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The Myxomycetes of the Miami Valley, Ohio
by A. P. Morgan
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Growing on old wood. Sporangium 1.5-3 mm. in height by .35-.40 mm. in thickness, the stipe usually about the same length as the sporangium, but sometimes nearly twice as long. The capillitium is rather looser than in C. typhina, whence the drooping habit. Peck, Thirty-first Report, p. 42.

3. COMATRICHA NIGRA, Pers. Sporangia globose or ovoid to ellipsoid or oblong, erect or sometimes inclined or even nodding. The stipe very long, smooth and black, tapering upward, expanding at the base into a small circular hypothallus; the columella short, reaching from one-half to three-fourths the height of the sporangium. Capillitium of slender flexuous brown threads, which branch repeatedly, forming a dense intricate network of small meshes, ending in very short free extremities. Spores globose, even, dark violaceous, 8-10 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, leaves, etc. Sporangium .5-1.5 mm. in height, .5-.8 mm. in diameter, the stipe 1.5-3 mm. long or sometimes considerably longer. This species seems to be rare in this country. I have preferred the name adopted by Schroeter to Rostafinski's Comatricha Friesiana.

4. COMATRICHA ELLISII, Morgan, n. sp. Sporangia short, erect, oval or ovoid to oblong. Stipe and columella erect, brown and smooth, rising from a thin pallid hypothallus, tapering upward and vanishing into the capillitium toward the apex of the sporangium, the stipe usually longer than the columella. Capillitium of slender pale brown threads; these branch several times with lateral anastomosing branchlets, forming a rather open network of small meshes, ending with very short free extremities. Spores globose, even, pale ochraceous, 6-7 mic. in diameter. See Plate XI, Fig. 29.

Growing on old pine wood. Sporangium .3-.6 mm. in height by .3-.5 mm. in width, the stipe usually a little longer than the sporangium. This elegant little species I have from Mr. J. B. Ellis, of Newfield, N. J. It is said to be mingled in some of the specimens with Lamproderma Ellisiana, Cke.

Sec.2. LARVELLA. Threads of the capillitium branching a few times and anastomosing to form a network of large meshes, attaining the wall by numerous long, free extremities.

5. COMATRICHA CRYPTA, Schw. Sporangia cylindric, bent or flexuous and more or less inclined, growing close together on a conspicuous purplish-brown hypothallus. Stipe and columella smooth and black, tapering upward and reaching the apex of the sporangium, the columella bent and flexuous or spirally twisted, about as long as the stipe. Capillitium composed of irregular, bent and uneven threads, which are brown below, becoming colorless outwardly; the threads branch a few times, forming a network of large irregular meshes, sometimes much defective; the free extremities irregular and unequal, simple or branched. Spores globose, brown, minutely warted, 7-9 mic. in diameter. See Plate XI, Fig. 30.

Growing out of fissures of the bark and wood of Hickory, Acer, etc. Sporangium with the stipe 4-7 mm. in height, the stipe a little shorter, or sometimes much longer than the sporangium, the latter .25-.30 mm. in thickness. The exterior colorless portion of the capillitium is exceedingly delicate, easily breaking away and leaving the capillitium quite irregular and defective. Stemonitis crypta, Schweinitz's N. A. Fungi, 2351. Comatricha irregularis, Rex, is the same thing.

6. COMATRICHA CAESPITOSA, Sturgis. Sporangia short, clavate, densely crowded or caespitose upon a delicate hypothallus; the wall subpersistent, silvery, shining with tints of purple and blue. Stipe very short or nearly obsolete, the columella rising to two-thirds or three-fourths the height of the sporangium. Capillitium of slender dark-brown threads, which branch and anastomose quite irregularly, forming a network of intermingled large and small meshes, ending in long, tapering, free extremities. Spores globose, minutely spinulose, dark violaceous, 10-12 mic. in diameter.

Growing on moss and lichens, at Wood's Holl, Massachusetts. Sporangium 1-1.5 mm. in height, the stipe very short or sometimes apparently wanting. I am indebted to Dr. W. C. Sturgis, of New Haven, Conn., for a specimen of this unique species.

7. COMATRICHA LONGA, Peck. Sporangia very slender and much elongated, tapering gradually upward, weak and prostrate or pendulous, growing close together on a well-developed purplish-black hypothallus. Stipe and columella capillary, smooth and black, reaching to the apex of the sporangium or often vanishing in the network far below it, the stipe very short, the columella long and flexible. Capillitium of long, slender, dark-brown threads; these are reticulately connected near the base, forming a network of large irregular meshes in a series along the columella; outwardly they are terminated by very long free branchlets, which vary from simple to two or three times forked or branched. Spores globose, minutely warted, dark brown, 8-10 mic. in diameter. See Plate XI, Fig. 31.

Growing on old wood and bark of Elm, Willow, etc., in Autumn. Sporangium with the stipe 15-40 mm. in length, the stipe 3-8 mm. long, the sporangium .25-.40 mm. in thickness. This is the most characteristic species of the genus, being farthest removed from Stemonitis.

8. COMATRICHA FLACCIDA, Lister. Sporangia growing closely crowded together and more or less confluent, on a purplish-brown hypothallus, the walls fugacious. Columellas rising simply from the common hypothallus, or sometimes grown together below and then apparently branching, running through to the apex, and there often confluent with each other, or joined together by portions of membrane. Capillitium of slender brown threads, which branch and anastomose very irregularly, forming a ragged network with large irregular meshes, and long free extremities; the capillitium of adjoining columellas being much entangled, and often confluent or grown together. Spores globose, very minutely warted, brown, 7-9 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood and bark of Oak, Willow, etc. The component sporangia 5-10 mm. in length. The early appearance is much like that of species of Stemonitis, but the mature stage is a great mass of spores with scanty capillitium, as in Reticularia; the columellas, however, are genuine and not adjacent portions of wall grown together. Arthur Lister calls this Stemonitis splendens, var. flaccida.

IV. STEMONITIS, Gled. Sporangia subcylindric, elongated, stipitate, standing close together on a well-developed common hypothallus, the wall very thin and evanescent. Stipe brown or black, smooth and shining, tapering upward, entering the sporangium and prolonged nearly to the apex as a slender columella, the stipe shorter than the columella. Capillitium arising from numerous points of the columella throughout its entire length; the threads immediately branch and anastomose to form an interior network of large meshes, they then spread out next the wall of the sporangium into a superficial network of smaller meshes. Spores globose, brown or violaceous.

In this genus there are two distinctly differentiated series in the capillitium, the one an interior supporting network of large meshes, the other a superficial network of smaller meshes; sometimes the superficial network disappears or is wanting toward the upper part of the capillitium, there is then an approach to Comatricha. Very minute scattered branchlets usually connect the superficial network with the wall of the sporangium.

Sec.1. DICTYNNA. Threads of the capillitium arising from numerous points of the columella, immediately branching several times and anastomosing to form the interior network of large meshes; the superficial network consisting of small irregular and unequal meshes, varying from smaller than the spores to two or three times their diameter.

1. STEMONITIS FUSCA, Roth. Sporangia elongated, subcylindric, tapering and obtuse at the apex, tapering gradually downward, growing closely crowded together on a strongly-developed brown hypothallus. Stipe and columella smooth and black, tapering gradually upward and disappearing near the apex of the sporangium, the stipe shorter than the columella. Capillitium of slender brown or blackish threads, which immediately branch and anastomose, forming a dense interior network of large irregular meshes, the ultimate branchlets of which support a superficial network of small polygonal meshes. Spores globose, dark violaceous, the surface minutely warted, the warts with a reticulate arrangement, 7-9 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, bark, leaves, etc.; common everywhere. Sporangium with the stipe 6-15 mm. in height, the sporangium .3-.4 mm. in thickness, the stipe variable in length, but always shorter than the sporangium. The meshes of the superficial net vary in size in the same sporangium, being usually 5-25 mic. in width, but sometimes they are larger, ranging from 10-40 mic. in extent. The name Stemonitis maxima was given by Schweinitz to some unusually large specimens which grew on a Polyporus. Stemonitis dictyospora of Rostafinski's monograph, with spores 12 mic. in diameter, is said to occur in South Carolina; I have seen no specimens.

2. STEMONITIS TENERRIMA, B. & C. Sporangia small, subcylindric, tapering and obtuse at the apex, tapering gradually downward, growing close together on a thin brown hypothallus. Stipe and columella black and smooth, tapering gradually upward and vanishing toward the apex of the sporangium, the stipe shorter than the columella. Capillitium of very slender pale violet threads, which branch and anastomose to form a dense interior network of large irregular meshes, and then spread out into a superficial network of small polygonal meshes. Spores globose, even, pale brownish-violet, 6-8 mic. in diameter. See Plate XI, Fig. 32.

Growing on old wood, mosses, etc. Sporangium with the stipe 5-9 mm. in height, the sporangium .2-.3 mm. in thickness, the stipe variable in length, but always shorter than the sporangium. The meshes of the superficial network varying usually from 3-15 mic. in width, but sometimes larger from 8-25 mic. The species grows scantily in this region, but I have elegant specimens from Alabama, sent me by Prof. Geo. F. Atkinson.

3. STEMONITIS MICROSPORA, Lister. Plasmodium white. Sporangia elongated, subcylindric, tapering and obtuse at the apex, tapering gradually downward, growing closely crowded together on a strongly-developed brown hypothallus. Stipe and columella brown and smooth, tapering gradually upward and reaching nearly to the apex of the sporangium, the stipe shorter than the columella. Capillitium of slender tawny-brown threads; the primary branches simple or only branched above, or with a few lateral anastomosing branchlets, forming a rather loose network of large irregular meshes; these support a superficial network of very small polygonal meshes. Spores globose, even, tawny-brown, 5-6 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, bark, leaves, etc.; very common in this region. Sporangium with the stipe 7-15 mm. in height, the sporangium .3-.4 mm. in thickness, the stipe shorter than the sporangium. Meshes of the superficial network 4-20 mic. in width. I am indebted to Arthur Lister, Esq., of London, for pointing out to me the difference between this species and the Stemonitis ferruginea of Fries and Rostafinski.

4. STEMONITIS FERRUGINEA, Ehr. Plasmodium lemon-yellow. Sporangia subcylindric, the apex obtuse, growing closely crowded together on a thin, brown hypothallus. Stipe and columella brown and smooth, tapering gradually upward and vanishing beneath the apex of the sporangium, the stipe much shorter than the columella. Capillitium of slender, tawny-brown threads, which immediately branch and anastomose, forming a dense interior network of large irregular meshes, supporting a superficial network of small polygonal meshes. Spores globose, very minutely warted, tawny-brown in color, 7-9 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, leaves, grasses, etc. Sporangium with the stipe 4-10 mm. in height, the sporangium .3-.4 mm. in thickness, the stipe much shorter than the sporangium. The meshes of the superficial network varying from 6-30 mic. or sometimes from 10-40 mic. in width, according to the specimen. The species is certainly rare in this country, and my description is drawn up from British specimens. But I am unable to distinguish authentic specimens of Stemonitis herbatica, Peck, from these British specimens.

Sec.2. MEGALODICTYS. Threads of the capillitium arising from rather distant points of the columella, branching and anastomosing but a few times, thus forming an interior network of very large meshes; the superficial network consisting of large irregular meshes, varying from three or four to many times the diameter of the spores.

5. STEMONITIS WEBBERI, Rex. Sporangia subcylindric, the apex obtuse, tapering gradually downward, growing close together on a common hypothallus. Stipe and columella black and smooth, the stipe very short, the columella extending nearly or quite to the apex of the sporangium, the upper part usually flexuous. Capillitium composed of slender, flexuous brown threads; these immediately branch and anastomose several times, forming an interior network of very large meshes; the superficial network consisting of large irregular meshes, sometimes much elongated. Spores globose, very minutely warted, brown, 7-9 mic. in diameter. See Plate XI, Fig. 34.

Growing on old wood, bark, etc. Sporangium with the stipe 5-10 mm. in height, the stipe 1-2 mm. in length, the sporangium .3-.4 mm. in thickness; meshes of the superficial net of the capillitium 40-100-150 mic. in extent. This is a much smaller species than Stemonitis splendens, and the structure of the interior network of the capillitium is entirely different.

6. STEMONITIS SPLENDENS, Rost. Sporangia linear-cylindric, obtuse at the apex, growing close together on a conspicuous hypothallus. Stipe and columella black and shining, the stipe very short, the columella reaching nearly or quite to the apex of the sporangium, often flexuous above. Capillitium composed of brown threads, variable in thickness, often with membranaceous expansions; the primary branches some of them simple or only branched above, others with a few anastomosing branchlets, forming an interior network of extremely large meshes; the superficial network consisting of large, irregular, roundish or polygonal meshes. Spores globose, very minutely warted, brown, 7-9 mic. in diameter. See Plate XI, Fig. 33.

Growing on old wood. Sporangium with the stipe 15-25 mm. in height, the stipe 4-6 mm. in length, the sporangium about .4 mm. in thickness; the meshes of the superficial network of the capillitium 25-50-80 mic. or sometimes as much as 100 mic. in extent. This is Stemonitis Morgani, Peck.

V. ENERTHENEMA, Bowm. Sporangium regular, globose, stipitate; the wall thin and fragile, fugacious. Stipe stout, thick, tapering upward, entering the sporangium and prolonged to its apex, there expanding into a discoid membrane. Capillitium originating from the lower surface of the apical disk of the columella; the threads branched a few times and hanging downward, their extremities free. Spores globose, violaceous.

A well-marked genus, by reason of the peculiar origin of the capillitium.

1. ENERTHENEMA PAPILLATUM, Pers. Sporangium globose, stipitate; the wall brown or blackish, soon disappearing. Stipe black, rugulose, thick below, tapering above into the slender columella, which, at its apex, expands into a thin membranaceous disk. Capillitium of long brown threads suspended from the apical disk, the threads branched a few times, occasionally anastomosing by a short, transverse branchlet, the free ends often forked. Spores globose, very minutely warted, violaceous, 10-12 mic. in diameter. See Plate XI, Fig. 35.

Growing on old wood. Stipe and columella .8-1.2 mm. in height. The species seems to be rare in this country, as I have met with it but once myself, and have received only a few specimens from elsewhere.

VI. DIACHAEA, Fr. Sporangia globose to oblong, stipitate, arising from a common hypothallus; the wall thin, rugulose, iridescent with metallic tints, breaking up irregularly and gradually falling away. Stipe and columella thick, erect, rigid, tapering upward, filled with minute, roundish granules of lime, white or yellowish in color. Capillitium arising from numerous points of the columella, the threads repeatedly branching and anastomosing to form an intricate network, attaining the wall by numerous short free extremities. Spores globose, violaceous.

This genus is scarcely to be distinguished from Lamproderma, except by the white mass of lime which fills the tube of the stipe and columella.

1. DIACHAEA LEUCOPODA, Bull. Sporangia ovoid-oblong to short cylindric, the base obtuse or slightly umbilicate, the apex more rounded; the wall with bronze, blue, purple, and violet tints, gradually falling away. Stipe short, thick, white, arising from a white, venulose, hypothallus, tapering upward; the columella cylindric or slightly tapering, obtuse, terminating below the apex of the sporangium. Capillitium of slender, flexuous brown threads forming a dense network of rather small meshes. Spores globose, very minutely warted, violaceous, 7-9 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old leaves, sticks, etc., and sometimes running over living plants. Sporangium with the stipe 1-2 mm. in height, the stipe usually much shorter than the sporangium, the latter .4-.5 mm. in thickness. Diachaea elegans, Fr.

2. DIACHAEA SPLENDENS, Peck. Sporangia globose, sometimes a little depressed, with the base umbilicate; the wall steel-blue with tints of purple and violet, quite persistent, rupturing irregularly. Stipe short, thick, white, arising from a white, reticulate hypothallus, tapering upward; the columella oblong or short cylindric, extending beyond the center of the sporangium. Capillitium of slender, brown threads, which branch several times and form a loose network of rather large meshes. Spores subglobose, with very large warts, dark violet, 8-10 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old leaves and twigs. Sporangium .4-.6 mm. in diameter, the stipe about the same length. This is a beautiful species.

3. DIACHAEA THOMASII, Rex. Sporangia globose, or sometimes a little depressed; the wall gold-bronze, with tints of purple and blue, subpersistent, rupturing irregularly. Stipe thick, dull ochre-yellow in color, variable in length, usually very short and sometimes quite obsolete, arising from an ochre-yellow hypothallus; the columella varying from bluntly-conical to cylindric-clavate, attaining the center of the sporangium. Capillitium of slender, brown threads, radiating from all points of the columella, branching several times and forming a loose network of elongated meshes. Spores globose, minutely warted, violaceous, 11-12 mic. in diameter. See Plate XI, Fig. 36.

Growing on sticks, leaves, etc. Sporangium .5-.7 mm. in diameter, the stipe usually shorter or sometimes wanting. This species has been found only in the mountains of North Carolina. I am indebted to Dr. George A. Rex for my example. In its structure the species is essentially a Lamproderma, but the stipe and columella are stuffed with granules of lime.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XI.

Fig. 25.—Sectional view of the capillitium and stipe of Clastoderma De Baryanum, Blytt.

Fig. 26.—Section through the capillitium, columella and stipe of Lamproderma arcyrionema, Rost.

Fig. 27.—Perpendicular section through Lamproderma violaceum, Fr.

Fig. 28.—Perpendicular section through Lamproderma scintillans, Berk.

Fig. 29.—Section through the capillitium, columella and stipe of Comatricha Ellisii, Morgan.

Fig. 30.—Sectional view through the capillitium and columella of a portion of Comatricha crypta, Schw.

Fig. 31.—Sectional view through the columella and capillitium of a portion of Comatricha longa, Peck.

Fig. 32.—A portion of the capillitium of Stemonitis tenerrima, B. & C.—A sectional view through the columella above and below a view of the superficial network.

Fig. 33.—A portion of the capillitium of Stemonitis splendens, Rost.—A sectional view through the columella above and below a view of the superficial network.

Fig. 34.—The capillitium of a very short sporangium of Stemonitis Webberi, Rex; the breadth, however, somewhat exaggerated.

Fig. 35.—Showing the stipe, columella, apical disk and pendent capillitium of Enerthenema papillatum, Pers.

Fig. 36.—Perpendicular section through the capillitium, columella, and stipe of Diachaea Thomasii, Rex.

NOTE.—The figures of the objects are drawn as they appear under a magnifying power of about 100 diameters.



ORDER VII.—DIDYMIACEAE.

Sporangia simple and subglobose, or plasmodiocarp, rarely combined into an aethalium. Wall of the sporangium a thin membrane with an outer layer composed of minute stellate crystals, or of minute roundish granules of lime; these either lie singly upon the surface, or are compacted into a crustaceous coat. Stipe present or often wanting; the columella usually conspicuous and well-developed. Capillitium consisting of very slender, often sinuous threads, which extend from the base of the sporangium or from the columella to the walls, either simple or outwardly branching a few times at a sharp angle, combined into a loose irregular net by a few transverse branchlets, which are situated chiefly at the extremities. Spores globose, violaceous.

This order is readily distinguished from the Physaraceae by the absence of lime from the threads of the capillitium.

TABLE OF GENERA OF DIDYMIACEAE.

a. The lime on the wall of the sporangium in the form of minute stellate crystals.

1. DIDYMIUM. Sporangium simple, subglobose and stipitate, the base commonly umbilicate, or sometimes sessile and plasmodiocarp.

2. SPUMARIA. AEthalium composed of numerous elongated irregularly-branched sporangia, closely compacted together and confluent.

b. The lime on the wall of the sporangium consisting of minute roundish granules.

3. DIDERMA. Wall of the sporangium with the outer calcareous layer usually compacted into a smooth continuous crust.

4. LEPIDODERMA. Wall of the sporangium with an outer layer of large scales, consisting of bicarbonate of lime.

I. DIDYMIUM, Schrad. Sporangium simple, subglobose and stipitate, the base commonly umbilicate, or sometimes sessile and plasmodiocarp; the wall a thin membrane with an outer layer of minute stellate crystals of lime. Stipe present or sometimes wanting; the columella mostly conspicuous, sometimes thin or obsolete. Capillitium of very slender threads, straight or often sinuous, stretching from the columella to the wall of the sporangium, simple or outwardly sparingly branched at a sharp angle. Spores globose, violaceous.

Didymium, together with Spumaria, is to be distinguished from all other genera of the Myxomycetes by the covering of stellate crystals, like hoar-frost, upon the outer surface of the sporangium.

Sec.1. CIONIUM. Columella prominent, subcentral, globose, obovoid, or turbinate; the threads of the capillitium radiating in all directions to the wall of the sporangium.

A. Sporangium stipitate.

1. DIDYMIUM SQUAMULOSUM, A. & S. Sporangium variable in form and size, small and globose, or large and much depressed, the base usually umbilicate, stipitate, or sometimes sessile, and even plasmodiocarp; the wall very thin and pellucid, with a thin, gray-white layer of stellate crystals of lime, breaking up into subpersistent scales. Stipe short, erect, snow-white, longitudinally furrowed or plicate; the columella central, snow-white, various in shape, globose, obovoid, turbinate, and stipitate or sessile. Capillitium of numerous colorless threads, radiating from the columella and separating outwardly into several branches. Spores globose, very minutely warted, dark violaceous, 8-10 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, leaves, herbaceous stems, etc. Sporangium .4-.6-.8 mm. in diameter, the stipe scarcely longer than the diameter, often much shorter or nearly wanting.

2. DIDYMIUM PROXIMUM, B. & C. Sporangium globose or depressed-globose, the base more or less umbilicate, stipitate; the wall very thin and pellucid, with a loose white covering of stellate crystals of lime, the upper part breaking up and falling away. Stipe long, erect, tapering upward, yellow-brown to reddish-brown, expanding at the base into a small hypothallus; the columella central, white, turbinate, or discoid turbinate. Capillitium of slender, colorless threads, radiating from the columella, branching and often anastomosing. Spores globose, even, pale violaceous, 8-10 mic. in diameter. Plate XII, Fig. 37.

Growing on old leaves, sticks, culms, etc. Sporangium .4-.6 mm. in diameter, the stipe two or three times the diameter.

3. DIDYMIUM EXIMIUM, Peck. Sporangium depressed-globose, the base umbilicate, sometimes very much depressed and also umbilicate above, stipitate; the wall pale ocher or pale yellow, with a thin layer of minute white crystals of lime, the upper part gradually breaking away. Stipe long, erect, tapering upward, pale yellow-brown, darker below, expanding into a small brown hypothallus; the columella central, large, discoid, or sometimes rough and irregular, pale ochre or yellowish. Capillitium of much-branched colorless threads, radiating upward and downward from the columella. Spores globose, very minutely warted, dark violaceous, 9-11 mic. in diameter. Plate XII, Fig. 38.

Growing on old leaves, sticks, etc. Sporangium .5-.6 mm. in diameter, the stipe about twice the diameter.

4. DIDYMIUM MICROCARPUM, Fr. Sporangium small, globose, the base slightly umbilicate, stipitate; the wall a dark-colored membrane, covered with abundant snow-white crystals of lime. Stipe long, slender, erect, delicately striate, yellow-brown to blackish in color, expanded at the base into a small hypothallus; the columella small, globose, sessile or substipitate, pale yellow-brown. Capillitium of pale brown threads, somewhat branched and forming a loose net. Spores globose, very minutely warted, violaceous, 6-7 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, leaves, mosses, etc. Sporangium .4-.5 mm. in diameter, the stipe two or three times as long. The species is more particularly distinguished by its small spores.

5. DIDYMIUM MINUS, Lister. Sporangium depressed-globose, the base umbilicate, stipitate, rarely sessile and plasmodiocarp; the wall a dark-colored membrane with a thin layer of stellate crystals of lime, breaking up gradually and falling away. Stipe erect or sometimes bent at the apex, variable in length, rarely wanting, from pale brown to blackish in color, rising from a small hypothallus; the columella reaching the center, brown or blackish, rough, convex, subglobose or pulvinate, substipitate. Capillitium of slender colorless threads, radiating from the columella and more or less branched outwardly. Spores globose, very minutely warted, violaceous, 8-10 mic. in diameter. Plate XII, Fig. 39.

Growing in vast abundance in Spring on old leaves, bark, wood, etc. Sporangium .4-.6 mm. in diameter, the stipe scarcely longer but usually shorter than the diameter of the sporangium rarely absent. It is considered by Lister to be a variety of D. farinaceum; it differs from this species in its smaller and less-depressed sporangium and in its smaller nearly smooth spores.

B. Sporangia sessile.

6. DIDYMIUM EFFUSUM, Link. Sporangia gregarious or scattered, sessile on a flattened base, convex above, various in shape, subrotund or by confluence effused and venosely creeping; the wall very thin and pellucid, invested with a thin flocculose layer of minute crystals of lime. The columella hemispheric, rugulose, usually snow-white. Capillitium of very slender colorless threads, furnished with numerous minute protuberances, much branched and combined into a dense net. Spores globose, very minutely warted, dark violaceous, 10-11 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old leaves, wood, etc. Sporangium about .5 mm. in diameter or thickness, sometimes confluent and more or less elongated as a plasmodiocarp. This species is reported from the United States, but I have seen no specimens.

7. DIDYMIUM PHYSAROIDES, Pers. Sporangia roundish or hemispheric, more or less irregular and deformed, sessile or with a very short stipe, and closely crowded together upon a strongly-developed common hypothallus; the wall a dark colored membrane, with a thin layer of stellate crystals of lime. The columella large and thick, divided into cells which are filled with irregular lumps of lime, common to all the sporangia. Capillitium of stout threads, usually simple, only rarely branched, furnished with numerous fusiform swellings. Spores globose, minutely warted, dark violaceous, 12-14 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, bark, moss, etc. Reported from Carolina by Curtis. It is said superficially to resemble somewhat Physarum didermoides.

Sec.2. PLACENTIA. Columella basal, much depressed, very thin or quite obsolete, connate with the base of the sporangium; the threads of the capillitium ascending to the wall of the sporangium.

A. Sporangium stipitate.

8. DIDYMIUM FARINACEUM, Schrad. Sporangium hemispherical, more or less depressed, the base profoundly umbilicate; the wall firm, rugulose, dark-colored and nearly opaque, with a mealy coat of stellate crystals of lime, rupturing irregularly. Stipe variable in length, rigid, erect, black or sometimes rusty-brown, arising from a small hypothallus; the columella broad, hemispherical or pulvinate, black, the lower side connate with the wall of the sporangium. Capillitium of dark-colored sinuous threads, simple or scarcely branched. Spores globose, dark violaceous, minutely warted, 10-13 mic. in diameter. Plate XII, Fig. 40.

Growing on old wood, leaves, mosses, etc. Sporangium .6-.9 mm. in diameter, the stipe about as long as the diameter of the sporangium or sometimes much longer, usually, however, much shorter than the diameter and almost concealed within the umbilicus. My specimens are from Pennsylvania and Alabama. It is readily distinguished from Didymium minus by the much larger and more distinctly warted spores.

9. DIDYMIUM CLAVUS, A. & S. Sporangium pileate, very much depressed, convex above and concave below, stipitate; the wall a dark-colored membrane, thickly covered with minute white crystals of lime, except the brown concavity underneath, the upper part breaking away, the lower persistent. Stipe short, erect, rugulose, brown or blackish, expanding at the base into a small hypothallus; the columella reduced to a thin layer of minute brown scales upon the base of the sporangium. Capillitium of simple or sparingly-branched threads, colorless at the extremities and dark-colored between. Spores globose, even, violaceous, 6-8 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old leaves, sticks, herbaceous stems, etc. The sporangium .6-.8 mm. in diameter, the stipe about the same length. Fries considered this to be a mere variety of D. farinaceum, but it is readily distinguished by its very small spores.

B. Sporangia sessile.

10. DIDYMIUM SERPULA, Fr. Plasmodium yellow. Plasmodiocarp much depressed, subrotund or usually more or less elongated, bent, flexuous and reticulate; the wall dark-colored, with a thin layer of stellate crystals of lime. Columella entirely wanting. Capillitium of very slender threads, extending from base to upper surface, much branched, the branches combined into a dense network; to these threads adhere numerous roundish vesicles, composed of a brownish membrane, inclosing a yellow coloring matter, the vesicles 30-50 mic. in diameter. Spores globose, very minutely warted, violaceous, 7-8 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old leaves, bark, etc. The plasmodiocarp .6-.8 mm. in thickness and extending from one to several millimeters in length. This species is reported from the United States by Massee. It ought to be readily recognized by its yellow plasmodium and the peculiar vesicles adherent to the capillitium.

11. DIDYMIUM ANELLUS, Morgan, n. sp. Plasmodiocarp in small rings or links, then confluent and elongated, irregularly connected together, bent and flexuous, resting on a thin venulose hypothallus; the wall firm, dark-colored, with a thin layer of stellate crystals of lime, irregularly ruptured. Columella merely a thin layer of brown scales. Capillitium of slender dark-colored threads, which extend from base to wall, more or less branched, and combined into a loose net. Spores globose, very minutely warted, violaceous, 8-9 mic. in diameter. Plate XII, Fig. 41.

Growing on old leaves in woods in Spring. Plasmodiocarp in rings .3-.5 mm. in diameter, or often more or less elongated into links and chains, which are bent and flexed in quite an irregular manner, the thread or vein composing them about .2 mm. in thickness. A more minute species than Didymium serpula, without characteristic thickenings upon the threads of the capillitium, and wanting the peculiar large cells of this species.

II. SPUMARIA, Pers. AEthalium composed of numerous elongated, irregularly-branched sporangia, more or less closely compacted together and confluent, seated upon a well-developed common hypothallus; the walls of the sporangia a thin membrane with an outer layer of minute, stellate crystals of lime. Each sporangium traversed by a central subcylindric hollow columella, which extends also to the branches, but does not reach to their apices. Capillitium of slender threads, more or less branched, and combined into a network. Spores globose, violaceous.

Spumaria is essentially related to Didymium by the crystals of lime upon the walls of the sporangia. Rostafinski's figure 158 can only be regarded as ideal or diagrammatic. I am disposed to question the existence of the central columella altogether; if it does exist, it must be extremely defective.

1. SPUMARIA ALBA, Bull. Plasmodium white, amplectant. AEthalium variable in form and size, resting upon a white, membranaceous hypothallus, and usually covered by a white, friable, common cortex composed of minute crystals of lime. The component sporangia elongated, irregular, more or less branched, the branches rude, deformed, compressed, laterally confluent, obtuse or pointed at the apex; the walls of the sporangia thin and delicate, rugulose, pellucid, with a tinge of violet, iridescent when divested of the crystals of lime. Capillitium of slender threads, more or less branched and combined into a net; the threads dark colored, with pellucid extremities, and furnished with occasional rings or roundish swellings throughout their length. Spores globose, densely spinulose, dark violaceous, 10-14 mic. in diameter. Plate XII, Fig. 43.

Climbing up and surrounding the stems of small shrubs, herbaceous plants, culms of grasses, etc., especially those of living plants, rarely effused upon old wood, bark, leaves, etc. The aethalium from two or three to several centimeters in length, and with a radial thickness of two or three to several millimeters. The following forms or varieties have been distinguished as species at different times:

Var. 1. DIDYMIUM. Sporangia irregular, simple or lobed and branched, lifted up on narrow, flat extensions of the hypothallus, as if furnished with short white stipes; the common cortex wanting. This is Didymium spumarioides, Fr.; it is probably a dwarf form of the next variety. Plate XII, Fig. 42.

Var. 2. CORNUTA. AEthalium large and rugged in outline, cinerous from the scanty cortex; the sporangia loosely compacted, the branches running out into numerous free-pointed extremities. Capillitium of rather thick threads, forming a dense net, with broad expansions at the angles. Spores 11-14 mic. in diameter. This is Spumaria cornuta, Schum. It is evidently the form so elaborately figured by Rostafinski, and which Fries says abounds in Northern Europe.

Var. 3. MUCILAGO. AEthalium large, even and uniform in outline, covered by a thick, white, common cortex; the sporangia laterally confluent and densely compacted together throughout. Capillitium of rather slender threads, forming a loose net, scarcely expanded at the angles. Spores 10-13 mic. in diameter. This is Spumaria mucilago, Nees, as figured by Greville in the Scottish Cryptogamic Flora. The capillitium is figured by McBride in The Myxomycetes of Iowa. This is the only form I have met with in this country.

III. DIDERMA, Pers. Sporangia subglobose and stipitate or more often sessile, sometimes plasmodiocarp; the wall a thin membrane, with an outer layer composed of minute roundish granules of lime, which are usually compacted into a smooth continuous crust. Stipe present or mostly absent; the columella usually well developed. Capillitium of very slender threads, stretching from the columella to the wall of the sporangium, more or less branched, and combined into a loose net by short lateral branchlets. Spores globose, violaceous.

This genus is easily recognized by the smooth crustaceous layer of lime on the outer surface of the sporangium; in many cases this easily shells off or breaks away. Such a coating occurs in a few species of Physarum, but here the vesicles of lime attached to the threads distinguish them. This is Chondrioderma of Rostafinski's monograph; the reason for coining a new name and entirely discarding the old one is not apparent.

Sec.1. LEANGIUM. Sporangium usually stipitate; the wall at maturity separating from the inner mass of spores and capillitium and splitting in a stellate manner, the segments becoming reflexed.

1. DIDERMA RADIATUM, Linn. Sporangium depressed-globose, the base flattened or umbilicate, stipitate or nearly sessile; the wall smooth, whitish or pale brown, splitting from the apex downward into a few reflexed irregular segments. Stipe short, thick, erect, tapering downward, standing on a thin membranaceous hypothallus; the columella large, convex, globose or obovoid, roughened. Capillitium of slender dark-colored threads, radiating from the columella, simple or branching outwardly. Spores globose, minutely warted, dark violaceous, 8-10 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old bark and wood. Sporangium .8-1.2 mm. in diameter, the stipe shorter than the diameter, sometimes nearly obsolete. Apparently rare in this country.

2. DIDERMA FLORIFORME, Bull. Sporangium globose or obovoid, stipitate, growing closely crowded together on a thin brown membranaceous hypothallus; the wall smooth, varying in color from whitish or yellowish to bright brown, splitting into irregular segments, which become reflexed and revolute. Stipe long, erect, white or yellowish to brown; the columella elongated, obovoid to clavate, roughened, colored as the stipe. Capillitium of dark-colored threads, radiating from the columella and sparingly branched. Spores globose, with minute scattered warts, dark violaceous, 9-11 mic. in diameter. Plate XII, Fig. 44.

Growing on old wood of oak, hickory, etc., late in Autumn. Sporangium .7-1.0 mm. in diameter before dehiscence, the stipe usually longer than the sporangium. The color of stipe, columella and sporangium varies from white through yellowish to brown; the spores are quite peculiar by reason of their prominent scattered warts. I do not think Chondrioderma Lyallii, Massee, can be maintained as a separate species.

Sec.2. STROMNIDIUM. Sporangia growing closely crowded together upon a thick highly-developed calcareous common hypothallus, either seated upon it or partially imbedded in its substance; the wall rupturing irregularly.

3. DIDERMA SPUMARIOIDES, Fr. Sporangia rather small, irregularly subglobose, sessile, seated close together on a strongly-developed whitish or yellowish common hypothallus; the wall white, rugulose, covered by a dense farinaceous layer of lime. Columella convex, roughened, white or yellowish, sometimes scarcely developed. Capillitium rather scanty, of slender colorless threads, sparingly branched, ascending from the columella. Spores globose, minutely warted, violaceous, 8-10 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old leaves, bark, moss, etc. Sporangia .4-.6 mm. in diameter, irregular and rugulose. On account of the pulverulent coat of lime on the sporangium, Massee refers the species back to Didymium, where it was placed by Fries.

4. DIDERMA STROMATEUM, Link. Sporangia large, subglobose, depressed, irregular and angular from mutual pressure, closely crowded together on a thick yellowish or pinkish common hypothallus; the wall smooth and even, grayish-white or cinereous, with a thin closely connate outer layer of minute granules of lime. Columella considerably elevated or much depressed, convex, subglobose or quite irregular, white or colored, as the hypothallus, especially at the base. Capillitium of abundant colored threads, more or less branched and combined into a loose net. Spores globose, minutely warted, violaceous, 8-10 mic. in diameter.

Growing on Hickory bark. The sporangia .5-.8 mm. in diameter, the surface smooth. Rostafinski, in his Monograph, places this species as a variety of D. spumarioides, but in the Appendix it is separated as a species. The sporangia are quite different from those of D. spumarioides, but I can see no difference in the spores.

5. DIDERMA GLOBOSUM, Pers. Sporangia subglobose, more or less irregular from mutual pressure, closely crowded together on a thick, white hypothallus, seated upon it or usually sunk into its substance at the base; the wall with a white, smooth, and polished crustaceous outer layer of lime, distinct and separable from the inner membrane, easily breaking into fragments, and falling away: the inner membrane very thin, rugulose, cinereous with granules of lime or free from them and iridescent. Columella white, small, irregular, subglobose or ellipsoidal, rarely wanting. Capillitium of slender, dark colored threads, more or less branched and combined into a loose net. Spores globose, very minutely warted, violaceous, 8-10 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old leaves. Sporangia .5-.8 mm. in diameter, the surface smooth and polished.

6. DIDERMA CRUSTACEUM, Peck. Sporangia subglobose, irregular from mutual pressure, closely crowded together on a thick, yellowish-white common hypothallus, and at the base confluent with its substance; the wall with a creamy white, smooth, crustaceous outer layer of lime, distinct and separable from the inner membrane, and easily breaking up and falling away; the inner membrane very thin, rugulose, cinereous and iridescent. Columella whitish or cream colored, small, irregular, subglobose or ellipsoidal, often wanting. Capillitium of slender, uneven, dark colored threads, branched and combined into a loose net. Spores globose, minutely warted, violet-black, opaque, 12-15 mic. in diameter. Plate XII, Fig. 45.

Growing on old leaves, sticks, etc. A common species in this country. Sporangia .7-1.0 mm. in diameter, the surface even but finely pulverulent rather than polished. Chondrioderma affine, Rost., is said to be the same species. It is readily distinguished from D. globosum, by the much larger spores.

Sec.3. ASTROTIUM. Sporangia gregarious, scattered, or sometimes crowded and confluent, often much depressed, sessile, rarely stipitate; the hypothallus none or very scanty.

7. DIDERMA MICHELII, Lib. Sporangia orbicular, very much depressed, often umbilicate above and concave underneath, stipitate or sessile, gregarious, with the margins of the sporangia sometimes confluent. The wall with a white crustaceous layer of lime, which soon ruptures around the edges, allowing the upper part to break in pieces and fall away; the inner membrane cinereous, rupturing irregularly. Stipe short, stout, erect, arising from a small, circular hypothallus, whitish or alutaceous, longitudinally rugulose, expanding at the apex, the wrinkles running out as veins on the under side of the sporangium; the columella much flattened, lenticular or discoid, alutaceous or pinkish. Capillitium of very slender, colorless threads, simple or forking a time or two, and connected by short branchlets at the extremities. Spores globose, even, violaceous, 7-9 mic. in diameter.

Growing on sticks, leaves, herbaceous stems, etc. Sporangium .8-1.2 mm. in diameter, the stipe shorter than the diameter, sometimes very short or quite obsolete.

8. DIDERMA TESTACEUM, Schr. Sporangia circular or oval, much depressed, sessile, without any hypothallus, gregarious, irregularly scattered, sometimes close and even confluent. The outer calcareous layer of the wall thick, smooth, crustaceous, separate and distinct from the inner membrane, white or pinkish-white to rose-red in color, gradually breaking up in pieces and falling away; the inner membrane thin, pellucid, cinereous from the adherent granules of lime, irregularly dehiscent from the apex downward. Columella hemispheric or depressed, granulose-roughened, white, pinkish, or fleshy-red. Capillitium of very slender, nearly colorless threads, more or less branched. Spores globose, very minutely warted, 8-10 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old leaves, wood, mosses, etc. Very common in this country. Sporangium .6-1.0 mm. in diameter, sometimes a little irregular, especially the form growing on mosses, and occasionally confluent.

9. DIDERMA CINEREUM, Morgan, n. sp. Sporangia subglobose, more or less irregular, somewhat depressed, sessile, usually close or crowded, sometimes confluent; the hypothallus a thin membrane, pellucid or with occasional patches of lime granules, sometimes not apparent. The wall very thin, even or rugulose, cinereous, the thin membrane covered by a single layer of closely-adherent granules of lime, rupturing irregularly. Columella white, hemispheric or depressed and irregular, the surface granulose. Capillitium of very slender, colored threads, the extremities pellucid, more or less branched. Spores globose, minutely warted, violaceous, 9-11 mic. in diameter. Plate XII, Fig. 46.

Growing on old wood, leaves, etc. The sporangium .3-.5 mm. in diameter, thin and smooth or rugulose. The species superficially greatly resembles Physarum cinereum.

10. DIDERMA DIFFORME, Pers. Plasmodiocarp roundish, oblong, or more or less elongated and flexuous, scattered or seriately disposed; the hypothallus a thin brownish membrane, or commonly not apparent. The outer calcareous layer of the wall snow-white, thin, smooth, distinct from the inner membrane, breaking into pieces and falling away; the inner membrane thin, opaque and bluish or pellucid and iridescent. Columella reduced to a thin layer of scales and granules upon the brownish basal membrane. Capillitium scanty, consisting of short nearly colorless threads, which are simple, or fork a time or two. Spores globose, even, dark violaceous, 10-13 mic. in diameter.

Growing on bark, leaves, twigs, herbaceous stems, etc. Plasmodiocarp .3-.5 mm. in thickness and variable in length, sometimes elongated several millimeters.

11. DIDERMA RETICULATUM, Rost. Plasmodiocarp very much depressed, roundish, oblong, much elongated and flexuous, closely crowded together and confluent; the hypothallus a thin white granulose layer of lime, scarcely broader than the plasmodiocarp. The outer calcareous layer of the wall white, distinct, very fragile and easily shelling off; the inner membrane much shrunken and withdrawn from the outer coat, rugulose, cinereous, with a dense closely-adherent layer of granules of lime. The columella a thin alutaceous, granulose-roughened layer, extending along the base of the plasmodiocarp. Capillitium of threads short and very slender, colorless, somewhat branched. Spores globose, even, pale violaceous, 6-8 mic. in diameter. Plate XII, Fig. 47.

Growing on old wood, leaves, twigs, etc. Plasmodiocarp .5-.8 mm. in width, much flattened and usually closely crowded. The rough calcareous base of the plasmodiocarp might be considered as either all columella or all hypothallus, with the upper surface leather-colored. I am indebted to Arthur Lister, of London, for the determination of my specimens.

12. DIDERMA EFFUSUM, Schw. Plasmodiocarp very much flattened, longitudinally creeping and reticulate or altogether widely effused; hypothallus none. The wall very thin, smooth, white or cinereous, the thin membrane covered by a single layer of closely-adherent granules of lime, rupturing irregularly. The columella reduced to a thin alutaceous layer of granules of lime, forming the base of the plasmodiocarp. Capillitium of short colorless threads, extending from base to wall, the extremities branched and connected together. Spores globose, even, pale violaceous, 8-10 mic. in diameter. Plate XII, Fig. 48.

Growing on old leaves. The plasmodiocarp forms very much flattened irregular patches from a few to several millimeters in length or extent. I am indebted to Dr. Geo. A. Rex, of Philadelphia, for the identification of my specimens, with those in the herbarium of Schweinitz, under the name of Physarum effusum.

IV. LEPIDODERMA, DeB. Sporangium stipitate or sessile, sometimes plasmodiocarp; the wall a thin, firm, colorless membrane, with an outer layer of large scales consisting of bicarbonate of lime, the scales either lying upon the wall or inclosed in lenticular cavities of the membrane. Stipe present or absent; the columella usually conspicuous. Capillitium of very slender threads, simple or outwardly branching at a sharp angle, connected at the extremities. Spores globose, violaceous.

"In the present genus the carbonate of lime is present in the form of very minute amorphous lumps until near to maturity, when it is dissolved and reappears as bicarbonate of lime deposited in comparatively large flakes."—Massee.

1. LEPIDODERMA TIGRINUM, Schr. Sporangium large, much depressed, hemispheric or lenticular, the base umbilicate, stipitate; the wall a firm, dark colored membrane, variegated with large and small irregular shining scales, greenish-yellow or straw color, rupturing irregularly. Stipe stout, thick, erect, rugulose, ochraceous or ferruginous, variable in length, expanding at the base into a thin hypothallus; the columella brown, convex or hemispheric. Capillitium of slender, dark colored threads, simple or sparingly branched, radiating from the columella to the wall. Spores globose, minutely warted, dark violaceous, 10-13 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, moss, etc. Sporangium 1-1.5 mm. in diameter, the stipe 1 mm. or less in length. This appears to be the only species of the genus thus far discovered in this country.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XII.

Fig. 37.—Didymium proximum, B. & C. a. Sporangium and stipe x 33. b. Section through the columella.

Fig. 38.—Didymium eximium, Peck. a. Showing the rough columella of one form. b. Section through the discoid columella of the very much depressed form. Magnified by 33.

Fig. 39.—Didymium minus, Lister. a. Sporangium and stipe x 33. b. c. d. Sections through the columella showing different forms.

Fig. 40.—Didymium farinaceum, Schr. Section through the columella. After Rostafinski.

Fig. 41.—Didymium anellus, Morgan, a. Growing upon a leaf x 3. b. Plasmodiocarp x 17.

Fig. 42.—Spumaria alba, Bull. Var. 1. didymium, sporangia x 3. Drawn from a foreign specimen.

Fig. 43.—Spumaria alba, Bull. a. AEthalium natural size. b. Capillitium and spores as seen by a magnifying power of 500 diameters.

Fig. 44.—Diderma floriforme, Bull. Stipe and columella x 20.

Fig. 45.—Diderma crustaceum, Peck. a. Sporangia crowded on the thick hypothallus, natural size. b. Sporangia x 11. c. Section through outer coat, inner membrane, and columella.

Fig. 46.—Diderma cinereum, Morgan, a. Sporangia growing on a leaf x 3. b. Sporangia x 23. c. Section through the wall and columella.

Fig. 47.—Diderma reticulatum, Rost. Plasmodiocarp growing on leaf x 3.

Fig. 48.—Diderma effusum, Schw. Plasmodiocarp effused on a leaf x 3.



* * * * *

Reprint from THE JOURNAL OF THE CINCINNATI SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY, August, 1896.

THE MYXOMYCETES OF THE MIAMI VALLEY, OHIO.

BY A. P. MORGAN.

Fourth Paper.

(Read May 6, 1896.)



ORDER VIII. PHYSARACEAE.

Sporangia simple and stipitate or sessile, sometimes plasmodiocarp, rarely combined into an aethalium; the wall a thin membrane, usually with an outer layer of minute roundish granules of lime. Stipe present or often wanting, seldom prolonged within the sporangium as a columella. Capillitium consisting of slender tubules, which branch repeatedly in every direction and anastomose to form an intricate network, the extremities attached on all sides to the wall of the sporangium; the tubules more or less expanded at the angles of the network and inclosing minute roundish granules of lime, these granules either aggregated into nodules with intervening empty spaces or more rarely distributed throughout their entire length. Spores globose, very rarely ellipsoidal, violaceous.

This order is at once distinguished from the Didymiaceae by the presence of the granules of lime in the capillitium.

TABLE OF GENERA OF PHYSARACEAE.

I. Tubules of the capillitium having the granules of lime in them aggregated into roundish or angular nodules, with intervening empty spaces.

A. Outer surface of the sporangium destitute of lime.

1. ANGIORIDIUM. Plasmodiocarp laterally compressed, splitting regularly into two valves.

2. CIENKOWSKIA. Plasmodiocarp terete, elongated, irregularly dehiscent.

3. LEOCARPUS. Sporangia subglobose or obovoid, stipitate or sessile.

B. Outer surface of the sporangium invested with granules of lime.

a. Stipe prolonged within the sporangium as a columella.

4. PHYSARELLA. Sporangium oblong, stipitate, the apex re-entrant.

5. CYTIDIUM. Sporangium globose, stipitate, the apex convex.

b. Stipe never entering the sporangium.

6. CRATERIUM. Sporangium obovoid to cylindric, stipitate.

7. PHYSARUM. Sporangium globose, depressed globose or irregular, stipitate or sessile.

8. FULIGO. Aethalium a compound plasmodiocarp.

II. Tubules of the capillitium with the granules of lime in them distributed throughout their entire length.

9. BADHAMIA. Stipe not prolonged within the sporangium as a columella.

10. SCYPHIUM. Stipe entering the sporangium and prolonged within it as a columella.

I. ANGIORIDIUM, Grev. Plasmodiocarp laterally compressed, more or less elongated and flexuous, attached by the lower margin to the substratum, and, at maturity, regularly dehiscent along the upper margin by a longitudinal fissure; the wall a firm membrane, with the granules of lime forming a reticulate layer on the inner surface. Capillitium a loose, irregular net-work of tubules, extending from side to side, and containing large, irregular nodules of lime. Spores globose, violaceous.

A genus readily distinguished by its laterally compressed plasmodiocarp, splitting lengthwise by a regular fissure. The wall is a single membrane, and there is but a single reticulate layer of lime upon it, which is plainly on the inner surface.

1. ANGIORIDIUM SINUOSUM, Bull. Plasmodiocarp laterally compressed and very much flattened, more or less elongated and flexuous, sometimes confluent and branched or reticulate, without any hypothallus; the wall a more or less thickened and brownish membrane, the inner surface coated with a dense reticulately thickened white layer of lime, and often studded with the white nodules. Capillitium of hyaline tubules, forming a loose irregular net-work, with numerous broad vesicular expansions filled with lime; the nodules white, very large, irregularly lobed, and branched. Spores globose, very minutely warted, violaceous, 8-10 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old leaves, sticks, mosses, etc. Plasmodiocarp commonly about 1 mm. in height and 1-5 mm. in length, but the size is variable. The color appears to depend upon the thickening of the membrane; when it is thin and pellucid, the color is white or cinereous from the inner layer of lime and the contained spores; with a more thickened membrane, the color becomes ochraceous or brownish. Physarum bivalve Pers. Physarum sinuosum of Rostafinski's monograph.

II. CIENKOWSKIA, Rost. Plasmodiocarp terete, elongated, flexuous, creeping, and reticulate, irregularly dehiscent; the wall a more or less thickened membrane, externally naked, with the granules of lime on the inner surface. Capillitium of slender tubules, combined into an irregular network, attached on all sides to the wall of the sporangium, and bearing everywhere short pointed or uncinate free branchlets; the lime in thin transverse plates and irregular nodules. Spores globose, violaceous.

The peculiar characteristic of this genus is the short free hooked and pointed branchlets of the capillitium.

1. CIENKOWSKIA RETICULATA, A. & S. Plasmodiocarp more or less elongated, curved and flexuous, simple or branched, sometimes confluent and reticulate, breaking away first along the upper surface, leaving an irregular margin. The wall a firm yellow membrane, with thinner hyaline areas and with thicker yellow-brown or red-brown spots; the outer surface without any lime, smooth, and shining; the inner surface with a dense layer of yellow granules raised at intervals into transverse ridges, these are connected with broad thin flat plates of lime which traverse the capillitium, forming imperfect septa to the sporangium. Capillitium consisting of slender yellow tubules, forming a network of irregular meshes, with slight expansions at the angles and bearing along the sides short pointed or uncinate free branchlets; the tubules containing a few scattered yellow nodules of lime various in size and shape. Spores globose, very minutely warted, violaceous, 8-10 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, bark, leaves, etc. Plasmodiocarp in veins .3-.5 mm. in thickness, sometimes forming a net-work a centimeter or more in extent. This curious Myxomyces seems very rare in America. I have met with it but once. The specimen in the herbarium of Schweinitz, marked Physarum reticulatum, is not this species, though it answers well enough to the original description.

III. LEOCARPUS, Link. Sporangia subglobose or obovoid, stipitate or sessile; the wall a more or less thickened membrane, the external surface destitute of lime, polished and shining, irregularly dehiscent. Stipe short, poorly developed or sometimes wanting. Capillitium of slender tubules, forming an irregular net-work more or less expanded at the angles; the tubules enlarging at intervals into vesicles, which usually contain nodules of lime. Spores globose, violaceous.

A genus characterized by the form of the sporangia and the smooth and glossy surface of the wall.

1. LEOCARPUS PSITTACINUS, Ditm. Sporangium small globose or somewhat depressed, stipitate or subsessile; the wall a thin membrane, rugulose and iridescent, with thicker red or yellow spots and patches, destitute of lime. Stipe weak, erect or inclined, variable in length, the base expanded, orange to red in color. Capillitium a dense net-work of tubules, widely expanded at the angles and bearing numerous irregular vesicles, various in size and form, yellow or orange to red in color. Spores globose, even, dark violaceous, 7-9 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, leaves, etc. The sporangium .5-.6 mm. in diameter, the stipe about the same length or sometimes very short. The sporangia are dull brownish to the naked eye, but when magnified the green, purple, and blue metallic tints of the wall become apparent. There does not appear to be any granules of lime either on the wall or in the capillitium. Physarum psittacinum Ditm.

2. LEOCARPUS CAESPITOSUS, Schw. Sporangium small subglobose or obovoid to turbinate, somewhat irregular, stipitate or subsessile; the wall a reticulately thickened and fragile membrane, yellow-brown to greenish-yellow or olivaceous in color, externally rugulose and glossy, the inner surface with scales and patches of lime. Stipe short and thick, sometimes nearly obsolete, yellowish or reddish brown, darker below, the base expanded into a small hypothallus. Capillitium a loose irregular net-work of tubules with wide expansions at the angles; the nodules of lime large, numerous, white or yellowish, irregular, with acute angles and pointed lobes. Spores globose, minutely warted, dark violaceous, 9-11 mic. in diameter.

Growing caespitosely or scattered on old wood and mosses. Sporangium .6-.8 mm. in diameter, variable in shape, the stipe usually very short. Physarum caespitosum Schw., North American Fungi. My specimens, some of them, have been referred to Physarum citrinellum Peck; others to Physarum variabile Rex.

3. LEOCARPUS BRUNNEOLUS, Phillips. Sporangium large, globose or somewhat depressed, sessile; the wall a thick yellow-brown membrane, the outer surface naked, smooth, and polished, with a dense white inner layer of granules of lime, dehiscing in a stellate manner, the segments becoming reflexed. Capillitium of tubules forming a dense net-work, with wide expansions at the angles; the nodules of lime very large, numerous, white, angular and irregular. Spores globose, minutely warted, dark violaceous, 8-10 mic. in diameter.

Growing on bark of oak, California (Harkness.) Sporangium nearly 1 mm. in diameter. Diderma brunneolum Phillips. I have taken the description from Massee's monograph.

4. LEOCARPUS FRAGILIS, Dicks. Sporangium very large, obovoid-oblong, stipitate or subsessile; the wall a greatly thickened membrane, polished and shining within and without, from alutaceous or pale umber to dark-brown in color, destitute of lime. Stipe short, weak, and slender, arising from a thin hypothallus. Capillitium of slender tubules forming a loose network of large irregular meshes, with slight expansions at the angles; the lime white, variable in amount, sometimes quite scanty, then again filling large portions of the net-work with long-branched and reticulate masses. Spores subglobose, dark violaceous, opaque, 12-15 mic. in diameter.

Growing gregariously on old wood, leaves, mosses, etc. Sporangium 1.5-2 mm. in length by 1 mm. in thickness, the stipe variable in length, but usually much shorter than the sporangium. Diderma vernicosum Pers.

IV. PHYSARELLA, Peck. Sporangium oblong, stipitate; the apex re-entrant and confluent with the hollow columella; the wall a thin membrane covered with small scales and minute granules of lime, at maturity torn away at the apex and stellately splitting into a few segments. Stipe elongated, tapering upward, entering the sporangium and prolonged to the apex as a tubaeform columella. Capillitium distinguished by two distinct sets of tubules; the first consisting of long, thick tubules filled with lime, rising at regular intervals from the wall of the sporangium and extending to the columella; the second, of very slender threads, scarcely branched, and nearly destitute of lime, stretching between the wall and the columella. Spores globose, violaceous.

A genus founded upon the one remarkable species, and more distinct than any other from the typical genus of the Physaraceae. In fact, the structure of the sporangium is unique among the Myxomycetes.

1. PHYSARELLA OBLONGA, B. & C. Sporangium oblong, the apex re-entrant and confluent with the summit of the columella, the base obtuse or slightly umbilicate, stipitate, cernuous. The wall of the sporangium a firm, yellowish membrane, covered with minute granules and with scattered, small, yellow scales of lime; after maturity the apex is torn away more or less irregularly from the summit of the columella and the wall splits into a few segments, which become reflexed and are subpersistent about the base of the sporangium. Stipe long, erect or flexuous, the apex bent or curved, red-brown, rising from a small hypothallus, entering the sporangium and prolonged to the apex as a hollow tubaeform columella. Capillitium of thick, spiniform tubules filled with lime and slender, violet threads, extending between the wall and the columella. The tubules elongated, terete, tapering gradually from wall to columella, containing yellow granules of lime; the threads very slender, outwardly branched a time or two, the further extremities connected by short, lateral branches, often furnished with minute, free branchlets, and containing a few small, fusiform nodules of lime. Spores globose, nearly smooth, violaceous, 7-9 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, bark, leaves, etc. Sporangium commonly .8-1.0 mm. in length by .5-.6 mm. in diameter, the stipe 1-2 mm. long; the spiniform tubules measure 150-200 x 15-20 mic.

The abnormal forms of this species which sometimes manifest themselves are very singular; the sporangium has a tendency to dilate, becoming funnel-form or even salver-shaped, the stipe shortening and even disappearing. I have a large specimen which superficially resembles some lichen, a Physcia, for example; the sporangia are pressed down, flattened out, extremely irregular, and in many places confluent; the rudimentary stipes are hidden beneath the leafy expansions. In all the forms, however, may be uncovered the spiniform tubules mingled with the slender threads. This is Trichamphora oblonga B. & C. Tilmadoche oblonga of Rostafinski's monograph, and Physarella mirabilis Peck.

V. CYTIDIUM, Morgan. Gen. nov. Sporangium globose or rarely ellipsoidal, stipitate; the wall a thin membrane, with an external layer of minute granules of lime, rupturing irregularly. Stipe more or less elongated, tapering upward and entering the sporangium as a columella. Capillitium of slender tubules, arising from the columella, repeatedly branching and anastomosing to form a regular net-work, the extremities attached on all sides to the wall of the sporangium, the tubules containing at intervals nodules of lime. Spores globose, violaceous.

This genus is readily distinguished from Physarum by the columella, which gives origin to the capillitium; this feature indicates a relationship to Didymium and to Lamproderma.

Sec.1. EUCYTIS. Sporangium globose, the columella not reaching its center.

1. CYTIDIUM PULCHERRIMUM, B. & R. Sporangium globose, stipitate; the wall a thin lilac-tinted membrane, with a dense closely adherent layer of granules of lime, dark purple or wine-colored. Stipe long, erect, dark purple to purplish black, tapering upward and entering the sporangium as a slight obtuse columella. Capillitium of slender lilac tinted threads, forming a dense net-work of very small meshes, with slight expansion at the angles; the nodules of lime very small, numerous, dark purplish or vinose in color, ellipsoidal or obtusely angular. Spores globose, even, lilac, 7-9 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood. Sporangium .4-.5 mm. in diameter, the stipe two or three times as long; the lime-nodules about the size of the spores. The purple stain, which the sporangia leave on white paper, is made by the granules of lime; the spores color the paper violet. Physarum pulcherrimum B. & Rav., and P. atrorubrum Peck.

2. CYTIDIUM CITRINUM, Schum. Sporangium globose, the base slightly flattened or umbilicate, stipitate; the wall a thin membrane, covered with small scales of lime, yellow or greenish-yellow, breaking up and falling away at maturity. Stipe stout, erect, yellow, longitudinally rugulose, expanded at the base, tapering upward and entering the sporangium as a short obtusely conical columella. Capillitium of slender tubules, forming a dense net-work, with slight expansions at the angles; the lime-nodules numerous, roundish or ellipsoidal, variable in size, yellow. Spores globose, nearly smooth, violaceous, 7-8 mic. in diameter.

Growing on bark, leaves, mosses, etc. Sporangium .5-.6 mm. in diameter, the stipe from once to twice this length. This, the typical species, I have not seen in this country, but forms with the sporangium lemon-yellow and grayish-yellow, with the stipe golden-yellow, connect it with C. rufipes. It is Physarum citrinum Schum. Diderma citrinum of Fries., S. M.

3. CYTIDIUM RUFIPES, A. & S. Sporangium globose, sometimes a little depressed and the base umbilicate, stipitate; the wall a thin membrane, covered with small scales of lime, golden-yellow to orange in color, breaking up at maturity and falling away. Stipe variable in length, slender, from orange or orange-red to dark red in color, sometimes blackish below, rising from a thin hypothallus, tapering upward and entering the sporangium as a short obtuse columella. Capillitium of slender tubules, forming a dense net-work of very small meshes, slightly expanded at the angles; the nodules of lime small, numerous, ellipsoidal or obtusely angular, orange to red in color. Spores globose, nearly smooth, violaceous, 8-10 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, mosses, etc. A very abundant species. Sporangium .5-.7 mm. in diameter, the stipe from once to twice as long. As here defined, the species includes Physarum aurantium var. rufipes A. & S., and Physarum aureum var. chrysopus Lev, which I am unable to keep separate; the variation in size of the spores is not in correspondence with the variations in color of the sporangia. Physarum pulchripes Peck, and Physarum petersii B. & C., mostly belong here. The bright orange colors become dull or tawny with age and exposure to the weather.

4. CYTIDIUM RAVENELII, B. & C. Sporangium globose, stipitate; the wall a thin pellucid membrane, covered with small scales of lime, from gray or drab to pale umber in color, breaking up at maturity and falling away. Stipe variable in length, concolorous with the sporangium or darker below, tapering upward and entering the sporangium as a short obtusely conical columella. Capillitium of tubules, forming a dense net-work of very small meshes, with slight expansions at the angles; the lime-nodules small, numerous, ellipsoidal or obtusely angular, gray or drab to pale umber in color. Spores globose, nearly even, pale violaceous, 7-9 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, mosses, etc. Sporangium about .5 mm. in diameter, the stipe once to twice this length. The species as here described includes Didymium ravenelii B. & C., Physarum simile Rost., and Physarum murinum Lister.

5. CYTIDIUM GLOBULIFERUM, Bull. Sporangium globose, the base sometimes flattened or slightly umbilicate, stipitate; the wall a thin, pellucid membrane, covered with small scales of lime, white, cream-colored, or sometimes pinkish, breaking up and falling away at maturity. Stipe variable in length, white or smoky-white, usually darker below, rising from a thin hypothallus, tapering upward and entering the sporangium as a short obtuse or conical columella. Capillitium of slender tubules, forming a dense, persistent net-work of very small meshes, more or less expanded at the angles; the nodules of lime variable in size, numerous, white, roundish, ellipsoidal or obtusely angular. Spores globose, nearly even, pale violaceous, 7-9 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, bark, mosses, etc. A very common and abundant species. Sporangium .5-.6 mm. in diameter, the stipe from once to two or three times this length. The lime nodules in the capillitium are sometimes round and quite minute, then again they are large and obtusely angular; the columella varies from very short and conical to longer and more cylindric. Diderma globuliferum of Fries S. M., Physarum albicans Peck. The specimens with the columella well nigh obsolete, may be Tilmadoche columbina Rost.

6. CYTIDIUM MELLEUM, B. & Br. Sporangium globose, stipitate or subsessile; the wall a thin yellowish membrane, rugulose, covered by large irregular scales of lime, honey-color to golden-yellow, breaking up irregularly. Stipe short, sometimes very short or nearly obsolete, snow-white, expanding at the base into a small white hypothallus, tapering upward and entering the sporangium as a short obtusely conical columella. Capillitium a loose net-work of delicate tubules with broad vesicular expansions containing much lime; the nodules numerous, white or sometimes yellow, large, irregular, lobed, and branched. Spores globose, nearly even, pale violaceous, 7-9 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old leaves, sticks, herbaceous stems, etc.; not uncommon in this region. Sporangium .4-.5 mm. in diameter, the stipe about the same length or much shorter. Didymium melleum B. & Br. Didymium chrysopeplum B. & C. also belongs here and not with C. citrinum.

Sec.2. REXIELLA. Sporangium ellipsoidal or pyriform, the columella prolonged nearly to the apex of the sporangium.

7. CYTIDIUM PENETRALE, Rex. Sporangium ellipsoidal or pyriform, stipitate; the wall a thin pellucid membrane, covered with small scales of lime, yellow-gray to greenish-yellow, rupturing at maturity into two to four segments. Stipe long, slender, translucent, pale red to dark red in color, tapering upward, entering the sporangium and prolonged nearly to the apex as a slender columella. Capillitium of very slender tubules, radiating from numerous points of the columella, forming a delicate net-work of very small meshes, scarcely expanded at the angles; the nodules of lime small, not numerous, roundish or obtusely angled, white or yellowish. Spores globose, very minutely warted, pale violaceous, 5.5-6.5 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood. A rare and singular species. Sporangium .5-.7 mm. in height by .3-.5 mm. in diameter, the stipe two or three times the height of the sporangium. There is an affinity between this species and the Physarella. The obscure Tilmadoche hians Rost., may be the same as the present species.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIII.

Fig. 49.—Angioridium sinuosum, Bull. a. Plasmodiocarp x 5 b. Capillitium and spores x 500.

Fig. 50.—Cienkowskia reticulata, A. & S. a. Plasmodiocarp x 5. b. Piece of plasmodiocarp x 90. c. Capillitium and spores x 500.

Fig. 51. Leocarpus fragilis, Dicks, a. Sporangia x 5. b. Capillitium and spores x 500.

Fig. 52.—Leocarpus caespitosus, Schw. a. Sporangia x 5. b. Capillitium and spores x 500.

Fig. 53.—Physarella oblonga, B. & C. a. Sporangia x 5. b. Sporangia x 90. c. Capillitium and spores x 500.

Fig 54—Cytidium penetrale, Rex. a. Sporangia x 5 b. Sporangia and columella x 90. c. Capillitium and spores x 500.

Fig. 55.—Cytidium globuliferum, Bull. a. Sporangia x 5. b. Sporangia x 90. c. Columella x 90 d. Capillitium and spores x 500.



VI. CRATERIUM, Trent. Sporangium obovoid to cylindric, stipitate; the upper and usually greater part of the wall covered with granules of lime, the basal portion naked and more persistent. Stipe short or sometimes elongated, arising from a small circular hypothallus, longitudinally plicate, confluent above and similarly colored with the base of the sporangium. Capillitium of tubules, forming a loose network, bearing numerous large angular and irregular nodules of lime, which are often confluent along the axis of the sporangium into a pseudo-columella. Spores globose, minutely warted, violaceous.

In this genus the sporangium is commonly obovoid, with a naked base which is confluent with the stipe and similarly colored; after dehiscence there is left behind the more persistent cyathiform portion standing on the substratum.

Sec.1. EU-CRATERIUM. Sporangium at maturity dehiscent in a regular circumscissile manner, the apex falling away as a lid, leaving behind the more persistent cup-shaped portion.

1. CRATERIUM MINUTUM, Leers. Sporangium cyathiform, stipitate; the lid slightly convex, discrete from the first, usually depressed below the rim of the cup, falling away at maturity, and leaving a smooth, circular margin to the lower cyathiform portion. The wall a thick, firm, yellow-brown membrane, the outer surface of the cup entirely naked, smooth and shining, varying greatly in color from alutaceous or ochraceous to various shades of brown; the lid usually whitened by a thin layer of granules of lime. Stipe short, erect or bent, and slightly curved at the apex, varying in color from rusty yellow to reddish brown, longitudinally plicate, arising from a small, circular hypothallus. Capillitium of tubules forming a loose net-work, bearing large, irregular, white nodules of lime, which are sometimes confluent in the axis of the sporangium. Spores globose, very minutely warted, violaceous, 8-10 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, sticks, leaves, etc. Sporangium, together with the stipe, .8-1.4 mm. in height and .3-.5 mm. in diameter, the stipe usually shorter than the sporangium, sometimes equal to it in length, rarely longer. The latest authorities include the three species Craterium vulgare, C. pyriforme, and C. minutum of Rostafinski's monograph all in one species.

2. CRATERIUM CONCINNUM, Rex. Sporangium usually minute, broadly funnel-shaped, stipitate; operculum always more or less convex, rarely approaching a hemispherical shape, dehiscent in a regular circumscissile manner. The wall a thick, brownish membrane, externally smooth and variously colored, sometimes uniformly light or dark umber, sometimes dark brown below and brownish white above; the operculum brownish white, darkest in the center. Stipe short, dark brown, longitudinally ridged. Capillitium of tubules forming a close-meshed net-work, bearing small rounded or slightly angular nodules of lime, ochre-brown in color. Spores globose, very minutely warted, brown, 9-10 mic. in diameter.

Growing usually upon chestnut-burs, and frequently associated with Lachnobulus globosus. Sporangium .5-.8 mm. in height including the stipe and .2-.5 mm. in diameter at the top, the stipe equaling the sporangium in length. It is readily distinguished by its small nodules in the capillitium, which are invariably of a dull, brownish-ochre color.

3. CRATERIUM RUBESCENS, Rex. Sporangium subcylindric or elongated cyathiform, stipitate; the apex convex, at maturity separating by an irregular line in a circumscissile manner. The wall dark violet-red, smooth, except at the upper portion, which is slightly roughened by an external deposit of scattered lime-granules of a pale, lilac color. Stipe short, violet-black, wrinkled longitudinally. Capillitium of tubules forming a loose, irregular net-work, bearing large, violet-red nodules of lime which are often confluent in the axis of the sporangium. Spores globose, minutely warted, dark violaceous, 7-9 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, leaves, etc. Sporangium .6-.8 mm. in height including the stipe and .5-.6 mm. in diameter, the stipe one-half the height of the sporangium. The species is distinguished by the color, which exhibits some shade of red or violet-red in every part of its structure.

4. CRATERIUM MINIMUM, B. & C. Sporangium cylindric or turbinate cylindric, stipitate; the apex convex, separating in a regular circumscissile manner by a lid. The wall a thick, yellow-brown membrane, most of the outer surface covered with minute, white granules of lime, the basal portion naked. Stipe very short, plicate, red-brown, arising from a small hypothallus. Capillitium of tubules forming a loose net-work bearing large, irregular, white nodules of lime, sometimes confluent in the axis of the sporangium. Spores globose, very minutely warted, violaceous, 7-9 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old leaves, herbaceous stems, etc. Sporangium together with the stipe 1-1.5 mm. in height and .25-.35 mm. in thickness, the stipe .2-.4 mm. in length. This is a common species everywhere in the United States, and perfectly distinct from Craterium convivale. It is Craterium cylindricum of Massee's monograph, according to Lister.

Sec.2. CUPULARIA, Link. Sporangium irregularly dehiscent, breaking up and gradually falling away from the apex downward.

a. Stipe shorter than the sporangium.

5. CRATERIUM CONVIVALE, Batsch. Sporangium obovoid or oblong-obovoid, stipitate; the wall hyaline, thin and fragile above, the lower portion a thickened and brownish membrane, the surface, usually most of it, covered with minute white granules of lime, the base naked and brown. Stipe very short, erect, red-brown, plicate, arising from a small hypothallus. Capillitium of tubules forming a dense net-work, bearing numerous large irregular white nodules of lime, which are often confluent in the axis of the sporangium. Spores globose, very minutely warted, violaceous, 8-10 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old leaves, herbaceous stems, etc. Sporangium .6-1.0 mm. in height including the stipe and .3-.5 mm. in diameter, the stipe much shorter than the sporangium. The thin apex breaks up into pieces and falls away, leaving sometimes a regular cyathiform portion, at other times the margin is broken and irregular. This is Craterium leucocephalum of Rostafinski's monograph. The specimens of Physarum scyphoides C. & B. which I have seen appear to be a small form of this species.

6. CRATERIUM AUREUM, Schum. Sporangium obovoid to oblong obovoid, stipitate, the wall a thin and delicate membrane above, thicker and firmer below, hyaline or yellowish, almost entirely covered by a dense layer of granules of lime, varying from lemon-yellow to orange in color. Stipe short, erect, yellow to orange, brownish toward the base, longitudinally plicate, rising from a small hypothallus. Capillitium of slender tubules, forming a dense net-work, bearing numerous rather small irregular nodules of lime, yellow or sometimes white in color, and often confluent along the axis of the sporangium. Spores globose, very minutely warted, dark violaceous, 8-10 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old leaves, sticks, herbaceous stems, etc. Sporangium and stipe .7-1.0 mm. in height and .3-.5 mm. in diameter, the stipe .2-.4 mm. long. The elongated form is the common one in this region. Craterium mutabile Fr.

b. Stipe longer than the sporangium.

7. CRATERIUM NODULOSUM, C. & B. Sporangium globose or obovoid, stipitate; the greater part of the wall a thin hyaline membrane, easily breaking away, covered externally with large white scales and nodules of lime; the basal portion naked, thickened, and more persistent, red-brown and plicate. Stipe long, erect or inclined, plicate, red-brown, rising from a small hypothallus. Capillitium of tubules forming a loose net-work, containing a variable quantity of lime in the shape of long irregular white nodules, sometimes confluent, with pointed lobes and branchlets. Spores globose, very minutely warted, dark violaceous, 10-12 mic. in diameter.

Growing on old wood, bark, leaves, etc. Sporangium .5-.6 mm. in diameter, the stipe two or three times as long. It is Badhamia nodulosa C. & B., Journal of Mycology, Vol. V, p. 186. Ravenel's specimens are on Acacia bark. Mr. Webber sent me elegant specimens from Florida where, he says, it grows commonly on the leaves and bark of the orange trees.

8. CRATERIUM MAYDIS, Morgan, n. sp. Sporangium globose or obovoid, stipitate; the upper part of the wall a yellowish membrane, thin and fragile, covered with large thick scales and nodules of lime, amber-colored to golden-yellow; the basal portion thicker and more persistent, naked and plicate, red-brown. Stipe red-brown, long, slender, plicate, rising from a small hypothallus. Capillitium of thick tubules, forming a net-work with wide expansions at the angles; the nodules of lime large, numerous, yellow, angularly lobed and branched. Spores globose, very minutely warted, pale violaceous, 9-10 mic. in diameter.

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