The Makers and Teachers of Judaism
by Charles Foster Kent
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II. The Kingly, Nationalistic Type of Messianic Hope. The messianic prophecies of the Old Testament seem only confusing and contradictory until the three distinct types are recognized. These different types of messianic prophecy naturally shade into each other, and yet they are fundamentally distinct and were represented throughout Israel's history by different classes of thinkers. The first is the kingly, nationalistic type of hope. It came into existence as soon as Israel became a nation, and may be traced in the Balaam oracles in Numbers 24:17-19, where the seer is represented as beholding Israel's victorious king smiting its foes, the Moabites and Edomites, and ruling gloriously over a triumphant people. It is echoed in II Samuel 7:10-16 in the promise that the house of David should rule peacefully and uninterruptedly through succeeding generations. Ezekiel, in his picture of the restored nation in 37:21-28, declares in the name of Jehovah that "my servant David shall be king over them and they shall dwell in the land that I have given to my servant Jacob wherein their fathers dwelt, and they shall dwell therein, they and their sons forever, and David my servant shall be their prince forever." In such passages as Isaiah 9 and 11 the Davidic ruler is represented as reigning not despotically or selfishly, but in accordance with the principles of justice and mercy, bringing peace to all his subjects. As has already been noted, in the prophecies of Haggai and Zechariah and in connection with the rebuilding of the second temple Israel's kingly, nationalistic hope reached its culmination, but through the victories of Darius was rudely cast to the ground (Section XCV:vi). For the next three centuries and a half, throughout the Persian and Greek periods, this type of Israel's messianic hope was apparently silenced. The Maccabean struggles and victories, however, and the oppressive rule of Rome stirred this smouldering hope into a flame and gave it wide currency among the people at the beginning of the Christian era. Again the nation came to the forefront. In the beautiful prophecy of Zechariah 9:9, 10, which apparently comes from the earlier part of the Maccabean era, is found the noble picture of a peasant king, humble yet victorious, establishing with the sword a world-wide kingdom. Memories of the glorious achievements of the Maccabean leaders kindled the popular imagination. When in 63 B.C. Rome's iron hand closed upon Palestine, the eyes of the Jews looked expectantly for the advent of a champion like David of old, who would crush the heathen, convict the sinful Jews, and gather the faithful people, ruling over them in justice and with tender care. These hopes are most plainly expressed in the Psalms of Solomon, which were written near the beginning of the Roman period. These expectations in their more material form inspired the party of the Zelots during the earlier part of the first Christian century repeatedly to unsheathe the sword in the vain effort to overthrow Rome and to establish at once the rule of the Messiah. It was because this type of hope was so strong in the minds of the common people that the false messiahs who rose from time to time were able quickly to gather thousands about them in the vain expectation that the moment of deliverance had at last arrived.

III. The Apocalyptic, Catastrophic Type of Messianic Hope. Another class of thinkers in Israel looked not for a temporal but for a supernatural kingdom. It is usually described in the symbolic language of the apocalypse. The inauguration of this kingdom was not dependent upon man's activity but solely upon the will of God. The exact time and manner of its institution was clothed in mystery. Traces of this belief are found in the references in Amos to the popular expectations regarding the day of Jehovah. Evidently the Northern Israelites lived in anticipation of a great universal judgment day, in which their heathen foes would be suddenly destroyed and they themselves would be exalted. It was a belief which Amos and the ethical prophets who followed him strongly combated, for they were fully aware of the fundamental weakness in the apocalyptic or catastrophic type of prophecy: it took away from the nation and individual all personal responsibility. Furthermore, its roots went back to the old Semitic mythology. This type of hope, however, was too firmly fixed in the popular mind to be dispelled even by the preaching of Israel's greatest prophets. As a result of the calamities that gathered about the fall of the Hebrew state it was revived. It is found in Ezekiel, Zechariah, and Joel. Each of these prophets looked forward to the time when Jehovah would miraculously overthrow their heathen foes, restore his scattered people, and establish for them a world-wide, eternal kingdom. In the closing chapters of the book of Daniel this form of belief attains its fullest expression in the Old Testament. In the Similitudes of Enoch (37-71), which come either from the latter part of the Maccabean era or else from the days of Herod, these messianic hopes are still further developed. Instead of Israel's guardian angel Michael, represented as coming on the clouds from heaven and in appearance like a son of man, a heavenly Messiah is introduced. He is known by the title of the Messiah, the Elect One, and the Son of Man (probably taken from the book of Daniel). In Enoch the term Son of Man has evidently become, as in IV Esdras, the title of a personal Messiah. He is described as pre-existent and gifted with the divine authority. When he appears, the dead are to rise, and angels, as well as men, are to be tried before his tribunal. The sinners and the fallen angels he will condemn to eternal punishment. All sin and wrong shall be driven from the earth. Heaven and earth shall be transformed, and an eternal kingdom shall be established in which all the righteous, whether dead or living, shall participate. This was evidently the type of messianic hope held by the Pharisees as well as the Essenes. As the result of the teaching of the Pharisees it was held widely by the Jews of the first Christian century. It was clearly in the minds of Jesus' disciples when he made his last journey to Jerusalem. It was both the background and the barrier to all his work. It is the key to the interpretation of Paul's conception of the Christ, or the Messiah, for he had been educated a Pharisee. This apocalyptic type of messianic hope powerfully influenced the life and thought of the early Christian Church and even permeated the Gospel narratives. The question of how far Jesus himself was influenced by it is one of the most vital and difficult problems of early Christian history.

IV. The Ethical and Universalistic Type of Messianic Prophecy. Far removed from the kingly, messianic hopes of the people and the supernatural visions of the apocalypses were the plain, direct, practical ideals of Israel's great ethical prophets. Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, and Jeremiah all united in declaring that the realization of Jehovah's purpose in history depended primarily upon the response of his people. They regarded the kingdom of God as a natural growth. It represented the gradual transformation of the characters of men under the influence of God's truth and spirit working in their minds. They hoped and labored to see the nation Israel living in full accord with the demands of justice, mercy, and service. The II Isaiah, under the influences which grew out of the destruction of the temple and the closer contact with the heathen world, voiced this type of messianic hope in its broadest and most spiritualized form. He declared that the Israelites had been called and trained for a unique service and that that service was to be performed by them quietly and unostentatiously, as prophets and teachers of men. He also presented most clearly Israel's missionary ideal, and showed that its task was not to destroy but to bring light to the Gentile world. He and the more enlightened prophets who followed him saw an ever-widening kingdom established without the aid of the sword and freed from all racial barriers—the eternal, universal, spiritual kingdom of God on earth. It is evident that in contrast to the other types of messianic prophecy this form was comprehensible, practicable, and alone capable of realization.

V. The Messianic Hopes of Judaism at the Beginning of the Christian Era. Unfortunately, as a result of the varied experiences through which Judaism passed in the centuries immediately preceding the Christian era, its ethical and universal messianic hopes were largely eclipsed. The ideal of the suffering servant appears to have been almost forgotten. As the later Jews read the earlier scriptures of their race in order to determine what the future held in store for them, they fixed their eyes upon the kingly and apocalyptic prophecies. Regarding all scriptures as equally authoritative, they attempted the impossible task of blending these fundamentally different types of prophecy. The result was that their beliefs became, indeed, a complex labyrinth with paths leading in opposite directions. Later events have proved beyond question that these popular types were the dreams of religious enthusiasts rather than true pictures of the way in which the divine purpose was to be perfected in human history, and yet the apocalyptic type of prophecy was not without its significance. It tended to correct the narrow national hopes of the Jews and to lift them to the consideration of that which was spiritual and eternal. It also led them to appreciate the unity of all history, and in times of distress it kept alive their faith in a God who was wisely guiding their destinies. Underlying all these different types of prophecy is the appreciation of the broad truth that God was working out in the lives of men and nations a definite purpose, and that that purpose was good, and that the God back of all history was a God not only of power but also of love. It was inevitable that the ethical and more spiritual expectations of the early Hebrew prophets should find the fullest response in the heart and life of the Great Teacher. In the face of opposition from the leaders of his race, from the multitudes that gathered about him, and even from the disciples who loved and followed him, he proclaimed that the kingdom of God would not come by observation, but that its growth would be natural and gradual like that of the mustard seed, that it was not external but within the hearts of men, that membership in that kingdom depended not upon the arbitrary will of God, but upon men's acting in accord with that will in the every-day relations of life. Thus Jesus prepared the way for the complete fulfillment of all that was noblest and best in Israel's messianic hopes, and in his character and teachings far surpassed the highest expectations of the inspired teachers of his race.




Books for Constant Reference. The complete text of the biblical writings of the post-exilic period are found in Volumes II to VI of the Student's Old Testament. A careful, thorough resume of the history is contained in Riggs's History of the Jewish People during the Maccabean and Roman Periods. Professor Bevan, in his Jerusalem Under the High Priests, presents, especially from the ecclesiastical point of view, a fresh survey of the history during the Greek and Maccabean periods. The geographical background may be studied either in George Adam Smith's Historical Geography of the Holy Land or in Kent's Biblical Geography and History.

Additional Books of Reference: Introductions and Commentaries. In addition to the standard Old Testament introductions by McFadyen, Cornill, and Driver, the collection of monographs in Professor Torrey's Ezra Studies will be found especially valuable. The introduction, as well as the critical notes, in the brief yet scholarly volumes of the New Century Bible are exceedingly useful for the general reader. More fundamental are the volumes in the International Critical Commentary. The introductions to the different books in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible and the Encyclopedia Biblica are clear, concise, and written from the modern point of view.

Jewish and Contemporary History. The thorough student of this period will find a wealth of suggestive material in Smith's Old Testament History and in Schuerer's monumental work, A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ. The later development of Israel's religion is presented in Marti's Religion of the Old Testament, in the first part of Toy's Judaism and Christianity, in Bousset's Judaism, and in Charles's Eschatology, Hebrew, Jewish and Christian. An excellent survey of the contemporary history of the period is to be found in the History of the Ancient World by Goodspeed or in Meyer's Ancient History. A more detailed treatment of the contemporary history will be found in the History of Greece by Curtius or by Holm. The History of Rome is fully traced in the monumental works of Mommsen or Gibbon or the more recent study in The Greatness and Decline of Rome by Ferrero. Briefer but equally reliable histories of Rome are those by Botsford, Horton, and Seignobos.



The General Questions, as in the preceding volumes, follow the main divisions of the book, and are intended to guide the student in collecting and co-ordinating the more important facts presented in the biblical text or in the notes.

The Subjects for Special Research are intended to guide the reader to further study in related lines, and, by means of detailed references, to introduce him to the most helpful passages in the best English books of reference. In class-room work many of these topics may be profitably assigned for personal research and report. The references are to pages, unless otherwise indicated. Ordinarily, several parallel references are given that the student may be able to utilize the book at hand. More detailed classified bibliographies will be found in the appendices of Volumes II-VI of the author's Student's Old Testament.


Section XCI. The Jews in Palestine and Egypt. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. What did the final destruction of Jerusalem in 586 mean to the Jewish people? 2. Describe the structure and contents of the book of Lamentations. 3. Its probable authorship and date. 4. Its theme and historical value. 5. The condition of the Jews who were left in Palestine. 6. The numbers of the Jews in Egypt. 7. The life of the Jewish colony at Elephantine. 8. The character and service of the temple of Jahu.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The literary history of the book of Lamentations. McFadyen, Introd., 294-7; Driver, Lit. of the O.T., 456-65. 2. History of Egypt from 600 to 560 B.C. Breasted, Hist, of the Ancient Egyptians, 404-18. 3. The discoveries at Elephantine. Sayce and Cowley, Aramaic Papyri Discovered at Assuan; Sachau, Drei aramaeische Papyrururkunden aus Elephantine.

Section XCII. Ezekiel's Message to His Scattered Countrymen. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the situation of the Jewish colony in Babylon. 2. Their opportunities and occupations. 3. Their religious life. 4. The prophecies of Ezekiel after the destruction of Jerusalem. 5. Meaning of his description of the valley of dry bones in chapter 37. 6. His conception of the way in which the scattered exiles were to be restored. 7. His plan of the restored temple. 8. The meaning and significance of this detailed plan.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Babylon under Nebuchadrezzar. Goodspeed, Hist. of Babs. and Assyrs., 336-50; En. Bib., III, 3369-71. 2. The religious institutions of the Babylonians. Goodspeed, Hist. of Babs. and Assyrs., 351-66; Jastrow, Relig. of Bab. and Assyr.; Johns, Bab. and Assyr. Laws, Letters, and Contracts, 208-17. 3. Influence of Babylonian institutions upon Ezekiel. Toy, Ezek. (Introd.).

Section XCIII. The Closing Years of the Babylonian Rule. GENERAL QUESTIONS. 1. Describe the different influences that transformed the Jews into a literary people. 2. The nature of their literary activity. 3. The Old Testament books that were written or re-edited during this period. 4. The general character of the Holiness Code. 5. The national hopes inspired by the liberation of Jehoiachin. 6. The character of Nabonidus. 7. The effects of his rule. 8. The early conquests of Cyrus. 9. His capture of Babylon. 10. His policy toward conquered peoples.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Contents and history of the Holiness Code. St. O.T., IV, 36-42; McFadyen, Introd. to O.T., 31-4. 2. The last decade of Babylonian history. Goodspeed, Hist. of Babs. and Assyrs., 367-76; Kent, Hist. J.P., 66-77. 3. Character and reign of Cyrus. Herodotus, I, 95, 108-30, 177-214; Hastings, D.B., I, 541-2; Rawlinson, Anc. Monarchies, IV, VII; Duncker, Hist. of Antiq., V.

Section XCIV. The Rebuilding of the Temple. GENERAL QUESTIONS: Describe the contents and literary history of the books of Ezra and Nehemiah. 2. Their authorship. 3. The Chronicler's peculiar ideas regarding the restoration. 4. Revolutions in the Persian Empire that aroused the Jews to action. 5. Haggai's appeal to the Judean community. 6. Measures taken to stop the rebuilding of the temple. 7. Meaning of the rebuilding of the temple to the Jewish race.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The historical value of Ezra and Nehemiah. Torrey, Composition and Historical Value of Ezra and Nehemiah, or Ezra Studies, 62-251. 2. The first two decades of Persian history. Goodspeed, Hist. of Ancient World, 60-2; Ragozin, The Story of Media, II; Meyer, Anc. Hist., 88-93. 3. Evidence that there was no general return of the Jews in 536 B.C. Kent, Hist. J.P., 126-36; Torrey, Ezra Studies, 297-307.

Section XCV. Zechariah's Visions and Encouraging Addresses. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the evidence that Zechariah wrote from the point of view of a priest. 2. The structure and contents of his book. 3. The problems of the Judean community. 4. Their hopes of a national revival. 5. Zechariah's assurances. 6. The steps that were taken to make Zerubbabel king. 7. Evidence that the popular kingly hopes were disappointed. 8. The content of Zechariah's later sermons. 9. The hopes which he inspired in his fellow-countrymen.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Origin of the apocalyptic type of prophecy. Jewish Encyc., I, 669-73; St. O.T., Ill, 42-3; Hastings, D. B., I, 109-10. 2. The popular messianic hopes of the period. St. O.T., III, 44-5, 472-86. 3. The establishment of Darius' authority. Herodotus, II, 67-86; Ragozin, Media, XIII; Hastings, D. B., I, 558.

Section XCVI. Israel's Training and Destiny. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the conditions in the Judean community during the seventy years following the rebuilding of the temple. 2. The forces that kept alive the spiritual life of the Jews. 3. The indications that Isaiah 40-66 were written in Palestine. 4. The probable date of these chapters. 5. Their distinctive literary characteristics. 6. The purpose for which they were written.

SUBJECTS FOE SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The organization of the Persian Empire under Darius. Goodspeed, Hist, of Anc. World, 62-3; Ragozin, Media, 384-91; Sayce, Anc. Empires, 247-50; En. Bib., I, 1016-7. 2. The Persian invasions of Europe. Goodspeed, Anc. Hist., 122-8; Herodotus, IV, 1-142; Ragozin, Media, 412-29; Bury, Hist. of Greece, 265-96; Botsford, Hist. of Greece, 127-36. 3. Contents and literary characteristics of Isaiah 40-48. St. O. T., Ill, 27-30; Cobb, in Jour, of Bib. Lit., XXVII, 48-64; Box, Isaiah, 179-237.

Section XCVII. Conditions and Problems in the Jewish Community. GENERAL QUESTIONS: I. What is the probable date of the book of Malachi? 2. Describe its teachings regarding the temple service. 3. The need of a great moral awakening. 4. The doubts expressed by the faithful in the community. 5. The encouraging promises held out to them. 6. Presentation of the problem of the faithful in the psalms of the period.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Contemporary Greek history and literature. Goodspeed, Anc. Hist., 159-96; Bury, Hist. of Greece, 507-90; Jebb, Greek Lit., 109-20. 2. The earliest psalms. Briggs, Psalms, I, LXXXIX-XCII; Cobb, Bk. of Pss., XI-XIV; Driver, Lit. of the O.T., 371-2; McFadyen, Introd. to O.T., 238-50. 3. Psalm literature among contemporary peoples. Breasted, Hist. of Anc. Egyptians, 273-7; Jastrow, Relig. of Bab. and Assyr., 294-327.

Section XCVIII. The Problems and Teachings of the Book of Job. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the structure of the book of Job. 2. The different literary units which have entered into it. 3. The probable dates of these different sections. 4. Contents of the original prose story. 5. The theme and contents of the great poem in 3-31, 38:1-42:6. 6. The different lines of progress in Job's thought. 7. The meaning of the speeches of Jehovah. 8. The contribution of the book to the solution of the problem of evil.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The Babylonian prototype of Job. Jastrow, in Jour. of Bib. Lit., XXV, Pt. II, 135-91. 2. Comparison of Job with other great skeptical dramas. Owen, The Five Great Skeptical Dramas of History. 3. The modern explanations of the problem of evil. Royce, Studies of Good and Evil.

Section XCIX. The Training and Mission of the True Servant of Jehovah. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the different characteristics of Jehovah's servant in Isaiah 49-53. 2. What was the prophet's purpose in presenting this vivid portrait of Jehovah's ideal servant? 3. Describe the class to whom the prophet appealed. 4. His interpretation of the task of the servant. 5. His training. 6. The different methods whereby he was to accomplish his mission. 7. Did the prophet have in mind an individual, a class, or simply an ideal character? 8. In what ways were his predictions fulfilled? 9. In what sense is his ideal of service of present-day application?

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The meaning and history of the different messianic titles. St. O.T., III, 39, 47; En. Bib., III, 3057-61. 2. Contents and unity of Isaiah 49-55. St. O.T., III, 28-30; Box, Isaiah, 238-83. 3. How far was Jesus influenced by the ideal of the suffering servant?

Section C. Nehemiah's Work in Rebuilding the Walls of Jerusalem. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. What is the historical value of Nehemiah's memoirs? 2. In what way was he informed of conditions in Jerusalem? 3. How did he secure permission to go to Jerusalem? 4. Describe the obstacles that there confronted him. 5. His plan of work. 6. His diplomacy in dealing with his opponents. 7. The task of rebuilding the walls. 8. Their dedication. 9. The significance of the rebuilding of the walls.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Contemporary events in Greek history. Goodspeed, Anc. Hist., 141-72; Bury, Hist, of Greece, 336-75; Botsford, Hist, of Greece, 151-85. 2. The topography of Jerusalem. Kent, Sib. Geog. and Hist., 64-72; Smith, Jerusalem, I, I-249; Hastings, D.B., II, 591-6. 3. Recent excavations at Jerusalem. Jerusalem Vol. of P. E. F. Memoirs; Bliss and Dickey, Excavations at Jerusalem; Smith, Jerusalem, I.

Section CI. Nehemiah's Social and Religious Reforms. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the cruel oppression of the leaders of the Jewish community. 2. The effect upon the mass of the people. 3. The way in which Nehemiah corrected these evils. 4. The evidence for and against the historical accuracy of Nehemiah 13. 5. Nehemiah's measures to improve the temple service. 6. His emphasis upon Sabbath observance. 7. His opposition to foreign marriages. 8. The importance of his work as a whole.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: I. In what respects was Nehemiah a worthy successor of the earlier Hebrew prophets? 2. The later Jewish laws regarding the Sabbath. St. O.T., IV, 263-4. 3. Regarding marriage with foreigners. St. O.T., IV, 54-5.

Section CII. Traditional Account of the Adoption of the Priestly Law. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the present literary form of the tradition regarding Ezra. 2. Its probable history. 3. Its historical value. 4. The facts underlying it. 5. Origin of the later priestly laws. 6. Their general purpose. 7. Their more important regulations. 8. Their transforming influence upon the Jewish community.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The difficulties in accepting the Ezra narrative as strictly historical. Torrey, Ezra Studies, 208-78; Smith, O.T. Hist., 390-8. 2. History of the later priestly codes. St. O.T., IV, 43-8. 3. Income and duties of the priests and Levites according to the late priestly codes. St. O.T., IV, 187-92, 197-202.

Section CIII. The Jewish State during the Last Century of Persian Rule. GENERAL QUESTIONS: I. Describe the indications that the Judean community enjoyed unusual prosperity during the half-century following the work of Nehemiah. 2. The effect of this prosperity upon the intellectual life of the Jews. 3. The growth of the Psalter during this period. 4. The date of the prophecy of Joel. 5. Its theme. 6. The hopes of the Jews at this time. 7. Nature of the rule of the high priests. 8. The evidence regarding the date of the Samaritan schism. 9. Its causes. 10. Its effect upon Judaism.

SUBJECTS FOB SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. History of the Persian Empire between 400 and 332 B.C. Cox, The Greeks and the Persians. 2. Contemporary events in Greek history. Goodspeed, Hist. of Anc. World, 173-204; Meyer, Anc. Hist., 244-74. 3. The history of the Samaritans. En. Bib., IV, 4256-64; Montgomery, The Samaritans.


Section CIV. The Jews under Their Greek Rulers. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the character of the Jewish historian, Josephus. 2. The extent of his histories. 3. Their historical value. 4. Alexander's Asiatic conquests. 5. His attitude toward the Jews. 6. The Jews in Alexandria. 7. The general character of the rule of the Ptolemies. 8. Their policy in the treatment of the Jews. 9. Fortunes of the Jews of Palestine during the first century of Greek rule. 10. The Seleucid kingdom with its capital at Antioch. 11. The subjugation of Palestine by the Seleucids.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Josephus's rank as a historian. Hastings, D.B., extra Vol., 461-73. 2. Alexander the Great. Mahaffy, The Story of Alexander's Empire, 1-11; Hogarth, Philip and Alexander of Macedon; Wheeler, Alexander the Great. 3. Character of the Ptolemaic rulers. Bevan, Jerusalem under the High Priests, 21-30; Mahaffy, The Ptolemaic Dynasty, Vol. IV of Petrie's Hist. of Egypt.

Section CV. The Wise and Their Teachings. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the literary structure of the book of Proverbs. 2. The evidence that it is the work of many different wise men. 3. The probable date of the different collections. 4. The references to the wise in the pre-exilic literature. 5. The influence of the Babylonian exile upon their activity. 6. The reasons why they attained their greatest prominence in the Greek period. 7. The character of the wise. 8. Their aims. 9. Their methods. 10. Their important social and moral teachings.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The book of Proverbs. McFadyen, Introd. to O.T., 256-63; Driver, L. O.T., 392-407; Toy, Proverbs, Introd. 2. The sages of Egypt and Greece. The Wisdom of Ptah-hotep, in the Wisdom of the East Series; Symonds, Studies of the Greek Poets, I, 161-273; Jebb, Classical Greek Poetry. 3. The social teachings of the book of Proverbs. St. O. T., VI, in loco; Kent, The Wise Men of Ancient Israel and Their Proverbs, 100-14, 158-75; Root, The Profit of the Many, 17-126.

Section CVI. The Different Currents of Thought in Judaism during the Greek Period. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Why were there many different currents of thought in Judaism during this period? 2. Describe the character and aims of the ritualists. 3. Of the legalists. 4. Of those who laid especial emphasis upon the teaching of the earlier prophets. 5. The evidence regarding the date of the book of Jonah. 6. The meaning of the story. 7. Its teaching. 8. The history of the book of Ecclesiastes. 9. Its point of view. 10. Its philosophy of life.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The Chronicler's conception of the origin of Israel's institutions. Curtis, Chronicles, Introd.; Torrey, Ezra Studies, 208-38; St. O. T., II, 22-8. 2. Greek myths parallel to the story of Jonah. En. Bib., II, 2568-9; Taylor, Primitive Culture, I, 306. 3. A comparison of Koheleth's philosophy and teaching with those of the author of Omar Khayyam.

Section CVII. The Teachings of Jesus the Son of Sirach. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the evidence regarding the date of Jesus the son of Sirach. 2. The character of the man. 3. The history of his writings. 4. The nature of the Greek translation. 5. The recovery of the Hebrew original. 6. Its picture of the Jewish life of the period. 7. Its description of the wise men and scribes. 8. Its social teachings. 9. Its religious teachings.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The Hebrew fragments of Ben Sira. Cowley and Neubauer, The Original Heb. of a Portion of Ecclus.; Schechter and Taylor, The Wisdom of Ben-Sira; Hastings, D.B., IV, 546-9; En. Bib., II, 1166-9. 2. The character of Ben Sira as revealed in his writings. Hastings, D.B., IV, 550; En. Bib., II, 1175-8; Bevan, Jerusalem under the High Priests, 49-51. 3. A comparison of the moral and social teachings of Ben Sira with those of the book of Proverbs. Bevan, Jerusalem under the High Priests, 52-68.

Section CVIII. The Causes of the Maccabean Struggle. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the general character of I Maccabees. 2. Its historical value. 3. II Maccabees. 4. The attractive and aggressive qualities in the contemporary Hellenic culture. 5. Its superiority to the teachings of Judaism. 6. The elements in which Judaism was superior. 7. The conquest of Hellenism in the ranks of Judaism. 8. The influence of the apostate Jewish high priests. 9. The history and character of Antiochus Epiphanes. 10. Reasons why he attempted to hellenize the Jews. 11. The measures which he adopted.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The characteristics of Greek religion. Gulick, Life of the Ancient Greeks, 262-83; Dyer, The Gods in Greece; Goodspeed, Hist. of Anc. World, 148-51; Hastings, D.B., extra Vol., 109-56. 2. The historical value of II Maccabees. Hastings, D.B., III, 189-92; En. Bib., III, 2869-79. 2. Contemporary portraits of Antiochus Epiphanes. Livy, XLI-XLV; Polybius, XXVI-XXXI; Appian, Syr., 45, 66; Justin, XXIV, 3.

Section CIX. The Effect of Persecution on the Jews. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the uprising led by Mattathias. 2. The methods adopted by the rebels. 3. The origin and political principles of the Hasideans or Pious. 4. The evidence regarding the date of the visions in Daniel 7-12. 5. Their literary character. 6. Their meaning and aims. 7. The identification of the four heathen kingdoms. 8. The message of hope presented in these chapters. 9. Its effect upon the persecuted Jews.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The town of Modein. Kent, Bib. Geog. and Hist., 210-2; Smith, Hist. Geog. of Holy Land, 212. 2. Contents and literary history of the book of Daniel. McFadyen, Introd. to O.T., 316-31; Driver, L. O.T., 438-515; Hastings, D.B., I, 552-7.

Section CX. The Victories that Gave the Jews Religious Liberty. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the characteristics that fitted Judas to be a great political leader. 2. The odds against which he and the Jews contended. 3. The physical contour of western Palestine. 4. The defeat of Apollonius. 5. Of the Syrian army under Seron. 6. The details of the battle of Emmaus. 7. The significance of the victory at Bethsura. 8. The restoration of the temple service. 9. The effect of the persecutions upon the Jews.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Greek military equipment and methods of warfare. Gulick, Life of the Anc. Greeks, 188-205. 2. The western headlands of Judah. Kent, Bib. Geog. and Hist., 40-2; Smith, Hist. Geog. of Holy Land, 286-320. 3. Comparison of Judas with other great military commanders. Conder, Judas Maccabaeus; Bevan, Jer. under the High Priests, 97-9; Smith, O.T. Hist., 465.

Section CXI. The Long Contest for Political Independence. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the attitude of the heathen nations toward the Jews. 2. The political problems that confronted them. 3. The Jewish attitude toward the heathen reflected in the book of Esther. 4, Judas's east-Jordan campaign. 5. Results of the battle of Beth-zacharias. 6. The re-establishment of Syrian authority. 7. The victories over Nicanor. 8. The causes which resulted in the death of Judas. 9. Conditions in the Syrian court which gave the Jews their great opportunity. 10. The character and policy of Jonathan. 11. The honors and authority granted him by the rival Syrian kings.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The history and value of the book of Esther. Paton, Esther; Hastings, D. B., I, 773-6; En. Bib., II, 1400-5. 2. The Syrian history of the period. Bevan, Jer. under the High Priests, 100-6; Smith, O.T. Hist., 465-9. 3. The scenes of Judas's east-Jordan campaign. Kent, Bib. Geog. and Hist., 214-7.

Section CXII. Peace and Prosperity under Simon. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the political intrigues which resulted in the death of Jonathan. 2. The character and rule of Simon. 3. His extension of the Jewish territory. 4. The authority granted him by the Jews. 5. His development of the temple service. 6. The causes that led to the completion of the Psalter. 7. The religious life and faith reflected in the later psalms.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Compare the characters of the three brothers, Judas, Jonathan, and Simon. 2. The guilds of temple singers. Hastings, D.B., IV, 92-3; Wellhausen, The Book of Psalms (in S.B. O.T.), 217-9. 3. The evidence that many of the psalms come from the Maccabean period. Hastings, D.B., IV, 152-3; Cheyne, Origin of the Psalter.

Section CXIII. The Rule of John Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the intrigue that resulted in the death of Simon. 2. The Syrian invasion under Antiochus Sidetes. 3. The character of John Hyrcanus. 4. His military policy. 5. His conquests in the north and south. 6. The reasons why he lost the support of the Pharisees. 7. The significant events in the reign of Aristobulus.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Contemporary conditions in the Syrian kingdom. En. Bib., IV, 4356-60; Gardner, The Seleucid Kings of Syria. 2. The history of the Idumeans. Hastings, D.B., I, 644-6; En. Bib., II, 1181-8; Buhl, Edomites. 3. Compare the policy of John Hyrcanus with that of David.

Section CXIV. The Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes. GENERAL QUESTIONS: I. Describe the influences that gave rise to the party of the Pharisees. 2. Of the Sadducees. 3. The characteristics and beliefs of the Pharisees. 4. Of the Sadducees. 5. The political influence of these parties. 6. The characteristics of the sect of the Essenes. 7. Their beliefs.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The party of the Pharisees. Hastings, D.B., III, 821-8; En. Bib., IV, 4321-9. 2. The Sadducees. Hastings, D.B., IV, 349-51; En. Bib., IV, 4234-40. 3. The points of contact between Essenism and Christianity. Hastings, D.B., I, 767-72; En. Bib., II, 1396-1400; Thomson, Books which Influenced Our Lord, 75-122; Cheyne, Origin of the Psalter, 418-21, 446-9.

Section CXV. The Life and Faith of the Jews of the Dispersion. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the life of the Jews in Antioch and Asia Minor. 2. The privileges granted them by the Syrian king. 3. The number of the Jews in Egypt. 4. The privileges granted them by the Ptolemies. 5. The founding of the Jewish temple at Leontopolis. 6. Its significance. 7. The occasion of the translation of the Hebrew scriptures into Greek. 8. The important apologetic Jewish writings. 9. The theme and date of the Wisdom of Solomon. 10. Its important teachings. 11. Its reflections of Greek and Jewish thought.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Characteristics and value of the Greek translation of the Old Testament. Hastings, D.B., IV, 864-6; Swete, Introd. to the Old Testament in Greek; En. Bib., IV, 5016-22. 2. The history and contents of the Wisdom of Solomon. Hastings, D.B., IV, 928-31; En. Bib., IV, 5336-49; Deane, The Book of Wisdom, 1-41; Gregg, The Wisd. of Sol.

Section CXVI. The Decline of the Maccabean Kingdom. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the character of Alexander Janneus. 2. His military policy. 3. His treatment of his subjects. 4. The extension of Jewish territory. 5. The effects of his rule. 6. Alexandra's policy. 7. The fatal mistakes of the Pharisees. 8. The suicidal quarrels between her sons, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. 9. The intrigues of Antipater. 10. The appeal to Rome. 11. Pompey's intervention and capture of Jerusalem. 12. The causes of the fall of the Maccabean kingdom. 13. The political effects of the Maccabean struggle. 14. The impression which it made upon Israel's faith. 15. The new spirit that it inspired in the Jews.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Rome's policy and campaigns in the East. Goodspeed, Hist. of Anc. World, 311-9; Seignobos, Hist. of Rom. People, 126-30. 2. Rome's earlier relation to the Jewish kingdom. 3. The character and career of Pompey. Goodspeed, Hist. of Anc. World, 343-9; Botsford, Hist. of Rome, 175-80, 183-9; Morey, Outlines of Roman Hist., ch. 20.


Section CXVII. The Rise of the Herodian House. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the repeated rebellions against Rome that were instigated and led by Aristobulus and his sons. 2. The reasons why the Jews rallied about their standard. 3. Antipater's character and policy. 4. Herod's career as governor of Galilee. 5. The Parthian conquest and the temporary restoration of the Maccabean rule. 6. The immediate effect upon Herod and his family. 7. Reasons why he was appointed king of the Jews by Antony and Octavian.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The fortresses of Alexandrium and Macherus. Smith, Hist. Geog. of the Holy Land, 352-3, 569-71; Kent, Bib. Geog. and Hist., 229, 244-5; Schurer, H.J.P., I, i, 250-1. 2. The history of Rome from 60 to 40 B.C. Botsford, Hist. of Rome, 183-97; Fowler, Julius Caesar; Mahaffy, Gk. World under Roman Sway, ch. IV. 3. The Parthians. Hastings, D.B., III, 680-1.

Section CXVIII. Herod's Policy and Reign. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the strength and weakness of Herod's character. 2. The ways in which he won the favor of Augustus. 3. His building activity within his kingdom. 4. Outside of Palestine. 5. His treatment of his subjects. 6. His record as husband and father. 7. The effects of his reign.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. Rome under Augustus. Botsford, Hist. of Rome, 204-22; Bury, Student's Rom. Emp., chs. I-XIV; Capes, Early Empire, chs. I-III, XII-XIX. 2. Herod's Caesarea. Smith, Hist. Geog. of the Holy Land, 138-41; En. Bib., I, 617-8; Kent, Bib. Geog. and Hist., 233. 3. The various sides of Herod's character. Hastings, D.B., II, 356-7; En. Bib., II, 2025-9; Bevan, Jer. under the High Priests, 148-51.

Section CXIX. Herod's Temple. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the motives that inspired Herod to rebuild the temple at Jerusalem. 2. His preparations for the work. 3. The extension of the temple area. 4. The different gates leading to it. 5. The surrounding porches. 6. The temple proper. 7. The temple officials. 8. The temple service.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The detailed plan and dimensions of Herod's temple. Hastings, D.B., IV, 711-6; En Bib., IV, 4943-7; Warren, The Temple and the Tomb; Smith, Jerusalem, II, 499-520. 2. The administration of the temple finances. Hastings, D.B., IV, 92-7; En. Bib., IV, 4949-51; Smith, Jerusalem, I, 351-66. 3. The inscription forbidding foreigners to enter the inner courts. Hastings, D.B., IV, 713-4.

Section CXX. The Messianic Hopes and Religious Beliefs of Judaism. GENERAL QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the influences that determined the growth of Israel's messianic hopes. 2. The different forms which these hopes assumed. 3. The kingly nationalistic type of messianic hope. 4. The characteristics and development of the apocalyptic, catastrophic type of hope. 5. The type proclaimed by the great ethical prophets. 6. The broadening and universalizing of Israel's messianic hopes. 7. The influence of the Maccabean struggle upon Israel's messianic beliefs. 8. The messianic expectations of the Jews at the beginning of the Christian era.

SUBJECTS FOR SPECIAL RESEARCH: 1. The origin of Israel's messianic hopes. St. O. T., Ill, 39-48; Goodspeed, Israel's Messianic Hope; Oesterley, Evolution of the Messianic Idea. 2. The Sibylline Oracles. Deane, Pseudepigrapha; Hastings, D.B., extra vol., 66-8. 3. The Psalms of Solomon. Ryle and James, The Pss. of Sol.; Deane, Pseudepigrapha, 25-48.


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