The Life of the Truly Eminent and Learned Hugo Grotius
by Jean Levesque de Burigny
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Foreigners who loved the sciences would not leave France without seeing Grotius. John Christenius, who was at Paris in 1629, had more satisfaction in seeing him, than in the whole kingdom beside: he writes thus to John Kirkman, June 20, 1629. "The pleasure I have had, received considerable addition not only from having seen, but also often conversed with that great and eloquent man who has no fellow, I mean Hugo Grotius; for whom I have the highest esteem, and have been for many years of the same opinion with all who know that he possesses singly what would be sufficient to entitle many to great praise. He is master of all that is worth knowing in sacred and profane literature. Besides the Eastern languages, there is no art nor science with which he is not perfectly acquainted: this appears from his agreeable conversation: ask him about any thing, he immediately gives you an exact answer, and in such a manner as to excite the admiration of those who hear him. After talking about the sciences, if you enquire of him what passes in this part of the world, or the other, you will imagine you heard the answer of an oracle who delivers what is most worthy to be known. His virtue is above all I can say of it, and I want eloquence sufficiently to extol so great a man."

Sarrau[715], who had been prejudiced against Grotius since his leaving the Protestants, ventures not however to decide whether Salmasius or Grotius excelled in literature; and he hesitates to make the determination, even in a letter written to Salmasius, wherein he appears much dissatisfied with Grotius. "Whether the first place in literature in this age be due to you or to him, posterity will judge more equitably than this generation."

On hearing of Grotius's death, he writes to Salmasius in these terms[716]: "Hugo Grotius was certainly a great man in name and in fact: he was the star of our age. How great a loss has learning sustained! Whilst books and sciences are held in honour his name will flourish. For my part, whilst I live I shall glory in my intimacy with him. You now reign singly (he concludes, addressing himself to Salmasius) I pray God you may reign long." He calls him elsewhere[717] the Coryphaeus of learning sacred and prophane.

Queen Christina, hearing of his death, wrote to his widow to make her compliments of condolence, and to get the manuscripts he left. "My Ambassador, she says, may have acquainted you in part with my high esteem for his admirable learning and the good services he did me: but he could not express how dear I hold his memory, and the effects of his great labours. If gold and silver could contribute any thing to the redeeming such a valuable life, I would chearfully employ all I am mistress of for that purpose." She concludes with asking his widow to procure her all the manuscripts of this learned man, whose works had always given her great pleasure: assuring her that they could not fall into better hands, and that the author having been of use to her in his life-time, it was just that she should not be deprived after his death of the fruits of his illustrious labours.

Duncomius wrote to Gerard Vossius, February 2, 1646[718], "It is certain and beyond dispute that Grotius was a very illustrious hero, usque ad stuporem fere et miraculum; that he joined science with wisdom; that he was above all praise; and that he was deeply skilled in divine and human learning."

Meric Casaubon, son of Isaac, had no less esteem for Grotius than his illustrious father had had before him. In his preface to Hierocles's book Of providence and destiny, "Hugo Grotius, he says, was a great, an incomparable man: in him was seen what is very rare, a peaceable spirit, with much judgment, and infinite erudition." Augustus Buchner[719] calls Grotius the greatest ornament of his time, the oracle of human wisdom, and the wonder of the age.

Lewis du Moulin comparing Grotius with Salmasius[720], allows Grotius much more judgment, but gives to Salmasius a greater extent of knowledge. In another place[721], where he censures Grotius for the part he had acted with regard to religion, he bestows on him, after all, in other respects the highest praises. "Neither the present nor the last age, he says, hath produced a man superior to Grotius in judgment and erudition. He was great in everything: a very great Divine, Lawyer, Orator, Poet, Philosopher; his genius, far from being confined within the limits of the bar, was scarce bounded by those of nature."

Guy Patin writes[722], February 24, 1662, "They have finished in Holland, in nine volumes in folio, an edition of all the works of Grotius, whom I formerly knew: he was the finest genius of his time; a man of surprising knowledge, and perfect master of polite and useful learning." "He and Salmasius were the greatest scholars or their time," he writes in another letter[723]. And in another place, "Peter Grotius, says he[724], was son of the first man of his age."

"I would not mention the most learned and greatest man of this country, says Wicquefort[725], were I not forced to it by the remarks published at Brussels on what I have said of him in my Memoirs: it will be readily conceived that I mean Hugo de Groot. I admire, with the rest of the world, the genius, the probity, and the works of this great man; and besides this there are particular considerations, which inspire me with a veneration for his memory."

Morhof calls him the phoenix of his age[726]: Hofman gives him the same commendation.

"He is the greatest of men, says Meibomius[727], the light and support of letters; on whom we can bestow no praise but what will fall short of his virtue and erudition. His uncommon penetration makes us compare him to an eagle in the clouds," says Oldenburg.

In 1727 was printed at Hall in Saxony, under the false name of Delft, a book entitled Hugonis Grotii Belgarum Phoenicis manes ab iniquis obtrectationibus vindicati. The author, who was said to be M. Lehman[728], speaks of Grotius as the greatest man Holland ever produced, and fit to be compared with the most illustrious of other Countries, and he flatters himself that the Dutch will in the issue agree with all nations, that he was the greatest ornament of their country. He gives his thoughts of Grotius in the following lines.

Hic ille est Grotius, majus quo doctior orbis Nil habuit; credo, nil habiturus erit: Gallia quem stupuit, stupuit quem Suecia, verus Qui Phoebus Delphis, orbe pharusque fuit.

Salmasius, who so unmercifully fell foul of Grotius's memory, had formerly been one of his greatest admirers. Grotius gave him the title of Most Eminent, which Pope Urbin VIII. had a very little time before attributed to the Cardinals. Salmasius answers him[729] August 8, 1630. "You not only offend the Cardinals, but, more than most eminent Grotius (super eminentissime) you offend me, by giving me a title which you much better deserve yourself."

These two Princes of Literature, as they were styled, had at this time a great reciprocal esteem and friendship for each other. We learn from Grotius's letters[730], that Salmasius, notwithstanding the advantageous idea he entertained of his own knowledge, sometimes consulted him. He changed all of a sudden: Grotius imagined[731] it was to make his court to those in power in Holland; but Sarrau, who knew both, assures us[732] that Salmasius's coldness wholly proceeded from the change of Grotius's sentiments in religion. The news of Grotius's death was scarce spread over Europe, when Salmasius poured out all his venom in a letter written from Leyden, Nov. 20, 1645, to Sarrau[733].

"You think Grotius, says he, the first among the learned; for my part, I give that rank to Vossius. I do not think it is necessary to wait for the judgment of posterity, to know whose opinion is most just: it will be sufficient to consult the learned in Italy, Germany, in this country, and even in France: but till we have their suffrages let us go through all the sciences, and examine the extent of Grotius's capacity. There is no one whom I would desire to resemble less in divinity: he is every where a Socinian, both in his treatise On the Truth of the Christian Religion, and his Commentary on the Old and New Testament. As to Philosophy, he can scarce be compared with the moderately skilled. If we consider him with regard to the art of Disputation, I have never seen a person reason with less force, as is evident from his pieces which Rivetus and Desmarets have answered. There are several who may be ranked with him as to knowledge of polite learning, and even a great number who excel him: not a few have had as much Greek and Latin, and many of the learned have been more masters of the Oriental Languages. His Florum sparsio in jus Justinianeum shew his skill in the Law. A Professor of Helmstat has undertaken to confute his book Of the Rights of War and Peace, and has told some friends, whom I have seen, that he would prove that every page contained gross blunders[734]. He was a great Poet; but every one here prefers Barlaeus; some even Heinsius. But besides, when the point to be decided is priority in learning, poetry is set aside by consent of all good judges. Vossius excels Grotius in every thing. This is not only my opinion, but that of all the learned in Italy, Germany, Poland, and Holland, as I have had an opportunity to know by their letters, their writings, and their conversation. If we compare their writings, which of Grotius's works can we prefer to those of Vossius? Is it his Notes on Martianus Capella, written when he was but a boy? Is it his Aratus? in which he has ostentatiously introduced some Arabic terms, for he scarce knew the elements of that language, as he acknowledged to me himself in some letters which I keep, written in answer to my enquiry about some Arabic words that puzzled me. Will you tell me of his Notes on Lucan? what Vossius has done on the fragments of the ancient Tragic and Comic Writers appears to me of much greater value. We know from other pieces what a poor critic Grotius was, though a great man in some respects. As inconsiderable as I am, I would not have my name prefixed to his Commentary on the Old Testament; for nothing can be more childish, or unworthy a man of his great character, than many of his notes. I shall take notice in another place of his Commentary on the New Testament, and frankly declare what I think of it. Such are my sentiments of the person who merits the first place in literature. I have the suffrages of many of the learned in different branches for me, and shall name them when you inform me who are of your opinion."

This letter, in which hatred, jealousy, and partiality openly shew themselves, rather hurt Salmasius than injured Grotius's character: the contempt with which he speaks of the excellent treatise Of the Rights of War and Peace, which is worth all that Salmasius ever wrote, incensed the whole republic of letters against him. It has been observed that all that was good in his pieces On the power of Kings, is taken from Grotius, whom he hath not once named; and that when he departed from him, he sinks much beneath Grotius. But such was Salmasius's character: jealous of the reputation of those who might be put in the scale against him, he had too high an opinion of himself, and too much despised others, in the judgment of the wise Gronovius. Grotius's wife being informed of the indiscreet stories published by Salmasius against the memory of her husband, gave him to understand, that if he would not forbear, the only answer she should make to his invectives would be the publication of his former letters to Grotius, filled with elogiums. For the rest, Salmasius's invectives injured only himself: and it was said publicly, that he plucked the hairs of a dead lion.

Two medals were struck in honour of Grotius, which we find in the end of the first volume of the History of the United Provinces by Le Clerc, one of his greatest admirers. The first has on one side the bust of that great man, with his name, HUGO GROTIUS, which is to him instead of an elogium: and on the other a chest, on which are the arms of Sweden and France, to express his retreat into France, and his embassy from Sweden at that Court: at the side of the chest is the castle of Louvestein, and opposite to it a rising sun, with these words: MELIOR POST ASPERA FATA RESURGO; I rise brighter after my misfortune. In the exergue is, natus 1583, obiit 1645. The second medal, larger than the first, also represents Grotius on one side with the time of his birth and death. HUGO GROTIUS NATUS 1583, 10 APRILIS, OBIIT 1645, 28 AUGUSTI: on the reverse is this inscription in Dutch verse: the Phoenix of his Country, the Oracle of Delft, the great Genius, the Light which enlighteneth the earth.


[703] Ep. 22. p. 181.

[704] Vir magne, vir mirande, vir sine exemplo. Ep. 100. p. 474.

[705] Ep. 68. Cent. 2.

[706] Life, B. 2. p. 93.

[707] Life, B. 3. p. 182. Anti Baillet. c. 3.

[708] Popo Blanet, p. 746.

[709] Ep. 277.

[710] 2 Lettre du xxi. Livre, p. 831.

[711] Bibliotheque choisie, p. 461.

[712] P. 487.

[713] Ep. 13. Praes. vir. p. 23.

[714] Du Maurier, p. 393.

[715] Ep. Sar. p. 145.

[716] Ep. Sar. 128. p. 143.

[717] Ep. 21. p. 24.

[718] Ep. Vossi, 728. p. 38.

[719] Vind. Grot. p. 446.

[720] Crenii Anim. phil. et hist. Part 5. p. 95.

[721] In jugulo causa, c. 5. Crenius, Anim. phil. Part 5. p. 85.

[722] Lett. 265.

[723] Lett. 545.

[724] Lett. 538.

[725] Amb. l. 1. p. 95.

[726] Polihist. l. 1. c. 24.

[727] Pope Blount, p. 946.

[728] Supplement de Moreri.

[729] Ep. 21. p. 45.

[730] Ep. 229. p. 78.

[731] Ep. 697. p. 964.

[732] Ep. Sarr. 165. Ep. 163. p. 168.

[733] In Crenii Anim. Phil. & Hist. t. 1. p. 23.

[734] See Book 3. sec. 9. p. 243.

XXVI. It remains that we should relate what we know of Grotius's family. After his death, his wife communicated with the Church of England; which, it is reported, she said she did in conformity to the dying intentions of her husband. It is certain[735] that Grotius had a respect for the Church of England; but it is difficult to believe, that he should desire his wife to declare he died in the communion of that Church: for, besides that this fact is not easy to be reconciled with his later works, it has no foundation but a letter written June 23, 1707, which is supported only by a hearsay ill-circumstantiated.

Grotius's wife died at the Hague in the communion of the Remonstrants; which, according to Le Clerc, was not contrary to her husband's last orders, as the Remonstrants allowed of communion with the Church of England.

Grotius had three sons and three daughters by his marriage. His eldest son, Cornelius, studied in Holland under the direction of his grandfather[736]. Grotius sent for him afterwards to Paris, where he himself superintended his studies. He wrote to his brother, William Grotius[737], Aug. 16, 1630, that Cornelius had learned the Hebrew grammar; that he was studying the Greek and Logic; and had made himself matter of the Art of Oratory, without neglecting Poetry, for which the young Cornelius had a particular turn. Some very good verses, written by him, are published in the poems of Vincent Fabricius. Grotius made him read Vossius's pieces on rhetoric, which he thought could not be excelled; he afterwards wanted Cornelius to study the Roman Law, and the Laws of Holland: he also made him read Physics and Metaphysics; but his progress in these sciences was inconsiderable, according to Du Maurier, on account of his indolence and love of pleasure. Grotius sent him after this to make his court to the High Chancellor, who passed the beginning of the year 1636 at Straelsund: Oxenstiern received him very graciously, and took him into his service as Latin Secretary[738]. Grotius was at the height of his joy on seeing his son in a capacity of meriting the esteem and protection of such a great man as Oxenstiern: he flattered himself[739], that the honourable place, which his son held, would induce him to shake off his indolence; and he made him frequent remonstrances on this subject: but Cornelius's natural temper prevailed, and he considered his employment as attended with too much trouble. He imagined that a military life would suit him better[740], and wrote to his father on that head. Grotius opposed this new turn for some time; but his remonstrances producing no effect, he wrote to Muller[741], April 4, 1638, that his son had preferred Mars to the Muses, and that he had thought fit to yield to his choice, as war was also a road to glory; and moreover the time, which Cornelius had spent in literature, would not be absolutely lost for war. He added, that the Duke of Weymar being the greatest and most experienced general of his age, he was very desirous that his son should serve under such an able master; and that he would send him with a reinforcement that was marching to that Prince, who, he hoped, would assist him with his advice. Cornelius was very well received by the Duke[742]; and for some time kept up an exact correspondence with his father by letters, who complimented him on his diligence in writing. The Duke of Weymar promised to advance him, if he paid a proper regard to his father's counsels. Cornelius was by nature so inconstant, that he soon took a dislike to the army: he had even thoughts of returning to his father, who diverted him from it as a step which would dishonour him.

On the Duke of Weymar's death, Reigersberg advised Cornelius to write that Prince's history. Young Grotius mentioning this project to his father, he pressed him to execute it, because it would give him an opportunity of expressing his gratitude to a Prince who had laid him under great obligations, and done such important services to Sweden. Besides, this work would be of use to the author, by obliging him to study the Art of War, in order to speak of it properly. Cornelius contented himself with projecting this design[743]: he changed his service, and entered into the Marshal de Chatillon's army, in which he continued not long: he made the campaign of 1640, in quality of Cornet in the Colonel's company of a German regiment of horse in the French service. Soon after he got a company: however he wanted to serve in the Valtoline[744]. He had not been long there before he took a fancy to enter into the Venetians service; and, without consulting his father, went to Venice to make his contract with them: but it is probable they could not agree; for Grotius writes[745], July 16, 1644, "Cornelius will return from the Antenorides without doing any thing." This fickleness of temper much displeased Grotius[746], who in the latter part of his life spoke of his son with great indifference.

In the sequel, when the States of Holland wanted to indemnify such as were unjustly persecuted during the overgrown power of the Stadtholders[747], they gave Cornelius Grotius a company in the guards; to Peter, a troop of horse; and to Mombas, their brother-in-law, a regiment; with leave to dispose of them, or sell them to the best advantage: which was contrary to custom and law.

It was in 1633 that the States thus sought to repair the injuries which Grotius had formerly suffered. Cornelius died unmarried. Peter, Grotius's second son, was more like his father. In his infancy he was very sickly: having received a hurt in his leg[748], the Surgeons and Physicians treated it so ill, that he remained lame all his days. His father, thinking his education would be cheaper in Holland than at Paris, sent him to his native country. The young Grotius gave great satisfaction to his parents, as we learn by a letter from Grotius to his brother William[749], Oct. 4, 1630, "Your accounts of my son give me great pleasure: if he goes on in the same manner, he will have reason to be satisfied with me." Gerard Vossius directed his studies; and by a letter[750] of thanks from Grotius to him, we learn that he was of an indolent turn. "The exhortations you give Peter are worthy of the friendship you have always entertained for me and mine. I cannot think why my children should be so idle; perhaps it is because they see their father's diligence has turned to so little account."

In 1634 Peter Grotius was sent to[751] Amsterdam to learn the use of the globes and navigation: Grotius intended that he should afterwards serve in some expedition at sea: he seems at this time to have designed him for a Sailor. Peter had an inclination to learn Arabic under the learned Golius at Leyden: but his Father would only suffer him to visit this eminent professor, and consult him about the pronunciation of that language, which he thought his son might learn without a master at his leisure hours.

Grotius was desirous that his son should make a voyage to the East-Indies[752], or, if that was too long a voyage, that he should go to the Brasils, or some other part of America, to learn what was not to be learnt at home, and might be of use to him afterwards.

Vossius, in the mean time, gave ample testimonials not only of Peter's progress in the sciences, but also of his moral conduct. He wanted to join, to the studies recommended to him by his father, that of Law; and Grotius was not against it. He appears to have been somewhat uneasy about what this youth would do: May 17, 1635, he writes to Vossius, "I should be glad to know what my son's health will permit him to do, and to what his inclination leads him: there are some things which will prevent his being agreeable at court, or his undertaking long journies by land. I am not against his trying the sea; but I would not force any of my children against their inclination. The make of his body would require a sedentary life; but I am afraid he has too much vivacity to bear with it. I would beg of you to consult with himself and his friends on this subject; and at the same time to give me your own opinion."

He writes again to Vossius some time after, that if his son had a dislike to long voyages, he would nevertheless have him study Commerce and Navigation rather than the quibbles of the Law: "Not but a general knowledge of public law, and the laws of his own country, may be of use to him whatever manner of life he chuses: but I would not have him make it his principal study; and remember Horace's precept, to keep his eye ever on the mark. If it is out of regard to me he wants to translate the Tragedy of Sophomphaneus, he deserves to be commended, even if he should make some mistakes: however I should not be sorry if it were done by one more advanced in years, and better skilled in poetry."

This youth, uncertain what course to take, was in doubt whether he ought not to seek his fortune in Sweden under the credit of his father's name. Grotius, hearing of this design, writes to his brother[753], "If my son thinks to raise himself in Sweden, I see no other way of doing it, than by a perfect knowledge of Navigation and Commerce. The profession of a Lawyer is not lucrative, nor doth it succeed with every one."

Vossius was still well pleased with him[754]. The ardour he discovered for the study of the Law determined Grotius to propose to him a translation of the Institutes of the Law of Holland into good Latin, like that of the Digests; and he asked his brother, William Grotius, and all his friends, to encourage and assist his Son in the execution of this design, which might be useful to the public and to the author. He wrote to Gerard Vossius[755] to the same effect. William Grotius laboured with his nephew in this translation. Grotius, in returning him his thanks for assisting his Son, desires him to make him read, as he went on, what was contained in the Digests relating to the matter he was translating.

In summer, 1636, Peter Grotius had an offer of going to the Brasils in Count Nassau's retinue. Grotius approved of it, provided his Son might have a creditable post, in which he might learn Navigation: he was the more desirous that his Son might make this voyage, as the present state of his affairs would not permit him to keep him in the way the latter chose to live.

If this project did not succeed, Grotius wanted that his Son should pass the winter at the Hague in the study of the Law, and come to France in the spring, 1637, to take his degree in the university of Orleans; then return to the Hague to study some time longer, and afterwards go to Amsterdam to practise as an Advocate, this profession being there most lucrative.

The voyage to the Brasils did not take place. Peter Grotius came to his father in summer, 1637. He seems to have been well satisfied with him, as we may judge by a letter written to his brother[756], Aug. 15, this year. "Peter is arrived here: he is much indebted to you, to his grandfather, and all his friends and relations, for instilling into him such good principles. I am very well satisfied with his diligence." He writes six months after[757], "I am only afraid for his ambition, which is the vice of youth: he will live with more ease, and gain more as an Advocate. I would beg of you, that as soon as he returns, which will be immediately, you would put him upon studying the precedents in law. But what is chiefly to be inculcated is diligence and love of labour." Peter was preparing to return to Holland, when a Surgeon undertook to make him walk without halting[758]. There were some hopes of his succeeding in whole or in part; but the event did not correspond with the Surgeon's promises, and Peter set out soon after for Holland, in the end of April, 1638. Grotius did not regret the time his Son had passed in France. "The time Peter has been here, he says to his brother[759], was not lost either for him or me: for he has learnt several useful things, and it has been a great pleasure to me to communicate what I have learnt to one of my children, or at least to have put him in a way of informing himself. I recommend him to you, and would beg of you to give him such exercises as may fit him to hold a distinguished rank amonst the Orators and Advocates, that his merit may silently reproach the Dutch for what they did against his Father. But, above all things, I would recommend to you the cultivation of those sentiments of piety which I have instilled into him, and to keep him from bad company."

Grotius wrote to Vossius[760], when his Son set out on his return to Holland, begging of him to continue to watch over the studies of this youth; and assuring him at the same time, that the friendship, which the city of Amsterdam preserved for him, was the only reason which induced him to consent that any part of him should live in a country where he had been so ill-treated.

Vossius and William Grotius were highly satisfied with Peter Grotius, and made great encomiums on him to his father, who wrote to his son, commending his diligence in the study of the Law. He informed him at the same time of a successful method of pleading, which he himself had formerly used with advantage. We have spoken of it elsewhere[761]. He was desirous of settling him as soon as possible at Amsterdam, that he might learn navigation and commerce, the municipal laws of the town, and whatever might contribute to raise his fortune. He wanted to accustom him to a labour, by which he might live without his father's assistance. "If he thinks, says Grotius to his brother[762], to make his fortune with what money he will get from me, he is greatly deceived: let him do as I did, and cut out a path for himself; otherwise he must not count upon my liberality." April 21, 1640, he caused him to be chid[763] for running about too much, and for his learning Italian and several things for which he had little occasion. "That is not the way, says he, to please me, nor to be useful to himself."

In fine, Peter Grotius began to plead at the Hague, in[764] spring 1640. There was a prospect at that time of getting him made Pensionary of Boisleduc: this design required some money, which Grotius refused not to advance; but he could scarce believe that the Prince of Orange would consent to have his son in this place, unless he abjured Arminianism. Besides, Peter Grotius had so little experience in the law, that his father did not yet think him capable of filling a place, the difficulties of which he knew by experience: he would much rather have had his son go to Amsterdam, to follow the bar, and seek some advantageous match, that his children might one day enter into the magistracy of a city, which alone kept alive expiring liberty.

Peter Grotius seems to have had a dislike to Amsterdam; for his father writes thus to his brother William Grotius[765], March 9, 1641. "I have consulted with my wife about Peter's affairs: we are of opinion that he should go to Amsterdam, if he can be prevailed with; if not, you must tell him to come here: he will serve me for Secretary, and I shall give him lectures in law, which perhaps he would not have received from any other. Let him bring with him what he has translated of the Institutes of the Laws of Holland." Grotius soon changed his opinion; for he writes to his brother[766], April 13, in the same year: "I would not have Peter come here: therefore keep him with you."

The irresolution of Peter Grotius chagrined his father: "I am much afraid, he writes to his brother[767], that he will some day smart for his continual disobedience." Grotius told his son[768], that he must expect no letters from him, unless he sent him the Latin translation of the Institutes of the Laws of Holland, which he had long before enjoined him to set about. Writing to his brother[769], he says, "I am much afraid, that the counsels which Peter follows, and will follow hereafter, are inconsistent with a good conscience. I am resolved to refer the whole to God, and not intermeddle in it. I should be sorry to have a repetition of the grief I suffer on his account."

Some time after, he was better satisfied with him, and wrote to his brother William[770], Feb. 28, 1643, "I commend Peter highly for applying to the bar: it is the way to acquire much useful knowledge, to gain a character, and in time to lay up something, or to rise higher." This is all that Grotius's letters inform us about his son: the sequel of whose life is more interesting.

In 1652, he married, for love, an Attorney's daughter, rich and handsome; but his mother and his other friends disliked the match. In the year following, a powerful party wanted to get him made Greffier of Amsterdam; but Veue Linchovius opposed him with great virulence and violence; maintaining that such a place ought not to be given to the son of an out-law, whose religious sentiments were erroneous. The declamations of this hot-headed man preventing Grotius from being nominated to the place, he bore the disappointment with great tranquility. In 1655, he purposed to publish a complete edition of his father's works, as appears by the privilege of the Emperor Ferdinand III. dated Oct. 2, 1655, prefixed to his theological works. This edition, which unfortunately he did not go on with, was to be in nine volumes in folio. The first was to contain his Annotations on the Old Testament; the second, the Commentary on the New; the third would have comprehended his smaller theological pieces; the fourth, the treatise De Jure Belli & Pacis, the Apology, and the work De Imperio summarum potestatum circa Sacra; the fifth, Law Tracts; the sixth, Writings Historical; the seventh, Philological Works; the eighth, Poetical Translations, the Anthologia, Stobaeus, and the Extracts from the Tragedies and Comedies; and, lastly, the ninth, his Poems and Letters. It is probable, that this design was defeated by Grotius's departure from Holland. It was not till long after, in 1679, that the handsome edition of Grotius's theological works was published in three volumes in folio, dedicated to King Charles II. of England by Peter Grotius, Feb. 28, 1678. The bookseller promised, in an advertisement prefixed to it, to print all Grotius's other works, even those that had never been published; but he did not fulfil his engagements.

Grotius's enemies still opposing his son's advancement, he entered into the service of Charles Lewis, Elector Palatine, to whom Hugo Grotius had done singular service during his misfortunes. This Prince nominated him his Agent at the Hague.

The ferment in mens minds having subsided, and the face of affairs being changed in Holland, Peter Grotius was nominated Pensionary of Amsterdam in 1660; which important place he filled for seven years with great reputation. This office was the height of Hugo's wishes for his son. The Count D'Estrade, at that time Ambassador from France in Holland, was dissatisfied with the Pensionary of Amsterdam, who opposed the interest of the French King, in resentment of that Prince's having driven Mombas, Peter Grotius's brother-in-law, out of France. Feb. 1, 1633, he writes to the King, "I have not been at Amsterdam, because the Pensionary M. de Groot is brother-in-law to M. de Mombas, whom your Majesty ordered to quit the kingdom for some affair in which you were dissatisfied with his conduct: since that time M. de Groot has constantly opposed your Majesty's interest at Amsterdam. He is a man of spirit and firmness; and has much credit in that city. I shall neglect nothing to bring him back to his former sentiments." The King answered him, May 23, 1633, that he had had reason to be dissatisfied with Mombas's conduct; that if any consideration could make him forget it, it would certainly be a regard for M. de Groot, whose person, says the King, I esteem: In fact, Lewis XIV, as he writes to his Ambassador, Sept. 22, 1665, dropt his resentment against Mombas out of consideration for the Pensionary of Amsterdam. After the conclusion of the triple alliance, the necessity of regulating the subsidies with the northern powers induced the States of Holland to send Grotius to Denmark and Sweden. He went first to Copenhagen, and afterwards to Stockholm, where he assumed the quality of Ambassador in ordinary. The States used only to keep a Minister of the second rank at this Court; but it was thought proper, says Wicquefort, to do something more than common for such an extraordinary person; and he was ordered to make a splendid entry at the expence of the States.

The fourth volume of M. de Wit's Letters and Negotiations concludes with the correspondence of Peter Grotius with the Grand Pensionary during his embassy at Stockholm. The Dutch Minister discovers in it great knowledge of mankind. "The more I reflect, says he to M. de Wit, Dec. 8, 1668, on the regency of Sweden, the more clearly I discover that the most important affairs are not regulated agreeable to the public interest, but according to that of the principal Ministers; and the surest and easiest way to succeed, is to gain him who has the King's ear rather than the King himself; because what is done for the good of the nation obliges no one in particular, and procures glory, but no acknowledgments. When I passed through Denmark, I perceived that more might be done by means of M.G. with a hundred thousand crowns, than can be done with the King with five times that sum."

The negotiations of Peter Grotius were in a promising way at the death of William Borell the Dutch Ambassador at Paris. Grotius was nominated by the States of Holland to succeed him, and at the same time the town of Rotterdam chose him for their Pensionary. M. de Wit was of opinion that Grotius ought to prefer the place of Pensionary: he wrote to his friend, May 14, 1669, "Messieurs the Burgomasters and Counsellors of the town of Rotterdam have unanimously made choice of you to be their Counsellor Pensionary. I believe your nomination to the French embassy will be set aside, if the Gentlemen of Rotterdam apply for that purpose to their Noble and Great Mightinesses; and I imagine you will prefer this honourable establishment in a post your father was undeservedly turned out of, to a gilded exile, for such an embassy may be styled. Other reasons will occur for your taking this step, without its being necessary for me to mention them."

Grotius was greatly embarrassed: he writes to M. de Wit, May 22, 1669, that his situation would not suffer him to give a positive answer; that he had written to the Gentlemen of Rotterdam, acknowledging their great civility and goodness in thinking of him; but that he had not declared himself with regard to the accepting of the place.

Holland had occasion at this time for the ablest of her Ministers at the Court of Lewis XIV. and Peter Grotius could not refuse to serve his Country in such critical circumstances. The point was to bring about a reconciliation between the United Provinces and the King, who resolved to declare war against them, imagining he had great reason to complain of their behaviour. Grotius was the only Minister who could succeed in this negotiation, had a reconciliation been practicable, says Wicquefort. The King, though highly incensed against Holland, shewed the greatest respect to her Ambassador. War being declared in 1672, Peter Grotius was again sent to the King, to try if an accommodation could be accomplished: but the King had made too great preparations for war to conclude a peace so soon.

Grotius returned to the Hague to serve the Republic in quality of Deputy to the States-General; but in a short time experienced a cruel reverse of fortune. Being involved in the disgrace of the De Wits, he was stript of his dignities, and threatened with assassination; which determined him to leave Holland: he went to Antwerp, where an attempt was made on his life.

He retired to Liege, and afterwards to Aix-la-Chapelle, and Cologn. A general peace was at this time negotiating; and Grotius having done singular services to the Dutch Plenipotentiaries, he was permitted to return to Holland, after being two years absent. He continued some time undisturbed in the country; but Wicquefort, the Duke of Brunswick's Minister at the Hague, being taken into custody, among his papers were found several letters from Grotius, containing, it is said, some indiscreet things concerning state affairs, and against the Republic's Ministers. He was arrested and prosecuted. Of the fifteen judges appointed to try him, nine declared him innocent. This was in November, 1676. Nicholas Heinsius, who was not prejudiced in his favour, writes to Graevius on the 6th of December following: "There was certainly imprudence and malice in what Grotius did; but I leave others to judge whether he was guilty of high treason."

It is improbable his judges would have shewn him favour, had he been convicted of a capital crime: he was known to be hated by the Prince of Orange, whom the Dutch at that time sought very much to please.

Peter Grotius, thus escaping out of the hands of his enemies, retired with his family to a country seat he had near Harlem, where he spent the rest of his days in educating his children, and reading the best authors. He died at the age of seventy. Some pretend, but without foundation, that he was poisoned. Those who knew him particularly speak of him as one of the best heads of his time. "Peter de Groot, son of the great Grotius, was not so learned as his father, says Wicquefort; but I may venture to assert he was as able a Minister. We can't say too much of this man, who was above all praise. I write this after receiving the news of his death. How much is Holland to be pitied for losing a man who would have assisted in repairing the breaches made by the disorders which have for some years prevailed in the state! He joined solidity of judgment to the graces of wit, and must have possessed these qualities in an eminent degree since they shone thro' such a disagreeable figure. It may be said of M. de Groot, that never did such a deformed body lodge such a fine and great soul: he had a surprising ready wit, his conversation was delightful, his understanding clear and solid, and his sentiments just and equitable: he possessed great knowledge of all sorts of business, foreign and domestic, and especially of what the French call the art of pleasing."

Grotius's third son, Diederic, began his studies in a very promising manner. Grotius writes to his brother William, August 16, 1630, "I am overjoyed to hear that Diederic's progress even exceeds my hopes. I wish he may continue." His grandfather John Grotius was his tutor. When he came to be old enough to be put to some business, Grotius designed him for an Engineer. He learned under the famous Boschius, and came afterwards, in the beginning of 1636, to see his father at Paris. Grotius having applied to the Duke of Weymar to take Diederic into his service, he entered into that Prince's houshold as one of his Pages, and was much respected: the Duke soon after made him his Aid-de-Camp. Grotius seemed to be well satisfied with his son at the time this youth had the misfortune to lose his Patron.

On hearing of the Duke of Weymar's death Grotius immediately thought of sending Diederic to Marshal Bannier. He wrote a letter to that General[771], October 13, 1639, in which he puts him in mind that it was his Excellency's brother first proposed to him his entering into the Swedish service: he afterwards makes an offer of his son, who had served two years under Boschius, chief Engineer to the Prince of Orange, and had since been several years one of the Duke of Weymar's Pages. After the death of that illustrious Prince, who shared with Bannier the glory of being the greatest general in Europe, he thinks he cannot do better than give him to Marshal Bannier, who was unanimously allowed to hold the first rank in the art of war. He begs that his son may be only employed in things of which he is capable. On the same day he wrote to Salvius, desiring him to recommend Diederic to the Marshal.

Whilst Grotius was thus employed in placing his son, Diederic entertained a design of entering into the Dutch service. His father was highly displeased with this project; and wrote to him, and to William Grotius, that it was most improper for him to expose his life for his cruellest enemies; and that Sweden was his true country, and to that kingdom he ought to devote his life, and from it to merit and expect honours. "If my son dislikes the activity of a military life, Grotius writes to his brother, he may find ease, and acquire honour in General Bannier's houshold, or by exercising his profession of Engineer. I shall always give him my assistance, and I hope I have as many friends elsewhere, as I have enemies in Holland. If my son disgraces himself so far, as to ask favours from the Dutch, he is unworthy to call me father. If he chuses rather to be an Ensign with you, than a Captain among others, he is mean-spirited, and forgetful of what he has been." Diederic had a design of writing the history of the Duke of Weymar; which project Grotius approved of, as worthy of a grateful mind. He sent him word, that if he would set about this work whilst he was with Marshal Bannier, he would make his court by it to that General, who had it in his power to reward him. Diederic at last complied with his father's desire, and went to Marshal Bannier's camp. He was made a prisoner of war by the Bavarians in an unfortunate action near Dillingue and Memingue, in the end of the year 1643. Grotius immediately set all his friends to work to procure his son's liberty: he wrote to the famous John de Vert, and applied to the Duke of Bavaria that he would be pleased to send him back as soon as possible: and at the same time wrote to his son to come to him as soon as he should be at liberty, that they might consult together what was best to be done. Diederic sent his father the history of the unfortunate action in which he was taken; and Grotius printed it to give copies to his friends, and to send others to the Swedish Ministry. Diederic was carried to Tubingen, from thence to Ulm, and confined in a citadel between Ulm and Augsburg: he did not continue there long: immediately on receiving his father's letter, the Duke of Bavaria gave orders that Diederic might be set at liberty, after settling his ransom, which was fixed at a thousand florins. He came to Paris, and on his arrival Grotius wrote a letter of thanks to the Elector of Bavaria, telling him, that as he had but one way to express his gratitude, namely by promoting a general peace, which his Electoral Highness wished for, he would do all in his power to bring it about. He wrote to Ketner the Bavarian Minister to the same effect.

Diederic went back to serve under Marshal Turenne in Germany, and made the campaign of 1644. He was again taken Prisoner, but soon released; and served in the end of the same campaign. He was detached by the Duke d'Anguien and Marshal Turenne to take Fridelshem and Neudstad, and was afterwards sent by them to the Landgravine of Hesse: he acquitted himself with honour of all the commissions that were given him. The Duke d'Anguien spoke of him in the highest terms; and the Landgravine received him in the best manner, in consideration of the services which his father had done to the house of Hesse: he was sent a second time by Marshal Turenne to the Landgravine. The Duke d'Anguien promised to take care of this youth's fortune; and the approbation of a prince, who was the Mars of his time and knew men so well, is the highest elogium that could be given of Diederic.

He came to an unhappy end when but young and unmarried. Queen Christina having abdicated the Crown in favour of Charles Gustavus, Diederic and Cornelius Grotius took a resolution to wait on that Prince, who had known and highly esteemed their father in France, with an intention to offer him their services, and get employment. Setting out from Holland with this design, they were got between Embden and Bremen, halfway to Hamburg, when a villain, who had served Diederic several years as his valet, resolved to murder both the brothers for the sake of their money: he went in the night-time into Diederic's chamber, and shot his master dead while asleep: he was preparing to serve Cornelius Grotius in the same manner, but he was awake: he happened to be employed in composing a Latin epigram. On hearing the shot, he took a pistol which lay on a chair by his bed side, and seeing the murderer advance softly to him (it was moon-light) he fired, and laid him flat on the floor: the people of the inn got up on the noise, and delivered the villain, who was dangerously wounded, into the hands of justice, and he was broke on the wheel.

Hugo Grotius had also three daughters, Frances, Mary, and Cornelia; Frances, the youngest, was born in October, 1626, before her time, her mother being delivered of her in the eighth month: accordingly this young person was short-lived, for she died in the beginning of the year 1628. Mary, his second daughter, died at Paris in the month of March, 1635, of the fatigue and cold she received in her journey to that city. Grotius informed his father of her death by a letter[772] dated March 23, 1635, in which he tells him she died almost without pain, and with a deep sense of religion. "My wife and I, says he, bear this misfortune like people accustomed to adversity: besides, why should we call her death a misfortune? has not God a right to take back what he gave? and ought not we to flatter ourselves that she is arrived at that happy state, which the young ought to long after as much as the old? We are delivered from the care of procuring a husband for her: perhaps we should have had much difficulty to find one that would have been agreeable to her and to all her family: and even if we should have found one that pleased us all at first, would there not have been room to apprehend that he had concealed his true character for a time, and that he would afterwards make her unhappy? She is now delivered from the pains of bearing children, and bringing them up. More happy than her mother, she will not see judges incensed against her husband, because he is innocent: she will not be obliged to shut herself up in prison for her husband; nor to lead a wandering life to accompany him. Let us congratulate her that God has taken her out of the world before she knew too much of the evil or what are called the good things of it. Let us congratulate ourselves on her having lived with us as long as life was agreeable to her, and free from any mixture of bitterness. What is there at present in Christendom to make us desire life? Divisions in the Church, bloody wars, men slaughtered, women violated, cruel murders, and multitudes reduced to beggary; Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia pillaged; the heirs of the most noble families reduced to the necessity of living on alms, if it can be called living to drag out their days in misery, wishing for death, which alone can put an end to it."

Cornelia, the eldest of Grotius's daughters, who survived her father, married John Barthon, Viscount of Mombas, a Gentleman of Poitou, who was obliged to quit France for having displeased Lewis XIV. He went to Holland, from whence he was also forced to fly, having been involved in the misfortunes wherein the De Wits perished, and which gave Peter Grotius, his brother-in-law, so much uneasiness.

Grotius had a brother named William, with whom he kept up the greatest intimacy during his whole life, and made him the confident of his studies and designs. It appears by his letters that they lived in the strictest friendship. Hugo, who was the eldest, contributed to his brother's education, and directed his studies. We have a letter from Grotius to his brother, dated at Rotterdam September 28, 1614, containing a plan of study. "I am of opinion, says he, that in order to acquire the knowledge of Law, before you touch upon law tracts you should read with attention Aristotle's second and fifth book of Ethics, to Nicomachus, or the excellent paraphrase of them published by Heinsius; then Aristotle's Rhetoric, with the learned commentary on it; afterwards Cicero's Offices, the Paradoxes, De Finibus, Of Laws, the Topica, and De Inventiene. I could wish that whilst reading you would make extracts, or at least mark in the margin of your book whatever has relation to the Law of Nature and of Nations, to the origin of Laws and Magistrates, to Jus publicum et privatum. When you have done this, we shall think of the rest." It was Grotius who corrected his brother's Law Theses.

William Grotius came to France in 1617 to learn the language; and retiring to Senlis made great progress in it: he purposed to go to Tours, and Grotius approved of his journey, because the air was pure, and they spoke good French there.

William Grotius, as well as his brother, had a turn for theological studies: he wrote something in verse on the Decalogue, which Grotius mentions in a letter dated from his prison at Louvestein, November 1, 1620. "I have read with pleasure, he says, what you have done on the Decalogue: the maxims are excellent, and the verses easy."

William had his brother's confidence during his whole life. Grotius writes to him from Paris, April 14, 1622, "You are never weary of assisting me under my afflictions: if ever fortune enables me to testify my gratitude, I will forgive her all the tricks she has played me." He was desirous, in the end of the year 1622, that his brother should settle his matters so, as to come to see him in the beginning of the following year; but this journey did not take place. Grotius's disgrace affected his brother: he despaired of attaining to honours, and Grotius advised him to think only of raising himself by the study of the Law.

In April 1623 he married Alida Grasvinkel. About this time a Dutchman was seized at Lillo, with letters from William Grotius to his brother. It was expected that something would be found in them against the State, and they talked of nothing less than imprisoning him; but notwithstanding the malice of his enemies, they could not find the least pretext from these letters to trouble him. In the mean time William followed the profession of an Advocate with much success: Grotius compliments him on it in a letter of the 28th of November, 1625, in which he tells him, that the life he led in shining at the bar was much more agreeable than that which is spent in public employments.

William Grotius wrote about this time the lives of the Advocates, under the title of Vitae Jurisconsultorum quorum in Pandectis exstant nomina, conscriptae a Gulielmo Grotio Jurisconsulto Delphensi. He sent this book to his brother, who writes to him that he read it with pleasure, and was delighted to see a work which demonstrated his brother's genius, learning, and good sense.

William Grotius, whose marriage had prevented his going to France to see his brother, went thither however in 1629: he returned again to Holland. William being desirous to have his brother's picture, Hugo had the complaisance to sit for it, and send it to him. The enmity of the Magistrates was still so violent at this time, that William made a mystery of this picture; in which Grotius thought he acted very prudently. In 1638 there was a talk of making William Grotius Pensionary of Delft. The conditions on which the place was offered did not suit him, and he declined it. This refusal was approved of by Grotius; for he writes to him, March 13, 1638, "As to the place of Pensionary of our native town, the more I think of it, the happier I imagine you in having got rid of it, and in preferring honour to profit: for in these times it would have been impossible to have preserved that place and your honour."

The East-India Company chose him for their Advocate in 1639. Grotius compliments his brother on it March 26, that year. "I always loved that Company, he says: I look upon it as the support of the Republic; and if I could be at present of any use to it, I would most gladly embrace the opportunity."

Grotius's writings concerning Antichrist were approved of by William and their Father. However, as there was reason to apprehend that the printing of these pieces might increase the number and animosity of his enemies, Grotius proposed to his Brother not to take upon him their publication, especially as he might easily find persons that were far from a factious spirit, who would willingly undertake it: but William Grotius ran the hazard of this publication, without being frightened at the consequences.

Grotius had always discovered great impatience when denied the tides of honour due to the Ambassadors of crowned heads. He imagined it to be the consequence of a plot of his enemies to depreciate him. William did not approve of his brother's great heat on this subject: and thought there was reason to presume that it was owing rather to inattention, than a premeditated design. Grotius, whose mildness of temper was greatly altered by his late disputes with the Reformed Ministers, as Henry de Villeneuve observes in a letter to the Abbe Barcellini, was much dissatisfied with his brother's manner of excusing those of whom he thought he had reason to complain; and wrote to him very sharply on this subject, December 12, 1643. "I imagine, says he, I see and hear you pleading at the Bar: you find reasons to excuse my enemies for things for which no body here excuses them: you blame me for things for which no body here blames me, nor will any others except your Dutchmen. It is fit that I should support my dignity: the thing is done on purpose; and the Swedes, whom it concerns, would be offended with me if I acted otherwise. I would therefore ask of you, for the future to address the letters you receive for me to my wife; and I shall afterwards see what is to be done."

This small altercation did not interrupt the friendship of the two brothers, nor their correspondence by letters, which continued till Grotius's death.

William, besides the book we have already mentioned, wrote another on the law of nature, entitled, Willelmi Grotii de principiis Juris Naturalis Enchiridion. This work is much inferior to the treatise Of War and Peace. However, it has its merit, and is particularly valuable for containing in a small compass all the principles of Natural Law clearly displayed.

Grotius had still another brother, named Francis, who was the second son of John Grotius. He died young. Grotius wrote a Poem on his death, and a consolatory piece in Prose and Verse to his Father: they are both in the collection of his Poems.

John Grotius had a daughter of fine accomplishments. Grotius acquaints us[773], that she wrote an useful book on Widowhood, which was very well done. The design of this work was not to condemn second marriages, but only to shew that it was more becoming a reasonable woman to content herself with having had one husband. After her death it was proposed to print it; and Grotius, to make it a more considerable book, translated into Dutch three treatises of Tertullian, one of St. Ambrose, two of St. Chrysostome, and three of St. Jerom, on the same subject. We have not learnt whether this Collection was ever published.

The END of the SIXTH and LAST BOOK.


[735] See the Testimonia at the end of Le Clerc's edition of the treatise on the truth of the Christian religion, p. 344. & 351.

[736] Ep. 195. p. 813.

[737] Ep. 253. p. 832.

[738] Ep. 368. p. 859. & 369. p 860.

[739] Ep. 419. p. 875.

[740] Ep. 421. p. 876.

[741] Ep. 936 p. 415

[742] Ep. 1129. p. 510. & 1133. p. 512.

[743] Ep. 506. p. 885. 465. p. 886. 1371. p. 623

[744] Ep. 1607. p. 716. 1616. p. 717. 537. p. 916. 670. p. 958. & 678. p. 960.

[745] Ep. 714. p. 968.

[746] Ep. 1746. p. 746. & 720. p. 970.

[747] Ann. de Basnage, t. 1. p. 700.

[748] Ep. 64. p. 773. 68. p. 774. & 72. p. 776.

[749] Ep. 258. p. 833.

[750] Ep. 324. p. 115.

[751] Ep. 326. p. 849.

[752] Ep. 353. p. 855.

[753] Ep. 357. p. 856.

[754] Ep. 364. p. 858. & 369. p. 860.

[755] Ep. 573. p. 225.

[756] Ep. 406. p. 870.

[757] Ep. 421. p. 876.

[758] Ep. 425. p. 876.

[759] Ep. 426. p. 877.

[760] Ep. 946. p. 419.

[761] See Book I. sec. 16.

[762] Ep. 455. p. 883. & 465. p. 887.

[763] Ep. 469. p. 887.

[764] Ep. 492. p. 896.

[765] Ep. 537. p. 916.

[766] Ep. 542. p. 918.

[767] Ep. 553. p. 924.

[768] Ep. 555. p. 925.

[769] Ep. 588. p. 933.

[770] Ep. 641. p. 949.

[771] Ep. 1257. p. 571.

[772] Ep. 377. p. 138.

[773] Ep. 550. p. 920.





Hugeiani Grotii Batavi Pontifex Romanus, Rex Galliarum, Albertus Cardinalis, Regina Angliae, Ordines Foederati: ex officina Plantiniana, apud Christophorum Raphelengium, Academiae Lugduno-Batavae Typographum, 1599.

Grotius's Poems are in two collections; the prophane, in that published by his brother, which has gone through many editions; in the latter ones are inserted the Tragedy of Sophomphaneus, the Catechism in Latin verse, and Sylva ad Franciscum Augustum Thuanum. See the Life of Grotius Book 1. sec. 13. B. 2. sec. 14. B. 5. sec. 2. The sacred poems were printed, in quarto, at the Hague, in 1610, in a collection wherein we find Adamus exsul, a tragedy; Exordia quatuor Evangeliorum; Paraphrasis metrica Hymnorum in Evangelio & Actis Lucae, variique Psalmi, & alia carmina; Martiani Minei Felicis Satyricon, seu de nuptiis Philologiae & Mercurii libri duo; & de septem artibus liberalibus libri totidem: emendati & notis illustrati. Lugduni-Batavorum, 1599. See the Life of Grotius, B. 1. sec. 10.

Limneu[Greek: retiche], sive portuum investigandorum ratio, metaphraste Hugone Grotio Batavo: ex officina Plantiniana, apud Christophorum Raphelengium, Academiae Lugduno-Batavae typographum, 1599. See the Life of Grotius, B. 1. sec. 11.

Hug. Grotii Batavi Syntagma Arataeorum, opus poeticae & astronomiae studiosis utilissimum. Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Christophorum Raphelengium, academiae Lugduno-Batavae typographum, 1600.

Hoc opere continentur Arati Phoenomena, & Diosemeia Graece Ciceronis interpretatio H. Grotii versibus interpolata.

Phoenomena Aratea Germanico Caesare interprete, multo auctiora & emendatiora, ope manuscripti profecti ex bibliotheca nob. dom. Jacobi Susii de Grisendorf.

Ejusdem fragmenta Prognosticorum, imagines siderum Germanici versibus interpositae, ex manuscripto desumptae, & a Jacobo Gheinia aeri incisae.

Notae H. Grotii ad Aratum.

Notae ejusdem ad Germanici Phoenomena.

Notae ejusdem ad imagines, in quibus siderum & singularum stellarum nomina Arabica, Hebraea, Graeca, & Latina, & situs exponuntur.

Notae ad Fragmenta Ciceronis.

Festi Avieni paraphrasis, cum notis brevibus in margine appositis.

Mare Liberum, seu de jure quod Batavis competit ad Indica commercia. Lugduni-Batavorum, 1609. See the Life of Grotius, B. 1. sec. 19.

De antiquitate reipublicae Batavicae. Lug. Bat. 1610. See the Life of Grotius, B. 1. sec. 20.

The theological works were printed in four volumes in folio, by the heirs of Blaeu, at Amsterdam, in 1679.

The three first tomes contain the Commentary on the Holy Scriptures. See the Life of Grotius, B. 1. sec. 14. B. 6. sec. 11.

The fourth volume contains divers theological pieces.

De Veritate Religionis Christianae. See the Life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 14. B. 6. sec. 9.

Ordinum Hollandiae & Westfrisiae pietas ab improbissimis multorum calumniis, praesertim vero a Sibrandi Luberti Epistola, quam Archiepiscopo Cantuariensi scripsit, vindicata. See the life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 16.

Bona Fides Sibrandi Luberti. See the Life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 16.

Ordinum Hollandiae & Westfrisiae decretum pro pace ecclesiarum, munitum S. Scripturae, Conciliorum, Patrum, Confessionum, & Theologorum testimoniis. See the Life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 4. & 17.

Oratio IX. cal. Maii habita in senatu Amstelodamensi, versa e Belgico sermone per Theodorum Schrevelium. See the Life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 6.

Defensio decreti pro pace ecclesiarum. See the Life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 16.

De Imperio summarum potestatum circa sacra. See the Life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 16.

Defensio fidei Catholicae de satisfactione Christi, adversus Faustum Socinum Senensem. See the Life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 16.

Conciliatio dissidentium de re predestinatoria atque gratia opinionum. See the Life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 16.

Disquisitio, an Pelagiana sint illa dogmata, quae nunc sub eo nomine traducuntur. See the Life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 16.

Philosophorum veterum sententiae de fato, & de eo quod est in nostra potestate. See the Life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 16.

Commentarius ad loca quaedam Novi Testamenti de Antichristo. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 12.

Appendix ad Commentationem de Antichristo. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 12.

Dissertatio de Coenae administratione ubi Pastores non adsunt. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 12.

Dissertatio an semper communicandum per symbola. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 12.

Explicatio trium utilissimorum locorum N.T. in quibus agitur de fide & operibus. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 12.

Via ad pacem ecclesiasticam; quo tractatu continentur Bulla Pii Papae IV. super forma juramenti professionis fidei exhibita invictissimo Imperatori Carolo V. in comitiis Augustanis, 1530. Georgii Cassandri Consultatio de articulis Religionis inter Catholicos & Protestantes controversis. Hugonis Grotii Annotata ad Consultationem Cassandri, ejusdem disquisitio de dogmatibus Pelagianis, ejusdem baptizatorum institutio & de eucharistia; denique Syllabus auctorum, qui de conciliatione controversiarum in religione scripserunt.

Animadversiones in Andreae Riveti animadversiones. See the Life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 12.

Votum pro pace ecclesiastica, contra examen Andreae Riveti. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 12.

Rivetiani apologetici discussio. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 12.

De summo sacerdotio. See the Life of Grotius, B. 5. sec. 12.

De dogmatis, ritibus, & gubernatione Ecclesiae Christianae.

De dogmatis quae reipublicae noxia sunt aut dicuntur.

M. Annaei Lucani Pharsalia, ex emendatione & cum notis H. Grotii. Lug. Bat. 1614. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 5.

Dicta poetarum quae apud Joannem Stobeum extant, emendata & Latino carmine reddita ab Hugone Grotio: accesserunt Plutarchi & Basilii Magni de usu Graecorum poetarum. Parisiis, 1622. See the Life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 14. B. 3. sec. 6.

Apologeticus eorum, qui Hollandiae, Westfrisiae, & vicinis quibusdam nationibus ex Legibus praefuerunt ante mutationem anni 1618. Parisiis, 1622. See the Life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 14. B. 3. sec. 4.

De Jure Belli ac Pacis Libri tres. Parisiis, 1625. The best edition of this celebrated work is that published at Amsterdam, in 1720, by John Barbeyrac, who has translated it so happily. At the end of this edition he subjoined a small tract of Grotius: De equitate, indulgentia, & facilitate, liber singularis. See the Life of Grotius, B. 3. sec. 9.

Excerpta ex tragoediis & comediis Graecis, tum quae extant, tum quae perierunt: emendata & Latinis versibus reddita ab Hugone Grotio, cum notis & indice auctorum ac rerum. Parisiis apud Nicolaum Buon, 1626. See the Life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 14. B. 3. sec. 6.

Grollae obsidio, cum annexis anni 1627. Amstelodami, apud Guillelmum Blaeu, 1629. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 14.

Euripidis Tragoedia Phenissae, emendata ex manuscriptis, & Latina facta ab Hugone Grotio. Parisiis, 1630. See the Life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 14. B. 3. sec. 7.

An Introduction to the Laws of Holland, in Dutch. Hague, 1631. See the Life of Grotius, B. 2. sec. 14. B. 6. sec. 14.

C. Cornelius Tacitus, ex J. Lipsii editione, cum notis & emendationibus H. Grotii. Lugduni-Batavorum, ex officina Elzeviriana, 1640. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 3.

Florum sparsio in Jus Justinianeum, & in loca quaedam Juris Civilis. Parisiis, 1642. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 10.

De origine gentium Americanarum dissertatio prior. Parisiis, 1642. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 13.

De origine gentium Americanarum dissertatio altera, adversus obtrectatorem opaca bonum quem fecit barba. Parisiis, 1643. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 13.

Hugonis Grotii quaedam hactenus inedita, aliaque ex Belgice editis Latine versa, argumenti theologici, juridici, politici. Amstelodami, 1652.

Consilium juridicum super iis, quae Nassavii in Juliacum & Geldriam competere sibi dicunt.

Epistola ad Car. V. an Provinciae Foederati Belgii inferendae sunt imperio Germanico.

F. Thomae Campanellae Philosophiae realis pars tertia, quae est de politica, in aphorismos digesta.

De pace Germaniae epistola ad clarissimum virum N.P. An supposititia sit dijudicet sagax lector.

Hugonis Grotii responsio ad quaedam ab utroque judicum consessu objecta, ubi multa disputantur de jure summarum potestatum in Hollandia Westfrisiaque, & Magistratuum in oppidis. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 14.

Historia Gothorum, Vandalorum, & Longobardorum; ab Hugone Grotio partim versa, partim in ordinem digesta, cum ejusdem prolegomenis, ubi regum Gothorum ordo & chronologia cum elogiis; accedunt nomina appellativa cum explicatione. Scriptores sunt Procopius, Agathias, Jornandes, B. Isidorus, Paulus Warnefridus. Amstelodami, 1655. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 7.

Annales & Historiae de rebus Belgicis, ab obitu Philippi regis usque ad inducias anni 1609. Amstelodami, anno 1657. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 8.

Hugonis Grotii Epistolae, quotquot reperiri potuerunt. Amstelodami, 1687. See the Life of Grotius, B. 6. sec. 15.



Adamus exsul, a tragedy, 19.

Aligre, keeper of the seals, Grotius flatters himself with being protected by him, 114 The services which he accordingly receives from him, ibid.

America, Grotius's treatise of the origin of its inhabitants, 275.

Amsterdam, that city favours the Gomarists, and declares against a toleration, 50 Deputation sent to it on this subject, ib. et seq.

Anne of Austria, queen, is declared regent during the minority of her son Lewis XIV., 230 Gives Grotius an audience, 231.

Anthologia, Grotius purposes to publish an edition of that collection, 247 The several indexes he would have to it, 249 The printing of it begun, but stopt, 250 Where the original of this work is to be found, 251 The time employed by the author in it, ibid.

Antichrist, Grotius's book on that subject, 269 It occasions him many enemies, 270 Made a great noise among the enemies of the Romish Church, 271 The offence which it gave to the reformed, 272 A mistake of the author in this book, ibid.

Aratus, Grotius's edition of his Phoenomena, 16 Commended, ibid A copy of this edition collated by Nicholas Heinsius, who added some notes, 18.

Ardenne, battle of, 158.

Arminians, their conference with the Gomarists in presence of the states of Holland, 41 Their remonstrance to the states, ibid By whom it was drawn up, 45 A summary of their doctrine, 45 Acknowledge the civil magistrate to be judge of ecclesiastical disputes, 46 Persecuted by prince Maurice, 59 Refuse to receive the synod of Dort, 60 Their protest against that assembly, ibid Are condemned in it, 61 The pretexts they make use of against that synod, ibid Favoured by prince Henry Frederic of Nassau, 107.

Arminius, his dispute with Gomar, 39 et seq. His doctrine concerning predestination and grace, ibid He is complained of to the synod of Rotterdam, 40 Presents a petition to the states of Holland and Westfriesland, ibid et seq. His death, 41 Grotius's Elogium of him, ibid. Method proposed by him for a reunion of christians, 307.

Arnaud, his relation concerning Grotius's death, 241.


Bacon, Lord, the reading of his Works gave Grotius the first hint of compiling a system of natural law, 110.

Baillet, his judgment of Grotius's poems, 20 Of his annals of the Low Countries, 258.

Balzac, what he said of Grotius's poems, 20 His esteem for that learned man, 328.

Bannier, Marshal, his brother first put it into Grotius's head to enter into the Swedish service, 136.

Barberin, Cardinal Francis, what he found fault with in Grotius's book of war and peace, 113.

Barbeyrac, his commendation of Grotius's treatise of the rights of war and peace, 100 et seq. Character of his translation of that book, 111 His judgment of John de Felda's notes against it, 111, 112 Defects observed by Barbeyrac in it, 113.

Barlaeus, his elogium of Grotius when a boy, 7.

Barnevelt, grand pensionary of Holland, his firmness in opposing the earl of Leicester's designs, 9 Contributes to the nominating count Maurice of Nassau captain general, ibid Sent ambassador to Henry IV., 10 Success of his negotiation, ibid. Grotius's connection with him, 29 The report it gave rise to, ibid His behaviour in the dispute between the Arminians and Gomarists, 40, 46, et seq. He and Grotius have the direction of the states conduct in this affair, 44 Decree proposed by him to the states, 49 Rise of count Maurice's hatred to him, 50 Wants to resign his employments, 55 Arrested by count Maurice, 58 Crimes of which his enemies accuse him, 59 Is brought to his tryal, 62 Excepts against his judges, ibid His condemnation, and its grounds, 63 The court of France interests itself in his behalf, ibid His death and elogium, 65.

Baudius, his opinion of Grotius's poetical talents, 19 A candidate for the place of historiographer of the United Provinces, which he yields to that learned man, 21 Scazon written by him in honour of Grotius, 327.

Bayle, his opinion of Grotius's project for reuniting the religions, 302.

Berthier, father, the jesuist, his information concerning the original manuscript of Grotius's Anthologia, 251 What he says of his translation of the Supplicantes of Euripides, 278.

Bignon, Jerom, advocate general, his observation to Grotius concerning his Annals of the Low Countries, 258 His opinion of the treatise of the truth of the christian religion, 262 Cannot bear to hear Grotius accused of socinianism, 324 His esteem for him, 330.

Bishops, their authority favoured by Grotius, 288 et seq. He says they were established by Christ, ibid.

Blondius, his ill treatment of Reigersberg, 317 How threatened by Grotius on that account, ibid.

Boissise, Thumeri de, on what occasion nominated ambassador from France to Holland, 63 Success of his negotiation, 64 Receives Grotius at his arrival in France, 89.

Bossuet, his summary of the Arminian doctrine, 45 Accuses Grotius of favouring Socinianism, 319 Allows that he did not deny Christ's divinity, 320.

Bouhier, the president, his mistake concerning the year of Grotius's birth, 4.

Boutillier, superintendant of the finances, makes Grotius offers of service, 126 His conference with him concerning the treaty concluded in France with the envoys of the allies, 147.

Boze, a collection of Grotius's letters in cipher in his cabinet, 282

Brandanus, Grotius's chaplain, 157 His character, ibid Is turned away by Grotius, 158.

Briet, father, a jesuit, what he says of Grotius's disposition to turn Roman Catholic, 301.


Calvin, spoken of by Grotius with the greatest indignation, 287 His equivocal expressions concerning the Eucharist, 293.

Calvinists, Grotius disapproves of their sentiments on the Eucharist, and reproaches them with their contradictions, 292

Capella, Martianus, Grotius's edition of that author, 13 The nature of his work, and its character, 13, 14 Its use, 15.

Carleton, the english ambassador in Holland, demands that Grotius should be punished for writing the book of the Freedom of the ocean, 67.

Casaubon, Isaac, his commendation of Grotius's edition of Capella, 15 What he says of his edition of Aratus's Phoenomena, 17 Translates into Greek verse Grotius's Prosopopoeia of the town of Ostend, 19 His commendation of his Christus patiens, ibid. His opinion of his talents for poetry, ibid. Henry IV. has thoughts of making him his librarian, 22 Difficulties that design meets with, ibid Is nominated Librarian, ibid Grotius contracts a great friendship with him, 31 His esteem for that learned man, 32 His thoughts of the re-union of the roman catholics with the protestants, 33 The last testimony of his sentiments for Grotius, 33 Commends his Apology against Sibrand Lubert, 84 What Grotius says of Casaubon's resolution to turn Roman Catholic, 286 His opinion of the Roman Catholics of France, ibid.

Casaubon, Meric, his esteem for Grotius, 332 His elogium of Grotius in the Preface to Hierocles of Providence and Fate, ibid.

Caumartin, is made keeper of the seals, 94.

Cerisante, nominated agent from Sweden at the court of France, 231 His character and birth, 232, 233 His adventures, ibid Is dismissed by the queen of Sweden, 233 His disputes with Grotius, ibid.

Charenton, the ministers of, refuse to receive Grotius into their communion on his first arrival in France, 90 His discussions with them when he returned in quality of ambassador from Sweden, 154 Send a deputation to him, 155.

Charles I. of England, invites Grotius into that kingdom, 187.

Charles Lewis, Elector Palatine, purposes to put himself at the head of the Weymarian army on the duke of Weymar's death, 215 Goes into France, and is arrested, 216 Is conducted to Vincennes, 217 Princes who interest themselves in procuring his liberty, 217 He comes out of prison on certain conditions, ibid.

Chavigny, his negotiations with Grotius, 159 Treats with him concerning a truce that was proposed, 201 Another negotiation between them concerning the elector Palatine's discharge, 218

Christenius, John, his satisfaction on seeing Grotius when he was in France, 331 Esteem with which he speaks of him, ibid.

Christian IV. King of Denmark, his offers to Grotius to draw him into his service, 131.

Christina, queen of Sweden, state of affairs at her accession to the throne, 92 Her right to the crown disputed, ibid Approves of Grotius's nomination to the French embassy, 169 Honours paid by her to Grotius at his return to Sweden, 237 Her present to him at his departure, 238 Accused of shortening that learned man's days, 243 Purchases several of his manuscripts after his death, 279 Her compliment to his widow on the death of her husband, 332.

Church, Grotius's thoughts of her infallibility, and the submission due to her, 297.

Clement, St. publication of his epistle, 297 Grotius's thoughts of it and of the second letter ascribed to him, ibid.

Clerc, Le, his relation of the manner of Grotius's death, 241 Gives hopes of his publishing an edition of that learned man's Anthologia, 250 His opinion of his commentary on the Scriptures, 269.

Colomiez, his opinion of Grotius's treatise of the truth of the christian religion, 267 Elogiums of Grotius related by him, 329 His own opinion of him, ibid.

Conde, prince of, Grotius dedicates his Capella to him, 15 Is entirely in Grotius's interest, 93 Renews his acquaintance with him on his arrival in France in quality of ambassador from Sweden, 145 Their conversation together, 200.

Contra-remonstrants. See Gomarists.

Cornets, Cornelius, who he was, 1 His marriage with Ermengarda de Groot, 2 A branch of his family in Provence, ibid His children, ibid.

Corraro, the Venetian ambassador at Paris, Grotius's complaint against him, 184 How the affair was made up, ibid.

Crellius, answers Grotius's book against Socinus, 321 That learned man's letters to Crellius on this subject, 322.

Crusius, a Swedish lord, his quarrel with Schmalz, 206.


D'Avaux, acts against Grotius, 173 his Negotiation with Salvius for a renewal of the alliance between France and Sweden, 228.

Daube, his opinion of Grotius's treatise of the rights of war and peace, 113.

Dead, Grotius's opinion of praying for them, 294.

Desmarets writes with great bitterness against Grotius's treatise on Antichrist, 272 His answer to him, ibid.

Desnoyers, secretary at war, treats with Grotius about a truce, 204.

De Vic made keeper of the seals, 93 Grotius flatters himself with being favoured by him, ibid Services which De Vic doth that learned man, 94 His death, ibid.

D'Or, Francis, enters into Grotius's service as his chaplain, 158 Who he was, ibid Turns Roman Catholic, and not censured by Grotius, 288.

Dort, Synod of, its convocation, 55 the holding of that assembly, 60 It proscribes the Arminians, 61.

Douza, John, his Elogium of Grotius when a boy, 7.

Du Maurier, ambassador from France to Holland, 35 Grotius gives him a method of study, ibid He sends Grotius a recommendation for France, 88 Gives him false hopes of a return to his country, 117.

Du Maurier, the son, his account of the circumstances attending Grotius's death, 241 His criticism of his letters, 280.

Du Moulin, Lewis, what he says to Grotius's advantage, 333.

Duncomius, what he writes Vossius concerning Grotius, 332.

Dupuis, Henry, congratulates Grotius on his escape out of prison, and makes him an offer of his services, 81, 82.

Dupuis, Mess. visit Grotius on his arrival at Paris, 90 His great intimacy with them, 317.

Duraeus, minister of the church of Sweden, seconds Grotius's project of pacification, 305 Obstacles to the execution of his design, 306.

Du Vair, keeper of the seals, his esteem for Grotius, 92 Letter to him assuring him of his friendship, ibid His death, 92 Compliments Grotius on his good intention of forming a coalition of all christians, 303.


Elizabeth Queen of England takes the United Provinces under her protection, 8 Her treaty with them, ibid.

English, their dispute with the Dutch concerning the Greenland fishery, 29 Were the first who disputed with cardinal Richelieu the privileges of the cardinalship, 170 Their broil with the Swedes about precedency, 184.

Episcopius, is deposed by the synod of Dort, 61 What Grotius writes to him concerning the Eucharist, 291 Regards that learned man as his oracle, 329.

Estrades, an anecdote related by him of prince Henry Frederic of Nassau, 107 Is displeased with Peter Grotius pensionary of Amsterdam, 348.

Eucharist, Grotius is at first prejudiced against the opinion of the Romish church concerning this sacrament, 291 His thoughts of it afterwards, ibid.

Euripides, most esteemed by Grotius of all the tragic poets, 278 Several of his pieces translated by him, ibid.


Fabricius, his opinion of Grotius's Commentary on the Scriptures, 269.

Felda, John de, his notes against Grotius's treatise De jure belli et pacis, 111.

Freiras, Francis Seraphin, his answer to Grotius's treatise of the freedom of the Ocean, 26.


Gettichius, his opinion of Grotius's writings concerning Antichrist, 271.

Gilot, James, his praise of Grotius when a boy, 7.

Gomar, rise of his dispute with Arminius, 39 His doctrine concerning predestination and grace, 40 Is summoned to appear before the magistrates, ibid What he says there, ibid.

Gomarists, their conference with the Arminians in presence of the States of Holland, 41 On what occasion they were called Contra-remonstrants, 45, 46 Are favoured by the people, 46 Disturbances raised by them, ibid Their complaint against the edict published by the States, 49 Separate from the communism of the Arminians, 50.

Goths, Grotius writes their antiquities, 252 The plan and design of this work, ibid Its publication, 255.

Grasvinkel, Theodore, who, 112 undertakes a defence of Grotius's treatise of war and peace, ibid.

Gronovius, suspected by Grotius of having availed himself of his notes on Tacitus, 246.

Groot, Cornelius de, his birth, 2 His employments, 2, 3 His death, 3 Leaves several Pieces in MS., ibid.

Groot, Diederic de, origin and signification of his name of Groot, 1 Marries his daughter to Cornelius Cornets, 2.

Groot, Ermengarda de, who she was, 1, 2 Her marriage with Cornelius Cornets, ibid Her children, 2.

Groot, Hugo de, his birth, 2 How he distinguished himself, ibid His death, ibid His children, ibid.

Groot, John de, studies under Justus Lipsius, 3 That learned man's esteem for him, ibid His works, ibid His employments, 4 Verses by Heinsius in his praise, 4 His marriage and children, ibid His death, ibid Assists his son Grotius in the edition of Martianus Capella, 15 His verses on his son's marriage, 21 Translates into dutch, in conjunction with him, his book of the antiquities of the Batavi, 28 Directs his grandson Diederic Grotius's studies, 352.

Grotius, Cornelia, Grotius's eldest daughter, her marriage with viscount Mombas, 357.

Grotius, Cornelius, son of Hugo, his studies, 338 Enters into the high chancellor Oxensteirn's service, 339 Goes to serve under the duke of Weymar, 339 His fickleness, ibid His death, 341.

Grotius, Diederic, son of Hugo Grotius, distinguishes himself by his studies, 352 Enters into the duke of Weymar's service, 353 Diverted by his father from entering into the Dutch service, ibid Goes to serve under marshal Bannier, and is made prisoner, 354 Obtains his liberty, ibid Serves under marshal Turenne, 355 The duke D'Anguien's esteem for him, ibid. His death, ibid.

Grotius, Frances, Grotius's youngest daughter, her birth and death, 356.

Grotius, Francis, brother of Hugo Grotius, verses by the latter on his death, 361.

Grotius, Hugo, whence he derived the name of Grotius, 1 his family and ancestors, ibid AEra of his birth, 4 Great hopes given by him in his childhood, 5 Writes elegiac verses at eight years of age, 6 The good education he receives, ibid Rise of his connection with Utengobard the clergyman, ibid His studies at Leyden, his masters, and the progress he makes, ibid His first journey to France, 11 Honours he receives from Henry IV., ibid Takes the degree of Doctor of Laws, ibid His correspondence with the president de Thou, 11, 12 His elogium of that magistrate after his death, 13 Pleads his first cause, ibid His edition of Martianus Capella, ibid The praise this work procures him from the Learned, 15 His management with the booksellers, ibid Translates into latin the Limneu[Greek: retiche] of Stevin, 16 Publishes an edition of Aratus's Phoenomena, 16 Compliments he received on it from several men of learning, 17 Cultivates poetry, 18 His prosopopoeia of the town of Ostend, ibid His tragedies, and their success, 19 Opinion of the learned concerning his poetical talents, ibid Edition of his poems, 20 His own thoughts of them in the latter part of his life, 21 Nominated Historiographer of the United Provinces, ibid Henry IV. has thoughts of making him his librarian, 22 Applies to the bar, 23 His method of pleading, ibid Takes a dislike to this occupation, ibid Appointed advocate general of the provinces of Holland and Zealand, 23, 24 His marriage, 24 His book of the freedom of the ocean, ibid His own thoughts of this work, 26 His book De antiquitate Reipublicae Batavicae, 27 Nominated pensionary of Rotterdam, 28 Contracts an intimacy with Barnevelt, 29 Makes a voyage to England, about the Greenland fishery, 29 Nominated commissioner in this affair, 30 Is graciously received by king James I., 31 The great friendship he contracts with Casaubon, ibid His esteem for that learned man, ibid A grand question decided by the States of Holland according to Grotius's opinion, 33, 34 The method of study sent by him to Du Maurier, 35 His elogium of Arminius, 41 He declares for his doctrine, ibid The remonstrance of the Arminians drawn up in concert with him, 45 He and Barnevelt have the sole direction of what the States do in this affair, 47 Rise of count Maurice's enmity to him, 50 Deputed by the States to the town of Amsterdam, 50 His speech on that occasion, 51 The bad success of his negotiation throws him into a fit of illness, 53, 54 His scheme for a coalition proves ineffectual, 54, 55 Deputed to Utrecht, 56 Arrested by order of prince Maurice, 58 The crimes he is accused of by his enemies, 59 His prosecution, and sentence, 66 Rotterdam interests itself for him in vain, ibid Hard-heartedness and rage of his enemies, 66 et seq. His condemnation, and its grounds, 68 Confutes them, and complains of his sentence, 72 Irregularity of his sentence, 73 Is removed to the fortress of Louvestein, 74 His employment in prison, 75 Makes his escape, 78 His Apology for the States of Holland against Sibrand Lubert, 79 Publishes another work concerning predestination and grace, 84 Prints the decree of the States, and its defence, ibid His treatise De imperio summarum potestatum circa sacra, 85 Writes against Socinus, 86 Censure it draws upon him, ibid Publishes a tract, proving that the Arminians are not Pelagians, 87 His work on destiny, ibid He arrives at Paris, 89 Ill offices which the States do him by their ambassadors in France, ibid Has no reason to speak well of the ministers of Charenton, 90 Epigrams occasioned by his arrival in France, 91 The court grants him a pension, 93 A report spread of his going to change his religion, 95 His employment at Paris, 96 His opinion of the eloquence of the advocates of those times, 96 Publishes his Apology, 97 Its contents, 98 It is condemned by the States, who proscribe the author, 99, 100 His uneasiness on this subject, 100 Taken by the French king under his protection, 101 The connections he still keeps up in Holland, 102 Corresponds by letters with prince Henry Frederic of Nassau, 102 Publishes his Stobeus, 103, and his extract of the Greek tragedies and comedies, 104 Begins his work De jure belli ac pacis, 105 Is taken ill, 106 Publishes a translation of Euripides's Phoenissae, 106 Writes in vain to prince Henry Frederic of Nassau to obtain leave to return to Holland, 107 Publishes his treatise De jure belli ac pacis, 108 Purposes to leave France, 113 A place offered him in Denmark, which he refuses, 115 His conference with cardinal Richelieu, by whom great hopes are given him, 116 Grotius returns to Holland, 118 Gains an important law-suit, 120 Disgusts he receives, 121 Is again outlawed by the States, 121 Leaves Holland,

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