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The Life of Captain Matthew Flinders
by Ernest Scott
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The Government, however, appears to feel that considerably larger forces are required than are now available. At the time of our departure the regiment forming the garrison at Port Jackson did not number more than 800. But some were being continually removed to India, and to replace them 5000 men were expected. The news of the war must have led to the changing of these dispositions, because the troops, which were to have been transported on warships, were drawn from Europe, and probably the English Government will have been careful not to despatch so considerable a force to New Holland in the critical situation in which it now finds itself. Moreover, General, do not believe that so many troops are indispensable to the security of the coasts of New Holland, but rather consider the advantages that the English nation is likely to draw from its establishments in that part of the world. The climate of India, inimical to newcomers from Europe, is still more so to these British regiments, drawn from the frosty counties of the north of England and from the icy realms of Scotland. A considerable loss of men results from their almost immediate transportation to the burning plains of India. Forced to look after a population which has little affinity with its immense possessions in both hemispheres, England has always set an example of great sacrifices for all that can tend to the conservation of the health of its people. The new colony of Port Jackson will serve in the future as a depot for troops destined for India. Actually the whole of the territory occupied up to the present is extremely salubrious. Not a single malady endemic to the country has yet been experienced. The whole population enjoys the best of health. The children especially are handsome and vigorous, though the temperature at certain times is very high. We ourselves experienced towards the close of our visit very hot weather, though we were there in the months of Fructidor, Vendemiaire and Brumaire* (* Note 31: From Fructidor to Brumaire would be from September 22nd to December 20th.) nearly corresponding to our European spring. The temperature of New Holland, rather more than a mean between those of England and India, ought to be valuable in preparing for the latter country that large body of soldiers which the Government despatches every year to Bengal, the Coromandel coast, Malabar, etc., etc. Consequently the loss of men will be much less, and you will easily realise the advantage that will accrue to a power like England, when it contemplates the invasion, with a mediocre population, of archipelagos, islands, and even continents.

NOTE: This portion of New Holland appears to owe its salubriousness:—

(1) To a situation resembling that of the Cape of Good Hope (Port Jackson is in about latitude 34 degrees).

(2) To the nature of the soil, which is very dry, especially round Sydney;

(3) To the nature of the vegetation, which is not vigorous enough to maintain a noxious stagnation in the lower strata of the atmosphere;

(4) To the great, or rather enormous, quantity of aromatic plants which constitute the principal part of the vegetation, including even the largest species;

(5) To the vicinity of the Blue Mountains, the elevation of which contributes largely to maintain a certain salutary freshness in the atmosphere;

(6) To the remarkable constancy of the light fresh breezes which blow from the south-east towards the middle of the day.

I have not yet finished the account of the important advantages that England draws from this colony. If time were not so pressing and if I had at my disposal the abundant material consigned to our Government, I could write more. I venture to sum up those considerations to which I have referred, in a form which will be useful for determining your opinion upon this important and rising colony.

(1) By means of it England founds an empire which will extend over the continent of New Holland, Van Diemen's Land, all the islands of Bass Strait, New Zealand, and the numerous archipelagos of the Pacific Ocean.

(2) She thereby becomes the mistress of a large number of superb ports, several of which can be compared with advantage to the most fortunately situated harbours in other parts of the world.

(3) She thereby excludes her rivals, and, so to speak, blocks all the nations of Europe from entry to the Pacific.

(4) Having become the neighbour of Peru and Chili, she casts towards those countries hopes increasingly assured and greedy.

(5) Her privateers and her fleets in time of war will be able to devastate the coasts of South America; and, if in the last war she attempted no such enterprise, the reason appears to be that her astute policy made her fear to do too much to open the eyes of Spain, and even of all Europe.

(6) In time of peace, by means of an active contraband trade, she prepares redoubtable enemies for the Spaniards; she furnishes arms and ammunition of all kinds to that horde of untamed people who have not yet been subjugated to the European yoke.

(7) By the same means she enables the products of her manufacturers to inundate South America, which is shabbily and above all expensively supplied by Spain.

(8) If amongst the numerous archipelagos that are visited constantly some formidable military position is found, England will occupy it and, becoming a nearer neighbour to the rich Spanish possessions, will menace them more closely, more certainly, and above all more impatiently. Mr. Flinders, in an expedition of discovery which is calculated to last five years, and who doubtless at the present moment is traversing the region under discussion, appears to have that object particularly in view.* (* Note 32: "M. Flinders, dans une expedition de decouverte qui doit durer cinq ans, et qui sans doute parcourt en ce moment le theatre qui nous occupe, paroit avoir plus particulierement cette objet en vue." The passage is peculiarly interesting. At the time when Peron was writing, early in December, 1803, Flinders was, as a matter of fact, sailing towards Ile-de-France in the Cumberland.)

(9) The extraordinarily lucrative whale fishery of New Zealand is EXCLUSIVELY* (* Note 33: Underlined in original.) assured to them. No European nation can henceforth, according to the general opinion, compete with them for that object.

(10) The fishery, no less lucrative, of the enormous seals which cover the shores of several of the islands of Bass Strait, and from which is drawn an oil infinitely superior to whale oil, guarantees them yet another source of greatness and of wealth. Note: the seals in question, distinguished by the English under the name of sea elephants, are sometimes 25 or 30 feet long. They attain the bulk of a large cask: and the enormous mass of the animal seems, so to say, to be composed of solid, or rather coagulated, oil. The quantity extracted from one seal is prodigious. I have collected many particulars on this subject.

(11) A third fishery, even more lucrative and important, is that of the skins of various varieties of seal which inhabit most of the islands of Bass Strait, all the Furneaux Islands, all the islands off the eastern coast of Van Diemen's Land, and all those on the south-west coast of New Holland, and which probably will be found upon the archipelagos of the eastern portion of this vast continent. The skins of these various species of seal are much desired in China. The sale of a shipload of these goods in that country is as rapid as it is lucrative. The ships engaged in the business are laden on their return to Europe with that precious merchandise of China which gold alone can extract from the clutch of its rapacious possessors. Accordingly, one of the most important objects of the mission of Lord Macartney* to China, (* Note 34: Lord Macartney's embassy to China, 1792 to 1794, was, says the Cambridge Modern History (2 718), "productive only of a somewhat better acquaintance between the two Powers and an increased knowledge on the part of British sailors of the navigation of Chinese waters.") that of developing in that country a demand for some of the economic and manufacturing products of England, so as to relieve that country of the necessity of sending out such a mass of specie—that interesting object which all the ostentatious display of the commercial wealth of Europe had not been able to attain, and all the astute diplomacy of Lord Macartney had failed to achieve—the English have recently accomplished. Masters of the trade in these kinds of skin, they are about to become masters of the China trade. The coin accumulated in the coffers of the Government or of private people will no longer be sunk in the provinces of China. That advantage is incontestably one of the greatest that they have derived from their establishment at Port Jackson.

(12) This augmentation of distant possessions is likely to occasion a fresh development in the British Navy. The practice of voyaging round the world should exalt the enthusiasm of their sailors, whilst it increases their number and efficiency. I may add here that to attain the last-mentioned end the English Government compels each ship which sails for these regions, and above all for New Zealand, to carry a certain number of young men below 19 years of age, who return from these voyages only after having obtained a very valuable endowment of experience.

(13) The temperature and salubriousness of the country will enable it to look after a very large number of soldiers who used to be incapacitated every year by the burning heat of Asia.

(14) The abundance of the flocks, and the superiority of their wool, will furnish an immense quantity of excellent material to the national manufactures, already superior to those of the rest of Europe.

(15) The cultivation of hemp and vines gives cause to the English to hope that before very long they will be freed from the large tribute which they now pay for the first-named to all the Powers of the north of Europe, and for the second to Portugal, France and Spain.

(16) I will not discuss with you some substances indigenous to the country which are already in use, whether in medicine, or in the arts—of eucalyptus gum, for example, which is at once astringent and tonic to a very high degree, and is likely soon to become one of our most energetic drugs. Nor will I say much about the resin furnished by the tree which the English mis-name gourmier,* (* Note 35: Peron's word.) a resin which by reason of its hardness may become of very great value in the arts. It will be sufficient to say, General, that I possess a native axe obtained from the aboriginals of King George's Sound. It is nothing better than a chip of very hard granite fastened to the end of a piece of wood, which serves as a handle, by means of the resin to which I have referred. I have shown it to several persons. It will rapidly split a wooden plank and one can strike with all one's force, without in the least degree injuring the resin. Though the edge of the stone has several times been chipped, the resin always remained intact. I will say little of the fine and abundant timber furnished by what is called the casuarina tree, and by what the English improperly call the pear. This pear is what the botanists term Xylomelum, and by reason of its extremely beautiful and deep grain, and the fine polish which it is susceptible of receiving, it appears to be superior to some of the best known woods. I will not refer at length to the famous flax of New Zealand, which may become the subject of a large trade when its preparation is made easier; nor to cotton, which is being naturalised; nor to coffee, of which I myself have seen the first plantations, etc., etc. All these commodities are secondary in importance in comparison with others to which I have referred; yet, considered together, they will add greatly to the importance of this new colony. Similarly, I will pass over the diverse products which are sure to be furnished by the prolific archipelagos, and of which several are likely to become of great value and to fetch high prices for use in the arts and in medicine. For example, the cargo of the last vessel that arrived in Port Jackson from the Navigator Islands, during our stay, consisted partly of cordage of different degrees of thickness, made from a plant peculiar to those islands, the nature of which is such that, we were assured, it is almost indestructible by water and the humidity of the atmosphere; whilst its toughness makes it superior to ordinary cordage.

(17) The English hope for much from mineral discoveries. Those parts of the country lying nearest to the sea, which are of a sandstone or slaty formation, appear to contain only deposits of excellent coal; but the entire range of the Blue Mountains has not yet been explored for minerals. The colony had not up to the time of our visit a mineralogist in its service, but the Governor hoped soon to obtain the services of one, to commence making investigations; and the nature of the country, combined with its extent, affords ground for strong hope in that regard.

(18) There are, finally, other advantages, apparently less interesting, but which do not fail to exert an influence upon the character and prestige of a nation. I refer to the conspicuous glory which geographical discoveries necessarily following upon such an establishment as this bring upon a nation's name; to all that which accrues to a people from the discovery and collection of so many new and valuable things; to the distinguished services which new countries call forth and which confer so much distinction upon those who watch over their birth.

Time does not permit me to pursue the enquiry. I wish only to add here one fresh proof of the importance which England attaches to this new colony. When we left Port Jackson, the authorities were awaiting the arrival of five or six large vessels laden with the goods of English persons formerly domiciled at the Cape of Good Hope, whom the surrender of that possession to the Dutch had compelled to leave.* (* Note 36: The Cape was surrendered to Holland in 1803, but British rule was restored there in 1806.) That very great accession of population ought sufficiently to indicate to you how great are the projects of the British Ministry in that region.

Before concluding I should have liked to point out the impossibility, for France, of retarding the rapid progress of the establishment at Port Jackson, or of entering into competition with its settlers in the trade in sealskins, the whale fishery, etc. But it would take rather too long to discuss that matter. I think I ought to confine myself to telling you that my opinion, and that of all those among us who have more particularly occupied themselves with enquiring into the organization of that colony, is that it should be destroyed as soon as possible.* (* Note 37: Mon sentiment et celui de tous ceux d'entre nous qui se sont plus particulierement occupes de l'organisation de cette colonie seroit de la detruire le plus tot possible.") To-day we could destroy it easily; we shall not be able to do so in 25 years' time.

I have the honour to be, with respectful devotion,

Your very humble servant,

PERON.

P.S. M. Freycinet, the young officer, has especially concerned himself with examining all the points upon the coast of the environs of Port Jackson which are favourable to the landing of troops. He has collected particular information concerning the entrance to the port; and, if ever the Government should think of putting into execution the project of destroying this freshly-set trap of a great Power,* that distinguished officer would be of valuable assistance in such an operation. (* Note 38: "Le projet de detruire ce piege naissant d'une grande puissance." )



APPENDIX C. NAMES GIVEN BY FLINDERS TO IMPORTANT AUSTRALIAN COASTAL FEATURES.

Among the Flinders Papers is a list of names given by Flinders to points on the Australian coast, with his reasons for doing so. The list is incomplete, but has served as the basis of the following catalogue, for help in the enlargement of which I am greatly indebted to Mr. Walter Jeffery:—

TOM THUMB VOYAGE, WITH BASS:

Hat Hill, named by Flinders from Cook's suggestion that it "looked like the crown of a hat." Red Point. Martin's Isles, after the boy who accompanied them. Providential Cove (native name, Wattamowlee).

VOYAGE OF THE FRANCIS:

Green Cape. Cape Barren Island. Clarke Island, Hamilton's Rocks, after members of the crew of the Sydney Cove. Kent's Group, after the Captain of the Supply. Armstrong's Channel, after the Master of the Supply. Preservation Island.

VOYAGE OF THE NORFOLK:

Chappell Islands, after Miss Ann Chappell. Settlement Island, Babel Islands (from the noises made by the sea-birds), and other names in the Furneaux Group. Double Sandy Point. Low Head. Table Cape. Circular Head. Hunter Islands, after Governor Hunter. Three-Hummock Island. Barren Island. Cape Grim. Trefoil Island. Albatross Island. Mount Heemskirk and Mount Zeehan, after Tasman's ships. Point Hibbs, after the Master of the Norfolk. Rocky Point. Mount de Witt. Point St. Vincent, after the First Lord of the Admiralty. Norfolk Bay and Mount. Cape Pillar. After the voyage was over, Hunter, apparently at Flinders' suggestion, named Cape Portland, Bass Strait, Port Dalrymple and Waterhouse Island.

VOYAGE OF THE NORFOLK TO QUEENSLAND:

Shoal Bay. Sugarloaf Point. Pumice-stone River. Point Skirmish. Moreton Island. Curlew Inlet.

VOYAGE OF THE INVESTIGATOR (Western Australia):

Cape Leeuwin, "the most projecting part of Leeuwin's Land." Mount Manypeak. Haul-off Rock. Cape Knob. Mount Barren. Lucky Bay, discovered when the ship was in an awkward position. Goose Island. Twin Peaks Islands. Cape Pasley, after Admiral Pasley. Point Malcolm, after Captain Pulteney Malcolm. Point Culver. Point Dover.

VOYAGE OF THE INVESTIGATOR (South Australia):

Nuyts' Reefs and Cape. Fowler's Bay and Point, after the First Lieutenant of the Investigator. Point Sinclair, after a midshipman on the Investigator. Point Bell, after the surgeon of the Investigator. Purdie's Islands, after the Assistant-surgeon of the Investigator. St. Francis Islands, adapted from the name given by Nuyts. Lound's Island, Lacy's Island, Evans' Island, Franklin's Island (in Nuyts' Archipelago), after midshipmen on the Investigator. Petrel Bay. Denial Bay, "as well in allusion to St. Peter as to the deceptive hope we had found of penetrating by it some distance into the interior country." Smoky Bay, from the number of smoke columns rising from the shore. Point Brown, after the Botanist of the Investigator. Streaky Bay, "much seaweed floating about." Cape Bauer, after the Botanical Draftsman of the Investigator. Point Westall, after the painter. Olive Island, after the ship's clerk. Cape Radstock, after Admiral Lord Radstock. Waldegrave Isles. Topgallant Isles. Anxious Bay, "from the night we passed in it." Investigator Group. Pearson's Island, after Flinders' brother-in-law. Ward's Island, after his mother's maiden name. Flinders' Island, after Lieutenant S.W. Flinders. Cape (now Point) Drummond, after Captain Adam Drummond, R.N. Point Sir Isaac, Coffin's Bay, after Vice-Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin. Mount Greenly, Greenly Isles, after the lady to whom Sir Isaac Coffin was engaged. Point Whidbey, Whidbey's Islands, after "My worthy friend the Master-attendant at Sheerness." Avoid Bay and Point, "from its being exposed to the dangerous southern winds." Liguanea Island, after an estate in Jamaica. Cape Wiles, after the Botanist on the Providence. Williams' Isle. Sleaford Bay, from Sleaford in Lincolnshire. Thistle Island, after the Master of the Investigator. Neptune Isles, "for they seemed inaccessible to men." Thorny Passage, from the dangerous rocks. Cape Catastrophe, where the accident occurred. Taylor's Island, after a midshipman drowned in the accident. Wedge Island, "from its shape." Gambier Isles, after Admiral Lord Gambier. Memory Cove, in memory of the accident. Cape Donington, after Flinders' birthplace. Port Lincoln, after the chief town in Flinders' native county. Boston Island, Bay and Point, Bicker Island, Surfleet Point, Stamford Hill, Spalding Cove, Grantham Island, Kirton Point, Point Bolingbroke, Louth Bay and Isle, Sleaford Mere, Lusby Isle, Langton Isle, Kirkby Isle, Winceby Isle, Sibsey Isle, Tumby Isle, Stickney Isle, Hareby Isle. All Lincolnshire names, after places familiar to Flinders. Dalby Isle, after the Rev. M. Tyler's parish. Marum Isle, after the residence of Mr. Stephenson, Sir Joseph Banks' agent. Spilsby Island, after the town where the Franklins lived. Partney Isles, after the place where Miss Chappell lived, and where Flinders was married. Revesby Isle, after Revesby Abbey, Banks' Lincolnshire seat. Northside Hill. Elbow Hill, from its shape. Barn Hill, from the form of its top. Mount Young, after Admiral Young. Point Lowly. Mount Brown, after the botanist. Mount Arden, Flinders' great-grandmother's name. Point Riley, after an Admiralty official. Point Pearce, after an Admiralty official. Corny Point, "a remarkable point." Hardwicke Bay, after Lord Hardwicke. Spencer's Gulf and Cape, after Earl Spencer. Althorp Isles, after Lord Spencer's eldest son. Kangaroo Island and Head. Point Marsden, after the Second Secretary to the Admiralty. Nepean Bay, after Sir Evan Nepean, Secretary to the Admiralty. Mount Lofty, from its height. St. Vincent's Gulf, after Admiral Lord St. Vincent. Cape Jervis, Lord St. Vincent's family name. Troubridge Hill, after Admiral Troubridge. Investigator Strait. Yorke's Peninsula, after the Honourable C.P. Yorke. Prospect Hill. Pelican Lagoon. Backstairs Passage. Antechamber Bay. Cape Willoughby. Pages Islets. Encounter Bay.

VOYAGE OF THE INVESTIGATOR (Victoria):

Point Franklin. Indented Head (Port Phillip). Station Peak (Port Phillip).

VOYAGE OF THE INVESTIGATOR (Queensland):

Tacking Point. Mount Larcom, after Captain Larcom, R.N. Gatcombe Head. Port Curtis, after Admiral Sir Roger Curtis. Facing Island, the eastern boundary of Port Curtis, facing the sea. Port Bowen, after Captain James Bowen, R.N., Naval Commandant at Madeira when the Investigator put in there. Cape Clinton, after Colonel Clinton of the 85th Regiment, Commandant at Madeira. Entrance Island. Westwater Head. Eastwater Hill. Mount Westall, after William Westall the artist. Townshend Island—Cook had so named the Cape which is its prominent feature. Leicester Island. Aken's Island, after the Master of the Investigator. Strongtide Passage. Double Mount. Mount Funnel, from its form. Upper Head. Percy Isles, after the Northumberland family. Eastern Fields, coral banks near Torres Strait. Pandora's Entrance, after the Pandora. Half-way Island, convenient anchorage for ships going through Tortes Strait. Good Island, after Peter Good, the botanist.

VOYAGE OF THE INVESTIGATOR (in the Gulf of Carpentaria):

Duyfken Point, after the first vessel which entered the Gulf of Carpentaria. Pera Head, after the second vessel that sailed along this coast in 1623. Sweers Island, after a member of the Batavia Council in Tasman's time. Inspection Hill. Lord William Bentinck's Island (now Bentinck Island), after the Governor of Madras. Allen's Island, after the "Miner"—i.e., Geologist—of the Investigator. Horseshoe Island. Investigator Road. Pisonia Isle, from the soft white wood of the Pisonia tree found upon it. Bountiful Island. Wellesley Island, Mornington Isle—After the Marquess Wellesley, Governor-General of India, whose earlier title was Lord Mornington.

VOYAGE OF THE INVESTIGATOR (Northern Territory):

Vanderlin Island, the Dutch "Cape Vanderlin." Sir Edward Pellew Group, Cape Pellew, after Admiral Pellew. Craggy Isles. West Island. North Island. Centre Island. Observation Island. Cabbage-Tree Cove. Maria Island, the Dutch "Cape Maria." Bickerton Island, after Admiral Sir Richard Bickerton. Cape Barrow, after Sir John Barrow. Connexion Island. North Point Island. Chasm Island, "the upper parts are intersected by many deep chasms." North-West Bay. Winchelsea Island, after the Earl of Winchelsea. Finch's Island, after the Winchelsea family name. Pandanus Hill, from the clump of trees upon it. Burney Island, after Captain James Burney, R.N. Nicol Island, after "His Majesty's bookseller." Woodah Island, "it having some resemblance to the whaddie, or woodah, a wooden sword used by the natives of Port Jackson." Bustard Isles—They "harboured several bustards." Mount Grindall, Point Grindall, after Vice-Admiral Grindall. Morgan's Isle, after a seaman who died there. Bluemud Bay, "in most parts of the bay is a blue mud of so fine a quality that I judge it might be useful in the manufacture of earthenware." Point Blane, after Sir Gilbert Blane of the Naval Medical Board. Cape Shield, after Commissioner Shield. Cape Grey, after General Grey, Commandant at Capetown. Point Middle. Mount Alexander. Point Alexander. Round Hill Island. Caledon Bay, after the Governor of the Cape of Good Hope. Cape Arnhem, extremity of Arnhem's Land. Mount Saunders. Mount Dundas, Melville Isles—After Dundas, Viscount Melville, a colleague of the younger Pitt. Mount Bonner. Drimmie Head. Cape Wilberforce, after W. Wilberforce, M.P., the slave-emancipator, who was a friend of Flinders. Melville Bay, after Viscount Melville. Harbour Rock. Point Dundas. Bromby Islands, after the Reverend F. Bromby, of Hull, a cousin of Mrs. Flinders. Malay Road. Pombasso's Island, after the chief of the Malay praus. Cotton's Island, after Captain Cotton of the East India Company's Directorate. English Company Islands, after the East India Company. Wigram Island. Truant Island, "from its lying away from the rest." Inglis Island. Bosanquet Island. Astell Island. Mallison Island. Point Arrowsmith, after the map-publisher. Cape Newbald, Newbald Island—After Henrietta Newbald, nee Flinders, who introduced him to Pasley. Arnhem Bay. Wessell Islands, name found on a Dutch chart. Point Dale. Wreck Reef.



BIBLIOGRAPHY.

A. MANUSCRIPT SOURCES.

1. The Flinders Papers, in the Melbourne Public Library, consisting of a letter-book of Flinders (August 31, 1807, to May 31, 1814); manuscript narrative of the voyage of the Francis; miscellaneous notes and memoranda by friends and relatives, a short manuscript memoir, and a large quantity of transcripts of journals, family letters, etc. This material is not at present numbered, and allusions to it in the text of the book are therefore made by the general reference, "Flinders Papers."

2. Decaen Papers, in the Municipal Library of Caen, Normandy. General Decaen's manuscripts fill 149 volumes. The documents relating to Flinders, including a translation of portions of the Cumberland's log, are principally in volumes 10, 84, 92, and 105. Peron's important report upon the British colony at Port Jackson is also in this collection, which includes many original letters of Flinders.

3. Archives Nationales, Paris, Marine BB4, 996 to 999, contains a quantity of manuscripts relative to Baudin's expeditions, including reports and letters by him, and many miscellaneous papers.

4. The Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, nouveaux acquisitions, France, contains many documents relative to Baudin's expedition, including the diary of the commander.

5. The Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris contain reports and documents concerning the scientific work of Baudin's expedition.

6. The Depot de la Marine, service hydrographique, Paris, cartons 6, 22, and 23, contains many reports upon the Australian coast made to Captain Baudin by his officers.

7. The Library of the Royal Colonial Institute, London, contains Westall's original drawings executed on the Investigator voyage. Photographed copies are in the Mitchell Library, Sydney.

8. The Mitchell Library, Sydney, contains Smith's manuscript journal of the Investigator voyage, and many Flinders and Franklin papers, as cited in the text.

B. PRINTED DOCUMENTS.

Most of the Flinders material contained in the Record Office, London, and the British Museum, is printed in Volumes 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 of the Historical Records of New South Wales, edited by F.M. Bladen (Sydney, 1893 to 1901). Copies of other letters and documents, mainly from the same source, are in course of publication by the Commonwealth Government, under the direction of the Commonwealth Library Committee, edited by Dr. F. Watson.

C. WORKS BY FLINDERS.

FLINDERS, MATTHEW, A Voyage to Terra Australis, 2 volumes, London, 1814. The principal authority for the voyages of the navigator.

FLINDERS, M., Observations on the Coasts of Van Diemen's Land, etc., London, 1801.

FLINDERS, M., Papers on the Marine Barometer and on Variations of the Mariner's Compass, printed in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, 1806 and 1807.

FLINDERS, MATTHEW, Reise nach dem Austral-Lande, in der Absicht die Entdeckung desselben zu vollenden unter nommen in den Jaksen, 1801, 1802 and 1803. Aus dem Englischen, von F. Gotze. Weimar, 1816. A German translation of the Voyage to Terra Australis. An accompanying map is of great interest, as it essays for the first time to indicate by colours the portions of the Australian coast discovered by the English, the Dutch and the French. The map errs with regard to Kangaroo Island, in attributing the discovery of the north to the French and the south to the English. The reverse was the case.

MATTHEW FLINDERS, Ontdekkings-reis naar het Groote Zuidland anders Nieuw Holland; besigtiging van het zelve in 1801, 1802 en 1803; noodlottige schipbreak, en gevangenschap van 6 1/2 jaar by de Franschen op Mauritius. Uit het Engelsch. 4 volumes, Haarlem, 1815 and 1816. A Dutch translation of the Voyage to Terra Australis.

D. OTHER PRINTED BOOKS.

BARROW, SIR JOHN, articles in Quarterly Review, 1810 and 1817, strongly condemning the work of Peron and Freycinet (see below), and championing the cause of Flinders. Barrow had access to material in possession of the Admiralty, sent to England from Mauritius by Flinders.

BECKE, L., and JEFFERY, W., Naval Pioneers of Australia, London, 1899. Very useful.

DALRYMPLE, ALEXANDER, Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean, 2 volumes, London, 1770.

EDINBURGH REVIEW, 1807, reviews with commendation Flinders' "Observations upon the Marine Barometer."

GRANT, Narrative of a Voyage of Discovery, London, 1803.

LABILLIERE, F.P., Early History of the Colony of Victoria, 2 volumes, London, 1878 to 1879. Prints extracts from Flinders' manuscript journals relating to Port Phillip.

LAUGHTON, SIR J.K., article on Flinders in Dictionary of National Biography.

MAIDEN, J.H., Sir Joseph Banks, the Father of Australia, Sydney, 1909.

FOWLER, T.W., "The Work of Captain Matthew Flinders in Port Phillip," Victorian Geographical Journal, 1912. Good topographical account.

MALTE-BRUN, Annales des Voyages, 1810 and 1814. Interesting references to Flinders; biographical sketch in Volume 23, 268.

Naval Chronicle, Volume 32 (1814), contains a biography of Flinders, with portrait.

PATERSON, G., History of New South Wales, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1811. Contains account of the early discoveries of Bass and Flinders.

PERON and FREYCINET, Voyage de decouvertes aux Terres Australes, Paris, 1807 to 1817. Second edition, with additions by Freycinet, 1824. Very important, but the historical statements have to be checked by reference to Baudin's manuscript diary and letters (see reference to manuscripts above).

SCORESBY, W., Journal of a Voyage to Australia for Magnetic Research, 2 volumes, London, 1859. The introduction by A. Smith deals with Flinders' discoveries regarding variations of the compass.

SCOTT, ERNEST, Terre Napoleon, London, 1910. Deals generally with French explorations in Australia and particularly with the work of Baudin and Flinders. See also the bibliography to that book.

SCOTT, ERNEST, English and French Navigators on the Victorian Coast, with maps, etc., in the Victorian Historical Magazine, 1912.

SCOTT, ERNEST, "Baudin's Voyage of Exploration to Australia," in English Historical Review, April, 1913.

SMITH, E., Life of Sir Joseph Banks, London, 1911.

South Australian Geographical Society's Proceedings, 1912. Prints from Baudin's letter to Minister of Marine his account of the meeting with Flinders in Encounter Bay, and Decaen's statement of his reasons for detaining Flinders.

PICARD, ERNEST (editor), Memoires et Journaux du General Decaen, 2 volumes, Paris, 1911.

PITOT, ALBERT, Esquisses historiques de l'Ile de France, 1715 to 1810, Port Louis, Mauritius, 1899.

PRENTOUT, HENRI, L'Ile de France sous Decaen, Paris. 1901. Very important.

Victorian Geographical Journal, Volume 28 (1910 and 1911) prints a biographical sketch of Flinders from a manuscript found in a copy of A Voyage to Terra Australis in Donington vicarage in 1903. It is printed with an Introduction (by G. Gordon McCrae) wherein it is stated to be "hitherto unpublished." But it is simply the Naval Chronicle sketch, with a few paragraphs added, and it is from the same pen as the manuscript sketch mentioned above.

WALCKENAER, C.A., biography of Flinders in the Biographie Universelle, Volume 14; excellent.

WALKER, J. BACKHOUSE, Early Tasmania, Hobart, 1902. Gives an admirable account of Flinders' explorations in Tasmania.



INDEX.

Aboriginals, references to.

Admiralty's treatment of Flinders.

Aken, John. Sails in Cumberland. At Ile-de-France. Departure of.

Albatross Island.

Allen, John, miner, joins Investigator.

Althorp Isles.

Amiens, treaty of.

Arnhem Bay.

Arthur's Seat, Port Phillip.

Australasia, name of.

Australia, discovery of. Name of. Geography of, before Flinders. Theories concerning. French expedition to. South Coast discovery. Influence of Flinders on discovery. Circumnavigation of.

"Australians," Flinders' use of word.

Babel Isles.

Backstairs Passage.

Banks, Cape.

Banks' Group.

Banks, Sir Joseph, promotes breadfruit expedition. His friendship for Flinders. His interest in Australian development. Dedication of Flinders' Observations to. His letters concerning Mrs. Flinders' proposed voyage on Investigator. Disapproves of Flinders' conduct towards Decaen. His dislike to word Australia.

Barmouth Creek.

Barois, Colonel.

Barometer, marine, Flinders' paper on use of.

Barrow, Sir John, his article on Flinders' case.

Bass, Elizabeth, her marriage to George Bass. Letters from her husband.

Bass, George, family of. Medical training of. Sails in Reliance. Character of. Friendship with Flinders. Discovery of Bass Strait. Exploration of Blue Mountains. Discovery of coal. Plans discovery voyage. Whaleboat crew. Discovery of Twofold Bay. Discovery of Wilson's Promontory. Adventure with escaped convicts. Discovery of Western Port. French admiration for. Report on Derwent. Fate of. Indifference to fame. Marriage of. Purchase of Venus. Voyage to Tahiti. New Zealand fishing project. South American projects. Reports concerning his end. Letters to his mother. Flinders' last letter to. See also Flinders.

Bass Strait, discovery of. Governor Hunter on. Naming of. Importance of discovery. Flinders' chart of.

Baudin des Ardennes, Lieutenant Charles, wounded, and visited by Flinders.

Baudin, Captain Nicolas, his expedition to Australia. Instructions to. His career. Reaches Ile-de-France. Sails for Southern Tasmania. At Waterhouse Island. In Encounter Bay. At Kangaroo Island. At Port Jackson. Rumours of intended French settlement. Letter to Governor King. Report on Port Jackson. His account of the Encounter Bay meeting.

Bauer, Cape.

Bauer, Ferdinand, botanical draftsman, joins Investigator.

Baye du Cap.

Beautemps-Beaupre.

Bell, Point.

Bellerophon, H.M.S. Flinders appointed to. Battle off Brest.

Bennelong Point.

Bergeret, Captain.

Blaxland, Gregory, his exploration of Blue Mountains.

Bligh, Captain William, voyage under Captain Cook. Command of the Bounty. Mutiny of the Bounty. Character of. Second breadfruit expedition. Expedition reaches Tahiti, Voyage from Pacific to West Indies. Introduces Flinders to Duke of Clarence. Asks for dedication of Flinders' book.

Blue Mountains, exploration of.

Blue Mud Bay.

Bolger, Commandant.

Bongaree, aboriginal, accompanies Flinders on Queensland voyage. On Investigator.

Boston, Point.

Botany Bay.

Bougainville.

Boullanger, hydrographer on Le Geographe.

Bounty, H.M.S., voyage to Tahiti. Mutiny of.

Bowling Green, Cape.

Breadfruit.

Bridgewater. Behaviour at Wreck Reef. Wreck of.

Bridgewater, Cape.

Brisbane River.

Brouwer, Henrick, his new route to Java.

Brown, Point.

Brown, Robert, botanist. Joins Investigator. His Prodromus.

Burney, Captain, and name Australia.

Cape of Good Hope, Flinders at. Importance of to Australia. Voyage of Reliance to from Sydney.

Carpentaria, Gulf of.

Catastrophe, Cape.

Cato. Wreck of.

Cattle Point.

Chappell, Ann, see Flinders, Mrs. Ann.

Chappell Isles.

Chappell, Mount.

Clarence River.

Clarke's Island.

Coal, discovery of in New South Wales.

Coalcliff.

Coffin's Bay.

Compass, variations of, Flinders' experiments.

Convicts. Escaped. Isaac Nichols. Irish, Peron on. On Investigator.

Cook, Captain James, his voyage. His belief in a strait between New Holland and Van Diemen's land. Pension to his widow.

Coral reefs, Flinders on.

Crossley, J.

Cumberland, schooner, voyage to Ile-de-France. At Kupang. Arrival at Ile-de-France. Enters Port Louis. End of.

Dalrymple, Alexander, naval hydrographer. His use of word Australia.

Dalrymple, Port.

Dampier, William.

Dance, Commodore Nathaniel.

D'Arifat, Madame.

Darwin, on coral reefs.

Decaen, General Charles. Career of. Napoleon's opinion of. Sent to India. Arrival at Pondicherry. Sails for Ile-de-France. Arrival at Port Louis. Character of. Examination of Flinders. Interrogates Flinders. Invites Flinders to dinner. Flinders' refusal. Accuses Flinders of impertinence. His intentions. Report to French Government. Motives for detaining Flinders. Anger against Flinders. Despatch arrives in France. Flinders' opinion of. Receives order for Flinders' release. Refuses to liberate Flinders. His reasons. Release of Flinders.

Decres, French Minister of Marine.

Dentrecasteaux.

Derwent, estuary of the.

Dirk Hartog Island.

Donington, birthplace of Flinders. Flinders' monument at. Free school. The Flinders' house.

Donington, Cape.

Dunienville, Major.

Dutch navigators, discoveries in Australia.

East India Company, its interest in Australia. Interest in Investigator voyage.

Elder, John, Flinders' servant. Sails in Cumberland. At Ile-de-France.

Encounter Bay. Flinders and Baudin in.

Everard, Cape.

Fitzroy, Sir Charles.

Fleurieu, Comte de, prepares instructions for French discovery voyages.

Flinders, John, naval career.

Flinders, Matthew, surgeon, father of the navigator. Marriage into Franklin family. Death of.

Flinders, Matthew, genealogy. School days. Study of Robinson Crusoe. Anecdotes of childhood. Desire to go to sea. Advice of Uncle. Study of navigation. Introduction to Admiral Pasley. Anecdote of visit to Pasley. On the Scipio. On the Bellerophon. On the Dictator. Midshipman on Providence. Description of Teneriffe. Description of Dutch at the Cape. In Torres Strait. Return to Europe. Aide-de-camp on Bellerophon. First experience of war. Anecdote of battle. His journal of the engagement. Estimate of French seamen. Appointed to Reliance. Careful record of observations. Arrival at Port Jackson. Friendship with Bass. Exploration of George's River. Voyages in Tom Thumb. Adventure with aboriginals. Voyage on Francis. Discovery of Kent Group. Biological notes. On the sooty petrel. Description of wombat. Voyage to Norfolk Island. Exploration projects. Voyage of Norfolk. Character as an author. Discovery of Bass Strait. Circumnavigation of Tasmania. Description of Tasmanian mountains. Banks' friendship for. On Queensland coast. Adventures with Queensland aboriginals. Return to England. Marriage of. His Observations. Naming of Mount Chappell. Letters to his wife. Suggests new discovery voyage. Instructions for voyage. Passport from French Government. Correspondence concerning Mrs. Flinders' proposed voyage in Investigator. Reports sandbank at the Roar. Management of crew. On Australian coast. Method of research. Coastal names given by. On the character of John Thistle. Exploration of Spencer's Gulf. Discovery of Kangaroo Island. Discovery of St. Vincent's Gulf. In Encounter Bay. In Port Phillip. At King Island. Description of Port Phillip entrance. Influence on Australian discovery. Departure from Port Phillip. Arrival at Port Jackson. On Francois Peron. Circumnavigation of Australia. On coral reefs. Forced to return to Port Jackson. Death of father. Last letter to Bass. Sails in Porpoise. Observations on Sydney. Wrecked on Porpoise. Sails for Port Jackson in Hope. Arrives at Port Jackson. Arrival at Wreck Reef. Arrival at Kupang. Decides to sail for Ile-de-France. Sights Ile-de-France. Appears before Decaen. Seizure of his papers. Detained. Interrogated by Decaen. Invited to dinner by Decaen. His refusal. Accused of impertinence. Carries despatches for Governor King. Letters to Decaen. Obtains books and papers. Prolongation of captivity. Occupations in Garden Prison. Opinion of Decaen. Solicits examination by French officers. Refuses to surrender his sword. Removal to Wilhelm's Plains. Life at Wilhelm's Plains. Works on his Voyage. Paper on marine barometer. Treatment by Admiralty. Release ordered. Decaen refuses release. Knowledge of weakness of Ile-de-France. Allegations as to taking soundings. Possibilities of escape. Released. Arrival in England. Receipt for books, papers, etc. Interest in French prisoners of war. Honoured in London. Evidence before House of Commons Committee. Works at his Voyage and charts. Illness of. Death of. Place of burial. Characteristics. Visit to wounded French officer. Advice to young officers. As a navigator. Naming of Australia.

Flinders, Mrs. Ann, marriage to Matthew Flinders. Flinders' letters to. Proposed voyage in Investigator. On Admiralty's treatment of Flinders. Meets Flinders on his return. Pension voted by Australian colonies.

Flinders, S.W., joins Investigator. On Wreck Reef.

Flinders' bar, invention of.

Flinders' Entrance.

Flinders family. Connection with Tennysons.

Flinders' Island.

Foigny, Gabriel de, his La Terre Australe connue.

Forfait, French Marine Minister, instructions to Baudin.

Fowler, Robert, joins Investigator. On Rolla.

Fowler's Bay.

Francis, schooner, voyage of. Sails with Cumberland.

Franklin, Sir John, connection with Flinders' family. On the Polyphemus. Influenced by Flinders. Joins Investigator. At wreck of Porpoise. On Rolla. On Flinders' return to England.

Franklin's Isles.

French Island.

French Revolution.

Freycinet, Lieutenant Louis de, at Sydney. On military situation at Port Jackson. His hydrographical work. Charge of plagiarism against. Publication of his charts.

Furneaux, commander of Adventure.

Furneaux Land.

Gambier Isles.

Gambier, Mount.

Garden Prison, see Maison Despeaux.

Geographe, Le.

George's River, exploration of.

Glasshouse Bay.

Glasshouse Mountains.

Good, Peter, gardener, joins Investigator.

Grant, Captain, in command of Lady Nelson. Governor King on. Sails for Australia.

Harrington, brig, and the American contraband trade.

Hartog, Dirk, his metal plate.

Hawkesbury River, the.

Heemskirk, Mount.

Hervey Bay.

Hicks, Point.

Hindmarsh, Sir John, his naval career.

Hohenlinden, battle of.

Hope, cutter.

Howe, Lord, battle off Brest.

Hunter, Captain John, appointed Governor of New South Wales. Interest in Australian colonisation. Discourteous treatment of by Portuguese Viceroy. Encourages Bass and Flinders. On Bass Strait.

Ile-de-France. Flinders at. Interior of. Military situation of. Regulations concerning visiting ships. Blockade of. Captured by British.

Investigator. Reasons for expedition. Formerly the Xenophon. Refitting of. Leakiness. Selection of crew. Sailing delayed. Sailing of. On South Coast. In Encounter Bay. In Port Phillip. Arrival at Port Jackson. Circumnavigation of Australia. Decrepit condition of. Taken to England. End of.

Investigator Strait.

Jervis Bay.

Julia Percy Island.

Jussieu, French botanist, recommends Baudin to command discovery voyage.

Kangaroo Island, discovery of. Wild life on. Baudin at.

Kent, Lieutenant William.

Kent's Group.

Keppel Bay.

King, Governor, P.G. and Bass's South American project. His hospitality to French expedition. Receives news of Porpoise wreck. Entrusts despatches to Flinders. Protest against Flinders' imprisonment.

King George's Sound.

King Island. Discovery of. French at.

Kupang.

Lacepede.

Lacy, midshipman.

Lady Nelson.

Laperouse.

Launceston.

Lawson, Lieutenant. his share in crossing Blue Mountains.

Leeuwin, Cape.

Linois, Rear-Admiral.

Little Bay.

Liverpool, Lord.

Lofty, Mount.

Louis XVI, his interest in discovery voyages.

Louth Bay.

Louth Isle.

Lucky Bay.

Macquarie, Fort.

Macquarie, Governor, his use of word Australia.

Maison Despeaux (Garden Prison).

Malaspina, Admiral.

Malte-Brun. Championship of Flinders.

Maria Island.

Marsden, Reverend Samuel.

Martin's Isles.

Mauritius, see Ile-de-France.

Melville Bay.

Memory Cove.

Monistrol, Colonel.

Moreau, General.

Moreton Bay.

Mornington.

Mornington Island.

Murray, Lieutenant John, discovers Port Phillip. Accompanies Flinders.

Mutton birds.

Napoleon, authorises French discovery voyage. His opinion of General Decaen. Sends Decaen to India. Hears of the Flinders case. Orders release of Flinders. His comment on oaths of allegiance.

Naturaliste, Le.

Navy, the British, promotion in. Entrance to.

Nelson.

Nelson, Cape.

Nepean, Evan, Secretary of the Admiralty.

Nepean Peninsula.

Nichols, Isaac, case of.

Norfolk, sloop. Flinders' description of. Importance of voyage. Voyage to Queensland coast.

Northumberland, Cape.

Nuyts, Pieter.

Observations on the Coast of Van Diemen's Land, publication of.

Otto, L.G.

Otway, Cape.

Palmer, Captain of Bridgewater.

Pandora's Entrance.

Papuans, fight with in Torres Strait.

Park, Mungo, and the Investigator.

Parramatta.

Partney Isle.

Pasley, Admiral Sir Thomas, Flinders' introduction to. His interest in Flinders' career. Command of Bellerophon. Wounded in battle off Brest. Character of.

Pasley, Cape, naming of.

Paterson, Lieutenant-Colonel.

Peel, Sir Robert.

Pellew, Rear-Admiral, his interest in Flinders' case.

Pellew Group.

Pelsart, Francis, on the Australian Coast.

Percy Isles.

Peron, Francois, at Sydney. His report on British settlement. Plays the spy on British designs. Flinders on. Scientific work of. Effect of his report on Decaen. Malte-Brun on. Death of.

Petrie, Professor W.M. Flinders, grandson of Matthew Flinders.

Phillip Island.

Pinkerton, Modern Geography.

Pitot, Thomas.

Pitt, Mount.

Plagiarism, allegation against the French. Freycinet on.

Pondicherry.

Porpoise, Flinders sails in. Wreck of.

Port Bowen.

Port Curtis.

Port Hacking.

Port Jackson, see Sydney.

Port Lincoln. Discovery and survey of.

Port Louis.

Port Phillip. Flinders in. Discovery of. Attempted settlement of.

Portland Bay.

Portlock, Lieutenant N., Commander of Assistant.

Portsea.

Preservation Island.

Providence, H.M.S.

Providential Cove, see Wattamolla.

Quarterly Review, article on Flinders' case.

Queensland coasts. Flinders' voyages on.

Quiros, voyage of.

Red Point.

Reliance, H.M.S.

Revesby Isle.

Robbins, Acting-Lieutenant.

Robinson Crusoe, influence of on Flinders.

Rowley, Commodore.

St. Alouarn.

St. Vincent's Gulf. Discovery of.

Schanck, Cape.

Schanck, Captain John, designs Lady Nelson.

Seal-fisheries.

Shaw and Smith, their use of the word Australia.

Shinglar, Reverend John, schoolmaster of Flinders.

Ships not elsewhere indexed: Adventure. Advice, brig. Agincourt. Albion. Alert. Aquilon. Assistant. Audacious. Barwell. Batavia. Bedford. Belier, brig. Belle Poule, La. Berceau, Le. Blenheim. Blonde, La. Brunswick. Buffalo. Caesar. Cape Chatham. Captivity. See also Bellerophon. Casuarina. Cerberus. Circe, frigate. Cygnet. Defence. Dictator. Duyfhen [Duyfken], yacht. Eendragt. Eliza, sloop. Elligood. Endeavour. Eole. Esperance. Ganges. Glatton. Glory. Greyhound, frigate. Harbinger, brig. Harriet, cartel. Heemskirk. Heir Apparent. Hercules. Hunter. Java. Latona. Leviathan. Lowestoft, frigate. Marengo, French frigate. Marlborough. Matilda, whaler. Minerva, frigate. Nautilus. Niger. Olympia. Orient, L'. Orion. Otter. Pandora. Phaeton. Phoenix. Piemontaise, La, privateer. Polyphemus. Pompey. Queen. Queen Charlotte. Recherche. Resolution. Resource. Revolutionnaire. Rolla. Royal Sovereign. Russell. Scipio. Seahorse. Semillante, La. Serpente, Le. See Le Geographe. Sirius. Southampton. Supply, tender. Temiraire. Terpsichore. Terrible. Theseus. Thetis. Thunderer. Trajan. Tremendous. Vengeur. Vesuve, Le. See Le Naturaliste. Vianen. Warren Hastings. Warrior. Xenophon. See Investigator. Zealand. Zeehan.

Shoalhaven.

Sibsey Isle.

Sleaford Bay.

Smith, Samuel, journal of.

Spanish-American colonies. Contraband trade with. Alleged British designs on.

Spencer, Earl, First Lord of the Admiralty, supports Flinders' exploration project. Grants passport to French discovery voyage. Visited by Flinders.

Spencer's Gulf. Exploration of.

Spilsby Isle.

Stamford Hill.

Station Peak.

Stickney Isle.

Streaky Bay.

Surfleet Point.

Swan Harbour.

Swans, black.

Sydney, growth of. Arrival of Investigator at, Baudin's expedition at. Peron's report on. Military forces at. Flinders' observations on.

Sydney Cove, wreck of.

Tahiti. Bass's voyages to.

Tamar, discovery of.

Tasman, voyage of.

Tasmania, circumnavigation of.

Taylor's Isle.

Teneriffe, Flinders' description of.

Tennysons, connection with Flinders' family.

Termination Island.

Terra Australis.

Thistle, John, drowning of. Character.

Thistle Island.

Tides, theory of, Flinders' writings on.

Tom Thumb, measurements of. Second boat of same name.

Torres, voyage of.

Torres Strait.

Trafalgar, battle of.

Transportation system, Peron on.

Twofold Bay, discovery of. Adventure with aboriginal in.

Vancouver, voyage of. His discoveries on Australian coast.

Van Diemen, Cape.

Venus, brig, Bass's purchase of. Voyages to Tahiti. Voyages to South America. Seizure of.

Venus Bay.

Vlaming, his metal plate.

Waterhouse, Captain Henry.

Waterhouse, Elizabeth, see Bass, Elizabeth.

Waterhouse Island.

Wattamolla (Watta-Mowlee).

Wellesley, the Marquess, Governor-General of India. His interest in Flinders' case.

Wellesley Isles.

Wentworth, W.C., his share in crossing Blue Mountains.

Westall, Point.

Westall, William, artist, joins Investigator.

Westernport, discovery of. Le Naturaliste in.

Whaleboat, Bass', measurements of.

Wilhelm's Plains, Flinders' residence at.

William IV inspects Flinders' charts. On proposed pension to Mrs. Flinders.

Williams, mate of Bridgewater.

Williamson, acting commissary.

Wilson's Promontory.

Winceby Isle.

Wombat, Flinders' description of.

Wool-growing.

Wreck Reef.

Yorke's Peninsula.

You-yang Range.

Zeehan, Mount.

THE END

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