The North American Indian
by Edward S. Curtis
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San Carlos agency, number of Apache under, 131

San Carlos Apache, native name of, 134

San Carlos reservation, property disputes on, 23

Sand altars. See DRY-PAINTINGS

Sandia, Navaho name for, 138

Sand People, a Jicarilla band, 54

San Felipe, Navaho name for, 138

San Ildefonso, Navaho name for, 138

San Juan, Navaho name for, 138

San Juan river, creation of, in Navaho myth, 90

San Xavier del Bac, mission of, 4

Santa Clara, Navaho name for, 138

Santo Domingo, Navaho name for, 138

Scalp bounty offered, 6

Scalping mentioned in Navaho myth, 107

Scouts, Apache, at Fort Apache, 10

Scratching prohibited during maturity rite, 47, 125

Seed planting in Navaho mythology, 85, 86, 90, 96

Seeds borne by Ganaskidi, 121 how prepared by Apache, 15 See CORN

Sheep of the Navaho, 73, 74 purchased for Navaho, 83 used in marriage settlement, 126

Shell beads mixed with pollen, 38 beads of the Navaho, 77 ornaments of the Navaho, 136 symbolic of prayer, 34 used as medicine bowl, 117, 120 used in puberty rite, 46, 47 white, in Navaho myth, 84, 91, 92, 97, 101, 103, 104, 108, 115 See YOLKAI ESTSAN; YOLKAI NALĬN

Shield of Navaho Sun God, 103

Shirts. See CLOTHING

Shooting Chant of the Navaho, 78 contest in Navaho myth, 107, 108

Shrines of the Apache, 133

Sia, Navaho name for, 138

Sierra Madre, Apache captured in, 10

Silver ornaments used in marriage settlement, 126

Silver-work of the Navaho, 76-77, 136

Sĭsnajĭni, a Navaho sacred mountain, 90

Skin, painted, of Apache, 29-35 See ANTELOPE SKIN; BUFFALO SKIN; DEERSKIN

Skirts, sacred, used in childbirth, 39 See CLOTHING

Skunk in Jicarilla mythology, 61

Sky, creation of, in Apache myth, 27, 28 creation of, in Navaho myth, 91

Sky God of the Apache, 27, 28, 31, 33 of the Navaho, 98

Sky Messengers of Apache myth, 31, 32

Slaves made of captives by Navaho, 82

Small Dipper, creation of, in Navaho myth, 93



Snake, Great, in Navaho myth, 97 in Jicarilla myth, 56, 58, 64 in Navaho myth, 90, 102 represented in Jicarilla dry-painting, 57

Snake People in Navaho myth, 111

Snipe Man in Navaho myth, 102

Social customs of the Jicarillas, 55 See MARRIAGE; MORTUARY CUSTOMS; PUBERTY; WOMEN

Songs addressed to God of Health, 33 employed in maturity rite, 46, 125 in Apache ceremony, 41-42 in Jicarilla myth, 57 in Navaho ceremonies, 138 in Navaho mythology, 84, 86, 94, 111, 112, 115 in Night Chant, 118, 119, 121, 123, 124 of Apache medicine-men, 32, 36 of gods in Apache myth, 26, 27, 32 of the Jicarillas, 58

Sonora, Apache raids into, 14 scalp bounty offered by, 6

Sorcery, penalty for, among Jicarillas, 135 See WITCHCRAFT

Souls, belief in, by Jicarillas, 56

Spanish missionaries and the Apache, 4, 6 origin of Navaho metal-work, 136

Sparrow-hawk People in Navaho myth, 88

Spider in Jicarilla myth, 62

Spider Woman in Navaho myth, 100

Spirit Dance of the Apache, 48, 133

Spirits, Navaho dread of, 80 of the dead of the Apache, 134

Spruce used in Jicarilla ceremony, 57-60 used in Navaho Night Chant, 118-120

Squashes represented in dry-painting, 121


Stars, creation of, in Apache myth, 30 in Navaho myth, 92-93

_Stenatliha_n_, an Apache goddess, 20, 21, 24-33, 133 represented in Apache painting, 20 symbolized on maternity belt, 39, 40

Storage baskets of the Apache, 21, 132

Suicide among Apache, 14

Sumac, berries used by Apache, 19 used in making water bottles, 132

Sun, creation of, in Apache myth, 30 creation of, in Navaho myth, 92 in Jicarilla mythology, 62 the father of Twin Gods, 99 See also SUN GOD

Sunbeams in Navaho mythology, 96, 98

Sun-dogs in Navaho dry-painting, 79

Sunflower, stalks of, used for flutes, 84

Sun God in Navaho mythology, 98-106 See CHEHONAAI; CHUGANAAI; CHUNNAAI

Sush Nalkai, a Navaho mythic bear, 106

Sweat, mythic creation from, 24, 25

Sweat-bath in Apache myth, 33 in Night Chant ceremony, 117, 118

Sweat-house in Apache myth, 26-27 in Navaho myth, 104

Symbol of faith among Apache, 43

Symbolism, ancient, discarded by Apache, 44, 45 color, of the Apache, 84 color, of the Jicarillas, 60, 61, 64, 66 color, of the Navaho, 84, 87, 90-92, 103, 115, 118 on Apache caps, 131 on Apache maternity belt, 38-39 on Apache medicine skin, 20, 30-36

Taboo of bear and fish, 20, 135 of conversation while masked, 123 of flesh in puberty ceremony, 47 of houses of the dead, 76 of mother-in-law among Navaho, 126 of names of the dead, 34 of salt in puberty ceremony, 47, 125 of scratching in puberty ceremony, 47, 125 of tsĭndi hogan by Navaho, 81

Tadtitin, Navaho name for pollen, 119 See HADINTIN; POLLEN

Talking God. See HASCHĔLTI

Taos, Jicarilla contact with, 53 mentioned in Jicarilla myth, 64 Navaho name for, 138

Tarantula in Apache myth, 25

Tattooing among Apache, 42

Tazhĭ. See TURKEY

Temperature of White Mountain reservation, 13

Texas, Apache raids into, 9, 14

Tipis of the Jicarillas, 134

Tizwin. See TULAPAI

To Ahani clan, origin of, 97, 137

Tobacco depicted in dry-painting, 121 in Navaho myth, 103, 108-109, 115

Tobadzischĭni, a Navaho deity, 3, 138 birth and adventures of, 98-106 personated in Night Chant, 118 See also KOBADJISCHINI; TUBADZISCHĬNI

To Dichini clan, origin of, 97, 137

Toi Hatal. See WATER CHANT

Tonenili, Navaho Rain God, 107, 115 personated in begging ceremony, 120

Tontos, Apache name for, 134 assigned to reservation, 8 population of, 131 subdued by Crook, 8

Tracking Bear, a Navaho monster, 99

Trade of the Jicarillas, 54

Travelling, Apache method of, 16, 17

Treaties with the Navaho, 82-83

Tree, Little, in Jicarilla myth, 69

Trees, creation of, in Apache myth, 27 terms for, 143

Tsannatĭ, Jicarilla clowns, 59

Tsĕgyii, a Navaho locality, 114, 116 See CANON DE CHELLY


Tse Nahali, preying Mountain Eagle, 106

Tsetahĭdzilhtuhli, a Navaho monster, 106

Tsilitĕn. See COYOTE

Tsĭndi, meaning of, 80

Tsĭndi hogan defined, 76 taboo of, 81 See HOGAN

Tsotzilh, a Navaho sacred mountain, 91, 105

Tubadziscĭni, an Apache deity, 31, 133 function of, 33 represented in Apache painting, 20 symbolized on maternity belt, 39, 40 See also KOBADJISCHINI; TOBADZISCHĬNI

Tulapai drunk by the Apache, 19-20

Tule, pollen of, used by Apache, 38

Tu Ntelh, an Apache god, 40

Turkey in Apache myth, 28 in Navaho myth, 88 prayer-sticks with feathers of, 117

Turquoise, bowl of, in Apache myth, 33 clothing of, in Jicarilla myth, 63 in Apache myth, 26 in Jicarilla myth, 64

Turquoise in Navaho myth, 91, 92, 97, 101, 103, 104, 106-107, 115 jewelry of the Navaho, 76 lance of Apache War God, 32 man born of, in Navaho myth, 84 pipe in Navaho myth, 108

Turquoise Boy of Apache myth, 31, 33

Turquoise Woman of Navaho myth, 97 See DUTLĬSHI NALĬN

Turtle monster in Jicarilla myth, 64-65


Twin Gods of the Navaho, 98 See NAYĔNEZOANI; TOBADZISCHĬNI

Tzes. See ELK

Tzilhkĭchi Hatal. See MOUNTAIN CHANT

Tzilhnuhodihli, sacred mountain, created, 91, 96, 98, 104, 105

Underworld, Navaho origin in, 80, 83, 138 See GENESIS

Ute, Jicarillas influenced by, 134 Jicarilla name for, 135

Valleys, creation of, in Apache myth, 28

Vegetation of White Mountain reservation, 13, 17 See TREES

Victorio, conference with, 7 surrender and death of, 9

Visions, God of, in Apache cosmology, 31 knowledge gained through, 32 medicine-men influenced by, 42, 43

Vocabulary, Southern Athapascan, 139-144

Walapai join in Apache hostilities, 8 tribal name of, 5

Walnuts eaten by Apache, 19

War ceremonies, God Dance a part of, 48 of extermination against Apache, 6, 7


Washing of hands in marriage ceremony, 126, 127 See BATHING; HAIR-WASHING

Water, miraculous creation of, 97, 137 relation of Tubadzischĭni with, 133 Yolkai Estsan conceives from, 98 See YOLKAI ESTSAN

Water bottle in Apache myth, 27-28, 30 in marriage ceremony, 126 in Navaho myth, 94 of the Apache, 16, 21, 132 of the Navaho, 77 sacred symbol prescribed for, 44

Water Chant of the Navaho, 78

Water God of the Apache, 33, 35 See RAIN GOD

Water Monsters in Navaho mythology, 87

Water Sprinkler, a Navaho Rain God, 107, 115, 120

Weapons, Jicarilla, origin of, 69

Weasel in Navaho myth, 97

Weaving. See BLANKETS

Wheels in Jicarilla mythology, 62, 64 medicine, made by Apache, 10, 11

Whips, yucca, of the Navaho, 120-121

Whirling log represented in dry-painting, 120-121

Whirlwind in Navaho myth, 110

Whirlwind God of the Jicarillas, 60, 61 See WINDS

White Corn Boy of Navaho myth, 96

White Mountain Apache, population of, 131

White Mountain reservation, Apache placed on, 9 character and area of, 13 "medicine" craze on, 10 property disputes on, 23

White objects created by Yolkai Skhin, 33 symbolic of prayer, 34

White river, Arizona, 11, 15, 17

White-Shell Boy of Apache myth, 31, 33

White-Shell Girl. See YOLKAI NALĬN

White-Shell Man of Navaho myth, 97

White-Shell Woman. See YOLKAI ESTSAN

Wildcats in Jicarilla mythology, 64

Wind People of Navaho mythology, 95, 99

Winds, function of, in Navaho belief, 93, 95 how regarded by Apache, 35 in Apache myth, 25, 26 in Navaho mythology, 90, 93, 96, 97, 102, 110, 138 participation of, in Jicarilla creation, 61 pollen scattered to, 133

Witchcraft, penalty for, in future world, 56 See SORCERY

Wolf in Navaho myth, 97

Wolf People of the Navaho, 84, 87, 90, 95

Women, Apache, descent traced through, 22 Apache, dress of, 131 Apache, houses built by, 13 Apache, modesty of, 16

Women, Apache, property right of, 22 Apache, status of, 13-14 chiefs in Navaho mythology, 84 how treated, in Jicarilla ceremony, 59 Jicarilla, dress of, 134 Jicarilla, hair-dressing of, 134 Jicarilla, modesty of, 58 Navaho, blanket weavers, 75 Navaho, clothing of, 136 Navaho, hair-dressing of, 136 Navaho, status of, 76 Navaho, work of, 85 separated from men in Navaho myth, 85 See CHILDBIRTH; MARRIAGE; PUBERTY CEREMONY

Wool blankets, in Navaho myth of, 94


Yadilhkih Binalzĕ, Sky Messengers, of Apache myth, 31

Yadilhkih Skhin. See SKY GOD

Yakosha Skhin, an Apache deity, 31, 35 See APACHE-MOHAVE

Yavapai, application of name, 6, 53

Yebichai and Apache dance compared, 47 dance of the Navaho, 121 gods of the Navaho, 114 order, initiation into, 120, 121 signification of, 116

Yeitso, Big God of the Navaho, 98, 105

Yellow-Corn Girl of Navaho myth, 96

Yiye. See OWL

Yoi Hatal. See Bead Chant

Yolkai Estsan, a Jicarilla goddess, 62, 64, 68, 135 a Navaho goddess, 94-96, 98, 99, 105, 137, 138

Yolkai Nalĭn, an Apache goddess, 31 function of, 34, 35 guardian of spirit-land, 134 how supplicated, 40

Yolkai Skhin, White-Shell Boy, of Apache, 31, 33

Yuadiistan, an Apache god, 24

Yucca fruit eaten by Apache, 19 root in Navaho mythology, 94 root, washing with, 115, 125 used for head-band, 131 whips made of, 120-121

Yuma, Jicarilla name for, 135 Navaho name for, 138

Yuman and Apache relations, 5 and Jicarilla ceremony compared, 56

Zahadolzha, Fringe-mouth gods of Navaho, 109, 113, 114, 123

Zuni, Apache name for the, 134 Navaho name for, 138 people among Navaho, 137


The University Press, Cambridge, U.S.A.


1 The agave or maguey plant, locally called mescal, for which reason the latter term is here employed.

2 This medicine skin was owned by Hashke Nĭlnte and was considered one of the most potent belonging to any of the medicine-men. During the lifetime of Hashke Nĭlnte it was impossible for any white man even to look upon this wonderful "medicine." After reaching extreme age he was killed, presumably by his wife, from whom this valuable and sacred object was procured.

3 Possibly a legendary reminiscence of a home in the far north and the subsequent migration to the south.

4 The myth and ritual of this ceremony are given on pages 111-116.

5 Versions differ as to the number of worlds through which the progenitors of the Navaho passed. Some give three before this one, others but one. The version adopted by the Bahozhonchi, a religious order or medicine society whose rites and ceremonies are the oldest and most widely known of any in the tribe, treats of two worlds only: the one below, from which the Digĭn, or Holy People, migrated in the form of insects, birds, and beasts, and to which the dead return; and the present, into which was born man in his present image, created of pollen, corn, white shell, turquoise, and rain by the Digĭn. These Digĭn were the animals which never assumed absolute material form on this earth, and the gods who perfected the creation. The creation of the world below, together with all food products, plant life, and animals known to the Navaho, is credited to First Man and First Woman, Astse Hastin and Astse Estsan; but the myth does not go back to that creation, nor, save for the plant and animal life and a little earth used in making mountains, does it assume the use of any part of the underworld in the making or completion of this. So far as the inhabitants now found in the image of man are concerned, they were made, and first existed, on this earth, and did not develop from a lower order.

6 The Navaho sometimes vary the assignment of their directional colors by relating, like the Apache of Arizona, black to the east and white to the north.

7 These four names still survive among the Navaho, applied to as many clans.

8 Our months, of course, only approximate the moons of the Indians.


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