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The Life of Thomas, Lord Cochrane, Tenth Earl of Dundonald, Vol. II
by Thomas Lord Cochrane
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The report of the admirals, however, had as unfavourable an effect as could have resulted had they declared openly against the project. Week followed week without any successful issue to the efforts of the Baltic fleet; and added to Lord Dundonald's chagrin at not being permitted to achieve the desired success, was his distress at finding unmerited blame thrown by the Government, and by nearly all classes of the public, upon a brave and skilful seaman, for not doing what, with the means at his disposal, it was impossible for him to do. Admiral Sir Charles Napier had failed, through no fault of his own, in the project for attacking Cronstadt, a fortress of almost unrivalled strength, and, by reason of the shallow water surrounding it, unapproachable by the heavy line-of-battle ships and frigates which constituted all his force; and during the months of his necessary inactivity, and after his return to England, Lord Dundonald was almost his only defender. "In justice to Admiral Napier, against whom 'the indignant dissatisfaction of the nation' is said to be directed," he wrote in a letter to the "Morning Post," on the 21st of September, "permit me to say that success could not have attended the operations of ships against stone batteries firing red-hot shot, however easily unresisting walls may be leisurely demolished. There is but one means to place these parties on an equal footing, and that I confidentially laid before the Government."

"The unreasoning portion of the public," he wrote to Sir James Graham on the 11th of November, "have made an outcry against old admirals, as if it were essential that they should be able to clear their way with a broadsword. But, my dear Sir James, were it necessary—which it is not—that I should place myself in an arm-chair on the poop, with each leg on a cushion, I will undertake to subdue every insular fortification at Cronstadt within four hours from the commencement of the attack." And Sebastopol, he urged, could be as easily captured, if he were only allowed to put his plans in operation. But it was not allowed. "Nothing new can be attempted at the present moment," answered Sir James Graham. "Winter will put an end to all active operations in the Baltic; and I still venture to hope that at Sebastopol our arms will be triumphant."

Lord Dundonald, though pained, not so much on his own account as in the interests of the nation, at the way in which his offers were treated, persevered in making them. It was now too late in the season to effect anything in the Baltic; but the siege of Sebastopol was being carried on without any immediate prospect of success; and he yearned, with all the ardour that he had displayed half a century before, for an opportunity of rendering success both certain and immediate.

To this end he wrote again to Sir James Graham, and also for the first time to the Earl of Aberdeen, on the 30th of December. "The pertinacious resistance made at Sebastopol, and the possibility of events that may still further disappoint expectation," he said to Sir James, "have induced me to address Lord Aberdeen, saying that 'if it is the opinion of the Cabinet, or of those whom they consult on military affairs, that, failing the early capture of Sebastopol, the British army may be in danger, I offer to the discernment of the Cabinet my still secret plans of attack,' whereby the garrisons would be expelled from the forts or annihilated, in defiance of numerical force, and possession obtained, at least during sufficient time to enable the chief defences to be blown up and the harbour fleet to be destroyed. If you will so far favour me, I should be gratified by having an opportunity of demonstrating to your strong mind, free from professional bias, the fact that combustible ships may be not only placed on a parity with stone forts fitted to fire red-hot shot, but secured from injury more effectually than if incased in iron."

Sir James Graham's answer was, like its forerunners, complimentary, but nothing more. "I can never cease," he wrote, "to do justice to your patriotic desire to serve your country, which is evinced by your desire to encounter, in your own person, the dangers attendant on your experiment, and not to transfer the hazard of the enterprise to others." But to the enterprise itself he would give no sanction. "Your plans," he said, "by my desire were submitted to the consideration of most competent naval and military officers, whose impartial judgment cannot be impugned, and, on the whole, they did not recommend the trial of the experiment which you are anxious to make. Neither Lord Aberdeen nor I can venture to place our individual opinions in opposition to a recorded judgment of the highest authority on a question which is purely professional. I see no advantage, therefore, in renewing the discussion with you at the present moment."

Had the "impartial judgment" by which Sir James Graham held himself bound been adverse to the principle of Lord Dundonald's plans, or declared them to be anything more than "inexpedient in present circumstances," more weight might have been attached to it; although even then he could have pointed to the opposite verdict, given in 1847, by other judges quite as impartial and competent, who, while objecting to part of them on the score of their deadly efficacy, had officially announced their belief in the applicability of another part—the part of which Lord Dundonald now proposed to make most use—and recommended its adoption "when the opportunity of employing it may occur."

He therefore refused to be thwarted in his efforts to render to his country the great service that he considered to be in his power, and Sir Charles Napier's removal from the command of the Baltic fleet, in January, 1855, gave him an opportunity of offering to use that power under conditions that would relieve the Admiralty of all direct responsibility in the event of his failure. "I am much gratified," he said in another letter to Sir James Graham, "to learn that her most gracious Majesty has been pleased to reserve the high dignity of Admiral of the Fleet as a reward for services. Under this impression, permit me to solicit the favour of being allowed to contend for that distinction, not by reference again to opinions, which may prove fallacious, but by actual experimental proof of the safety and facility of assailing fortifications by my secret plans. By them, the damage and loss of life sustained by the allied squadron in their late attack on the fortifications of Sebastopol might have been partly if not wholly averted, and probably a tenfold destruction inflicted on the enemy. If this is admitted—and I do not think it can be disputed—I hope you will allow me to demonstrate the general applicability of these simple, comparatively costless, and in my opinion infallible means of annihilating the power of all kinds of batteries that can be approached to windward within half a mile. These plans have been entertained and pondered over by me during forty years, and now again I offer to explain, to test, and to put them in execution."

Sir James Graham's answer was very terse. "I have had the honour," he wrote on the 23rd of January, "of receiving your lordship's letter, in which you tender your services to take command of the Baltic Fleet. I consider the tender highly honourable to you; but I cannot give any other assurance."

No other assurance would have been of any avail. The Earl of Aberdeen's Cabinet, having lost the confidence of the country, was dissolved almost immediately after that letter was written, to be replaced by an Administration in which Lord Palmerston was Premier, and Sir Charles Wood First Lord of the Admiralty.

To Lord Palmerston the Earl of Dundonald wrote on the 13th of February. "The high position of our country being at stake on the result of the war," he said, "and our long-established naval renown pledged on the successful conduct of affairs in the Baltic, I addressed my kind friend Lord Lansdowne, who has been long conversant with the objects which, by his advice, I now offer to your lordship's notice as First Minister of the Crown, conjointly, if you judge proper, with that of the Cabinet over which you preside." He then briefly described the principle of his secret plan, adding, "I respectfully offer to execute this plan, and answer for its success, against Cronstadt, and against all minor strongholds in the Baltic."

Four weeks elapsed before that letter was answered. In the meanwhile Lord Dundonald, beginning to despair of a satisfactory hearing from any Minister of State, unless he was induced thereto by a popular demand, addressed a petition to the House of Commons, urging the importance of his plans, and praying for "a searching inquiry, to ascertain whether the aforesaid secret plans are capable speedily, certainly, and cheaply to surmount obstacles which our gallant, persevering, and costly armies and fleets have failed to accomplish." His reasons for so doing he explained in a letter addressed to the "Times" on the 10th of March.

"Peace," he there said, "being desirable not only for the interests of our country, but for those of the world at large, and the negotiations now pending being doubtless injuriously influenced by the obstinate resistance of Sebastopol (which could be overcome in a day), and by the impossibility of successfully attacking Cronstadt by naval means (which might be as speedily reduced), I have drawn up a petition to Parliament in order that secrecy and silence on my part, and deficiency of information on that of the public, may no longer prove injurious to the success of our arms. Hostilities having proceeded so far, assuredly it is more expedient to reduce a restless nation to a third- or fourth-rate power, than be ourselves reduced. Let not my motive be mistaken. I have no wish to command a fleet of 100-gun ships, or to attack first-rate fortresses by incased batteries or steam gunboats. That which I desire is, first, secretly to demonstrate to competent persons the efficiency of my plans, and then to obtain authority, during eight or ten days of fine weather, to put them in execution. The means I contemplate are simple, cheap, and safe. They would spare thousands of lives, millions of money, great havoc and uncertainty of results. Their consequences might, and probably would, effect the emancipation of Poland, and give freedom to the usurped territories of Sweden. Those who judge unfavourably of all aged naval commanders assuredly do not reflect that the useful employment of the energies of thousands and tens of thousands of men can best be developed and directed by a mind instructed by long observation matured by reflection;—an advantage to which physical power, that could clear its way by a broadsword, can bear no comparison. My unsupported opinion in regard to a naval enterprise in 1809 proved to be correct. Every other undertaking in the British service, and as Commander-in-Chief in Chili, Peru, Brazil, and Greece, was successful, and so would the protracted and unaccomplished undertaking, so injurious to the result of negotiation, have succeeded, had I possessed sufficient influence to be patiently listened to."

The petition aroused much interest among the public, but was unheeded by the House of Commons, and therefore produced very slight effect on the Ministry. "My published petition," wrote Lord Dundonald to Viscount Palmerston on the 17th of March, "has brought me numerous letters, and, amongst others, a communication, I believe from high authority, that if I do know any means whereby to spare the slaughter that must take place on storming Sebastopol, I ought to make it known. I wish I could impart to your lordship what I feel under the present circumstances, and how anxiously I desire that a speedy decision may succeed the lingering delays that I have so long endured."

A few days after that, chiefly through the assistance of his friend Lord Brougham, Lord Dundonald obtained an interview with Lord Palmerston, at which he further detailed his plans, and urged that they should be promptly employed in hastening a conclusion of the war with Russia. To Lord Palmerston he also wrote again on the 31st of March. "It has occurred to me," he said, "that the supposed inhumanity of my plans may have caused the use of the word 'inexpedient' in the report of the commission appointed in July last by the Admiralty, and may even now influence the decision of the Cabinet. Perhaps another view may have been taken of the consequences of divulging my plans, as regards the security of this kingdom." To these possible objections he urged that no conduct that brought to a speedy termination a war which might otherwise last for years, and be attended by terrible bloodshed in numerous battles, could be called inhuman; and that the most powerful means of averting invasion, and, indeed, all future war, would be the introduction of a method of fighting which, rendering all vigorous defence impossible, would frighten every nation from running the risks of warfare at all.

Those arguments appear to have had some weight; but, after further correspondence, Lord Palmerston's Government, like all the other Governments to which they had been offered, refused to put the plans in execution. Further evidence in their favour was obtained from some eminent scientific men; and it was put beyond dispute that, though they might not have such deadly efficacy as Lord Dundonald anticipated—on which point the critics spoke with hesitation—they could not fail, if properly applied, in producing very important results. But it was all in vain. All that Lord Palmerston would agree to was to have the experiment tried on a small scale at Sebastopol, and by two Engineer officers who were to be instructed in their work by Lord Dundonald. Lord Dundonald consented to the trial, if it was conducted by his son, Captain the Honourable Arthur Cochrane, R.N. But this was not agreed to, and the whole project fell to the ground.

At that result Lord Dundonald was hardly more disappointed than was a large section of the English public. Friends and strangers, soldiers, sailors, newspaper writers, and merchants, wrote to him from London, Edinburgh, Liverpool, Birmingham, Belfast, and all other parts of the kingdom, urging that, if the enterprise was not undertaken by Government, it should be executed by means of a private subscription. "I am perfectly convinced," wrote one, "that you can do all the injury to the Russian fortifications that you say you can do. If miserable jealousy at the Admiralty refuses you the means, take them from those who, like myself, are very proud to be your countrymen. I am not a rich man, but I shall gladly subscribe one hundred pounds to any scheme that you will propose and carry out yourself." "If your lordship will appeal to the country," wrote another, "in less than a week you will receive subscriptions to any amount. You will then be independent of Government routine, and the public will, without further delay, have an opportunity of testing the value of your invention, towards which the eyes of all Europe are anxiously turned at the present juncture."

Those suggestions, and the evidence afforded by them of a widespread sympathy in his efforts to render a last great service to his country, afforded real satisfaction to Lord Dundonald; but their adoption was quite impossible. As a British officer, he could not for a moment think of entering upon a warlike project independently of the State. Therefore he left the work on which his heart was set undone, and soon—though by no means so soon as he could have made it—the Russian war was brought to a conclusion.

Whatever may have been the cause of the rejection of his offer to hasten that conclusion by means of his secret war-plans, the Earl of Dundonald experienced no lack of personal courtesy during the period of the correspondence, or throughout the brief remainder of his life. His closing years were cheered by many acts by which was nearly completed the tardy reparation for former injuries which was begun with his reinstatement in the navy by King William IV., and in which the most gratifying circumstance of all was the restoration of his honours as a Knight of the Bath by her gracious Majesty Queen Victoria.

"The death of Sir Byam Martin, and the promotion of Sir William Gage to the office of Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom," wrote Sir James Graham on the 23rd of October, 1854, "vacate the appointment of Rear-Admiral. It is an honorary distinction; and your standing in the naval service and your gallant achievements entitle you to this reward. I have taken her Majesty's pleasure, and the Queen has graciously approved my recommendation. I propose, therefore, with your lordship's permission, that you shall be gazetted Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom." "I accept the proposed honour with gratitude to her Majesty and with thanks to you," answered Lord Dundonald, on the 24th. "Permit me, however, to express a hope that such distinction shall not preclude my further service to the Crown and country, which long and matured consideration on professional subjects assures me I could now perform even more effectually than at an earlier period."

A month later he was honoured by a compliment from one who, kind and gracious in all his acts, had never failed in showing towards him special grace and kindness. "My dear lord," wrote Prince Albert on the 26th of November, "a vacancy has occurred in the list of Honorary Brethren of the Trinity House, by the lamented death of Sir Byam Martin. It has always been customary in that corporation to have the Royal Navy represented amongst the Elder Brethren by one of its most distinguished officers. I therefore write to inquire whether it would be agreeable to you to be elected a member of that body; as I should, in that case, have much pleasure in proposing, as Master of the Corporation, your name for the election of the Elder Brethren. Believe me always, my dear lord, yours truly,—Albert."

"May it please your Royal Highness," Lord Dundonald wrote in reply, on the 27th, "to accept my dutiful and most grateful thanks for the honour your Royal Highness is pleased to confer. I assure your Royal Highness that I shall ever look forward with anxiety to prove my devotion and gratitude to her most gracious Majesty, for signal acts of justice and favour, and to your Royal Highness for this highly-appreciated mark of your consideration."

A token of the estimation in which Lord Dundonald was at length held by all classes of his countrymen may here be recorded. After frequent refusal, on the ground of his age and love of privacy, he consented, in May, 1856, to seek admission to the United Service Club. Its members, thereupon, at once resolved, at the proposal of Vice-Admiral Sir George F. Seymour, which was seconded by Lieutenant-General Sir C. F. Smith, "to invite that highly-distinguished officer, Admiral the Earl of Dundonald, to become an honorary member of the Club, until the time of his lordship's ballot takes place."

In spite of compliments like these, however, it was his earnest desire that, before his life was ended, every shadow which had darkened it might be cleared away, and that he might not pass into the grave without the assurance that he was formally, and in every respect, acquitted of the unjust charges brought against him nearly half a century before. While one single consequence of those charges remained in force, he considered that he was not so acquitted, and with this object he laboured to the last.

"I venture to remind your lordship," he wrote to Lord Palmerston, on the 26th of May, "that the undeviating rectitude of my conduct through a long life has already induced the Crown, in the exercise of its justice, to restore my rank and honours. There yet remains, my dear lord, a gracious and important act to perform, namely, to order my banner to be replaced in King Henry VII.'s Chapel, and to direct the repayment of the fine inflicted by the Court of King's Bench, and the restoration of my half-pay suspended during my removal from the naval service. Unless these be done, I shall descend to my grave with the consciousness, not only that justice has not fully been done to me, but under the painful conviction that its omission will be construed to the injury of my character in the estimation of posterity. Independently of the justice of this claim on its own merits, I venture to express a hope that your lordship will admit that, during my temporary absence from the naval service, my exertions tended materially to promote the interests of our country by opening to commerce the ports of the Pacific and those of all the northern provinces of Brazil."

The appeal was unsuccessful. The part of it having reference to the replacement of Lord Dundonald's banner in Westminster Abbey was considered by Lord Palmerston to be a question with which it was not in his province to deal. "With regard to the fine," he said, "I am afraid that there are no funds out of which it could be repaid, and I should doubt there being any precedent for such a proceeding; and I find, on inquiry, that pay or half-pay has not been granted to any naval officer for any period during which he may have been out of the service." That reply induced Lord Dundonald to write again to Lord Palmerston on the 7th of June. "I submit," he then said, "that, the fine being imposed for an alleged offence of which I was wholly innocent, it ought to be repaid, even if there be no special fund appropriated to such a purpose. The peculiarity of my case may account for there being no precedent for such a proceeding, if none there be. The same peculiarity may distinguish my case from that of all other naval officers to whom no pay or half-pay has been allowed for any period during which they may have been out of the service. I may have been the only naval officer unjustly expelled, and assuredly I have been the only one so expelled after manifesting, by various acts, a truly patriotic zeal for the honour and interest of our country. No other naval officer, after such acts, was ever expelled the service and otherwise punished on mere conjectural evidence, since demonstrated to have been utterly groundless. I submit that instances have occurred of military officers recovering pay or half-pay after unjust expulsion, as in the case of Sir Robert Wilson; and I am not aware of the existence of any cause for a distinction in this respect between the two services. I feel the deepest gratitude and satisfaction that my life has been spared to a period when I may reasonably hope that the portion of justice yet due to me for the erroneous verdict and its injurious consequences will not be withheld. Of that justice, the first instalment, namely, the restoration of my naval rank, was granted by his late Majesty King William, and the second by her present most gracious Majesty, who, on the representation of my noble friend the Marquess of Lansdowne, was pleased to reinstate me in the Order of the Bath. For the third and conclusive portion of justice still remaining due to me, I cannot desist from looking to your lordship."

It is not necessary to detail the later correspondence that ensued upon this subject. Lord Dundonald found that the final reparation which he sought was not, then at any rate, to be conceded to him by the Government; and therefore he resolved to employ his last remaining powers in seeking from his countrymen that thorough justice which he rightly considered would result from an honest review of the incidents of his life.

During 1858, and in the beginning of 1859, he was engaged in the preparation of his "Narrative of Services in the Liberation of Chili, Peru, and Brazil from Spanish and Portuguese Domination."[24] That work was immediately followed by his "Autobiography of a Seaman," of which the first volume was completed in December, 1859, the second in September, 1860; bringing down the story to the date from which it has been continued in the present work.[25]

[24] The following letter, dated "Buckingham Palace, March 4, 1859," gave pleasure to Lord Dundonald:—"My Lord,—I have received the commands of His Royal Highness the Prince Consort to return you his best thanks for the copy of your 'Narrative,' which you have been good enough to send to his Royal Highness, and upon which his Royal Highness will place a high value. I am directed further to say that it would add materially to that value if you would have the kindness to write in the first page of the accompanying volume that it was presented by your lordship to the Prince. I have the honour to be, my lord, your most obedient humble servant,—C. B. Phipps."

[25] Almost the last letter written by Lord Dundonald was this to Lord Brougham:—"My dear Lord Brougham,—I have the pleasure to forward you the second volume of my 'Autobiography,' in which you will find that use has been made of the kind expressions towards myself contained in your works. Of the injustice done to me I need not tell you, who are so well acquainted with the subject. If the accompanying volume succeeds in impressing on the public mind the sentiments so unflinchingly set forth in your works, it will have answered its purpose; and that it will do so I see no reason to doubt, now that the subject can be canvassed apart from political rancour. I am, my dear Lord Brougham, ever faithfully yours,—Dundonald." Lord Brougham's answer was dated from Paris, on the 31st of October, the very day of his friend's death. "I have just received your very kind letter, and I daresay the volume will very speedily reach me.... One thing I fear you do not come down late enough to relate. I mean the impression made upon all present when I took you to the Tuileries; and when the name of Cochrane, so well known to them (and which I cannot bring myself to change for your present title), was no sooner heard than there was a general start and shudder. I remember saying, as we drove away, that it ought to satisfy you as to your disappointment at Basque Roads; and you answered that you would rather have had the ships."

That his mind was full of vigour to the last is best proved by that autobiography. But the body was worn out. After two years of great physical suffering, passed in the house of his eldest son at Queen's Gate, Kensington, he died on the 31st of October, 1860, eighty-five years old.

He was buried in Westminster Abbey, where in his last moments he had expressed a desire to rest, in company with other great servants of the nation. A public funeral was not granted to him; but his son was permitted to conduct that funeral in a way worthy of his great reputation, and agreeable to the wishes of all classes of his countrymen. Through the personal intervention of her most gracious Majesty and the Prince Consort, moreover, who counteracted the efforts of subordinates, his insignia of the Order of the Bath, which had been ignominiously spurned from King Henry the Seventh's chapel, one-and-fifty years before, were restored to their place on the 13th of November. Thus his last and most cherished wish was fulfilled, and another precious boon was added to the many favours for which his family can never cease to be grateful to their Sovereign and her noble husband.

The burial was on the 14th of November. The pall-bearers were Admiral Sir George Seymour, the Brazilian Minister, Admiral Grenfell—who five-and-thirty years before had been associated with Lord Dundonald in securing the independence of Brazil—Captain Goldsmith, Captain Schomberg, Captain Hay, and Captain Nolloth. Among the mourners was Lord Brougham, who had come from Paris to render this last honour to one who had been his friend through fifty years. Standing over the grave, and looking round upon the assemblage, he exclaimed, "No Cabinet minister here! no officer of State to grace this great man's funeral!" But the funeral was graced by the reverent homage of hundreds gathered within the Abbey walls, and of the thousands who, though absent, acknowledged that England had lost one of her bravest warriors and most unselfish patriots, one whose warfare had been marked by acts of daring rarely equalled, and whose patriotism had brought upon him sufferings such as few in modern times have had to endure. The solemn anthem chanted over his grave, "His body is buried in peace, but his memory shall live for ever," echoed far and wide, and awakened in every breast keen sentiments of sympathy for what he had borne and of pride in what he had done.

Ashes to Ashes! Lay the hero down Within the grey old Abbey's glorious shade. In our Walhalla ne'er was worthier laid Since martyr first won palm, or victor crown.

'Tis well the State he served no farthing pays To grace with pomp and honour all too late His grave, whom, living, Statesmen dogged with hate, Denying justice, and withholding praise.

Let England hide her face above his tomb, As much for shame as sorrow. Let her think Upon the bitter cup he had to drink— Heroic soul, branded with felon's doom.

A Sea-King, whose fit place had been by Blake, Or our own Nelson, had he been but free To follow glory's quest upon the sea, Leading the conquered navies in his wake—

A Captain, whom it had been ours to cheer From conquest on to conquest, had our land But set its wisest, worthiest in command, Not such as hated all the good revere.

We let them cage the Lion while the fire In his high heart burnt clear and unsubdued; We let them stir that frank and forward mood From greatness to the self-consuming ire,

The fret and chafe that wait on service scorned, Justice denied, and truth to silence driven; From men we left him to appeal to Heaven, 'Gainst fraud set high, and evidence suborned—

We left him, with bound arms, to mark the sword Given to weak hands; left him, with working brain, To see rogues traffic, and fools rashly reign, Where Strength should have been guide, and Honour lord—

Left him to cry aloud, without support, Against the creeping things that eat away Our wooden walls, and boast as they betray, The base supporters of a baser Court,

The crawling worms that in corruption breed, And on corruption batten, till at last Mistaken honour the proud victim cast Out to their spite, to writhe, and pant, and bleed

Under their stings and slime; and bleed he did For years, till hope into heart-sickness grew, And he sought other seas and service new, And his bright sword in alien laurels hid—

Nor even so found gratitude, but came Back to his England, bankrupt, save of praise, To eat his heart, through weary wishful days, And shape his strength to bearing of his shame,

Till, slow but sure, drew on a better time, And Statesmen owned the check of public will; And, at the last, light pierced the shadow chill That fouled his honour with the taint of crime.

And then they gave him back the knightly spurs Which he had never forfeited—the rank From which he ne'er by ill-deserving sank, More than the Lion sinks for yelp of curs.

Justice had lingered on its road too long: The Lion was grown old; the time gone by, When for his aid we vainly raised a cry, To save our flag from shame, our decks from wrong.

The infamy is theirs, whose evil deed Is past undoing; yet not guiltless we, Who, penniless, that brave old man could see, Restored to honour, but denied its meed.

A Belisarius, old and sad and poor, To our shame, not to his—so he lived on, Till man's allotted fourscore years were gone, And scarcely then had leave to 'stablish sure

Proofs of his innocence, and their shame, That had so wronged him; and, this done, came death, To seal the assurance of his dying breath, And wipe the last faint tarnish from his name.

At last his fame stands fair, and full of years He seeks that judgment which his wrongers all Have sought before him—and above his pall His flag, replaced at length, waves with his peers.

He did not live to see it, but he knew His country with one voice had set it high; And knowing this he was content to die, And leave to gracious Heaven what might ensue.

Ashes to ashes! Lay the hero down, No nobler heart e'er knew the bitter lot To be misjudged, maligned, accused, forgot— Twine martyr's palm among his victor's crown.[26]

[26] These lines, by Mr. Tom Taylor, were published in "Punch."

"Victor and Martyr." Those are the words fittest to be inscribed on the monument that will be set up in the hearts of Englishmen in honour of the Earl of Dundonald. Entering life with great powers of mind and great physical endowments for his only fortune, he made his name famous, and won immortal honour to himself by daring and successful enterprises in the naval service of his country, which none have surpassed at an age so young as his, and which few have rivalled during a long life-time spent in war. But he sought to follow up those triumphs of his prowess on the sea by peaceful victories at home over private jealousy, official intrigue, and political wrong-doing, and thereby he brought on himself opposition which, boldly resented, caused the unjust forfeiture of the rewards that were his due, and weighed him down with a terrible load of disappointed hope and undeserved reproach. Seeking relief from these grievous sufferings, and opportunity of further work in a profession very dear to him and in generous aid of nations striving to throw off the tyranny to which they had long been subjected, he entered the service of three foreign states in succession. But in helping others he only brought fresh trouble on himself. He rescued Chili and Peru from Spanish thraldom, only to find that the people whom he had freed therefrom were themselves enthralled by passions which even he could do nothing to overcome, and which drove him from their shores, barely thanked and quite unrecompensed. He fought the battles of the young empire of Brazil against Portugal, doubled her territories, and more than doubled her opportunities of future development, only to be cruelly spurned by the faction then in power, and denied the fulfilment of national pledges which a later generation has but tardily and slightly regarded. Harder yet was his treatment by the Greeks, who, having asked him to lead them in their contest with their Turkish masters, refused to follow his leadership, gave him no assistance in his plans for fighting on their behalf, and, in return for the services which, in spite of all the difficulties in his way, he was able to render them, offered him little but insult. Thus more than half his life was wasted—wasted as far as he himself was concerned, though the gain to others from every one of his achievements was great indeed. Returning then to peaceful work in England, he chiefly spent the years remaining to him in efforts to win back the justice of which he had been deprived, and in efforts, yet more zealous, to benefit his country by exercise of the inventive talents in which he was almost as eminent as in warlike powers. But those talents were slighted, though from them has, in part, resulted an entire and wholly beneficial revolution in the science and practice of naval warfare. And, though many of his personal wrongs were redressed, he was allowed to die without the complete wiping out of the stain that had been put upon his honour.

Of this long course of suffering, it must be admitted, he was himself in some measure the cause. Endowed, as few others have been endowed, with the highest mental qualities, he lacked other qualities necessary to worldly advancement and the prosperous enjoyment of life. Truth and justice he made the guiding principles of all his actions; but he knew nothing of expediency, and was no adept in the arts of prudence. Unrivalled strategy was displayed by him in all his warlike enterprises; but against the strategy of his fellow-workers he was utterly defenceless. He made enemies where a cautious man might have made friends, and he allowed those enemies to assail him, and to inflict upon him injuries almost irreparable, with weapons and by onslaughts which a cautious man would easily have warded off. Judged by the harshest rules of worldly wisdom, however, it must be acknowledged that these faults brought upon him far heavier punishment than he merited. And perhaps it will be deemed by posterity that they were faults very nearly akin to virtues.

The same want of prudence caused trouble to him in other respects. It led him, in furtherance of the inventions and other projects by which he sought to benefit the world, into expenses by which his scanty sources of income were very heavily taxed. It also sometimes made him the victim of others. Guileless himself, he was not proof against the guile of many with whom he came in contact. Every kind word sounded in his ear, every kind act appeared in his eye, as if it proceeded from a heart as full of kindness as his own, and he often lavished sympathy and gratitude on unworthy objects. But shall we blame him for this?

Kindness, indeed, was as much a characteristic of him as valour. While the world was full of the fame of his warlike achievements, all who came within the circle of his acquaintance marvelled to find a man so simple, so tender, so generous, and so courteous. When he was bowed down by sorrows that nearly crushed him, he sought comfort in zealous efforts for alleviating the sufferings of others.

Fortunate circumstances would have placed him in a station of universal honour, which he could have occupied to the admiration of all on-lookers. But the circumstances of his life were unfortunate; and therefore he had to endure such hardship as falls to the lot of few. The harsh judgment by which he suffered has already been reversed. It will be atoned for when his worth is properly acknowledged by his fellow-men.



APPENDIX.

(Page 161.)

CAPTAIN ABNEY HASTINGS'S LETTERS TO LORD COCHRANE

So much had to be said in the body of this volume in evidence of the insurmountable difficulties raised by the Greeks themselves to Lord Cochrane's efforts to aid them as efficiently as he desired, that there seemed no room, without wearying the reader, for there citing more than two or three of the letters addressed to him by Captain Abney Hastings. They have, therefore, been reserved for quotation here. Their publication is desirable for two reasons. In the first place, they show how Captain Hastings, whom all the historians of the Greek Revolution join in praising, was harassed, and his work rendered almost useless, by causes which Lord Cochrane, in a much more difficult position, was blamed for not overcoming. In the second place, they will serve as a contribution to the biography of a high-minded and valiant man, a sharer in Lord Cochrane's zealous efforts on behalf of Greece, and in the misfortunes incident thereto, of whose memorable career the world knows little.

I.

Karteria, Hydra, March 26th, 1827.

MY LORD,

The usual contrarieties of the machine prevented my following you yesterday according to your desire. Observing you went to Poros, I thought I should act in conformity with your wishes by coming here to take in coals, and avoid all possible delay. I have got on board enough for about four days more. I have expected you all day, and not seeing you I have taken upon myself to depart for the service you destined me for; although I am not quite certain I know the exact station. I shall go off Grabousa and endeavour to find Captain St. George. I leave a letter here for the primates, requesting them to load a small vessel with coals for my return, which I wish to take in on the opposite side. This measure, far from occasioning delay, would be advantageous in that respect as well as having less close connection with the Hydriots, whose presence always has the effect of setting a bad example to the Greeks I have on board. I should feel obliged to your lordship to insist on this measure. Perhaps it would be advantageous for your lordship to decide upon the port you intend to occupy immediately, and send there all the coals and other stores wanted for your naval force. Since you object to an island in the Great Archipelago, I am of opinion, with Colonel Gordon, that Ambalaki is the best suited for your station. If all the coals were there, much delay would be saved to the steam-vessels. One of the causes our engine went so badly was that some fire-bars being burnt the fire fell through, and we could not keep up the steam; another was, I had taken up the paddles (which previously had two-feet dip) six inches; the engine consequently went faster, but the pumps would not supply sufficient water. I have lowered them again. Pray leave your further orders for me here, as I shall touch for coals as aforesaid on my return.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

II.

Karteria, Poros, April 9th, 1827

MY LORD,

I have the honour to transmit you an account of the Karteria steam-vessel up to March 16th, by which you will perceive that with the 500l. credit I have on Messrs. Baif at Zante, I still have a credit of 363 dollars in my favour. Not accustomed to keep such accounts, there may be errors, but if any they are certainly against myself, as I may have omitted charging expenses; whereas, I have never charged but what has really been expended, nor have I ever charged anything for myself, directly or indirectly. Wages will become due again the 16th of this month, for which I shall require about 800 dollars. Having but a few days' salt meat on board, I beg your lordship to cause an order to be written, enabling me to receive such quantity as you may deem requisite.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

III.

Karteria, Scopulo, April 19th, N.S., 1827.

MY LORD,

Northerly winds prevented my passing Cape Doro until the 15th. Having spoken a vessel from Skyro, I learnt that an Austrian merchant vessel loaded with corn and ammunition for Negropont was laying at that island under convoy of an Austrian vessel of war, and that the corvette of Tombasi was there watching the merchant vessel. I touched at Skyro the night of the 15th, and found that the Austrian was gone, supposed for Syra, followed by an Hydriot schooner of Konduriottes, who is supposed to have made some arrangement with the Austrian to deliver the cargo to him. The Greek corvette had sailed, as I was told, for this. I arrived here the night of the 16th, and found that the brig and schooner were zealously employed on the service they had been sent upon. Having steamed more than I had at first intended, I was in want of fuel, and set them at work here to obtain me wood, which they have done with more alacrity than I expected during Easter holidays. The engine of course required repairs. I sent off the schooner to inform the vessels of the blockade, when I should join them, and appointing a rendezvous. I sail immediately, and hope to take or destroy the vessels at Tricheri and Volo tomorrow. I send this by the primates of this island, who carry a letter to your lordship offering their services. They have been apparently much oppressed in all these islands by the heroes of the earth, and are anxious to obtain protection from the naval force. This island is fertile, and could (and could be made to) pay well for protection. The others have claims equally strong for protection. St. George, De Skyro, Scopulo, Skatho, &c., &c., have more than 2,000 Liapis quartered upon them at this moment. If Athens is relieved, these worthies might be turned into Negropont with much effect. I am told the Turkish transports are still at Tricheri and Volo, not doubting to clear the Gulf of Greeks a force d'argent—however, I hope to be with them to-morrow.

I suspect fuel could be obtained cheaper here than at Megara; and I see no reason for incurring the expense of transport of wood to Poros for construction of gunboats when a great majority of the Greek vessels are constructed here. The wood does not grow here. It is brought from Agora on the main. The deputies—tout betes comme ils sont—can inform your lordship of these things.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

P.S.—Having taken the coals out from between the boilers and side of the ship, I am anxious to fill this space with wool, as a protection against shot. The coals stowed there are an inconvenience for many reasons, and something is necessary to replace them as a protection for the boilers. If your lordship would be good enough to order Tombasi to procure me wool for that purpose, I think you would be ultimately satisfied of its utility.

IV.

Karteria, off Tricheri, Monday, April 23rd, N.S., 1827.

MY LORD,

I have the honour to inform you that in pursuance of your orders, I carried the squadron under my command, consisting of corvette Themistocles, brig Aris, schooner Aspasia, and schooner Panayia, before the port of Volo, the evening of the 20th. I found eight vessels at anchor in the port; immediately I directed the Themistocles and Aris to anchor off a battery at the point, and cannonade it whilst I entered the harbour with boats and schooners. At 4.30 P.M. they anchored with much gallantry, and soon silenced the musket-shot from the battery. At the same moment I entered the harbour with the boats and schooners, and we shortly took possession of seven brigs: they were all on shore, and most without sails bent. However, by 9 P.M. we succeeded in getting out five prizes, three loaded with provisions and ammunition, two light; and this most fortunately without the loss of a man killed or wounded, although we lay at anchor in the harbour four hours and a half, exposed to the fire of the Castle of Volo. The ship has received no material injury, although several shot struck her. We set fire to two prizes we could not succeed in getting out; one light brig remains, but we shot away her foremast and did her such damage in her hull as will (I hope) prevent her putting to sea again. Last night I entered Tricheri with the boats of Themistocles, Aris, and Aspasia, to endeavour to carry out a brig of war, Turkish, of sixteen guns and two mortars, but found her protected too advantageously by batteries and musketry. I send the prizes to your lordship under the convoy of the Aspasia, and shall remain here a few days to endeavour to destroy the Turkish brig of war, and shall then return to join your lordship. I beg leave to assure your lordship before I conclude that in these affairs I have met with the most cordial support from the captains of the vessels under my orders, and that their conduct, as well as that of all the officers and men of the squadron, has been highly meritorious.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

P.S.—As the schooner Panayia will participate in the prizes, I have ordered her to remain on the blockade, although not sent by your lordship.

V.

Karteria, at Sea, April 24th, 1827.

MY LORD,

An hour after I had the honour of sending you my last letter, detailing the affair of Volo, I stood into Tricheri with the vessels under my command, viz., Themistocles, Aris, Panayia.

The Turks in this place had one brig-of-war which (erroneously in my last I rated at sixteen guns) mounted but fourteen long 24-pounders and two mortars; she was made fast in a small bight, with a plank on shore and high rocks on each side of her, behind which were posted a strong corps of Albanian troops; she was likewise protected by a battery close under her bow and five other batteries in other parts. Four small schooners lay quite hauled up on the beach. To attempt to carry away vessels so posted and defended by men who wanted neither alacrity nor resolution would have been exposing the lives of the crews in a very unwarrantable manner. I therefore resolved to burn the brig, which we effected in less than an hour. I did not make any attempt upon the schooners, which I considered too inconsiderable to justify a loss in capturing them. In this affair the captains, officers, and crews conducted themselves all much to my satisfaction.

Inclosed I have the honour to transmit to you a return of the killed and wounded in this affair, which, I am happy to say, is trifling. I have left the rest of the squadron to maintain the blockade.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

A return of the killed and wounded on board of the Greek squadron, at Tricheri, April 23rd./11th.

Karteria, killed . . . one seaman, Ralph Hall. Aris, killed . . . . . one seaman. " wounded . . . . . . two seamen. Panayia, wounded . . . one seaman. Total . . . . . . . two killed and three wounded. F. A. HASTINGS.

VI.

Karteria, at Sea, April 26th, N.S., 1827.

MY LORD,

Passing by Kumi, I observed several vessels at anchor there, and a great number of large kyekes, &c., hauled up on the beach. I stood in, and overhauled them, and found, as I suspected, that a most scandalous and extensive commerce in grain is carrying on to that place with the Turks, chiefly in Greek vessels. A brig under Russian colours was chiefly discharged; a Psarian schooner was nearly full, and the magazines on shore were full. I set about loading the grain from the magazines, but was unable to take off more than one-third of what was in them; and I have good reason for supposing that other magazines equally stored are to be found in the town, about an hour's distance.

Here there were only a dozen Turks, who fled at our approach. In the evening no less than nine small vessels were seen standing in to Kumi. I weighed and boarded six of them; three being entirely empty, I allowed to pass; two I detained and have brought with me.

The want of men, of time, &c., has prevented my putting a finishing hand to this infamous traffic; but I have no doubt your lordship will see the propriety of sending a vessel of war without delay to destroy these depots. It is idle to talk of blockading the Gulf of Negropont whilst such an extensive commerce is carrying on at other points of the island.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

VII.

Karteria, Poros, April 28th, 1827.

MY LORD,

Captain St. George going to join you, I take the opportunity of informing you, besides what my other letters contain, that my information from Kumi imports that Negropont contains two months' provisions for the army of Kutayi and fortress, and that all their hopes are in the Turkish fleet, expected daily. It seems to me of the first importance that the Greek fleet should be ready to encounter the Turks; and the Gulf is a place particularly favourable to the smaller, lighter, and more skilful party. Might I suggest, my lord, the propriety of sending a couple of light vessels upon whom you could depend to cruise off the Dardanelles, and give information in time? The corvette, brig, and schooner off Tricheri requested me to represent their want of provisions, and the necessity they have of paying their crew regularly; many I suspect have already quitted them: with Greek sailors no arrears of pay can exist—hitherto they have been accustomed to receive their wages in advance; if they can be made to go to sea without that advance it is a great point gained; to omit fulfilling the engagement would be to ruin all confidence and oblige the sailors to return to their ancient demands.

With respect to Kumi, I beg leave to urge the necessity of sending a vessel (perhaps better Captain St. George than a Greek, who probably would not dare do his duty there, was he so disposed) to destroy the infamous traffic existing there. May I beg of your lordship to order here the Marine Tribunal from Napoli to adjudge the prizes taken; also to issue a public order respecting the distribution of prize-money, by which I may be guided in my payments? You will observe that in my letter respecting the affair of Tricheri I mention simply having burnt the brig-of-war without saying how. That letter being a despatch for publication, I thought it as well not to proclaim to the enemy the use we made of red-hot shot. It was by those I burnt the brig, and could quite as easily burn by the same means the largest ship ever built. Might I suggest the advantage that would result from using the same projectile from almost every ship? each vessel might as well as me have a furnace in her hold for the feeding of two of her guns—the effect would be tremendous. If the fleet was ready before the Turks came out, a slight excursion to Salonica might be attended with profit and advantage. I shall require a little time to repair damages. I have lost my larboard cat-head, my jib-boom, second topmast, main-gaff, bowsprit shot through, and the engine requires various repairs—the steam waste-pipe is completely gone, and I must get another made. I hope and trust your lordship has still the intention of forming a national fleet and a dockyard; without this your difficulties will be multiplied beyond measure. I merely mention this because I hear intrigues are on foot to prevent such measures. I, a stranger, who belong to no party, and who neither fear nor love the Hydriots and Spetziots, will tell you the truth on these points. Although your orders prescribed for me to remain a fortnight on the blockade of the Gulf of Negropont, I was forced to return—wanting ammunition, fuel, provisions, and various repairs. I shall use my endeavours to be ready for sea as speedily as possible. Before I conclude, give me leave to congratulate your lordship upon your brilliant success at the Piraeus. I have no doubt it is but a prelude to more important successes.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

VIII.

Karteria, Poros, April 30th, 1827.

MY LORD,

May I beg leave to present to you my very particular friend, Mr. Nicolo Kalergy? You will find him a young man of good education, talent, and, what is of still greater value, of great probity. I have known him many years, and esteemed him equally long. By his private fortune he is independent, and has consequently always refused to meddle in the intrigues he regrets so much to see cause the misfortunes of his country. So much for introduction. Mr. Nicolo Kalergy has been good enough to wait upon you to receive your orders respecting the prizes I have lately captured. These vessels contain grain chiefly, and therefore would in that state be of no use to you. Your commissaries must turn it into biscuit before it is sent to the Piraeus. The Government has sent for the Admiralty Court from Napoli to sit here upon the judgment of vessels detained. As to the sale, I am of opinion that to appease the jealousy of the seamen a public sale should be held, and your commissaries purchase it if they please. They will thus always obtain it cheaper than they could buy it at Syra, and thus nobody can complain. I am anxious to receive from your lordship an order respecting the distribution of prize-money, and this, I think, should be public. Hitherto the Government has received fifteen per cent. upon all prizes. Of course your lordship will arrange as you think proper upon this subject; but if any part of a prize goes to the public purse, it is only but just it should aid in the payment of the wages of seamen. I am now paying a month's wages out of my own pocket, which I hope and trust your lordship will reimburse me, as I cannot continue this system. Anything can be done in Greece by prompt payments; with arrears nothing is to be done. My friend has much and various information respecting every part of Greece, and can furnish you with much useful matter. I do not doubt but you will shortly appreciate his merit.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

P.S.—May I beg of you, my lord, to furnish me with a commission of lieutenant for Mr. Darby, the only officer doing duty as a sailor on board—in truth, he is no sailor, and does not pretend, but he is brave, diligent, and a gentleman, and has served with me for about four months?

IX.

Karteria, Poros, April 30th, 1827.

MY LORD,

I had the honour to receive your orders of the 28th inst. Your lordship will have observed, by the letters I had the honour of transmitting to you, that the condition of this vessel is such as to render it impossible for her to put to sea immediately. Dr. Gosse last night was occupied sending you off 68-pounders, and I am happy to hear this morning that the monastery has fallen without them. I must again repeat how indispensable it is that this fleet should be in readiness to encounter the Turks, who cannot now delay long their departure.

It is with deep regret I see the extreme discontent existing on board the Sauveur brig, which seems to me to be greatly augmented, if not entirely owing to the Greeks being paid in advance and the English being in arrears of wages. In this country, my lord, I must repeat, nothing can be done without regular payments. By paying out of my own funds, when others could not be obtained, I have established the confidence of the Greeks and English in this vessel, as far as money is concerned; but I cannot continue to pay out of my own pocket. If funds are not forthcoming for the wages of this vessel, I must beg leave to resign. Whilst I am on board my people will always consider me personally responsible for their wages; and I must again remark I have suffered already much too severely in my private fortune to admit of my making further sacrifices. Besides wages for the crew, I have various expenses here to repair damage sustained by the vessel.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

P.S.—It seems to me necessary to relieve the vessels at Volo, or they will quit their station. Greek sailors on board their own ships will not remain more than a month at sea.

X.

Karteria, Poros, May 6th, 1827.

MY LORD,

I do myself the honour of enclosing for your perusal two different extracts from public papers sent me lately from Zante. I am now ready for sea, excepting powder, of which I have only two quarter-casks of very vile French stuff, received from Captain St. George. Mr. Hesketh, amongst the other prizes made at Napoli, has brought some flannel cartridges for our guns filled, and forty casks of powder. Would your lordship have the goodness to cause an order to be sent me to receive this powder? There is still a great quantity of the stores sent out from England missing. I have the bills of lading, and can give copies to Mr. Hesketh, if you think proper to send to Hydra, Spetzas, and Napoli again to collect them. I suspect the Hydriots have now in their possession about one hundred and sixty carbines such as I have on board.

It appears strange to everybody here that all the Commissary Department should be absent. I am informed provisions are wanted, and yet nobody comes to buy the prize provisions. As every Greek is by nature a thief, things disappear daily; and if they remain much longer, nothing will be forthcoming. Already my Greeks have petitioned me about the prizes; and everybody acquainted with Greek sailors must be aware they will not go to sea again until they have been paid their prize-money. Till now there never was no example of a ship quitting her prize until sold and the proceeds distributed. I am sorry to be obliged to remind your lordship again that on my arrival here I paid my crew one month's wages, due the 16th of last month, and in ten days more another month's wages are due, and pay I must, for, as I have frequently remarked to your lordship, no arrears can exist in this country. The wages also is not the only expense. I was obliged to purchase about one hundred tons of firewood at Scopulo. Fresh meat in harbour runs away with great sums; and when the engine works, it consumes about half a dollar a day of oil. Besides all this, I have been obliged to hire three carpenters for ten days to repair damages done in late expedition. I had a fluke shot off a bower anchor at Tricheri, and ought to have another one. I must get a new main-sail made here. It is disagreeable to me to torment your lordship with all these statements, but you must be aware that a vessel like this cannot be sailed without great expense. There are here a number of seamen from the brig who want to enter with me. I have as yet refused to receive them; but, if you thought proper to give me an order, I should then be justified in so doing.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

XI.

Karteria, Spetzas, May 30th, 1827.

MY LORD,

Having lost my two masts in a squall off Cape Malea, and having business at Poros requiring my presence, I have thought it the most expeditious way to go myself to purchase other masts at Hydra, and settle my affairs at Poros. I therefore do myself the honour to transmit to your lordship a report of my proceedings after you left me near Stamphane. At sunset I lighted the fires, and, as soon as steam was up, steered for the passage between Zante and the Morea. The wind freshening much in a contrary direction, I found myself about ten miles to the southward of Zante in the morning. About three A.M. we perceived a large vessel standing towards us from the Morea, and we went to quarters for her. I thought at first she might be the Hellas; but on approaching she stood back to the mainland, which made me conclude that it was a stranger; the wind increasing, I could not remain head to wind, and made sail under the lee of Zante. In the forenoon I saw a large ship under the land far off steering to the south, which I concluded was a Turkish or neutral ship of war. The wind abating, I steamed up round the eastern point of Zante, and not finding the Hellas on the other side of the island, I stood towards Cephalonia, opening out the two Turkish frigates laying at Clarenza. In the evening I saw a large ship very far astern coming northward, and supposed she was the Hellas and the same I had seen in the forenoon under the land. At sunset I altered course and steered for Clarenza, and in the first watch we saw a good deal of firing in that direction. The wind and sea augmenting, I was unable to keep the ship head to sea, and therefore bore up for the rendezvous of Oxia. Not finding the Hellas at this station, the wind augmenting, the starboard wheel being out of repair, and threatening to come to pieces if not looked to, the water requiring to be drawn off the boilers, &c., all these things made it necessary for me to search a port. I looked inside Oxia, but found it unsafe, and therefore bore up for the Port of Petala, where I put things to rights as well as I could; but found on examination we had but three days and a half's coals, little water, and only a few days' bread. Under these circumstances, I felt myself called upon to return whilst the means were still left me of hoping to accomplish it. Having obtained an offing west of Cephalonia, I took off the paddles and sailed, which gave us an opportunity of again repairing the wheels—again in an unsound condition—and saved our fuel. The wind and sea calming, I got up my steam; and there being every appearance of calm weather, I stood within five or six miles of Modon, hoping to meet the two frigates we saw off there when we passed northward. However, we saw nothing but a brig inside the harbour, sailing close along the land. Late on the evening of the 28th, when rounding Cape St. Angelo, a squall from the high land carried away our fore and second masts, and left us in a very unenviable situation, considering we had but a few hours' coals on board. However, a breeze favouring us all night, we arrived here at ten A.M., 29th May. Upon the foremast we lost one man—Jani Patinioti.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

XII.

Karteria, Spetzas, June 7th, N.S., 1827.

MY LORD,

I had the honour of sending you a report of my proceedings since I left you, and hoped to have found you here on my return from Poros, that I might receive your further orders. I returned last night, having been subjected to more delay and vexation than can be imagined or expressed, respecting the prizes taken at Volo. I could only procure one mast at Poros, sold me by Tombasi—others there were both at Hydra and Poros, but the proprietors would not part with them; I have therefore been obliged to purchase one here, considerably too large and expensive, but there is no remedy. I hope to be ready for sea in three days, but fear I shall have some embarrassment about money matters. The purchase of masts, of salt provisions, sails, &c., besides the pay due to crew, puts me to considerable straits, particularly as I had lent all the ready money I possessed to Kalergy to redeem his brother; however, I shall do my utmost to get to sea, and I am anxious to know how, when, and where, I can have the honour of rejoining your lordship. A fireship that departs to-day will deliver you this letter, and your lordship may perhaps think it worth while to send a vessel here with orders for my further guidance. May I beg of you also to add a private signal by which I may know all Greek vessels at a tolerable distance by day—also a night private signal?

The British squadron is assembled at Smyrna, awaiting the admiral. The camp at Phalerum is broken up, and General Church is returned to Egina. The puppet of Government is occupied voting for the nomination of ministers, if possible more incapable than themselves; they talk of going to Napoli—Griva and Fotomana propose this. The former as usual seized upon an American ship; and Dr. Howe, charged with the distribution of the cargo, applied to Captain Patterson of the Constitution, who is now at Napoli guarding it. I am sorry to add that Mr. Lee received a letter from England announcing that the Enterprise having sailed, her boilers burst opposite Plymouth, and she was towed into that port by a brig-of-war.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

XIII.

Karteria, Spetzas, June 9th, 1827.

MY LORD,

I had the honour to receive your order of the 7th, enjoining me to repair to your lordship without delay, if ready for sea. A variety of circumstances (unavoidable in a country deprived of even the shadow of organization) has prevented my being yet ready to sail. I received my foremast on board to-day, but the majority and best of my crew has left me. I must look for others, and intend to weigh to-night and go to Poros, where I was tormented by hundreds to take them. Here I can get men—but shall confine myself to half-a-dozen, as I find it necessary to mix my crew. In going to Poros I shall not delay anything, since I shall be occupied getting up my masts and rigging there, making sails, &c., &c., en route, and I can water more easily at Poros than here. I have informed the captain of the brig that brought this, that if I am ready to sail before any further orders of yours arrive, I shall repair to Cerigotto, and there await instructions from you; if I am not at Cerigotto I shall be found here.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

XIV.

Karteria, Syra, August 1st, 1827.

MY LORD,

In hopes of seeing your lordship here I have waited two days, since which, although not finished, all the work of our machinery can be done on board. There are two things which retain me, namely, money, of which I require about seven hundred dollars, and the fire-bars, which they continually civilly refuse me—acting the true Greek or in other words, the dog in the manger. If your lordship remains long absent, I shall be sadly puzzled how to act. Without new fire-bars we cannot steam again. The local authorities here are so afraid of the Hydriots and Spetziots that they dare not take any steps against them. To leave this without the fire-bars is useless. If I can obtain these bars, and your lordship does not arrive, I will pay myself the necessary sums to get the vessel out of this port, hoping you will reimburse me—but to go without the bars is only going to return again. What I can do to forward the service I will readily perform, and anxious enough I am to get away from this place.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

XV.

Karteria, Poros, August 19th, 1827,

MY LORD,

On my arrival here I wrote to Hydra to request the local authorities there to send me the necessary coals, since you do not wish the last cargo to be used. I have received no answer, and upon inquiring yesterday from persons arrived from Hydra, I find they are not taking any measures to forward them to me. My officer wrote me under date of the 15th from Napoli that he hoped to be able to cast the bars there, in which case I shall have to wait for the coals from Hydra. The impertinence of these shopkeepers has at length attained a pitch that is scarcely endurable—it is to be hoped your lordship will make them send the coals—[The remainder is lost.]

XVI.

Karteria, Poros, August 20th, 1827.

MY LORD,

I am delighted to find you have an expedition in progress. This vessel shall be ready to accompany your lordship, whether I can get the bars cast at Napoli or not. The ones we now have can be made to answer for twenty-four hours. I shall write to Napoli to order the engineers to be here by the 23rd, whether they succeed in casting the bars or not. The coals I wrote for from Hydra are Government coals; and it is well they should be used the first, as I have been informed they are greatly diminishing without our consumption. I should like to complete as speedily as possible, and there is no time to spare between this and the 24th for shipping 100 tons of coal from Hydra.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

XVII.

Karteria, Poros, August 22nd, 1827.

MY LORD,

I am making a sail according to your lordship's plan, to becalm the hull of the ship, but want sailcloth for completing it. I understand M. Koering has some in store; would your lordship be kind enough to allow me to take a hundred piques? I have a good deal of very bad French powder on board, and even of Turkish, I suspect, put into French barrels, which I received from Methana—could your lordship permit me to exchange it against English powder? It is of very great importance that our cartridge powder should be good.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

XVIII.

Karteria, Gulf of Lepanto, Sept. 27th, 1827.

MY LORD,

I have the honour to transmit you a report of my proceedings from the day I left you till this moment. Captain Thomas, of the Sauveur, joined me the 21st, and proposed with much gallantry to go into the Gulf in the daytime. The wind being usually out at night I consented with some difficulty, in consequence of the little dependence I can place on my engine, which might render it impossible for me to follow him immediately. The Sauveur, with gunboat Bavaroise in tow, and accompanied by two schooners (you had left to keep the blockade at Missolonghi, but who, contrary to my knowledge, thus disobeyed your orders), passed into the Gulf the evening of the 21st in most gallant style, in despite of the enemy's very formidable batteries and one brig of war and two schooners at the Morea Castles, and several vessels at Lepanto. I attempted to steam in that night, but the engine failed me within two miles of the Castles. The next day, the wind being strong in, I attempted to sail in, but when within gunshot of the Castles the wind failed me, and it was not until the evening of the 23rd that I could get passed, towing after me the Philhellene gunboat, of whose commander I have always had particular occasion to be satisfied. All our damage amounted to a few ropes cut. On communicating with the Morea, the 24th, I was informed that the enemy had nine vessels at Salona, and there were three Austrians there, that Captain Thomas had attacked them the 23rd, but in consequence of unfavorable weather he had not made any impression, and that he retired to Loutraki. I immediately despatched a mistico to desire Captain Thomas to join me with all the vessels he could collect; but not seeing him on the 26th, and fearing that the Turks might strengthen themselves during a delay, I stood in on the 26th with the gunboat Philhellene; but we no sooner approached than the wind came so strong out that we could not keep the ship head to wind, and found it necessary to retire. The Turks have at Salona a very fine Algerine schooner brig, of fourteen guns, brig of sixteen guns, bearing an admiral's flag, three smaller schooners, two armed transport brigs, and two large boats with guns, and they have a battery on shore. There are also three Austrians. While under their fire one of my engineers was slightly wounded. I am now waiting for the arrival of Captain Thomas, for whom I have sent again, and preparing for a final trial.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

XIX.

Karteria, Loutraki, Oct. 7th, 1827.

MY LORD,

Captain Thomas arrived here after our affair at Salona with the prizes, and sent off immediately to Poros for provisions and ammunition. I could not (notwithstanding your orders for him to remain only seven days in the Gulf) allow him to depart in the state he then was—having only five days' provisions, and four cartridges a gun. He received some powder and provisions yesterday, and in consequence of your order of the 27th, which he received yesterday, departs immediately. If the length of time Captain Thomas has remained in the Gulf is contrary to your intentions, I am alone responsible; he was always anxious to depart. My crew is in a very discontented state, in consequence of the month being expired without their receiving their wages. Twelve have left me, and if I do not get money I fear the whole crew will follow their example. I have sent an officer to Poros for provisions, ammunition, and money, if possible. I understand the English are about to prevent any offensive operations of General Church, and if not, he would never be able to undertake any, situated as he is for money and provisions. This seems to render my remaining here any longer of no use. As soon as I can get any money and provisions and arrange about the prizes I will quit the Gulf; but as I have no orders from you where to go, I shall return to Poros unless you contrive to send me some directions in the interim.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

XX.

Karteria, Loutraki, Oct. 8th, 1827.

MY LORD,

I have the honour to receive your letter of the 3rd, and am happy to hear that the Enterprise is arrived. I have also received one thousand dollars with the stores, &c., which are very acceptable. I despatched the Sauveur yesterday, according to your order of the 27th ult. I still retain the gunboats, which are very useful. I wish further orders from your lordship to know whether we are to remain in the Gulf, and if you wish us to go out. There is yet at the Castles a brig and three or four Turkish schooners. I do not exactly know their position. I intend to run down there one of these days and see what can be done with them; if close under the walls of the Castles, which are very strong, we could burn them some dark night if you would send me a dozen rockets. I would go with a small boat close to them and do their business. Mr. Hane announces to me that your lordship proposes coming up to Corinth, in which case I will do myself the honour of waiting upon you, and receiving your further orders. I have despatched a gunboat to General Church to inform him of your intention, and to bring him here if he wishes to confer with your lordship.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

XXI.

Karteria, Loutraki, Oct. 14th, 1827.

MY LORD,

Mr. Hane writes me that the Turkish fleet is off Patras. From time to time I have received vague accounts of vessels off there, but nothing certain. I shall fortify myself either here or at the port on the other side, under the village of Pera ora—I think the latter. I want fuzes for shells. A box was sent (I suppose in mistake for fuzes), but it contained blue lights. Pray give an officer an order to send me at least five hundred fuzes. In my last to your lordship I mentioned of what service rockets would be to us as means of attack on the enemy's vessels at the Castles; they will be of no less service as weapons of defence. Pray, my lord, let me have as large a quantity as possible. I understood you were coming to Corinth, which has detained me here, or I would by this have been at the other end of the Gulf to gain information, and see after the brig, for I fear Thomas is not too prudent. I have just been informed that much cannonading was heard in the quarter of Lepanto the day before yesterday. I hope no misfortune has befallen him. I have the two gunboats and one mistico out to bring me information, and I can receive nothing. Pray let me have the rockets.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. HASTINGS.

XXII.

Karteria, Port Strava, Gulf of Lepanto, Oct. 17th, 1827.

MY LORD,

Not having received any orders from your lordship, I am still in the Gulf. In consequence of an order from your lordship to Captain Thomas, I despatched the Sauveur on the 7th inst., and sent the gunboat Philhellene with her with letters to General Church, and orders to wait and bring me information how the Sauveur got past the Castles; for I was a good deal anxious on her account, and should have gone myself to give her any assistance in case of need, but that I understood you intended coming over to Corinth. Mr. Hane bringing me letters for General Church, I despatched the other gunboat, Bavaroise, with these, and also some for the Sauveur, in case she was still in the Gulf. Mr. Darby, the commander of the Bavaroise, had directions to bring General Church if he was anxious to communicate personally with your lordship. Day after day I awaited anxiously an answer, till at length the mistico I had sent three days ago to General Church, to learn something of the fleet outside, which Mr. Hane wrote me for certain was Turkish, returned yesterday evening, informing me that the Sauveur and two gunboats had gone out on Wednesday. General Church writes me that he positively intends passing into Roumelia, and wants my aid; but I am now quite alone (except the mistico, with whom I know not what to do). He continually applies to me for provisions, and will soon probably for money. What am I to do about him? Although wishing to aid General Church and the service in all I can, I must acknowledge I have no confidence in his intended movement, more particularly as he tells me he has no provisions, and wants me to seize by force what I find in boats. All I could get by this discreditable way of raising provisions would not certainly feed one hundred men for three days, and therefore could not aid General Church, and would be a gratuitous vexation of these miserable peasantry. If General Church had money and provisions, much is to be done in Roumelia, but without these nothing can be achieved anywhere. As soon as I have got the prizes back to Loutraki, and formed batteries, I will go and visit General Church, and learn more particulars. But I am very anxious for some orders from your lordship, having received nothing but the official letter of thanks since I left you. I write in haste, and beg your lordship to let me have an answer as soon as possible.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. Hastings.

XXIII.

Karteria, Loutraki, Oct. 27th, 1827.

MY LORD,

I am ready to do all and anything for the good of the service, but I fear General Church has no means. I had him on board for two days, making reconnaissances round the Gulf, and from what I can gather, the money said to be at Corfu is a chimera. I suspect he has not a shilling anywhere, and cannot stir. He talks, it is true, of expeditions, and I have always assured him of my readiness to aid him, but we cannot be consuming months after months in the hopes of his receiving supplies. I must limit the period of his embarkation, and if he cannot then act, I think I shall be justified in quitting him. I shall try, however, to destroy the other vessels in the Gulf first. We are in great want of fire-bars. I am laying in a stock of wood, but we have not yet been able to succeed perfectly with it. I have taken out the bars and filled the ash-pits; this we find does better than with any bars in, but we cannot as yet keep up steam with it. I hope, however, ultimately to succeed—in fact our coals are nearly finished. To show you how General Church goes on—his gunboat has only advanced twenty feet from the beach, and yet he will not send away that swindler Allen, who commands her. I told him I would not meddle with her until he dismissed that man, and things remain thus. General Church, while on board, received letters announcing the unlooked-for destruction of the Turkish fleet; still I have not entirely credited it, and I am in anxious expectation of some decisive information about it. I am obliged to your lordship for the fuzes, and hoped to have had also some rockets. We are beginning to get short again of provisions, viz., biscuit. The loaded prize is condemned, with a ridiculous clause for me to pay the crew. They say nothing of the other vessels. I send Captain Hane to Egina, to hasten the condemnation of the light vessels and counteract the intrigues which I have no doubt Tombasi has recommenced. I shall also endeavour by him to have more biscuit; we have now but for a fortnight.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. Hastings.

XXIV.

Karteria, Loutraki, Nov. 8th, 1827.

MY LORD,

The General Church has at length put himself in motion. Some provisions and money have arrived on the other side for him (I mean at Calamachi), and I hope to sail with it to join him to-night. I fortunately received a fortnight's provisions yesterday, when I had only one day's biscuit on board. After destroying, or ascertaining that I cannot destroy, the vessels at Lepanto, I will go outside the Gulf and blockade Missolonghi, Patras, and the Gulf, hoping the General will blockade them by land. I fear much, however, for provisions; I will endeavour to get some from the Ionian Islands; but money and everything else is scarce with me,—but I hear your lordship is in the same predicament, and therefore I cannot complain. May I beg of your lordship to grant a commission of naval lieutenant to M. Falanga, who has served on board this vessel from 29th March, 1827, and is a most deserving officer? he is the only sailor officer I have, and was always the only one of any use in that capacity. He behaved extremely well both at Volo, Tricheri, and Salona, at which latter place he was wounded in the neck with a musket-ball, while setting fire to one of the abandoned vessels. I may really say he is the only Greek I ever saw who seems to conceive what an officer ought to be. Although he would be a great loss to me, and I should be sorry to part with him but for his own advantage, I can strongly recommend him for promotion in the command of a vessel, since (as I hear) your lordship is in such dreadful want of officers to command. I am sure he would give you the highest satisfaction.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

F. A. Hastings.

XXV.

Karteria, Nov. 17th, 1827.

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