The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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CAPGRAVE, JOHN, Augustine friar, wrote "Chronicle of England," and voluminously both in French and English (1393-1464).

CAPISTRANO, GIOVANNI DA, an Italian Franciscan, a rabid adversary of the Hussites, aided John Hunniades in 1456 in defending Belgrade against the Turks (1385-1456).

CAPITOL, a temple and citadel erected by Tarquin on the Capitoline Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome, and where victors who were voted a triumph were crowned; terminated at its southern extremity by Tarpeian Rock, from which criminals guilty of treason were precipitated; hence the saying, "The Tarpeian Rock is near the Capitol," to denote the close connection between glory and disgrace.

CAPITULARIES, collections of royal edicts issued by the Frankish kings of the Carlovingian dynasty, with sanction of the nobles, for the whole Frankish empire, as distinct from the laws for the separate peoples comprising it, the most famous being those issued or begun by Charlemagne and St. Louis.

CAPO D'ISTRIA, COUNT OF, born in Corfu; entered the Russian diplomatic service; played a prominent part in the insurrection of the Greeks against Turkey; made President of the Greek Republic; assassinated at Nauplia from distrust of his fidelity (1776-1831).

CAPO D'ISTRIA, a port of a small island in the government of Trieste, connected with the mainland by a causeway half a mile in length.

CAPPADOCIA, an ancient country in the heart of Asia Minor, of varied political fortune; a plateau with pastures for immense flocks.

CAPRARA, CARDINAL, born at Bologna, legate of Pius VII. in France, concluded the "Concordat" of 1801 (1733-1810).

CAPRE'RA, a small, barren island off the N. coast of Sardinia, the home of Garibaldi, where he died, and his burial-place.

CAPRI, a small island at the entrance from the S. of the bay of Naples, with a capital of the same name on the eastern side; a favourite retreat of the Emperors Augustus and Tiberius, and noted for its fine air and picturesque scenery.

CAPRIVI, COUNT, born in Berlin, entered the army in 1849; held chief posts in the Austrian and Franco-German wars; in 1890 succeeded Bismarck as Imperial Chancellor; resigned in 1894 (1831-1899).

CAPUA (11), a fortified city in Campania, on the Volturno, 27 m. N. of Naples, where, or rather near which, in a place of the same name, Hannibal, at the invitation of the citizens, retired with his army to spend the winter after the battle of Cannae, 216 B.C., and where, from the luxurious life they led, his soldiers were enervated, after which it was taken by the Romans, destroyed by the Saracens in 840, and the modern city built in its stead.

CAPUCHINS, monks of the Franciscan Order, founded in 1526, so called from a cowl they wear; they were a mendicant order, and were twice over suppressed by the Pope, though they exist still in Austria and Switzerland.

CAPULETS, a celebrated Ghibelline family of Verona at mortal feud with that of the Montagues, familiar to us through Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet," Romeo being of the latter and Juliet of the former.

CAPYBA'RA, the water-hog, the largest rodent extant, in appearance like a small pig.

CARACALLA, a Roman emperor, son of Septimius Severus, born at Lyons; his reign (211-217) was a series of crimes, follies, and extravagances; he put to death 20,000 persons, among others the jurist Papinianus, and was assassinated himself by one of his guards.

CARACAS or CARRACAS (72), the cap. of Venezuela, stands at an altitude 3000 ft. above the level of the sea; subject to earthquakes, in one of which (1812) 12,000 perished, and great part of the city was destroyed; it contains the tomb of Bolivar.

CARACCI or CARRACCI, a family of painters, born at Bologna: LUDOVICO, the founder of a new school of painting, the principle of which was eclecticism, in consequence of which it is known as the Eclectic School, or imitation of the styles of the best masters (1555-1619); ANNIBALE, cousin and pupil, did "St. Roche distributing Alms," and his chief, "Three Marys weeping over Christ"; went to Rome and painted the celebrated Farnese gallery, a work which occupied him four years (1560-1609); AGOSTINO, brother of above, assisted him in the frescoes of the gallery, the "Communion of St. Jerome" his greatest work (1557-1602).

CARACTACUS, a British chief, king of the Silures, maintained a gallant struggle against the Romans for nine years, but was overthrown by Ostorius, 50 A.D., taken captive, and led in triumphal procession through Rome, when the Emperor Claudius was so struck with his dignified demeanour, that he set him and all his companions at liberty.

CARADOC, a knight of the Round Table, famous for his valour and the chastity and constancy of his wife.

CARAFFA, a distinguished Neapolitan family, which gave birth to a number of distinguished ecclesiastics, Paul IV. one of them.

CARAGLIO, an eminent Italian engraver, born at Verona, engraved on gems and medals as well as copper-plate, after the works of the great masters (1500-1570).

CARAVAGGIO, an Italian painter, disdained the ideal and the ideal style of art, and kept generally to crass reality, often in its grossest forms; a man of a violent temper, which hastened his end; a painting by him of "Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus" is in the National Gallery, London (1569-1609).

CARAVANSERAI, a large unfurnished inn, with a court in the middle for the accommodation of caravans and other travellers at night in the East.

CARBOHYDRATES, a class of substances such as the sugars, starch, &c., consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, the latter in the proportion in which they exist in water.

CARBONARI (lit. charcoal burners), a secret society that, in the beginning of the 19th century, originated in Italy and extended itself into France, numbering hundreds of thousands, included Lord Byron, Silvio Pellico, and Mazzini among them, the object of which was the overthrow of despotic governments; they were broken up by Austria, and absorbed by the Young Italy party.

CARDAN, JEROME, Italian physician and mathematician, born at Pavia; was far-famed as a physician; studied and wrote on all manner of known subjects, made discoveries in algebra, believed in astrology, left a candid account of himself entitled "De Vita Propria"; was the author of "Cardan's Formula" a formula for the solution of cubic equations; he is said to have starved himself to death so as to fulfil a prophecy he had made as to the term of his life (1501-1576).

CARDIFF (129), county town of Glamorganshire, S. Wales, on the river Taff, the sea outlet for the mineral wealth and products of the district, a town that has risen more rapidly than any other in the kingdom, having had at the beginning of the century only 2000 inhabitants; it has a university, a number of churches, few of them belonging to the Church of England, and has also three daily papers.

CARDIGAN, EARL OF, a British officer; commanded the Light Cavalry Brigade in the Crimean war, and distinguished himself in the famous charge of the Six Hundred, which he led; his favourite regiment, the 11th Hussars, on the equipment of which he lavished large sums of money (1797-1868).

CARDIGANSHIRE (62), a county in S. Wales, low-lying on the coast, level towards the coast, and mountainous in the interior, but with fertile valleys.

CARDINAL VIRTUES, these have been "arranged by the wisest men of all time, under four general heads," and are defined by Ruskin as "Prudence or Discretion (the spirit which discerns and adopts rightly), Justice (the spirit which rules and divides rightly), Fortitude (the spirit that persists and endures rightly), and Temperance (the spirit which stops and refuses rightly). These cardinal and sentinel virtues," he adds, "are not only the means of protecting and prolonging life itself, but are the chief guards or sources of the material means of life, and the governing powers and princes of economy."

CARDINALISTS, name given to the partisans in France of Richelieu and Mazarin.

CARDUCCI, Florentine artists, brothers, of the 17th century; did their chief work in Spain.

CARDUCCI, GIOSUE, an Italian poet and critic; author of "Hymn to Satan," "Odi Barbari," "Commentaries on Petrarch," &c.; b. 1837.

CAREW, THOMAS, English courtier poet; his poems, chiefly masks and lyrics (1589-1639).

CAREY, HENRY, English poet and musician, excelled in ballads; composed "Sally in Our Alley"; d. 1743.

CAREY, SIR ROBERT, warden of the Border Marches under Elizabeth; present at her deathbed rode off post-haste on the occurrence of the death with the news to Edinburgh to announce it to King James (1560-1639).

CAREY, WILLIAM, celebrated Baptist missionary, born in Northamptonshire; founder of the Baptist Missionary Society, and its first missionary; founded the mission at Serampore and directed its operations, distributing Bibles and tracts by thousands in native languages, as well as preparing grammars and dictionaries; was 29 years Oriental professor in the College of Fort William. Calcutta (1761-1834).

CARGILL, DONALD, a Scotch Covenanter, born in Perthshire; was minister of the Barony Parish, Glasgow; fought at Bothwell Brig; suffered at the Cross of Edinburgh for daring to excommunicate the king; died with the faith and courage of a martyr (1619-1681).

CARIA, a SW. country in Asia Minor, bordering on the Archipelago, of which the Maeander is the chief river.

CARIBBEAN SEA, an inland sea of the Atlantic, lying between the Great Antilles and South America, subject to hurricanes; it corresponds to the Mediterranean in Europe, and is the turning-point of the Gulf Stream.

CARIBS, a race of American Indians, originally inhabiting the West Indies, now confined to the southern shores of the Caribbean Sea, as far as the mouth of the Amazon; they are a fine race, tall, and of ruddy-brown complexion, but have lost their distinctive physique by amalgamation with other tribes; they give name to the Caribbean Sea.

CARINTHIA (361), since 1849 crownland of Austria, near Italy; is a mountainous and a mineral country; rears cattle and horses; manufactures hardware and textile fabrics; the principal river is the Drave; capital, Klagenfurt.

CARISBROOKE, a village in the Isle of Wight, in the castle of which, now in ruins, Charles I. was imprisoned 13 months before his trial; it was at one time a Roman station.

CARLEN, EMILIA, Swedish novelist; her novels, some 30 in number, treat of the everyday life of the lower and middle classes (1807-1883).

CARLETON, WILLIAM, Irish novelist; his first work, and the foundation of his reputation, "Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry," followed by others of a like class (1794-1860).

CARLI, Italian archaeologist, numismatist, and economist, born at Capo d'Istria; wrote as his chief work on political economy; president of the Council of Commerce at Milan (1720-1795).

CARLILE, RICHARD, English Radical and Freethinker, born in Devonshire; a disciple of Tom Paine's, and propagandist of his views with a zeal which no prosecution could subdue, although he time after time suffered imprisonment for it, as well as those who associated themselves with him, his wife included; his principal organ was "The Republican," the first twelve volumes of which are dated from his prison; he was a martyr for the freedom of the press, and in that interest did not suffer in vain (1790-1843).

CARLISLE (39), county town of Cumberland, on the Eden; a great railway centre; with an old castle of historical interest, and a cathedral founded by William Rufus and dedicated to Henry I.

CARLISLE, GEORGE FREDERICK WILLIAM HOWARD, EARL OF, a Whig in politics; supported the successive Whig administrations of his time, and became eventually Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland under Palmerston (1802-1864).

CARLISTS, a name given in France to the partisans of Charles X. (1830), and especially in Spain to those of Don Carlos (1833), and those of his grandson (1873-1874).

CARLOMAN, son of Charles Martel, and brother of Pepin le Bref, king of Austrasia from 741 to 747; abdicated, and retired into a monastery, where he died.

CARLOMAN, son of Pepin le Bref, and brother of Charlemagne, king of Austrasia, Burgundy, and Provence in 768; d. 771.

CARLOMAN, king of France conjointly with his brother Louis III.; d. 884.

CARLOS, DON, son of Philip II. of Spain, born at Valladolid, and heir to the throne, but from incapacity, or worse, excluded by his father from all share in the government; confessed to a priest a design to assassinate some one, believed to be his father; was seized, tried, and convicted, though sentence against him was never pronounced; died shortly after; the story of Don Carlos has formed the subject of tragedies, especially one by Schiller, the German poet (1545-1568).

CARLOS, DON, the brother of Ferdinand VII. of Spain, on whose death he laid claim to the crown as heir, against Isabella, Ferdinand's daughter who by the Salic law, though set aside in her favour by her father, had, he urged, no right to the throne; his cause was taken up by a large party, and the struggle kept up for years; defeated at length he retired from the contest, and abdicated in favour of his son (1785-1855).

CARLOS, DON, grandson of the preceding, and heir to his rights; revived the struggle in 1870, but fared no better than his grandfather; took refuge in London; b. 1848.

CARLOVINGIANS, or KARLINGS, the name of the second dynasty of Frankish kings, in succession to the Merovingian, which had become faineant; bore sway from 762 to 987, Pepin le Bref the first, and Louis V. the last; Charlemagne was the greatest of the race, and gave name to the dynasty.

CALLOW (40), an inland county in Leinster, Ireland; also the county town.

CARLOWITZ, a town on the Danube, 30 m. NW. of Belgrade, where a treaty was concluded in 1699 between Turkey and other European powers, very much to the curtailment of the territories of the former.

CARLSBAD (10), a celebrated watering-place in Bohemia, of aristocratic resort, the springs being the hottest in Europe, the water varying from 117 deg. to 165 deg.; population nearly trebled in the season; the inhabitants are engaged in industries which minister to the tastes of the visitors and their own profit.

CARLSCRONA (21), a Swedish town, strongly fortified, on the Baltic, with a spacious harbour, naval station, and arsenal; it is built on five rocky islands united by dykes and bridges.

CARLSRUHE (73), the capital of the Grand-Duchy of Baden, a great railway centre; built in the form of a fan, its streets, 32 in number, radiating so from the duke's palace in the centre.

CARLSTADT, a German Reformer, associated for a time with Luther, but parted from him both on practical and dogmatical grounds; succeeded Zwingli as professor at Basel (1483-1541).

CARLTON CLUB, the Conservative club in London, so called, as erected on the site of Carlton House, demolished in 1828, and occupied by George IV. when he was Prince of Wales.

CARLYLE, ALEXANDER, surnamed Jupiter Carlyle, from his noble head and imposing person, born in Dumfriesshire; minister of Inveresk, Musselburgh, from 1747 to his death; friend of David Hume, Adam Smith, and Home, the author of "Douglas"; a leader of the Moderate party in the Church of Scotland; left an "Autobiography," which was not published till 1860, which shows its author to have been a man who took things as he found them, and enjoyed them to the full as any easy-going, cultured pagan (1722-1805).

CARLYLE, THOMAS, born in the village of Ecclefechan, Annandale, Dumfriesshire; son of James Carlyle, a stone-mason, and afterwards a small farmer, a man of great force, penetration, and integrity of character, and of Margaret Aitken, a woman of deep piety and warm affection; educated at the parish school and Annan Academy; entered the University of Edinburgh at the age of 14, in the Arts classes; distinguished himself early in mathematics; enrolled as a student in the theological department; became a teacher first in Annan Academy, then at Kirkcaldy; formed there an intimate friendship with Edward Irving; threw up both school-mastering and the church; removed to Edinburgh, and took to tutoring and working for an encyclopedia, and by-and-by to translating from the German and writing criticisms for the Reviews, the latter of which collected afterwards in the "Miscellanies," proved "epoch-making" in British literature, wrote a "Life of Schiller"; married Jane Welsh, a descendant of John Knox; removed to Craigenputtock, in Dumfriesshire, "the loneliest nook in Britain," where his original work began with "Sartor Resartus," written in 1831, a radically spiritual book, and a symbolical, though all too exclusively treated as a speculative, and an autobiographical; removed to London in 1834, where he wrote his "French Revolution" (1837), a book instinct with the all-consuming fire of the event which it pictures, and revealing "a new moral force" in the literary life of the country and century; delivered three courses of lectures to the elite of London Society (1837-1840), the last of them "Heroes and Hero-Worship," afterwards printed in 1840; in 1840 appeared "Chartism," in 1843 "Past and Present," and in 1850 "Latter-Day Pamphlets"; all on what he called the "Condition-of-England-Question," which to the last he regarded, as a subject of the realm, the most serious question of the time, seeing, as he all along taught and felt, the social life affects the individual life to the very core; in 1845 he dug up a hero literally from the grave in his "Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell," and after writing in 1851 a brief biography of his misrepresented friend, John Sterling, concluded (1858-1865) his life's task, prosecuted from first to last, in "sore travail" of body and soul, with "The History of Friedrich II. of Prussia, called Frederick the Great," "the last and grandest of his works," says Froude; "a book," says Emerson, "that is a Judgment Day, for its moral verdict on men and nations, and the manners of modern times"; lies buried beside his own kindred in the place where he was born, as he had left instructions to be. "The man," according to Ruskin, his greatest disciple, and at present, as would seem, the last, "who alone of all our masters of literature, has written, without thought of himself, what he knew to be needful for the people of his time to hear, if the will to hear had been in them ... the solitary Teacher who has asked them to be (before all) brave for the help of Man, and just for the love of God" (1795-1881).

CARMAGNOLE, a Red-republican song and dance.

CARMARTHENSHIRE (30), a county in S. Wales, and the largest in the Principality; contains part of the coal-fields in the district; capital Carmarthen, on the right bank of the Towy, a river which traverses the county.

CARMEL, a NW. extension of the limestone ridge that bounds on the S. the Plain of Esdraelon, in Palestine, and terminates in a rocky promontory 500 ft. high; forms the southern boundary of the Bay of Acre; its highest point is 1742 ft. above the sea-level.

CARMELITES, a monastic order, originally an association of hermits on Mount Carmel, at length mendicant, called the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, i. e. the Virgin, in consecration to whom it was founded by a pilgrim of the name Berthold, a Calabrian, in 1156. The Order is said to have existed from the days of Elijah.

CARMEN SYLVA, the nom-de-plume of Elizabeth, queen of Roumania; lost an only child, and took to literature for consolation; has taken an active interest in the elevation and welfare of her sex; b. 1843.

CARMONTEL, a French dramatist; author of little pieces under the name of "Proverbes" (1717-1806).

CARNAC, a seaside fishing-village in the Bay of Quiberon, in the dep. of Morbihan, France, with interesting historical records, particularly Celtic, many of them undecipherable by the antiquary.

CARNARVON, a maritime county in N. Wales, with the highest mountains and grandest scenery in the Principality, and a capital of the same name on the Menai Strait, with the noble ruins of a castle, in which Edward II., the first Prince of Wales, was born.

CARNARVON, HENRY HOWARD, Earl of, Conservative statesman; held office under Lord Derby and Disraeli; was a good classical scholar; wrote the "Druses of Mount Lebanon" (1831-1890).

CARNATIC, an old prov. in the Madras Presidency of India that extended along the Coromandel coast from Cape Comorin, 600 m. N.

CARNEADES, a Greek philosopher, born at Cyrene; his whole philosophy a polemic against the dogmatism of the Stoics, on the alleged ground of the absence of any criterion of certainty in matters of either science or morality; conceded that truth and virtue were admirable qualities, but he denied the reality of them; sent once on an embassy to Rome, he propounded this doctrine in the ears of the Conscript Fathers, upon which Cato moved he should be expelled from the senate-house and sent back to Athens, where he came from (213-129 B.C.).

CARNEGIE, ANDREW, ironmaster, born in Dunfermline, the son of a weaver; made a large fortune by his iron and steel works at Pittsburg, U.S., out of which he has liberally endowed institutions and libraries, both in America and his native country; b. 1835.

CARNIOLA (500), a crownland of the Austrian empire, SW. of Austria, on the Adriatic, S. of Carinthia; contains quicksilver mines, second only to those of Almaden, in Spain; the surface is mountainous, and the soil is not grain productive, though in some parts it yields wine and fine fruit.

CARNIVAL, in Roman Catholic countries the name given to a season of feasting and revelry immediately preceding Lent, akin to the Saturnalia of the Romans.

CARNOT, LEONARD SADI, son of Nicolas, founder of thermo-dynamics; in his "Reflexions sur la Puissance du Feu" enunciates the principle of Reversibility, considered the most important contribution to physical science since the time of Newton (1796-1832). See DR. KNOTT'S "PHYSICS."

CARNOT, MARIE FRANCOIS, civil engineer and statesman, born at Limoges, nephew of the preceding; Finance Minister in 1879 and 1887; became President in 1887; was assassinated at Lyons by an anarchist in 1894.

CARNOT, NICOLAS, French mathematician and engineer, born at Nolay, in Burgundy; a member of the National Convention; voted for the death of the king; became member of the Committee of Public Safety, and organiser of the armies of the Republic, whence his name, the "organiser of victory"; Minister of War under Napoleon; defender of Antwerp in 1814; and afterwards Minister of the Interior (1753-1823).

CARO, ANNIBALE, an Italian author and poet, notable for his classic style (1507-1566).

CARO, MARIE, a French philosopher, born at Poitiers; a popular lecturer on philosophy, surnamed le philosophe des dames; wrote on mysticism, materialism, and pessimism (1826-1887).

CAROLINA, NORTH, one of the original 13 States of N. America, on the Atlantic, about the size of England, S. of Virginia, 480 m. from E. to W. and 180 m. from N. to S.; has a fertile, well-watered subsoil in the high lands; is rich in minerals and natural products; the mountains are covered with forests, and the manufactures are numerous.

CAROLINA, SOUTH, S. of N. Carolina, is alluvial with swamps, 100 m. inland from the coast, is well watered; produces rice and cotton in large quantities and of a fine quality.

CAROLINE ISLANDS (36), a stretch of lagoon islands, 2000 m. from E. to W., belonging to Spain, N. of New Guinea and E. of the Philippine Islands; once divided into eastern, western, and central; the soil of the western is fertile, and there is plenty of fish and turtle in the lagoons.

CAROLINE OF BRUNSWICK, queen of George IV. and daughter of the Duke of Brunswick; married George, then Prince of Wales, in 1795; gave birth to the Princess Charlotte the year following, but almost immediately after her husband abandoned her; she retired to a mansion at Blackheath; was allowed to go abroad after a time; on the accession of her husband she was offered a pension of L50,000 if she stayed out of the country, but rejected it and claimed her rights as queen; was charged with adultery, but after a long trial acquitted; on the day of the coronation sought admission to Westminster Abbey, but the door was shut against her; she died a fortnight after (1768-1821).

CARON, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL, under the first Empire; head of the Belford conspiracy in 1820 under the Restoration; executed 1822.

CARPACCIO, VITTORE, a Venetian painter of great celebrity, particularly in his early pieces, for his truth of delineation, his fertile imagination, and his rich colouring; his works are numerous, and have nearly all of them sacred subjects; an Italian critic says of him, "He had truth in his heart" (1450-1522).

CARPATHIANS, a range of wooded mountains in Central Europe, 880 m. long, which, in two great masses, extend from Presburg to Orsova, both on the Danube, in a semicircle round the greater part of Hungary, particularly the whole of the N. and E., the highest of them Negoi, 8517 ft., they are rich in minerals, and their sides clothed with forests, principally of beech and pine.

CARPEAUX, JEAN BAPTISTE, sculptor, born at Valenciennes; adorned by his art, reckoned highly imaginative, several of the public monuments of Paris, and the facade of the Opera House (1827-1875).

CARPENTARIA, GULF OF, a broad, deep gulf in the N. of Australia; contains several islands, and receives several rivers.

CARPENTER, MARY, a philanthropist, born at Exeter, daughter of Dr. Lant Carpenter, Unitarian minister; took an active part in the establishment of reformatory and ragged schools, and a chief promoter of the Industrial Schools Act; her philanthropic efforts extended to India, which, in her zeal, she visited four times, and she was the founder of the National Indian Association (1807-1877).

CARPENTER, WILLIAM BENJAMIN, biologist, brother of the preceding; author, among other numerous works, of the "Principles of General and Comparative Physiology" (1838); contributed to mental physiology; held several high professional appointments in London; inaugurated deep-sea soundings, and advocated the theory of a vertical circulation in the ocean (1813-1877).

CARPI, GIROLAMO DA, Italian painter and architect, born at Ferrara; successful imitator of Correggio (1501-1556).

CARPI, UGO DA, Italian painter and wood engraver; is said to have invented engraving in chiaroscuro (1486-1530).

CARPINI, a Franciscan monk, born in Umbria; headed an embassy from Pope Innocent IV. to the Emperor of the Mogul Tartars to persuade him out of Europe, which he threatened; was a corpulent man of 60; travelled from Lyons to beyond Lake Baikal and back; wrote a report of his journey in Latin, which had a quieting effect on the panic in Europe (1182-1252).

CARPIO, a legendary hero of the Moors of Spain; is said to have slain Roland at Roncesvalles.

CARPOC'RATES, a Gnostic of Alexandria of the 2nd century, who believed in the transmigration of the soul and its final emancipation from all external bonds and obligations, by means of concentrated meditation on the divine unity, and a life in conformity therewith; was the founder of a sect called after his name.

CARRARA (11), a town in N. Italy, 30 m. NW. of Leghorn; famous for its quarries of white statuary marble, the working of which is its staple industry; these quarries have been worked for 2000 years, are 400 in number, and employ as quarrymen alone regularly over 3000 men.

CARREL, ARMAND, French publicist, born at Rouen; a man of high character, and highly esteemed; editor of the National, which he conducted with great ability, and courage; died of a wound in a duel with Emile de Girardin (1800-1836).

CARRICK, the southern division of Ayrshire. See AYRSHIRE.

CARRICKFERGUS (9), a town and seaport N. of Belfast Lough, 91/2 m. from Belfast, with a picturesque castle.

CARRIER, JEAN BAPTISTE, one of the most blood-thirsty of the French Revolutionists, born near Aurillac; an attorney by profession; sent on a mission to La Vendee; caused thousands of victims to be drowned, beheaded, or shot; was guillotined himself after trial by a Revolutionary tribunal (1756-1794). See NOYADES.

CARRIERE, MORITZ, a German philosopher and man of letters, born in Hesse, author of works on aesthetics and art in its relation to culture and the ideal; advocated the compatibility of the pantheistic with the deistic view of the world (1817-1893).

CARROL, LEWIS, pseudonym of C. L. DODGSON (q. v.), the author of "Alice in Wonderland," with its sequel, "Through the Looking-Glass."

CARSE, the name given in Scotland to alluvial lands bordering on a river.

CARSON, KIT, American trapper, born in Kentucky; was of service to the States in expeditions in Indian territories from his knowledge of the habits of the Indians (1809-1878).

CARSTAIRS, WILLIAM, a Scotch ecclesiastic, born at Cathcart, near Glasgow; sent to Utrecht to study theology; recommended himself to the regard of the Prince of Orange, and became his political adviser; accompanied him to England as chaplain in 1688, and had no small share in bringing about the Revolution; controlled Church affairs in Scotland; was made Principal of Edinburgh University; was chief promoter of the Treaty of Union; was held in high esteem by his countrymen for his personal character as well as his public services; was a most sagacious man (1649-1715).

CARSTENS, ASMUS JAKOB, Danish artist, born in Sleswig; on the appearance of his great picture, "The Fall of the Angels," rose at once into fame; was admitted to the Berlin Academy; afterwards studied the masters at Rome; brought back to Germany a taste for art; was the means of reviving it; treated classical subjects; quarrelled the Academy; died in poverty at Rome (1754-1798).

CARTAGENA (86), a naval port of Spain, on the Mediterranean, with a capacious harbour; one of the oldest towns in it, founded by the Carthaginians; was once the largest naval arsenal in Europe. Also capital (12) of the Bolivar State in Colombia.

CARTE, THOMAS, historian, a devoted Jacobite, born near Rugby; wrote a "History of England," which has proved a rich quarry of facts for subsequent historians (1686-1754).

CARTE-BLANCHE, a blank paper with a signature to be filled up with such terms of an agreement as the holder is authorised to accept in name of the person whose signature it bears.

CARTER, ELIZABETH, an accomplished lady, born at Deal, friend of Dr. Johnson, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and others; a great Greek and Italian scholar; translated Epictetus and Algarotti's exposition of Newton's philosophy; some of her papers appear in the Rambler (1717-1806).

CARTERET, JOHN, EARL GRANVILLE, eminent British statesman, orator, and diplomatist, entered Parliament in the Whig interest; his first speech was in favour of the Protestant succession; after service as diplomatist abroad, was made Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, in which capacity he was brought into contact with Swift, first as an enemy but at length as a friend, and proved a successful viceroy; in Parliament was head of the party opposed to Sir Robert Walpole and of the subsequent administration; his foreign policy has been in general approved of; had the satisfaction of seeing, which he was instrumental in securing, the elder Pitt installed in office before he retired; was a "fiery, emphatic man" (1690-1763).

CARTERET, PHILIP, English sailor and explorer, explored in the Southern Seas, and discovered several islands, Pitcairn's Island among the number; d. 1796.

CARTHAGE, an ancient maritime city, on a peninsula in the N. of Africa, near the site of Tunis, and founded by Phoenicians in 850 B.C.; originally the centre of a colony, it became the capital of a wide-spread trading community, which even ventured to compete with, and at one time threatened, under Hannibal, to overthrow, the power of Rome, in a series of protracted struggles known as the Punic Wars, in the last of which it was taken and destroyed by Publius Cornelius Scipio in 146 B.C., after a siege of two years, though it rose again as a Roman city under the Caesars, and became a place of great importance till burned in A.D. 698 by Hassan, the Arab; the struggle during the early part of its history was virtually a struggle for the ascendency of the Semitic people over the Aryan race in Europe.

CARTHUSIANS, a monastic order of a very severe type, founded by St. Bruno in 1086, each member of which had originally a single cell, eventually one consisting of two or three rooms with a garden, all of them opening into one corridor; they amassed considerable wealth, but were given to deeds of benefaction, and spent their time in study and contemplation, in consequence of which they figure not so much in the outside world as many other orders do.

CARTIER, a French navigator, born at St. Malo, made three voyages to N. America in quest of a North-West passage, at the instance of Francis I.; took possession of Canada in the name of France, by planting the French flag on the soil (1494-1554).

CARTOONS, drawings or designs made on stiff paper for a fresco or other paintings, transferred by tracing or pouncing to the surface to be painted, the most famous of which are those of Raphael.

CARTOUCHE, a notorious captain of a band of thieves, born in Paris, who was broken on the wheel alive in the Place de Greve (1698-1721).

CARTWRIGHT, EDMUND, inventor of the powerloom and the carding machine, born in Nottinghamshire; bred for the Church; his invention, at first violently opposed, to his ruin for the time being, is now universally adopted; a grant of L10,000 was made him by Parliament in consideration of his services and in compensation for his losses; he had a turn for versifying as well as mechanical invention (1743-1823).

CARTWRIGHT, JOHN, brother of the preceding; served in the navy and the militia, but left both services for political reasons; took to the study of agriculture, and the advocacy of radical political reform much in advance of his time (1740-1824).

CARUS, KARL GUSTAV, a celebrated German physiologist, born at Leipzig; a many-sided man; advocate of the theory that health of body and mind depends on the equipoise of antagonistic principles (1789-1869).

CARY, HENRY FRANCIS, translator of Dante, born at Gibraltar; his translation is admired for its fidelity as well as for its force and felicity (1772-1844).

CARYATIDES, draped female figures surmounting columns and supporting entablatures; the corresponding male figures are called Atlantes.

CASA, Italian statesman, Secretary of State under Pope Paul IV.; wrote "Galateo; or, the Art of Living in the World" (1503-1556).

CASABIANCA, LOUIS, a French naval officer, born in Corsica, who, at the battle of Aboukir, after securing the safety of his crew, blew up his ship and perished along with his son, who would not leave him (1755-1798).

CASA'LE (17), a town on the Po; manufactures silk twist.

CASANOVA, painter, born in London, of Venetian origin; painted landscapes and battle-pieces (1727-1806).

CASANOVA DE SEINGALT, a clever Venetian adventurer and scandalous impostor, of the Cagliostro type, who insinuated himself into the good graces for a time of all the distinguished people of the period, including even Frederick the Great, Voltaire, and others; died in Bohemia after endless roamings and wrigglings, leaving, as Carlyle would say, "the smell of brimstone behind him"; wrote a long detailed, brazen-faced account of his career of scoundrelism (1725-1798).

CASAS, BARTOLOMEO DE LAS, a Spanish prelate, distinguished for his exertions in behalf of the Christianisation and civilisation of the Indians of S. America (1474-1566).

CASAUBON, ISAAC, an eminent classical scholar and commentator, born in Geneva; professor of Greek at Geneva and Montpellier, and afterwards of belles-lettres at Paris, invited thither by Henry IV., who pensioned him; being a Protestant he removed to London on Henry's death, where James I. gave him two prebends; has been ranked with Lepsius and Scaliger as a scholar (1559-1614).

CASAUBON, MERIC, son of preceding; accompanied his father to England; held a church living under the Charleses; became professor of Theology at Oxford, and edited his father's works (1599-1671).

CASCADE MOUNTAINS, a range in Columbia that slopes down toward the Pacific from the Western Plateau, of which the Rocky Mountains form the eastern boundary; they are nearly parallel with the coast, and above 100 m. inland.

CASERTA (35), a town in Italy, 20 m. from Naples, noted for a magnificent palace, built after plans supplied by Vanvitelli, one of the architects of St. Peter's at Rome.

CASHEL, a town in Tipperary, Ireland, 49 m. NE. of Cork; a bishop's see, with a "Rock" 300 ft. high, occupied by interesting ruins; it was formerly the seat of the kings of Munster.

CASHMERE or KASHMIR (2,543), a native Indian State, bordering upon Tibet, 120 m. long and 80 m. wide, with beautiful scenery and a delicious climate, in a valley of the Himalayas, forming the basin of the Upper Indus, hemmed in by deep-gorged woods and snow-peaked mountains, and watered by the Jhelum, which spreads out here and there near it into lovely lakes; shawl weaving and lacquer-work are the chief occupations of the inhabitants.

CASIMIR, the name of five kings of Poland; the most eminent, Casimir III., called the Great, after distinguishing himself in wars against the Teutonic Knights, was elected king in 1333; recovered Silesia from Bohemia in two victories; defeated the Tartars on the Vistula, and annexed part of Lithuania; formed a code of laws, limiting both the royal authority and that of the nobles (1309-1370).

CASIMIR-PERIER, president of the French Republic, born in Paris; a man of moderate views and firm character; was premier in 1893; succeeded Carnot in 1894; resigned 1895, because, owing to misrepresentation, the office had become irksome to him; b. 1847.

CASINO, a club-house or public building in Continental towns provided with rooms for social gatherings, music, dancing, billiards, &c.

CASIRI, a Syro-Maronite religious, and a learned Orientalist (1710-1791).

CASPARI, KARL PAUL, German theologian, born at Dessau; professor at Christiania (1814-1892).

CASPIAN SEA, an inland sea, partly in Europe and partly in Asia, the largest in the world, being 600 m. from N. to S. and from 270 to 130 m. in breadth, with the Caucasus Mts. on the W. and the Elburz on the S., is the fragment of a larger sea which extended to the Arctic Ocean; shallow in the N., deep in the S.; the waters, which are not so salt as the ocean, abound in fish, especially salmon and sturgeon.

CASS, LEWIS, an eminent American statesman, a member of the Democratic party, and openly hostile to Great Britain; though in favour of slave-holding, a friend of Union; wrote a "History of the U.S. Indians" (1782-1867).

CASSAGNAC, GRANIER DE, a French journalist; at first an Orleanist, became a supporter of the Empire; started several journals, which all died a natural death; edited Le Pays, a semi-official organ; embroiled himself in duels and lawsuits without number (1806-1880).

CASSAGNAC, PAUL, son of preceding; editor of Le Pays and the journal L'Autorite; an obstinate Imperialist; b. 1843.

CASSANDER, king of Macedonia, passed over in the succession by his father Antipater; allied himself with the Greek cities; invaded Macedonia and ascended the throne; married Thessalonica, the sister of Alexander the Great, but put Alexander's mother to death, thus securing himself against all rival claimants; left his son Philip as successor (354-297 B.C.).

CASSANDRA, a beautiful Trojan princess, daughter of Priam and Hecuba, whom Apollo endowed with the gift of prophecy, but, as she had rejected his suit, doomed to utter prophecies which no one would believe, as happened with her warnings of the fate and the fall of Troy, which were treated by her countrymen as the ravings of a lunatic; her name is applied to any one who entertains gloomy forebodings.

CASSANO, a town in the S. of Italy; also a town near Milan, scene of a French victory under Vendome in 1705, and a French defeat under Moreau in 1799.

CASSATION, COURT OF, a court of highest and last appeal in France, appointed in the case of appeal to revise the forms of a procedure in an inferior court; it consists of a president and vice-president, 49 judges, a public prosecutor called the procureur-general, and six advocates-general; it consists of three sections: first, one to determine if the appeal should be received; second, one to decide in civil cases; and third, one to decide in criminal cases.

CASSEL (72), capital of Hesse-Cassel, an interesting town, 120 m. from Frankfort-on-Main; it is the birthplace of Bunsen.

CASSELL, JOHN, the publisher, born in Manchester; a self-made man, who knew the value of knowledge and did much to extend it (1817-1865).

CASSIANUS, JOANNUS, an Eastern ascetic; came to Constantinople, and became a pupil of Chrysostom, who ordained him; founded two monasteries in Marseilles; opposed the extreme views of Augustine in regard to grace and free-will, and human depravity; and not being able to go the length of Pelaganism, adopted SEMI-PELAGIANISM, q. v. (360-448).

CASSINI, name of a family of astronomers of the 17th and 18th centuries, of Italian origin; distinguished for their observations and discoveries affecting the comets, the planets, and the moon; they settled, father and son and grandson, in Paris, and became in succession directors of the observatory of Paris, the last of whom died in 1864, after completing in 1793 a great topographical map of France begun by his father.

CASSIODO'RUS, a Latin statesman and historian, born in Calabria; prime minister of Theodoric the Great and his successor; retired into a monastery about 70, and lived there nearly 30 years; wrote a history of the Goths, and left letters of great historical value (468-568).

CASSIOPE'IA, queen of Ethiopia, mother of Andromeda, placed after death among the constellations; a constellation well north in the northern sky of five stars in the figure of a W.

CASSIQUIA'RI, a remarkable river in Venezuela, which, like a canal, connects the Rio Negro, an affluent of the Amazon, with the Orinoco.

CASSITER'IDES, islands in the Atlantic, which the Phoenician sailors visited to procure tin; presumed to have been the Scilly Islands or Cornwall, which they adjoin.

CASSIUS, CAIUS, chief conspirator against Caesar; won over Brutus to join in the foul plot; soon after the deed was done fled to Syria, made himself master of it; joined his forces with those of Brutus at Philippi; repulsed on the right, thought all was lost; withdrew into his tent, and called his freedmen to kill him; Brutus, in his lamentation over him, called him the "last of the Romans"; d. 42 B.C.

CASSIUS, SPURIUS, a Roman, thrice chosen consul, first time 502 B.C.; subdued the Sabines, made a league with the Latins, promoted an agrarian law, the first passed, which conceded to the plebs a share in the public lands.

CASSIVELLAUNUS, a British warlike chief, who unsuccessfully opposed Caesar on his second invasion of Britain, 52 B.C.; surrendered after defeat, and became tributary to Rome.

CASTALIA, a fountain at the foot of Parnassus sacred to the Muses; named after a nymph, who drowned herself in it to escape Apollo.

CASTANET, bishop of Albi; procured the canonisation of St. Louis (1256-1317).

CASTANOS, a Spanish general; distinguished for his victory over the French under Dupont, whom he compelled to surrender and sign the capitulation of Baylen, in 1808; after this he served under Wellington in several engagements, and was commander of the Spanish army, ready, if required, to invade France in 1815 (1758-1852).

CASTE, rank in society of an exclusive nature due to birth or origin, such as prevails among the Hindus especially. Among them there are originally two great classes, the twice-born and the once-born, i. e. those who have passed through a second birth, and those who have not; of the former there are three grades, Brahmans, or the priestly caste, from the mouth of Brahma; Kshatriyas, or the soldier caste, from the hands of Brahma; and Vaisyas, or the agricultural caste, from the feet of Brahma; while the latter are of one rank and are menial to the other, called Sudras, earth-born all; notwithstanding which distinction often members of the highest class sink socially to the lowest level, and members of the lowest rise socially to the highest.

CASTEL, RENE-RICHARD, French poet and naturalist (1758-1832).

CASTELAR, EMILIO, a Spanish republican, born in Cadiz; an eloquent man and a literary; appointed dictator of Spain in 1873, but not being equal to the exigency in the affairs of the State, resigned, and made way for the return of monarchy, though under protest; wrote a history of the "Republican Movement in Europe" among other works of political interest; b. 1832.

CASTELLAMARE (15), a port on the coast of Italy, 115 m. SE. of Naples, the scene of Pliny's death from the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79. It takes its name from a castle built on it by the Emperor Frederick II.; has a cathedral, arsenal, and manufactures.

CASTELLIO, Protestant theologian, a protege of Calvin's for a time, till he gave expression to some heretical views, which led to a rupture; he ventured to pronounce the Song of Solomon a mere erotic poem (1515-1563).

CASTIGLIONE, a town of Sicily, on N. slope of Etna, 35 m. SW. of Messina; famed for hazel nuts.

CASTIGLIONE, COUNT, an accomplished Italian, born in Mantua; author of "II Cortegiano," a manual for courtiers, called by the Italians in admiration of it "The Golden Book"; had spent much of his time in courts in England and Spain, as well as Rome, and was a courtly man (1478-1529).

CASTILE, a central district of Spain, divided by the mountains of Castile into Old Castile (1,800) in the N., and New Castile (3,500) in the S.: the former consisting of a high bare plateau, bounded by mountains on the N. and on the S., with a variable climate, yields wheat and good pasturage, and is rich in minerals; the latter, also tableland, has a richer soil, and yields richer produce, breeds horses and cattle, and contains besides the quicksilver mines of Almaden. Both were at one time occupied by the Moors, and were created into a kingdom in the 11th century, and united to the crown of Spain in 1469 by the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella.

CASTLE GARDEN, the immigration depot of New York where immigrants land, report themselves, and are advised where to settle or find work.

CASTLE OF INDOLENCE, a poem of Thomson's, a place in which the dwellers live amid luxurious delights, to the enervation of soul and body.

CASTLEFORD (14), a town 10 m. SE. of Leeds, with extensive glass-works, especially bottles.

CASTLEREAGH, LORD, entered political life as a member of the Irish Parliament, co-operated with Pitt in securing the Union, after which he entered the Imperial Parliament, became War Minister (1805), till the ill-fated Walcheren expedition and a duel with Canning obliged him to resign; became Foreign Secretary in 1812, and the soul of the coalition against Napoleon; represented the country in a congress after Napoleon's fall; succeeded his father as Marquis of Londonderry in 1821, and committed suicide the year following; his name has been unduly defamed, and his services to the country as a diplomatist have been entirely overlooked (1769-1822).

CASTLES IN SPAIN, visionary projects.

CASTLETOWN, a seaport in the Isle of Man, 11 m. SW. of Douglas, and the former capital.

CASTLEWOOD, the heroine in Thackeray's "Esmond."

CASTOR AND POLLUX, the Dioscuri, the twin sons of Zeus by Leda; great, the former in horsemanship, and the latter in boxing; famed for their mutual affection, so that when the former was slain the latter begged to be allowed to die with him, whereupon it was agreed they should spend a day in Hades time about; were raised eventually to become stars in the sky, the Gemini, twin signs in the zodiac, rising and setting together; this name is also given to the electric phenomenon called ST. ELMO'S FIRE (q. v.).

CASTREN, MATHIAS ALEXANDER, an eminent philologist, born in Finland, professor of the Finnish Language and Literature in Helsingfors; travelled all over Northern Europe and Asia, and left accounts of the races he visited and their languages; translated the "KALEVALA" (q. v.) the epic of the Finns; died prematurely, worn out with his labours (1813-1852).

CASTRES (22), a town in the dep. of Tarn, 46 m. E. of Toulouse; was a Roman station, and one of the first places in France to embrace Calvinism.

CASTRO, GUILLEN DE, a Spanish dramatist, author of the play of "The Cid," which gained him European fame; he began life as a soldier, got acquainted with Lope de Vega, and took to dramatic composition (1569-1631).

CASTRO, INEZ DE, a royal heiress of the Spanish throne in the 14th century, the beloved wife of Don Pedro, heir of the Portuguese throne; put to death out of jealousy of Spain by the latter's father, but on his accession dug out of her grave, arrayed in her royal robes, and crowned along with him, after which she was entombed again, and a magnificent monument erected over her remains.

CASTRO, JUAN DE, a Portuguese soldier, born at Lisbon, distinguished for his exploits in behalf of Portugal; made viceroy of the Portuguese Indies, but died soon after in the arms of Francis Xavier (1500-1548).

CASTRO, VACA DE, a Spaniard, sent out by Charles V. as governor of Peru, but addressing himself to the welfare of the natives rather than the enrichment of Spain, was recalled, to pine and die in prison in 1558.

CASTROGIOVANNI (18), a town in a strong position in the heart of Sicily, 3270 ft. above the sea-level; at one time a centre of the worship of Ceres, and with a temple to her.

CASTRUCCIO-CASTRACANI, Duke of Lucca, and chief of the Ghibelline party in that town, the greatest war-captain in Europe in his day; lord of hundreds of strongholds; wore on a high occasion across his breast a scroll, inscribed, "He is what God made him," and across his back another, inscribed, "He shall be what God will make"; d. 1328, "crushed before the moth."

CATACOMBS, originally underground quarries, afterwards used as burial-places for the dead, found beneath Paris and in the neighbourhood of Rome, as well as elsewhere; those around Rome, some 40 in number, are the most famous, as having been used by the early Christians, not merely for burial but for purposes of worship, and are rich In monuments of art and memorials of history.

CATALANI, ANGELICA, a celebrated Italian singer and prima donna, born near Ancona; began her career in Rome with such success that it led to engagements over all the chief cities of Europe, the enthusiasm which followed her reaching its climax when she came to England, where, on her first visit, she stayed eight years; by the failure of an enterprise in Paris she lost her fortune, but soon repaired it by revisiting the capitals of Europe; died of cholera in Paris (1779-1840).

CATALONIA (1,900), old prov. of Spain, on the NE.; has a most fertile soil, which yields a luxuriant vegetation; chief seat of manufacture in the country, called hence the "Lancashire of Spain"; the people are specially distinguished from other Spaniards for their intelligence and energy.

CATAMAR'CA (ISO), NW. prov. of the Argentine Republic; rich in minerals, especially copper.

CATA'NIA (123), an ancient city at the foot of Etna, to the S., on a plain called the Granary of Sicily; has been several times devastated by the eruptions of Etna, particularly in 1169, 1669, and 1693; manufactures silk, linen, and articles of amber, &c., and exports sulphur, grain, and fruits.

CATANZA'RO (20), a city in Calabria, 6 m. from the Gulf of Squillace, with an old castle of Robert Guiscard.

CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE, Kant's name for the self-derived moral law, "universal and binding on every rational will, a commandment of the autonomous, one and universal reason."

CATEGORIES are either classes under which all our Notions of things may be grouped, or classes under which all our Thoughts of things may be grouped; the former called Logical, we owe to Aristotle, and the latter called Metaphysical, we owe to Kant. The Logical, so derived, that group our notions, are ten in number: Substance or Being, Quantity, Quality, Relation, Place, Time, Position, Possession, Action, Passion. The Metaphysical, so derived, that group our thoughts, are twelve in number: (1) as regards quantity, Totality, Plurality, Unity; (2) as regards quality, Reality, Negation, Limitation; (3) as regards relation, Substance, Accident, Cause and Effect, Action and Reaction; (4) as regards modality, Possibility and Impossibility, Existence and Nonexistence, Necessity and Contingency. John Stuart Mill resolves the categories into five, Existence, Co-existence, Succession, Causation, and Resemblance.

CATESBY, MARK, an English naturalist and traveller, wrote a natural history of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahamas (1680-1750).

CATESBY, ROBERT, born in Northamptonshire, a Catholic of good birth; concerned in the famous Gunpowder Plot; shot dead three days after its discovery by officers sent to arrest him (1573-1605).

CATH'ARI, OR CATHARISTS, i. e. purists or puritans, a sect of presumably Gnostic derivation, scattered here and there under different names over the S. and W. of Europe during the Middle Ages, who held the Manichaean doctrine of the radically sinful nature of the flesh, and the necessity of mortifying all its desires and affections to attain purity of soul.

CATHARINE, ST., OF ALEXANDRIA, a virgin who, in 307, suffered martyrdom after torture on the wheel, which has since borne her name; is represented in art as in a vision presented to Christ by His Mother as her sole husband, who gives her a ring. Festival, Nov. 25.

CATHARINE I., wife of Peter the Great and empress of Russia, daughter of a Livonian peasant; "a little stumpy body, very brown,... strangely chased about from the bottom to the top of the world,... had once been a kitchen wench"; married first to a Swedish dragoon, became afterwards the mistress of Prince Menschikoff, and then of Peter the Great, who eventually married her; succeeded him as empress, with Menschikoff as minister; for a time ruled well, but in the end gave herself up to dissipation, and died (1682-1727).

CATHARINE II. THE GREAT, empress of Russia, born at Stettin, daughter of Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst; "a most-clever, clear-eyed, stout-hearted woman"; became the wife of Peter III., a scandalous mortal, who was dethroned and then murdered, leaving her empress; ruled well for the country, and though her character was immoral and her reign despotic and often cruel, her efforts at reform, the patronage she accorded to literature, science, and philosophy, and her diplomatic successes, entitle her to a high rank among the sovereigns of Russia; she reigned from 1763 to 1796, and it was during the course of her reign, and under the sanction of it, that Europe witnessed the three partitions of Poland (1729-1796).

CATHARINE DE' MEDICI, daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, wife of Henry II. of France, and mother of his three successors; on the accession of her second son, Charles IX.—for the reign of her first, Francis II., was very brief—acted as regent during his minority; joined heart and soul with the Catholics in persecuting the Huguenots, and persuaded her son to issue the order which resulted in the massacre of St. Bartholomew; on his death, which occurred soon after, she acted as regent during the minority of her third son, Henry III., and lived to see both herself and him detested by the whole French people, and this although she was during her ascendency the patroness of the arts and of literature (1519-1589).

CATHARINE OF ARAGON, fourth daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, and wife of Henry VIII., her brother-in-law as widow of Arthur, from whom, and at whose instance, after 18 years of married life, and after giving birth to five children, she was divorced on the plea that, as she had been his brother's wife before, it was not lawful for him to have her; after her divorce she remained in the country, led an austere religious life, and died broken-hearted. The refusal of the Pope to sanction this divorce led to the final rupture of the English Church from the Church of Rome, and the emancipation of the nation from priestly tyranny (1483-1536).

CATHARINE OF BRAGANZA, the wife of Charles II. of England, of the royal house of Portugal; was unpopular in the country as a Catholic and neglected by her husband, on whose death, however, she returned to Portugal, and did the duties ably of regent for her brother Don Pedro (1638-1705).

CATHARINE OF SIENNA, born at Sienna, a sister of the Order of St. Dominic, and patron saint of the Order; celebrated for her ecstasies and visions, and the marks which by favour of Christ she bore on her body of His sufferings on the Cross (1347-1380). Festival, April 30. Besides her, are other saints of the same name.

CATHARINE OF VALOIS, daughter of Charles VI. of France, and wife of Henry V. of England, who, on his marriage to her, was declared heir to the throne of France, with the result that their son was afterwards, while but an infant, crowned king of both countries; becoming a widow, she married Owen Tudor, a Welsh gentleman, whereby a grandson of his succeeded to the English throne as Henry VII., and the first of the Tudors (1401-1438).

CATHARINE PARR, the sixth wife of Henry VIII. and the daughter of a Westmoreland knight; was of the Protestant faith and obnoxious to the Catholic faction, who trumped up a charge against her of heresy and treason, from which, however, she cleared herself to the satisfaction of the king, over whom she retained her ascendency till his death; d. 1548.

CATHARINE THEOT, a religious fanatic, born in Avranches; gave herself out as the Mother of God; appeared in Paris in 1794, and declared Robespierre a second John the Baptist and forerunner of the Word; the Committee of Public Safety had her arrested and guillotined.

CATHAY, the name given to China by mediaeval writers, which it still bears in Central Asia.

CATHCART, EARL, a British general and diplomatist, born in Renfrewshire; saw service in America and Flanders; distinguished himself at the bombardment of Copenhagen; represented England at the court of Russia and the Congress of Vienna (1755-1843).

CATHCART, SIR GEORGE, a lieutenant-general, son of the preceding; enlisted in the army; served in the later Napoleonic wars; was present at Quatre-Bras and Waterloo; was governor of the Cape; brought the Kaffir war to a successful conclusion; served in the Crimea, and fell at Inkerman (1794-1854).

CATHEDRAL, the principal church in a diocese, and which contains the throne of the bishop as his seat of authority; is of a rank corresponding to the dignity of the bishop; the governing body consists of the dean and chapter.

CATHELINEAU, JACQUES, a famous leader of the Vendeans in their revolt against the French Republic on account of a conscription in its behalf; a peasant by birth; mortally wounded in attacking Nantes; he is remembered by the peasants of La Vendee as the "Saint of Anjou" (1759-1793).

CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION, the name given to the emancipation in 1829 of the Roman Catholics of the United Kingdom from disabilities which precluded their election to office in the State, so that they are eligible now to any save the Lord Chancellorship of England and offices representative of royalty.

CATHOLIC EPISTLES, the name, equivalent to encyclical, given to certain epistles in the New Testament not addressed to any community in particular, but to several, and given eventually to all not written by St. Paul.

CATHOLIC MAJESTY, a title given by the Pope to several Spanish monarchs for their zeal in the defence of the Catholic faith.

CATILINE, or LUCIUS SERGIUS CATILINA, a Roman patrician, an able man, but unscrupulously ambitious; frustrated in his ambitious designs, he formed a conspiracy against the State, which was discovered and exposed by Cicero, a discovery which obliged him to leave the city; he tried to stir up hostility outside; this too being discovered by Cicero, an army was sent against him, when an engagement ensued, in which, fighting desperately, he was slain, 62 B.C.

CATINAT, NICOLAS, a marshal of France, born in Paris; one of the greatest military captains under Louis XIV.; defeated the Duke of Savoy twice over, though defeated by Prince Eugene and compelled to retreat; was an able diplomatist as well as military strategist (1637-1712).

CATLIN, GEORGE, a traveller among the North American Indians, and author of an illustrated work on their life and manners; spent eight years among them (1796-1872).

CATO DIONYSIUS, name of a book of maxims in verse, held in high favour during the Middle Ages; of unknown authorship.

CATO, MARCUS PORTIUS, or CATO MAJOR, surnamed Censor, Priscus, and Sapiens, born at Tusculum, of a good old family, and trained to rustic, frugal life; after serving occasionally in the army, removed to Rome; became in succession censor, aedile, praetor, and consul; served in the second Punic war, towards the end of it, and subjugated Spain; was a Roman of the old school; disliked and denounced all innovations, as censor dealt sharply with them; sent on an embassy to Africa, was so struck with the increasing power and the threateningly evil ascendency of Carthage, that on his return he urged its demolition, and in every speech which he delivered afterwards he ended with the words, Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam, "But, be that as it may, my opinion is Carthage must be destroyed" (234-149 B.C.).

CATO, MARCUS PORTIUS, or CATO THE YOUNGER, or UTICENSIS, great-grandson of the former, and a somewhat pedantic second edition of him; fortified himself by study of the Stoic philosophy; conceived a distrust of the public men of the day, Caesar among the number; preferred Pompey to him, and sided with him; after Pompey's defeat retired to Utica, whence his surname, and stabbed himself to death rather than fall into the hands of Caesar (95-46 B.C.).

CATO-STREET CONSPIRACY, an insignificant, abortive plot, headed by one Thistlewood, to assassinate Castlereagh and other ministers of the crown in 1820; so called from their place of meeting off the Edgeware Road, London.

CATRAIL, an old Roman earthwork, 50 m. long, passing S. from near Galashiels, through Selkirk and Roxburgh, or from the Cheviots; it is known by the name of the "Devil's Dyke."

CATS, JACOB, a Dutch poet and statesman, venerated in Holland as "Father Cats"; his works are written in a simple, natural style, and abound in wise maxims; he did service as a statesman; twice visited England as an envoy, and was knighted by Charles I. (1577-1660).

CATSKILL MOUNTAINS, a group of mountains, of steep ascent, and with rocky summits, in New York State, W. of the Hudson, none of them exceeding 4000 feet; celebrated as the scene of Rip Van Winkle's long slumber; belong to the Appalachians.

CATTEGAT, an arm of the sea, 150 m. in length and 84 of greatest width, between Sweden and Jutland; a highway into the Baltic, all but blocked up with islands; is dangerous to shipping on account of the storms that infest it at times.

CATTERMOLE, GEORGE, artist, born in Norfolk; illustrated Britton's "English Cathedrals," "Waverley Novels," and the "Historical Annual" by his brother; painted mostly in water-colour; his subjects chiefly from English history (1800-1868).

CATTLE PLAGUE, or RINDERPEST, a disease which affects ruminants, but especially bovine cattle; indigenous to the East, Russia, Persia, India, and China, and imported into Britain only by contagion of some kind; the most serious outbreaks were in 1865 and 1872.

CATULLUS, CAIUS VALERIUS, the great Latin lyric poet, born at Verona, a man of wealth and good standing, being, it would seem, of the equestrian order; associated with the best wits in Rome; fell in love with Clodia, a patrician lady, who was the inspiration, both in peace and war, of many of his effusions, and whom he addresses as Lesbia; the death of a brother affected him deeply, and was the occasion of the production of one of the most pathetic elegies ever penned; in the civic strife of the time he sided with the senate, and opposed Caesar to the length of directing against him a coarse lampoon (84-54 B.C.).

CAUCA, a river in Colombia, S. America, which falls into the Magdalena after a northward course of 600 m.

CAUCASIA, a prov. of Russia, geographically divided into Cis-Caucasia on the European side, and Trans-Caucasia on the Asiatic side of the Caucasus, with an area about four times as large as England.

CAUCASIAN RACE, a name adopted by Blumenbach to denote the Indo-European race, from the fine type of a skull of one of the race found in Georgia.

CAUCASUS, an enormous mountain range, 750 m. in length, extending from the Black Sea ESE. to the Caspian, in two parallel chains, with tablelands between, bounded on the S. by the valley of the Kur, which separates it from the tableland of Armenia; snow-line higher than that of the Alps; has fewer and smaller glaciers; has no active volcanoes, though abundant evidence of volcanic action.

CAUCHON, bishop of Beauvais, infamous for the iniquitous part he played in the trial and condemnation of Joan of Arc; d. 1443.

CAUCHY, AUGUSTIN LOUIS, mathematician, born in Paris; wrote largely on physical subjects; his "Memoir" on the theory of the waves suggested the undulatory theory of light; professor of Astronomy at Paris; declined to take the oath of allegiance to Napoleon III., and retired (1789-1857).

CAUCUS, a preliminary private meeting to arrange and agree on some measure or course to propose at a general meeting of a political party.

CAUDINE FORKS, a narrow mountain gorge in Samnium, in which, during the second Samnite war, a Roman army was entrapped and caught by the Samnites, who obliged them to pass under the yoke in token of subjugation, 321 B.C.

CAUDLE, MRS., an imaginary dame, a conception of Douglas Jerrold, famous for her "Curtain Lectures" all through the night for 30 years to her husband Mr. Job Caudle.

CAUL, a membrane covering the head of some children at birth, to which a magical virtue was at one time ascribed, and which, on that account, was rated high and sold often at a high price.

CAULAINCOURT, ARMAND DE, a French general and statesman of the Empire, a faithful supporter of Napoleon, who conferred on him a peerage, with the title of Duke of Vicenza, of which he was deprived at the Restoration; represented Napoleon at the Congress of Chatillon (1772-1827).

CAUS, SALOMON DE, a French engineer, born at Dieppe; discovered the properties of steam as a motive force towards 1638; claimed by Arago as the inventor of the steam-engine in consequence.

CAUSALITY, the philosophic name for the nature of the relation between cause and effect, in regard to which there has been much diversity of opinion among philosophers.

CAUTERETS, a fashionable watering-place in the dep. of the Hautes-Pyrenees, 3250 ft. above the sea, with sulphurous springs of very ancient repute, 25 in number, and of varying temperature.

CAVAIGNAC, LOUIS EUGENE, a distinguished French general, born in Paris; appointed governor of Algeria in 1849, but recalled to be head of the executive power in Paris same year; appointed dictator, suppressed the insurrection in June, after the most obstinate and bloody struggle the streets of Paris had witnessed since the first Revolution; stood candidate for the Presidency, to which Louis Napoleon was elected; was arrested after the coup d'etat, but soon released; never gave in his adherence to the Empire (1802-1857).

CAVALCASELLE, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, Italian writer on art; joint-author with J. A. Crowe of works on the "Early Flemish Painters" and the "History of Painting in Italy"; chief of the art department under the Minister of Public Instruction in Rome; b. 1820.

CAVALIER, JEAN, leader of the CAMISARDS (q. v.), born at Ribaute, in the dep. of Gard; bred a baker; held his own against Montreval and Villars; in 1704 concluded peace with the latter on honourable terms; haughtily received by Louis XIV., passed over to England; served against France, and died governor of Jersey (1679-1740).

CAVALIERS, the royalist partisans of Charles I. in England in opposition to the parliamentary party, or the Roundheads, as they were called.

CAVALLO, a distinguished Italian physicist, born at Naples (1749-1809).

CAVAN (111), inland county S. of Ulster, Ireland, with a poor soil; has minerals and mineral springs.

CAVE, EDWARD, a London bookseller, born in Warwickshire; projected the Gentleman's Magazine, to which Dr. Johnson contributed; was the first to give Johnson literary work, employing him as parliamentary reporter, and Johnson was much attached to him; he died with his hand in Johnson's (1691-1754).

CAVE, WILLIAM, an English divine; author of works on the Fathers of the Church and on primitive Christianity, of high repute at one time (1637-1713).

CAVENDISH, the surname of the Devonshire ducal family, traceable back to the 14th century.

CAVENDISH, GEORGE, the biographer of Wolsey; never left him while he lived, and never forgot him or the lesson of his life after he was dead; this appears from the vivid picture he gives of him, though written 30 years after his death (1500-1561).

CAVENDISH, LORD FREDERICK, brother of the ninth Duke of Devonshire, educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and a Liberal; was made Chief-Secretary for Ireland in 1882, but chancing to walk home one evening through the Phoenix Park, he fell a victim, stabbed to the heart, of a conspiracy that was aimed at Mr. Burke, an unpopular subordinate, who was walking along with him, and came to the same fate. Eight months after, 20 men were arrested as concerned in the murder, when one of the 20 informed; five of them were hanged; the informer Carey was afterwards murdered, and his murderer, O'Donnel, hanged (1836-1882).

CAVENDISH, HENRY, natural philosopher and chemist, born at Nice, of the Devonshire family; devoted his entire life to scientific investigations; the first to analyse the air of the atmosphere, determine the mean density of the earth, discover the composition of water, and ascertain the properties of hydrogen; was an extremely shy, retiring man; born rich and died rich, leaving over a million sterling (1731-1810).

CAVENDISH, SPENCER COMPTON, ninth Duke of Devonshire, for long known in public life as Marquis of Hartington; also educated at Trinity College, and a leader of the Liberal party; served under Gladstone till he adopted Home Rule for Ireland, but joined Lord Salisbury in the interest of Union, and one of the leaders of what is called the Liberal-Unionist party; b. 1833.

CAVENDISH, THOMAS, an English navigator, fitted out three vessels to cruise against the Spaniards; extended his cruise into the Pacific; succeeded in taking valuable prizes, with which he landed in England, after circumnavigating the globe; he set out on a second cruise, which ended in disaster, and he died in the island of Ascension broken-hearted (1555-1592).

CAVENDISH, WILLIAM, English courtier and cavalier in the reigns of James I. and Charles I.; joined Charles II. in exile; returned at the Restoration; was made Duke of Newcastle; wrote on horsemanship (1592-1676).

CAVENDISH, WILLIAM, first Duke of Devonshire; friend and protector of Lord William Russell; became a great favourite at court, and was raised to the dukedom (1640-1707).

CAVIARE, the roe (the immature ovaries) of the common sturgeon and other kindred fishes, caught chiefly in the Black and Caspian Seas, and prepared and salted; deemed a great luxury by those who have acquired the taste for it; largely imported from Astrakhan.

CAVOUR, COUNT CAMILLO BENSO DE, one of the greatest of modern statesmen, born the younger son of a Piedmontese family at Turin; entered the army, but was precluded from a military career by his liberal opinions; retired, and for 16 years laboured as a private gentleman to improve the social and economic condition of Piedmont; in 1847 he threw himself into the great movement which resulted in the independence and unification of Italy; for the next 14 years, as editor of Il Risorgimento, member of the chamber of deputies, holder of various portfolios in the government, and ultimately as prime minister of the kingdom of Sardinia, he obtained a constitution and representative government for his country, improved its fiscal and financial condition, and raised it to a place of influence in Europe; he co-operated with the allies in the Crimean war; negotiated with Napoleon III. for the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, and so precipitated the successful war of 1859; he encouraged Garibaldi in the expedition of 1860, which liberated Sicily and Southern Italy, and saw the parliament of 1861 summoned, and Victor Emmanuel declared king of Italy; but the strain of his labours broke his health, and he died a few months later (1810-1861).

CAWNPORE (188), a city on the right bank of the Ganges, in the North-Western Provinces of India, 40 m. SW. of Lucknow, and 628 NW. of Calcutta; the scene of one of the most fearful atrocities, perpetrated by Nana Sahib, in the Indian Mutiny in 1857.

CAXTON, WILLIAM, the first English printer, born in Kent, bred a mercer, settled for a time in Bruges, learned the art of printing there, where he printed a translation of the "Recuyell of the Historyes of Troyes," and "The Game and Playe of Chesse"; returning to England, set up a press in Westminster Abbey, and in 1477 issued "Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers," the first book printed in England, which was soon followed by many others; he was a good linguist, as well as a devoted workman (1422-1491).

CAYENNE (10), cap. and port of French Guiana, a swampy, unhealthy place, rank with tropical vegetation; a French penal settlement since 1852.

CAYLA, COUNTESS OF, friend and confidante of Louis XVIII. (1784-1850).

CAYLEY, ARTHUR, an eminent English mathematician, professor at Cambridge, and president of the British Association in 1883 (1821-1895).

CAYLEY, CHARLES BAGOT, a linguist, translated Dante into the metre of the original, with annotations, besides metrical versions of the "Iliad," the "Prometheus" of AEschylus, the "Canzoniere" of Petrarch, &c. (1823-1883).

CAYLUS, COUNT, a distinguished archaeologist, born in Paris; author of a "Collection of Antiquities of Egypt, Etruria," &c., with excellent engravings (1692-1765).

CAYLUS, MARQUISE DE, born in Poitou, related to Mme. de Maintenon; left piquant souvenirs of the court of Louis XIV. and the house of St. Cyr (1672-1729).

CAZALES, a member of French Constituent Assembly, a dragoon captain, a fervid, eloquent orator of royalism, who "earned thereby," says Carlyle, "the shadow of a name" (1758-1805).

CAZOTTE, author of the "Diable Amoureux"; victim as an enemy of the French Revolution; spared for his daughter's sake for a time, but guillotined at last; left her a "lock of his old grey hair" (1720-1792).

CEAN-BERMUDEZ, a Spanish writer on art; author of a biographical dictionary of the principal artists of Spain (1749-1834).

CEARA (35), cap. of the prov. (900) of the name, in N. of Brazil.

CE'BES, a Greek philosopher, disciple and friend of Socrates, reputed author of the "Pinax" or Tablet, a once popular book on the secret of life, being an allegorical representation of the temptations that beset it.

CECIL, ROBERT, EARL OF SALISBURY, succeeded his father, Lord Burleigh, as first Minister under Elizabeth, and continued in office under James I., whose friendship he sedulously cultivated before his accession, and who created him earl (1565-1612). See BURLEIGH, LORD.

CECILIA, ST., a Roman virgin and martyr, A.D. 230, patron saint of music, especially church music, and reputed inventor of the organ; sometimes represented as holding a small organ, with her head turned heavenwards as if listening to the music of the spheres, and sometimes as playing on an organ and with a heavenly expression of face. Festival, Nov. 22.

CECROPS, the mythical first king and civiliser of Attica and founder of Athens with its citadel, dedicated by him to Athena, whence the name of the city.

CEDAR RAPIDS (25), a manufacturing town in Iowa, U.S.; a great railway centre.

CELADON, poetical name for a languid swain, all sighs and longings.

CELAENO, name of one of the HARPIES (q. v.).

CELEBES (1,000), an island in the centre of the Eastern Archipelago, third in size, in the shape of a body with four long limbs, traversed by mountain chains, and the greater part of it a Dutch possession, though it contains a number of small native states; it yields among its mineral products gold, copper, tin, &c.; and among its vegetable, tea, coffee, rice, sugar, pepper, &c.; capital. Macassar.

CELESTE, MME., a dancer, born in Paris; made her debut in New York; in great repute in England, and particularly in the States, where she in her second visit realised L40,000 (1814-1882).

CELESTIAL EMPIRE, China, as ruled over by a dynasty appointed by Heaven.

CELESTINE, the name of five Popes: C. I., Pope from 422 to 432; C. II., Pope from 1143 to 1144; C. III., Pope from 1191 to 1198; C. IV., Pope for 18 days in 1241; C. V., Pope in 1294, a hermit for 60 years; nearly 80 when elected against his wish; abdicated in five months; imprisoned by order of Boniface VIII.; d. 1296; canonised 1313.

CELESTINES, an order of monks founded by Celestine V. before he was elected Pope in 1354; they followed the rule of the Benedictine Order, and led a contemplative life.

CELLINI, BENVENUTO, a celebrated engraver, sculptor, and goldsmith, a most versatile and erratic genius, born at Florence; had to leave Florence for a bloody fray he was involved in, and went to Rome; wrought as a goldsmith there for 20 years, patronised by the nobles; killed the Constable de Bourbon at the sack of the city, and for this received plenary indulgence from the Pope; Francis I. attracted him to his court and kept him in his service five years, after which he returned to Florence and executed his famous bronze "Perseus with the Head of Medusa," which occupied him four years; was a man of a quarrelsome temper, which involved him in no end of scrapes with sword as well as tongue; left an autobiography, from its self-dissection of the deepest interest to all students of human nature (1500-1571).

CELSIUS, a distinguished Swedish astronomer, born at Upsala, and professor of Astronomy there; inventor of the Centigrade thermometer (1701-1744).

CELSUS, a celebrated Roman physician of the age of Augustus, and perhaps later; famed as the author of "De Medicina," a work often referred to, and valuable as one of the sources of our knowledge of the medicine of the ancients.

CELSUS, a philosopher of the 2nd century, and notable as the first assailant on philosophic grounds of the Christian religion, particularly as regards the power it claims to deliver from the evil that is inherent in human nature, inseparable from it, and implanted in it not by God, but some inferior being remote from Him; the book in which he attacked Christianity is no longer extant, only quotations from it scattered over the pages of the defence of Origen in reply.

CELTIBE'RI, an ancient Spanish race occupying the centre of the peninsula, sprung from a blending of the aborigines and the Celts, who invaded the country; a brave race, divided into four tribes; distinguished in war both as cavalry and infantry, and whom the Romans had much trouble in subduing.

CELTS. The W. of Europe was in prehistoric times subjected to two invasions of Aryan tribes, all of whom are now referred to as Celts. The earlier invaders were Goidels or Gaels; they conquered the Ivernian and Iberian peoples of ancient Gaul, Britain, and Ireland; their successors, the Brythons or Britons pouring from the E., drove them to the westernmost borders of these countries, and there compelled them to make common cause with the surviving Iberians in resistance; in the eastern parts of the conquered territories they formed the bulk of the population, in the W. they were in a dominant minority; study of languages in the British Isles leads to the conclusion that the Irish, Manx, and Scottish Celts belonged chiefly to the earlier immigration, while the Welsh and Cornish represent the latter; the true Celtic type is tall, red or fair, and blue-eyed, while the short, swarthy type, so long considered Celtic, is now held to represent the original Iberian races.

CENCI, THE, a Roman family celebrated for their crimes and misfortunes as well as their wealth. FRANCESCO CENCI was twice married, had had twelve children by his first wife, whom he treated cruelly; after his second marriage cruelly treated the children of his first wife, but conceived a criminal passion for the youngest of them, a beautiful girl named BEATRICE, whom he outraged, upon which, being unable to bring him to justice, she, along with her stepmother and a brother, hired two assassins to murder him; the crime was found out, and all three were beheaded (1599); this is the story on which Shelley founded his tragedy, but it is now discredited.

CENIS, MONT, one of the Cottian Alps, over which Napoleon constructed a pass 6884 ft. high in 1802-10, through which a tunnel 71/2 m. long passes from Modane to Bardonneche, connecting France with Italy; the construction of this tunnel cost L3,000,000, and Napoleon's pass a tenth of the sum.

CENSORS, two magistrates of ancient Rome, who held office at first for five years and then eighteen months, whose duty it was to keep a register of the citizens, guard the public morals, collect the public revenue, and superintend the public property.

CEN'TAURS, a savage race living between Pelion and Ossa, in Thessaly, and conceived of at length by Pindar as half men and half horses, treated as embodying the relation between the spiritual and the animal in man and nature, in all of whom the animal prevails over the spiritual except in Chiron, who therefore figures as the trainer of the heroes of Greece; in the mythology they figure as the progeny of Centaurus, son of IXION (q. v.) and the cloud, their mothers being mares.

CENTRAL AMERICA (3,000), territory of fertile tableland sloping gradually to both oceans, occupied chiefly by a number of small republics, lying between Tehuantepec and Panama in N. America; it includes the republics of Guatemala, Honduras, St. Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, and a few adjoining fractions of territory.

CENTRAL INDIA (10,000), includes a group of feudatory States lying between Rajputana in the N. and Central Provinces in the S.

CENTRAL PROVINCES (12,944), States partly British and partly native, occupying the N. of the Deccan, and lying between the Nerbudda and the Godavary.

CEOS, one of the Cyclades, a small island 13 m. by 8 m., yields fruits; was the birthplace of Simonides and Bacchylides.

CEPHALONIA (80), the largest of the Ionian Islands, 30 m. long, the ancient Samos; yields grapes and olive oil.

CEPHALUS, king of Thessaly, who having involuntarily killed his wife Procris, in despair put himself to death with the same weapon.

CERAM' (195), the largest of S. Moluccas; yields sago, which is chiefly cultivated and largely exported.

CERBERUS, the three-headed or three-throated monster that guarded the entrance to the nether world of Pluto, could be soothed by music, and tempted by honey, only Hercules overcame him by sheer strength, dragging him by neck and crop to the upper world.

CERES, the Latin name for DEMETER (q. v.); also the name of one of the asteroids, the first discovered, by Piazzi, in 1801.

CERI'GO (14), an Ionian island, the southernmost, the ancient Cythera; yields wine and fruits.

CERINTHUS, a heresiarch of the first century, whom, according to tradition, St. John held in special detestation, presumably as denying the Father and the Son.

CERRO DE PASCO, a town in Peru, 14,200 ft. above the sea-level, with the richest silver mine in S. America.

CERUTTI, a Jesuit, born at Turin; became a Revolutionary in France; pronounced the funeral oration at the grave of Mirabeau in 1789.

CERVANTES-SAAVEDRA, MIGUEL DE, the author of "Don Quixote," born at Alcala de Henares; was distinguished in arms before he became distinguished in letters; fought in the battle of Lepanto like a very hero, and bore away with him as a "maimed soldier" marks of his share in the struggle; sent on a risky embassy, was captured by pirates and remained in their hands five years; was ransomed by his family at a cost which beggared them, and it was only when his career as a soldier closed that he took himself to literature; began as a dramatist before he devoted himself to prose romance; wrote no fewer than 30 dramas; the first part of the work which has immortalised his name appeared in 1605, and the second in 1615; it took the world by storm, was translated into all the languages of Europe, but the fortune which was extended to his book did not extend to himself, for he died poor, some ten days before his great contemporary, William Shakespeare; though carelessly written, "Don Quixote" is one of the few books of all time, and is as fresh to-day as when it was first written (1547-1616).

CERVIN, MONT, the French name for the Matterhorn, 705 ft., the summit of the Pennine Alps, between Valais and Piedmont.

CESAREWITCH, the eldest son and heir of the Czar of Russia.

CE'SARI, GIUSEPPE, sometimes called ARPINO, an eminent Italian painter; painted a series of frescoes in the Conservatorio of the Capitol, illustrative of events in the history of Rome (1568-1640).

CESAROTTI, an Italian poet, translator of the "Iliad" and "Ossian" into Italian (1730-1808).

CESTUS, a girdle worn by Greek and Roman women, specially the girdle of Aphrodite, so emblazoned with symbols of the joys of love that no susceptible soul could resist the power of it; it was borrowed by Hera to captivate Zeus.

CETINJE, the capital of Montenegro, in a valley 2000 ft. high; smallest of capital cities, with a population under 2000.

CETTE (36), a seaport, trading, and manufacturing town, on a tongue of land between the lagoon of Thau and the Mediterranean, 23 m. SW. of Montpellier, with a large safe harbourage.

CE'UTA (12), a port opposite Gibraltar belonging to Spain, on the coast of Morocco, guarded by a fort on one of the Pillars of Hercules, overlooking it; of importance as a military and convict station.

CEVENNES, a range of low mountains on the eastern edge of the central plateau of France, separating the basin of the Rhone from those of the Loire and Garonne; average height from 3000 to 4000 ft.; the chief scene of the dragonnades against the Huguenots under Louis XIV.

CEYLON (3,008), a pear-shaped island about the size of Scotland, separated from India, to which it geographically belongs, and SE. of which it lies, by Palk Strait, 32 m. broad; comprises a lofty, central tableland with numerous peaks, the highest Tallagalla, 8000 ft., and a broad border of well-watered plains. It was an ancient centre of civilisation; the soil is everywhere fertile; the climate is hot, but more equitable than on the mainland; the chief products are tea, cinnamon, and tobacco; the forests yield satin-wood, ebony, &c.; the cocoa-nut palm abounds; there are extensive deposits of iron, anthracite, and plumbago; precious stones, sapphires, rubies, amethysts, &c., are in considerable quantities; the pearl fisheries are a valuable government monopoly. The chief exports are tea, rice, cotton goods, and coals. Two-thirds of the people are Singhalese and Buddhists, there are 6000 Europeans. The island is a crown colony, the largest in the British Empire, administered by a governor with executive and legislative councils; the capital and chief port is Colombo (127).

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