the founders of the worship of Reason, and styled himself the "orator of the human race"; distinguished himself at the great Federation, celebrated on the Champ de Mars, by entering the hall on the great Federation Day, June 19, 1790, "with the human species at his heels"; was guillotined under protest in the name of the human race (1755-1794).

CLORINDA, a female Saracen knight sent against the Crusaders, whom Tancred fell in love with, but slew on an encounter at night; before expiring she received Christian baptism at his hands.

CLOTAIRE I., son and successor of Clovis, king of the Franks from 558; cruel and sanguinary; along with Childebert murdered the sons of his brother Clodomir. C. II., son of Chilperic and Fredigonda, king of the Franks from 613 to 628; caused Brunhilda to be torn in pieces. C. III., son of Clovis II., King of Neustria and Burgundy from 656 to 670. C. IV., king of ditto from 717 to 720.

CLOTHES, Carlyle's name in "Sartor Resartus" for the guises which the spirit, especially of man, weaves for itself and wears, and by which it both conceals itself in shame and reveals itself in grace.

CLOTHO, that one of the three Fates which spins the thread of human destiny.

CLOTILDA, ST., the wife of Clovis I.; persuaded her husband to profess Christianity; retired into a monastery at Tours when he died (475-545). Festival, June 3.

CLOUD, ST., the patron saint of smiths.

CLOUD, ST., or CLODOALD, third son of Clodomir, who escaped the fate of his brothers, and retired from the world to a spot on the left bank of the Seine, 6 m. SW. of Paris, named St. Cloud after him.

CLOUDS, THE, the play in which Aristophanes exposes Socrates to ridicule.

CLOUGH, ARTHUR HUGH, a lyric poet, born at Liverpool; son of a cotton merchant; educated at Rugby under Dr. Arnold, whom he held in the highest regard; was at Oxford, as a Fellow of Oriel, at the time of the Tractarian movement, which he arrayed himself against, and at length turned his back upon and tore himself away from by foreign travel; on his return he was appointed examiner in the Education Office; falling ill from overwork he went abroad again, and died at Florence; he was all alive to the tendencies of the time, and his lyrics show his sense of these, and how he fronted them; in the speculative scepticism of the time his only refuge and safety-anchor was duty; Matthew Arnold has written in his "Thyrsis" a tribute to his memory such as has been written over few; his best-known poem is "The Bothie of Tober-na-Vuolich" (1819-1861).

CLOVIS I., king of the Franks, son of Childeric I.; conquered the Romans at Soissons 486, which he made his centre; married CLOTILDA (q. v.) 493; beat the Germans near Cologne 496, by assistance, as he believed, of the God of Clotilda, after which he was baptized by St. Remi at Rheims; and overthrew the Visigoths under Alaric II. near Poitiers in 507, after which victories he made Paris his capital. C. II., son of Dagobert; was king of Neustria and Burgundy from 638 to 656. C. ILL, son of Thierry III., and king of ditto from 691 to 695, and had Pepin d'Heristal for mayor of the palace.

CLUNY (3), a town in the dep. of Saone-et-Loire, on an affluent of the Saone; renowned in the Middle Ages for its Benedictine abbey, founded in 910, and the most celebrated in Europe, having been the mother establishment of 2000 others of the like elsewhere; in ecclesiastical importance it stood second to Rome, and its abbey church second to none prior to the erection of St. Peter's; a great normal school was established here in 1865.

CLUSIUM, the ancient capital of Etruria and Porsenna's.

CLUTHA, the largest river in New Zealand, in Otago, very deep and rapid, and 200 m. long.

CLUTTERBUCK, the imaginary author of the "Fortunes of Nigel," and the patron to whom the "Abbot" is dedicated.

CLYDE, a river in the W. of Scotland which falls into a large inlet or firth, as it is called, the commerce on which extends over the world, and on the banks of which are shipbuilding yards second to none in any other country; it is deepened as far as Glasgow for ships of a heavy tonnage.

CLYDE, LORD. See CAMPBELL, COLIN.

CLYTEMNESTRA, the wife of Agamemnon, and the mother of Iphigenia, Electra, and Orestes; killed her husband, and was killed by her son, Orestes, seven years after.

CLYTIE, a nymph in love with Apollo, god of the sun, who did not respond to her; but, with all the passion he durst show to her, turned her into a sunflower.

COANZA, a W. African river, which rises in the Mossamba Mountains, falling into the sea after a course of 600 m.; owing to falls is navigable for only 140 m. from its mouth.

COAST RANGE, a range in the U.S., W. of the Sierra Nevada, parallel to it, with the Sacramento Valley between.

COBBETT, WILLIAM, a political and miscellaneous writer, born at Farnham, Sussex; commenced life as a farm labourer, and then as copying clerk; enlisted, and saw seven years' service in Nova Scotia; being discharged, travelled in France and America; on his return started the Weekly Register, at first Tory, then Radical; published a libel against the Government, for which he was imprisoned; on his release issued his Register at a low price, to the immense increase of its circulation; vain attempts were made to crush him, against which he never ceased to protest; after the passing of the Reform Bill he got into Parliament, but made no mark; his writings were numerous, and include his "Grammar," his "Cottage Economy," his "Rural Rides," and his "Advice to Young Men"; his political opinions were extreme, but his English was admirable (1762-1835).

COBBLER POET, HANS SACHS (q. v.).

COBDEN, RICHARD, a great political economist and the Apostle of Free Trade, born near Midhurst, Sussex; became partner in a cotton-trading firm in Manchester; made a tour on the Continent and America in the interest of political economy; on the formation of the Corn-Law League in 1838, gave himself heart and soul to the abolition of the Corn Laws; became Member of Parliament for Stockport in 1841; on the conversion of Sir Robert Peel to Free-Trade principles saw these laws abolished in 1846; for his services in this cause he received the homage of his country as well as of Continental nations, but refused all civic honours, and finished his political career by negotiating a commercial treaty with France (1804-1865).

COBENTZELL, COMTE DE, an Austrian diplomatist, born at Brussels; negotiated the treaties of Campo Formio and Luneville; founded the Academy of Sciences at Brussels (1753-1808).

COBLENZ (32), a fortified city, manufacturing and trading town, in Prussia, at the junction of the Rhine and the Moselle, so called as at the confluence of the two; opposite it is Ehrenbreitstein.

COBURG (18), capital of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, on the Itz, the old castle on a height 500 ft. above the town; gave shelter to Luther in 1530, and was besieged by Wallenstein.

COBURG, field-marshal of Austria; vanquished Dumouriez at Neerwinden; was conquered by Moreau and Jourdan (1737-1815).

COCAINE, an alkaloid from the leaf of the coca plant, used as an anaesthetic.

COCCEIUS, or KOCH, JOHANN, a Dutch divine, professor at Leyden; held that the Old Testament was a type or foreshadow of the New, and was the founder of the federal theology, or the doctrine that God entered into a threefold compact with man, first prior to the law, second under the law, and third under grace (1603-1669).

COCCEJI, HENRY, learned German jurist, born at Bremen; an authority on civil law; was professor of law at Frankfurt (1644-1719).

COCCEJI, SAMUEL, son of the preceding; Minister of Justice and Chancellor of Prussia under Frederick the Great; a prince of lawyers, and "a very Hercules in cleansing law stables" as law-reformer (1679-1755).

COCHABAMBA (14), a high-lying city of Bolivia, capital of a department of the name; has a trade in grain and fruits.

COCHIN (722), a native state in India N. of Travancore, cooped up between W. Ghats and the Arabian Sea, with a capital of the same name, where Vasco da Gama died; the first Christian church in India was built here, and there is here a colony of black Jews.

COCHIN-CHINA (2,034), the region E. of the Mekong, or Annam proper, called HIGH COCHIN-CHINA (capital Hue), and LOW COCHIN-CHINA, a State S. of Indo-China, and S. of Cambodia and Annam; belonging to France, with an unhealthy climate; rice the chief crop; grows also teak, cotton, &c.; capital Saigon.

COCHLAEUS, JOHANN, an able and bitter antagonist of Luther's; d. 1592.

COCHRANE, the name of several English naval officers of the Dundonald family; SIR ALEXANDER FORRESTER INGLIS (1758-1832); SIR THOMAS JOHN, his son (1798-1872); and THOMAS, LORD. See DUNDONALD.

COCK LANE GHOST, a ghost which was reported in a lane of the name in Smithfield, London, in 1762, to the excitement of the public, due to a girl rapping on a board in bed.

COCKAIGNE, an imaginary land of idleness and luxury, from a satirical poem of that name (coquina, a kitchen), where the monks live in an abbey built of pasties, the rivers run with wine, and the geese fly through the air ready roasted. The name has been applied to London and Paris.

COCKATRICE, a monster with the wings of a fowl, the tail of a dragon, and the head of a cock; alleged to have been hatched by a serpent from a cock's egg; its breath and its fatal look are in mediaeval art the emblem of sin.

COCKBURN, SIR ALEXANDER, Lord Chief-Justice of England from 1859; called to the bar in 1829; became Liberal member for Southampton in 1847, and Solicitor-General in 1850; was prosecutor in the Palmer case, judge in the Tichborne, and an arbitrator in the Alabama (1802-1880).

COCKBURN, ALISON, author of "Flowers of the Forest"; in her day the leader of Edinburgh society; was acquainted with Burns, and recognised in his boyhood the genius of Scott (1713-1795).

COCKBURN, SIR GEORGE, an English admiral, born in London; rose by rapid stages to be captain of a frigate; took an active part in the expedition to the Scheldt, in the defence of Cadiz, and of the coast of Spain; was second in command of the expedition against the United States; returned to England in 1815, and was selected to convey Napoleon to St. Helena (1771-1853).

COCKBURN, HENRY, LORD, an eminent Scotch judge, born in Edinburgh; called to the bar in 1800; one of the first contributors to the Edinburgh Review; was Solicitor-General for Scotland in 1830, and appointed a judge four years after; was a friend and colleague of Lord Jeffrey; wrote Jeffrey's Life, and left "Memorials of His Own Time" and "Journals"; he was a man of refined tastes, shrewd common-sense, quiet humour, and a great lover of his native city and its memories; described by Carlyle as "a bright, cheery-voiced, hazel-eyed man; a Scotch dialect with plenty of good logic in it, and of practical sagacity; a gentleman, and perfectly in the Scotch type, perhaps the very last of that peculiar species" (1779-1854).

COCKER, EDWARD, an arithmetician, and a schoolmaster by profession; wrote an arithmetic, published after his death, long the text-book on the subject, and a model of its kind; gave rise to the phrase "according to Cocker" (1631-1672).

COCKNEY, a word of uncertain derivation, but meaning one born and bred in London, and knowing little or nothing beyond it, and betraying his limits by his ideas, manners, and accent.

COCKNEY SCHOOL, a literary school, so called by Lockhart, as inspired with the idea that London is the centre of civilisation, and including Leigh Hunt, Hazlitt, and others.

COCKPIT OF EUROPE, Belgium, as the scene of so many battles between the Powers of Europe.

COCKTON, HENRY, a novelist, born in London, author of "Valentine Vox" (1807-1853).

COCLES, HORATIUS, a Roman who defended a bridge against the army of Porsenna till the bridge was cut down behind him, when he leapt into the river and swam across scatheless amid the darts of the enemy.

COCOS ISLANDS, a group of 20 small coral islands about 700 m. SW. of Sumatra.

COCYTUS, a dark river which environed Tartarus with bitter and muddy waters.

CODRINGTON, SIR EDWARD, a British admiral; entered the navy at 13; served under Howe at Brest, in the capacity of captain of the Orion at Trafalgar, in the Walcheren expedition, in North America, and at Navarino in 1827, when the Turkish fleet was destroyed; served also in Parliament from 1832 to 1839, when he was appointed Commander-in-Chief at Portsmouth (1770-1851).

CODRINGTON, SIR WILLIAM JOHN, a British general; served in the Crimean war, and Commander-in-Chief after the death of General Simpson (1800-1884).

CODRUS, the last king of Athens; sacrificed his life to fulfil an oracle, which promised victory to the side whose king fell in an engagement between the Athenians and Dorians in 1132 B.C.

COEHOORN, BARON VAN, a Dutch military engineer; fortified Namur, and defended it against Vauban; was successful in besieging many towns during the war of the Spanish Succession; author of a treatise on fortification (1641-1704).

COELEBS (a bachelor), the title of a novel by Hannah More.

COELE-SYRIA (the Howe of Syria), or EL BUKA'A, a valley between the Lebanons, about 100 m. long by 10 m. broad.

COELIAN, one of the seven hills of Rome, S. of the Capitoline.

COELLO, the name of two Spanish painters in the 16th and 17th centuries, whose works are in the Escurial.

COEUR, JACQUES, a rich merchant of Bourges, financier to Charles VII., for whom he provided the sinews of war against the English, but who banished him at the instigation of detractors; he was reinstated under Louis XI. (1400-1456).

COEUR DE LION (lion-hearted), a surname on account of their courage given to Richard I. of England (1151), Louis VIII. of France (1181), and Boselas I. of Poland (960).

COGITO, ERGO SUM, "I think, therefore I am." Descartes' principle of certainty, and on which, as on a stable basis, he reared his whole philosophy. See DESCARTES. "Alas, poor cogitator," Carlyle exclaims, "this takes us but a little way. Sure enough, I am; and lately was not; but Whence? How? Whereto?"

COGNAC (17), a French town in the dep. of Charente, birthplace of Francis I.; famous for its vines and the manufacture of brandy.

COGNIET, a French painter, author of "Tintoret painting his Dead Daughter" (1794-1880).

COILA, a poetic name for Kyle, the central district of Ayrshire.

COIMBATORE (46), a town of strategic importance in the Madras Presidency, 30 m. SW. of Madras, situated in a gorge of the Ghats, 1437 ft. above the sea-level, in a district (2,004) of the same name.

COIMBRA (14), a rainy town in Portugal, of historical interest, 110 m. NNE. of Lisbon, with a celebrated university, in which George Buchanan was a professor, where he was accused of heresy and thrown into prison, and where he translated the Psalms into Latin.

COKE, coal with a residue of carbon and earthy matter after the volatile constituents are driven off by heat in closed spaces.

COKE, SIR EDWARD, Lord Chief-Justice of England, born at Milcham, Norfolk; being a learned lawyer, rose rapidly at the bar and in offices connected therewith; became Lord Chief-Justice in 1613; was deposed in 1617 for opposing the king's wishes; sat in his first and third Parliaments, and took a leading part in drawing up the Petition of Rights; spent the last three years of his life in revising his works, his "Institutes," known as "Coke upon Littleton," and his valuable "Reports" (1549-1634).

COLBERT, JEAN BAPTISTE, a French statesman, of Scotch descent, born in Rheims, the son of a clothier; introduced to Louis XIV. by Mazarin, then first minister; he was appointed Controller-General of the Finances after the fall of Fouquet, and by degrees made his influence felt in all the departments of State affairs; he favoured, by protectionist measures—free trade not yet being heard of—French industry and commerce; was to the French marine what Louvois was to the army, and encouraged both arts and letters; from 1671 his influence began to decline; he was held responsible for increased taxation due to Louis XIV.'s wars, while the jealousy of Louvois weakened his credit at Court; he became so unpopular that on his death his body was buried at night, but a grateful posterity has recognised his services, and done homage to his memory as one of the greatest ministers France ever had (1619-1683).

COLBURN, ZERAH, an American youth, with an astonishing power of calculation, born in Vermont, and exhibited as such, a faculty which he lost when he grew up to manhood (1804-1840).

COLCHESTER (35), the largest town in Essex, 51 m. from London, on the right bank of the Colne, of great antiquity, and with Roman remains; has been long famous for its oyster fishery; has silk manufactures; is the port of outlet of a large corn-growing district.

COLCHESTER, CHARLES ABBOT, LORD, English statesman; sometime Chief Secretary of Ireland, and Speaker of the House of Commons; raised to the peerage in response to an address of the House of Commons (1757-1829).

COLCHIS, a district on the E. of the Black Sea, and S. of Caucasus, where the Argonauts, according to Greek tradition, found and conquered the Golden Fleece; the natives had a reputation for witchcraft and sorcery.

COLDSTREAM GUARDS, one of the three regiments of Foot Guards; was raised by General Monk in Scotland in 1660, and marched under him from Coldstream to place Charles II. on the throne; originally called Monk's regiment.

COLE, HENRY an English ecclesiastical zealot, who held handsome preferments under Henry VIII. and Mary, but was stripped of them under Edward VI. and Elizabeth.

COLE, KING, a legendary jovial British king, celebrated in song.

COLEBROOKE, HENRY THOMAS, a celebrated Indianist, born in London; served under the East India Company, and devoted his spare time to Indian literature; studied the Sanskrit language, wrote on the Vedas, translated the "Digest of Hindu Law" compiled by Sir William Jones, compiled a Sanskrit Dictionary, and wrote various treatises on the law and philosophy of the Hindus; he was one of the first scholars in Europe to reveal the treasures that lay hid in the literature of the East (1765-1837).

COLENSO, DR., an English clergyman and mathematician; was appointed bishop of Natal in 1845; applied himself to the study of the Zulu language, and translated parts of the Bible and Prayer-book into it; calling in question the accuracy and Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, was deposed by his metropolitan, which deposition was declared null and void by the Privy Council; besides his theological work, produced text-books on arithmetic and algebra; died at Durban, Natal; he favoured the cause of the Zulus against the Boers, and did his utmost to avert the Zulu war (1814-1883).

COLERIDGE, HARTLEY, an English man of letters, eldest son of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, born at Clevedon, Somerset; lived with his father in the Lake District, and grew up in the society of Wordsworth, De Quincey, and others; gained a Fellowship at Oxford, but forfeited it through intemperance; tried school-mastering at Ambleside, but failed, and took to literature, in which he did some excellent work, both in prose and poetry, though he led all along a very irregular life; had his father's weaknesses, and not a little of his ability; his best memorials as a poet are his sonnets, of which two have been especially admired, "The Soul of Man is Larger than the Sky," and "When I Survey the Course I have Run" (1796-1849).

COLERIDGE, HENRY NELSON, nephew of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and a great admirer; editor of many of his works, his "Table Talk" in especial (1800-1843).

COLERIDGE, JOHN DUKE, LORD, an English lawyer, cousin of Hartley Coleridge; after serving in inferior appointments, appointed Lord Chief-Justice of England in 1880; when at the bar he was prominent in connection with Tichborne case.

COLERIDGE, SIR JOHN TAYLOR, an English judge, nephew of Samuel Taylor Coleridge; was editor of the Quarterly, edited "Blackstone," &c.; wrote a "Memoir of the Rev. John Keble" (1790-1876).

COLERIDGE, SAMUEL TAYLOR, poet, philosopher, and critic, born in Devonshire; passionately devoted to classical and metaphysical studies; educated at Christ's Hospital; had Charles Lamb for schoolmate; at Cambridge devoted himself to classics; falling into debt enlisted as a soldier, and was, after four months, bought off by his friends; gave himself up to a literary life; married, and took up house near Wordsworth, in Somersetshire, where he produced the "Ancient Mariner," "Christabel," and "Remorse"; preached occasionally in Unitarian pulpits; visited Germany and other parts of the Continent; lectured in London in 1808; when there took to opium, broke off the habit in 1816, and went to stay with the Gillmans at Highgate as their guest, under whose roof, after four years' confinement to a sick-room, he died; among his works were "The Friend," his "Biographia Literaria," "Aids to Reflection," &c., published in his lifetime, and "Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit," "Literary Remains," and "Table Talk" after his death; he was a man of subtle and large intellect, and exercised a great influence on the thinkers of his time, though in no case was the influence a decisive one, as it had the most opposite effects on different minds; his philosophy was hazy, and his life was without aim, "once more the tragic story of a high endowment with an insufficient will" (1772-1834). See Carlyle's estimate of him in the "Life of Sterling."

COLERIDGE, SARAH, poetess, only daughter of preceding; her sole poem, "Phantasmion"; left "Letters" of interest (1803-1852).

COLES, COWPER PHIPPS, an English naval captain and architect; entered the navy at 11; distinguished himself at Sebastopol; designer of the turret-ship the Captain, which capsized off Finisterre, himself on board, and drowned with a crew of 500 men (1819-1870).

COLET, JOHN, dean of St. Paul's, a patron of learning, a friend and scholar of Erasmus, a liberal and much persecuted man; far in advance of his time; founded and endowed St. Paul's School; wrote a number of works, chiefly theological, and "Letters to Erasmus"' (1466-1519).

COLET, LOUISE, a French literary lady, born at Aix; wrote numerous works for the young (1808-1876).

COLIGNY, GASPARD DE, French admiral, born at Chatillon; a leader of the Huguenots; began his life and distinguished himself as a soldier; when the Guises came into power he busied himself in procuring toleration for the Huguenots, and succeeded in securing in their behalf what is known as the Pacification of Amboise, but on St. Bartholomew's Eve he fell the first victim to the conspiracy in his bed; was thrown out of the window, and exposed to every manner of indignity in the streets, though it is hard to believe that the Duke of Guise, as is said, demeaned himself to kick the still living body (1517-1572).

COLIMA (25), capital of a State of the same name in Mexico.

COLIN CLOUT, the name Spenser assumes in the "Shepherd's Calendar."

COLIN TAMPON, the nickname of a Swiss, as John Bull of an Englishman.

COLISE'UM, a magnificent amphitheatre in Rome, begun under Vespasian and finished under Titus; it rose from the area by 80 tiers of seats, and could contain 80,000 spectators; it was here the gladiators fought with wild beasts, and also the early Christians.

COLLATINUS, the nephew of Tarquinius Priscus, the husband of Lucretia, and with Brutus, her avenger, the first consul of Rome.

COLLECTIVISM, the Socialistic doctrine that industry should be carried on by capital as the joint property of the community.

COLLEGE DE FRANCE, an institution founded at Paris by Francis I. in 1530, where instruction is given to advanced students in several departments of knowledge.

COLLIER, ARTHUR, an English metaphysician, born in Wilts; studied Descartes and Malebranche, and who, anticipating Berkeley, published a "Demonstration of the Non-Existence and the Impossibility of an External World" (1680-1732). See BERKELEY.

COLLIER, JEREMY, an English non-juring divine, refused to take oath at the Revolution; was imprisoned for advocating the rights of the Stuarts; had to flee the country at length, and was outlawed; wrote with effect against "The Profaneness and Immorality of the Stage," as well as an "Ecclesiastical History of Great Britain," and a translation of the "Meditations of Marcus Aurelius" (1650-1726).

COLLIER, JOHN PAYNE, a Shakespearian commentator and critic; wrote a great deal on various subjects, but got into trouble by his emendations of Shakespeare (1789-1883).

COLLINGWOOD, CUTHBERT, LORD, a celebrated English admiral, entered the navy at 13; his career was intimately connected all along with that of Nelson; succeeded in command when Nelson fell at Trafalgar, and when he died himself, which happened at sea, his body was brought home and buried beside Nelson's in St. Paul's Cathedral (1740-1810).

COLLINS, ANTHONY, an English deist, an intimate friend of Locke; his principal works were "Discourse on Freethinking," "Philosophical Inquiry into Liberty and Necessity," and "Grounds and Reasons of the Christian Religion," which gave rise to much controversy; he was a necessitarian, and argued against revelation (1676-1729).

COLLINS, MORTIMER, a versatile genius, born at Plymouth; wrote poems, novels, and essays; was the author of "Who was the Heir?" and "Sweet Anne Page"; was a tall, handsome man, fond of athletics, a delightful companion, and dear to his friends (1827-1876).

COLLINS, WILKIE, English novelist, son of the succeeding, born in London; tried business, then law, and finally settled to literature; his novel "The Woman in White" was the first to take with the public, and was preceded and succeeded by others which have ensured for him a high place among the writers of fiction (1824-1889).

COLLINS, WILLIAM, a gifted and ill-fated English poet, born at Chichester; settled in London; fell into dissipated habits and straitened circumstances; had L2000 left him by an uncle, but both health and spirits were broken, and he died in mental imbecility; his "Odes" have not been surpassed, among which the most celebrated are the "Odes to the Passions," to "Simplicity," and to "Evening" (1720-1756).

COLLINS, WILLIAM, R.A., a distinguished English painter, born in London; he made his reputation by his treatment of coast and cottage scenes, and though he tried his skill in other subjects, it was in the subjects he started with that he achieved his greatest triumphs; among his best-known works are "The Blackberry Gatherers," "As Happy as a King," "The Fisherman's Daughter," and "The Bird-Catchers" (1788-1847).

COLLINSON, PETER, an English horticulturist, to whom we are indebted for the introduction into the country of many ornamental shrubs (1694-1768).

COLLOT D'HERBOIS, JEAN MARIE, a violent French Revolutionary, originally a tragic actor, once hissed off the Lyons stage, "tearing a passion to rags"; had his revenge by a wholesale butchery there; marched 209 men across the Rhone to be shot; by-and-by was banished beyond seas to Cayenne, and soon died there (1750-1790).

COLLYER, JOSEPH, an eminent stipple engraver, born in London (1768-1827).

COLMAN, GEORGE, an English dramatist, born at Florence; bred for and called to the bar; author of a comedy entitled "The Jealous Wife," also of "The Clandestine Marriage"; became manager of Drury Lane, then of the Haymarket (1733-1794).

COLMAN, GEORGE, son of the preceding, and his successor in the Haymarket; author of "The Iron Chest," "John Bull," "The Heir at Law," &c. (1762-1836).

COLMAR (30), the chief town of Upper Alsace, on the Lauch, on a plain near the Vosges, 42 m. SW. of Strasburg; passed into the hands of the French by treaty of Ryswick in 1697, was ceded to Germany in 1871.

COLOCETRONIS, a Greek patriot, born in Messina, distinguished himself in the War of Independence, which he chiefly contributed to carry through to a successful issue (1770-1843).

COLOGNE (282), in German KOeLN, capital of Rhenish Prussia, and a fortress of first rank, on the left bank of the Rhine, 175 m. SE. of Rotterdam; is a busy commercial city, and is engaged in eau-de-Cologne, sugar, tobacco, and other manufactures. It has some fine old buildings, and a picture gallery; but its glory is its great cathedral, founded in the 9th century, burnt in 1248, since which time the rebuilding was carried on at intervals, and only completed in 1880; it is one of the masterpieces of Gothic architecture.

COLOGNE, THE THREE KINGS OF, the three Magi who paid homage to the infant Christ, and whose bones were consigned to the archbishop in 1164; they were called Gaspar, Melchior, and Balthazar.

COLOMBIA (4,000), a federal republic of nine States, occupying the isthmus of Panama and the NW. corner of S. America, between Venezuela and Ecuador. The country, nearly three times the size of France, though it has only a ninth of the population, comprises in the W. three chains of the Andes and the plateaus between them, in the E. plains well watered by tributaries of the Orinoco. The upper valleys of the Magdalena and Cauca are the centres of population, where the climate is delightful, and grain grows. Every climate is found in Colombia, from the tropical heats of the plains to the Arctic cold of the mountains. Natural productions are as various: the exports include valuable timbers and dye-woods, cinchona bark, coffee, cacao, cotton, and silver ore. Most of the trade is with Britain and the United States. Manufactures are inconsiderable. The mineral wealth is very great, but little wrought. The Panama Railway, from Colon to Panama, connects the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans, and is a most important highway of commerce. The people are descendants of Spaniards and Indians; education is meagre, but compulsory; the State Church is Roman Catholic. The capital is Bogota. Panama and Cartagena the chief ports.

COLOMBO (126), the capital of Ceylon, and the chief port on the W. coast; it is surrounded on three sides by the sea, and on the other by a lake and moat; is supplied with water and gas; has many fine buildings; has a very mixed population, and has belonged to Britain since 1796; communicates with Kandy by railway.

COLON, a town at the Atlantic terminus of the Panama Railway. See ASPINWALL.

COLONNA, an illustrious Italian family, to which belonged popes, cardinals, and generals.

COLONNA, VICTORIA, a poetess, married to a member of the above family, who consoled herself for his early death by cultivating her poetic gift; one of her most devoted friends was Michael Angelo (1490-1547).

COLONNE, EDOUARD, musical conductor, born at Bordeaux, conductor of what are known as "Colonne Concerts"; b. 1838.

COLONUS, a demos of Attica, a mile NW. of Athens, the birthplace of Sophocles.

COLOPHON, an Ionian city in Asia Minor, N. of Ephesus, is supposed to give name to the device at the end of books, the cavalry of the place being famous for giving the finishing stroke to a battle.

COLORA'DO (412), an inland State of the American Union, traversed by the Rocky Mountains, and watered by the upper reaches of the S. Platte and Arkansas Rivers, is twice as large as England. The mountains are the highest in the States (13,000 to 14,000 ft.), are traversed by lofty passes through which the railways run, have rich spacious valleys or parks among them, and have great deposits of gold, silver, lead, and iron. There are also extensive coal-beds; hence the leading industries are mining and iron working. The eastern portion is a level, treeless plain, adapted for grazing. Agriculture, carried on with irrigation, suffers from insect plagues like the Colorado potato beetle. The climate is dry and clear, and attracts invalids. Acquired partly from France in 1804, and the rest from Mexico in 1848; the territory was organised in 1861, and admitted to the Union in 1876. The capital is Denver (107). There is a small Spanish-speaking population in the S.

COLOSSAE, a city in the S. of Phrygia, in Asia Minor, and the site of one of the earliest Christian churches.

COLOSSIANS, THE EPISTLE TO THE, by St. Paul, directed mainly against two errors of that early date, that the fleshly nature of man is no adequate vehicle for the reception and revelation of the divine nature, and that for redemption recourse must be had to direct mortification of the flesh.

COLOSSUS, any gigantic statue, specially one of Apollo in bronze, 120 ft. high, astride over the mouth of the harbour at Rhodes, reckoned one of the seven wonders of the world, erected in 280 B.C., destroyed by an earthquake 56 years after, and sold to a Jew centuries later for old metal; besides this are celebrated the statue of Memnon at Thebes, the Colossi of Athene in the Parthenon at Athens, and of Zeus at Olympia and at Tarentum, as well as others of modern date; for instance, Germania, 112 ft. high, in the Niederwald, and Liberty enlightening the World, 160 ft. high, in New York harbour.

COLOT, the name of a family of French surgeons in the 16th and 17th century, distinguished for their skill in operating in the case of stone.

COLOUR-BLINDNESS, inability, still unaccounted for, to distinguish between colours, and especially between red and green, more common among men than women; a serious disqualification for several occupations, such as those connected with the study of signals.

COLOUR-SERGEANT, a sergeant whose duty is to guard the colours and those who carry them.

COLQUHOUN, JOHN, a noted sportsman and writer on sport in Scotland, born in Edinburgh (1805-1885).

COLSTON, EDWARD, an English philanthropist, founded and endowed a school in Bristol for the education of 100 boys, as well as almshouses elsewhere (1636-1721).

COLT, SAMUEL, the inventor of the revolver, born in Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.; having difficulty in raising money to carry out his invention it proved a commercial failure, but being adopted by the Government in the Mexican war it proved a success, since which time it has been everywhere in use (1814-1862).

COLUMBA, ST., the apostle of Christianity to the Scots, born in Donegal; coming to Scotland about 563, in his forty-second year, founded a monastery in Iona, and made it the centre of his evangelistic operations, in which work he was occupied incessantly till 596, when his health began to fail, and he breathed his last kneeling before the altar, June 9, 597.

COLUMBAN, ST., an Irish missionary, who, with twelve companions, settled in Gaul in 585; founded two monasteries, but was banished for the offence of rebuking the king; went to Italy, founded a monastery at Bobbio, where he died 616.

COLUMBIA, a district of 70 sq. m. in the State of Maryland, U.S., in which Washington, the capital of the Union, stands.

COLUMBIA, BRITISH (100), the most westerly province in Canada, lies between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific, the United States and Alaska, and is four times the size of Great Britain. It is a mountainous country, rugged and picturesque, containing the highest peaks on the continent, Mount Hooker, 15,700 ft., and Mount Brown, 16,000 ft, with a richly indented coast-line, off which lie Queen Charlotte Islands and Vancouver. The chief river is the Frazer, which flows from the Lake region southwards through the centre and then westward to the Gulf of Georgia; the upper waters of the Columbia flow southward through the E. of the State. The climate resembles that of northern England, but is in some parts very rainy. The chief industries are lumbering—the forests are among the finest in the world, fishing—the rivers abound in salmon and sturgeon, and mining—rich deposits of gold, silver, iron, copper, mercury, antimony, and many other valuable minerals are found; there are great coal-fields in Vancouver. In Vancouver and in the river valleys of the mainland are extensive tracts of arable and grazing land; but neither agriculture nor manufactures are much developed. Made a Crown colony in 1858, it joined the Dominion as a province in 1871. The completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1885 joined it to the eastern provinces. The capital is Victoria (17), in the S. of Vancouver.

COLUMBUS (125), capital of Ohio, U.S., a manufacturing town.

COLUMBUS, BARTHOLOMEW, cosmographer, brother of Christopher Columbus; accompanied him to St. Domingo, and became governor; d. 1514.

COLUMBUS, CHRISTOPHER, discoverer of America, on Oct. 12, 1492, after two months of great peril and, in the end, mutiny of his men, born in Genoa; went to sea at 14; cherished, if he did not conceive, the idea of reaching India by sailing westward; applied in many quarters for furtherance; after seven years of waiting, was provided with three small vessels and a crew of 120 men; first touched land at the Bahamas, visited Cuba and Hayti, and returned home with spoils of the land; was hailed and honoured as King of the Sea; he made three subsequent visits, and on the third had the satisfaction of landing on the mainland, which Sebastian Cabot and Amerigo Vespucci had reached before him; he became at last the victim of jealousy, and charges were made against him, which so cut him to the heart that he never rallied from the attack, and he died at Valladolid, broken in body and in soul; Carlyle, in a famous passage, salutes him across the centuries: "Brave sea-captain, Norse sea-king, Columbus my hero, royalist sea-king of all" (1438-1506).

COLUMELLA, JUNIUS, a Latin writer of the 1st century, born at Cadiz; author of "De Re Rustica," in 12 books, on the same theme as Virgil's "Georgics," viz., agriculture and gardening; he wrote also "De Arboribus," on trees.

COLU'THUS, a Greek epic poet of 6th century, born in Egypt; wrote the "Rape of Helen."

COLVIN, SIDNEY, Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, Slade Professor of Art at Cambridge, born at Norwood; contributor to the journals on art and literature; has written Lives of Keats and Landor; friend of Robert Louis Stevenson, and his literary executor; b. 1845.

COMACCHIO (10), a walled town, 30 m. SE. of Ferrara; famous for fish, specially eel-culture in a large lagoon adjoining, 90 in. in circumference.

COMBE, ANDREW, M.D., a physician and physiologist, born in Edinburgh; studied under Spurzheim in Edinburgh and Paris, but on his return to his native city was seized with pulmonary consumption, which rendered him a confirmed invalid, so that he had to spend his winters abroad; was eminent as a physician; was a believer in phrenology; produced three excellent popular works on Physiology, Digestion, and the Management of Infancy (1797-1847).

COMBE, GEORGE, brother of the preceding, born in Edinburgh; trained to the legal profession; like his brother, he became, under Spurzheim, a stanch phrenologist and advocate of phrenology; but his ablest and best-known work was "The Constitution of Man," to the advocacy of the principles of which and their application, especially to education, he devoted his life; he married a daughter of the celebrated Mrs. Siddons (1788-1858).

COMBE, WILLIAM, born in Bristol; author of the "Three Tours of Dr. Syntax"; inherited a small fortune, which he squandered by an irregular life; wrote some 86 works (1741-1823).

COMBERMERE, VISCOUNT, a British field-marshal, born in Denbighshire; served in Flanders, at the Cape of Good Hope, and in India; was present at the siege of Seringapatam; was sent to Spain in 1808; distinguished himself in the Peninsula, and particularly at Talavera; received a peerage in 1827; was made commander-in-chief in India, and Constable of the Tower in succession to Wellington in 1832 (1773-1865).

COMENIUS, JOHN AMOS, a Moravian educational reformer, particularly as regards the acquisition of languages in their connection with the things they denote; his two most famous books are his "Janua Linguarum" and his "Orbis Sensualium Pictus"; his principle at bottom was, words must answer to and be associated with things and ideas of things, a principle still only very partially adopted in education, and that only at the most elementary stages.

COMET, a member of the solar system under control of the sun, consisting of a bright nucleus within a nebulous envelope, generally extended into a tail on the rear of its orbit, which is extremely eccentric, pursuing its course with a velocity which increases as it approaches the sun, and which diminishes as it withdraws from it; these bodies are very numerous, have their respective periods of revolution, which have been in many cases determined by observation.

COMINES, a French town in the dep. of Nord, France, 15 m. SW. of Courtrai.

COMINES, PHILIPPE DE, a French chronicler, born at Comines; was of Flemish origin; served under Charles the Bold, then under Louis XI. and Charles VIII.; author of "Memoires," in seven vols., of the reigns of these two monarchs, which give a clear and faithful picture of the time and the chief actors in it, but with the coolest indifference as to the moral elements at work, with him the end justifying the means, and success the measure of morality (1443-1509).

COMITIA, constitutional assemblies of the Roman citizens for electing magistrates, putting some question to the vote of the people, the declaration of war, &c.

COMITY OF NATIONS, the name given for the effect given in one country to the laws and institutions of another in dealing with a native of it.

COMMANDITE, SOCIETE EN, partnership in a business by a supply of funds, but without a share in the management or incurring further liability.

COMMELIN, ISAAC, Dutch historian; wrote the "Lives of the Stadtholders William I. and Maurice" (1598-1676).

COMMENTARIES OF JULIUS CAESAR, his memoirs of the Gallic and Civil Wars, reckoned the most perfect model of narration that in such circumstances was ever written, and a masterpiece.

COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY, a committee of nine created by the French Convention, April 6, 1793, to concentrate the power of the executive, "the conscience of Marat, who could see salvation in one thing only, in the fall of 260,000 aristocrats' heads"; notable, therefore, for its excesses in that line; was not suppressed till Oct. 19, 1796, on the advent of the Directory to power.

COM'MODUS, LUCIUS AURELIUS, Roman emperor, son and successor of Marcus Aurelius; carefully trained, but on his father's death threw up the reins and gave himself over to every form of licentiousness; poison administered by his mistress Marcia being slow in operating, he was strangled to death by a hired athlete in 162.

COMMON LAW is law established by usage and confirmed by judicial decision.

COMMON-SENSE, PHILOSOPHY OF, the philosophy which rests on the principle that the perceptions of the senses reflect things as they actually are irrespectively of them.

COMMUNE, THE, a revolutionary power installed in Paris after the "admonitory" insurrection of March 18, 1871, and overthrown in the end of May.

COMMUNISM, community of property in a State.

COMNE'NUS, name of a dynasty of six emperors of Constantinople.

COMO, LAKE OF, one of the chief lakes of Lombardy and the third in size, at the foot of the Pennine Alps, 80 m. long and 21/2 at greatest breadth; is traversed by the Adda, and is famed for the beauty and rich variety of its scenery.

COMORIN, CAPE, a low sandy point, the most southerly of India, from which the seaman is beckoned off by a peak 18 m. inland.

COMORO ISLES (63), an archipelago of four volcanic islands at the N. of the channel of Mozambique; under the protectorate of France since 1886; the people are Mohammedans, and speak Arabic.

COMPARETTI, an Italian philologist; his writings are numerous; b. 1835.

COMPIEGNE (14), a quiet old town in the dep. of Oise, 50 m. NE. of Paris; has some fine old churches, but the chief edifice is the palace, built by St. Louis and rebuilt by Louis XIV., where the marriage of Napoleon to Maria Louisa was celebrated; here Joan of Arc was made prisoner in 1430, and Louis Napoleon had hunting ground.

COMPTON, HENRY, bishop of London, son of the Earl of Northampton; fought bravely for Charles I.; was colonel of dragoons at the Restoration; left the army for the Church; was made bishop; crowned William and Mary when the archbishop, Sancroft, refused; d. 1713.

COMRIE (8), a village in Perthshire, on the Earn, 20 m. W. of Perth, in a beautiful district of country; subject to earthquakes from time to time; birthplace of George Gilfillan.

COMTE, AUGUSTE, a French philosopher, born at Montpellier, the founder of POSITIVISM (q. v.); enough to say here, it consisted of a new arrangement of the sciences into Abstract and Concrete, and a new law of historical evolution in science from a theological through a metaphysical to a positive stage, which last is the ultimate and crowning and alone legitimate method, that is, observation of phenomena and their sequence; Comte was first a disciple of St. Simon, but he quarrelled with him; commenced a "Cours de Philosophie Positive" of his own, in six vols.; but finding it defective on the moral side, he instituted a worship of humanity, and gave himself out as the chief priest of a new religion, a very different thing from Carlyle's hero-worship (1795-1857).

COMUS, the Roman deity who presided over festive revelries; the title of a poem by Milton, "the most exquisite of English or any masks."

COMYN, JOHN (the Black Comyn), Lord of Badenoch, a Scottish noble of French descent, his ancestor, born at Comines, having come over with the Conqueror and got lands given him; was one of the competitors for the Scottish crown in 1291, and lost it.

COMYN, JOHN (the Red Comyn), son of the preceding; as one of the three Wardens of Scotland defended it against the English, whom he defeated at Roslin; but in 1304 submitted to Edward I., and falling under suspicion of Bruce, was stabbed by him in a monastery at Dumfries in 1306.

CONCEPCION (24), a town in Chile, S. of Valparaiso, with its port, Talcahuano, 7 m. off, one of the safest and most commodious in the country, and ranks next to Valparaiso as a trading centre.

CONCEPTION OF OUR LADY, an order of nuns founded in Portugal in 1484; at first followed the rule of the Cistercians, but afterwards that of St. Clare.

CONCIERGERIE, a prison in the Palais de Justice, Paris.

CONCLAVE, properly the room, generally in the Vatican, where the cardinals are confined under lock and key while electing a Pope.

CONCORD, a town in U.S., 23 m. NW. of Boston; was the residence of Emerson, Thoreau, and Hawthorne; here the first engagement took place in the American war in 1775.

CONCORD (17), capital of New Hampshire, U.S., a thriving trading place.

CONCORDAT, THE, a convention of July 15, 1801, between Bonaparte and Pius V., regulative of the relations of France with the Holy See.

CONCORDE, PLACE DE LA, a celebrated public place, formed by Louis XV. in 1748, adorned by a statue of him; at the Revolution it was called Place de la Revolution; here Louis XVI. and his queen were guillotined.

CONCORDIA, the Roman goddess of peace, to whom Camillus the dictator in 367 B.C. dedicated a temple on the conclusion of the strife between the patricians and plebeians.

CONDE, HENRY I., PRINCE OF, fought in the ranks of the Huguenots, but escaped the massacre of St. Bartholomew by an oath of abjuration (1552-1588).

CONDE, HOUSE OF, a collateral branch of the house of Bourbon, the members of which played all along a conspicuous role in the history of France.

CONDE, LOUIS I., PRINCE OF, founder of the house of Conde, a brave, gallant man, though deformed; distinguished himself in the wars between Henry II. and Charles V., particularly in the defence of Metz; affronted at court, and obnoxious to the Guises, he became a Protestant, and joined his brother the king of Navarre; became the head of the party, and was treacherously killed after the battle of Jarnac; he had been party, however, to the conspiracy of Amboise, which aimed a death-blow at the Guises (1530-1569).

CONDE, LOUIS II., PRINCE OF, named "the Great Conde," born at Paris; was carefully educated; acquired a taste for literature, which stood him in good stead at the end of his career; made his reputation by his victory over the Spaniards at Recroi; distinguished himself at Fribourg, Nordlingen, and Lens; the settlement of the troubles of the Fronde alienated him, so that he entered the service of Spain, and served against his country, but was by-and-by reconciled; led the French army to success in Franche-Comte and Holland, and soon after retired to Chantilly, where he enjoyed the society of such men as Moliere, Boileau, and La Bruyere, and when he died Bossuet pronounced a funeral oration over his grave (1621-1686).

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