On the 21st they have had great doings here at Hanover. I hear that to the astonishment of everybody the Queen appeared at the Enthuellung, where all other people were en grande tenue, in a little small round hat with a lilac feather. Her Maids of Honour—she has only one now besides that English Miss Stewart—were ordered to wear hats to keep Her Majesty in countenance. I wonder if your Majesty has read the speech the King has addressed to his people on the occasion of the Enthuellung and the Crown Prince's birthday. It cannot fail to excite the greatest pity that such things, however well meant, should be written. Has your Majesty also heard of the pamphlet that has been published here called Das Welfe—that name Welfe is quite an idee fixe of the King now, and he brings it in on every occasion, and this pamphlet is written throwing the whole idea into ridicule, and beginning with the last years of the late King's reign. The Crown Prince is very much liked, but, unfortunately, his new tutor will probably also leave very shortly—he has no authority over him, the Prince still regretting M. de Issendorf. Besides, he is not allowed to exercise his judgment in the smallest way—the King going on the principle that a King only can educate a King. The reason the other tutor left, or was dismissed, was partly on account of his remonstrating against the religious instructions, which were carried so far that the Prince had hardly any time left to learn other things. Besides the Prince, who dislikes the clergyman, had drawn a caricature, to which the man very much gives himself, and the King thought M. de Issendorf had known of it, which turned out not to be the case.... I have the honour to remain, your Majesty's most obedient and devoted Servant and Subject,
[Footnote 36: Louise Frederica Augusta, wife of the seventh Duke of Manchester, and Mistress of the Robes. She was daughter of the Count von Alten of Hanover, and is now Dowager Duchess of Devonshire.]
[Footnote 37: The Queen had met General von Wrangel at Babelsberg in August 1858. "He is seventy-six," she wrote, "and a great character." He had commanded a division in the Danish war of 1848, and it had fallen to him in the same year, as Commandant of the troops, to dissolve the Berlin Assembly by force.]
[Footnote 38: Prince Ernest Augustus, born 1845; the present Duke of Cumberland.]
[Pageheading: CORONATION OF KING OF PRUSSIA]
[Pageheading: A BRILLIANT CEREMONY]
[Pageheading: DISTINGUISHED GUESTS]
The Crown Princess of Prussia to Queen Victoria.
KOENISBERG, 19th October 1861.
MY BELOVED MAMMA,—Last night I could not write to you as I would have wished, because I felt so knocked up that I went to bed. I have got such a very bad cold on my chest, with a cough that leaves me no rest, and of course cannot take care of myself, and am obliged to stand and sit in every sort of draught with a low gown and without a cloak, so it is no wonder to have caught cold. I have not had a cough since I don't know when. I should like to be able to describe yesterday's ceremony to you, but I cannot find words to tell you how fine and how touching it was; it really was a magnificent sight! The King looked so very handsome and so noble with the crown on; it seemed to suit him so exactly. The Queen, too, looked beautiful, and did all she had to do with perfect grace, and looked so vornehm; I assure you the whole must have made a great impression on everybody present, and all those to whom I have talked on the subject quite share my feeling. The moment when the King put the crown on the Queen's head was very touching, I think there was hardly a dry eye in the church. The Schlosshof was the finest, I thought—five bands playing "God save the Queen," banners waving in all directions, cheers so loud that they quite drowned the sound of the music, and the procession moving slowly on, the sky without a cloud; and all the uniforms, and the ladies' diamonds glittering in the bright sunlight. I shall never forget it all, it was so very fine! Dearest Fritz's birthday being chosen for the day made me very happy; he was in a great state of emotion and excitement, as you can imagine, as we all were. Mr Thomas was in the chapel. I hope he will have been able to take down some useful memoranda. The Grand Duke of Weimar, the King and ourselves, have ordered drawings of him.
The coup d'[oe]il was really beautiful; the chapel is in itself lovely, with a great deal of gold about it, and all hung with red velvet and gold—the carpet, altar, thrones and canopies the same. The Knights of the Black Eagle with red velvet cloaks, the Queen's four young ladies all alike in white and gold, the two Palastdamen in crimson velvet and gold, and the Oberhofmeisterin in gold and white brocade with green velvet, Marianne and Addy in red and gold and red and silver; I, in gold with ermine and white satin, my ladies, one in blue velvet, the other in red velvet, and Countess Schulenberg, together with the two other Oberhofmeisterin of the other Princesses, in violet velvet and gold. All these colours together looked very beautiful, and the sun shone, or rather poured in at the high windows, and gave quite magic tinges.
The music was very fine, the chorales were sung so loud and strong that it really quite moved one. The King was immensely cheered, wherever he appeared—also the Queen, and even I.
There were illuminations last night, but I did not go to see them, as I was too tired and felt so unwell. There are five degrees of cold (Reaumur), and one is exposed to draughts every minute.
Sixteen hundred people dined in the Schloss last night! The King and Queen were most kind to me yesterday; the King gave me a charming little locket for his hair, and only think—what will sound most extraordinary, absurd, and incredible to your ears—made me Second Chef of the 2nd Regiment of Hussars! I laughed so much, because really I thought it was a joke—it seemed so strange for ladies; but the Regiments like particularly having ladies for their Chefs! The Queen and the Queen Dowager have Regiments, but I believe I am the first Princess on whom such an honour is conferred.
The Archduke addressed the King yesterday, in the name of all the foreign Princes present, in a very pretty speech.
It is such a pleasure to see good Philip here, and the two Portuguese cousins. Juan is very nice, but he does not talk much; he has a very fine, tall figure, and is nice-looking. I should think he must be like his father. Prince Hohenzollern  is become Royal Highness, and the title is to descend to his eldest son. Half Europe is here, and one sees the funniest combinations in the world. It is like a happy family shut up in a cage! The Italian Ambassador sat near Cardinal Geisel, and the French one opposite the Archduke. The Grand Duke Nicolas is here—he is so nice—also the Crown Prince of Wuertemberg, Crown Prince of Saxony, Prince Luitpold of Bavaria, Prince Charles of Hesse (who nearly dies of fright and shyness amongst so many people), and Heinrich; Prince Elimar of Oldenburg, Prince Frederic of the Netherlands, and the Grand Duke and Duchess of Weimar, who wish to be most particularly remembered to you and Papa.
The King and Queen are most kind to Lord Clarendon, and make a marked difference between their marked cordiality to him and the stiff etiquette with which the other Ambassadors are received.
I think he is pleased with what he sees. The King has given the Queen the Order of the Black Eagle in diamonds. I write all these details, as you wish them, at the risk of their not interesting you, besides my being, as you know, a very bad hand at descriptions. I shall make a point of your having newspapers.
I am unable to appear at the cour this morning, as my cough is too violent: I hope to be able to be at the concert this evening, but I own it seems very doubtful. The state dinner looked very well; we were waited on by our Kammerherren and pages—the King being waited on by the Oberhofchargen—and our ladies stood behind our chairs. After the first two dishes are round, the King asks to drink, and that is the signal for the ladies and gentlemen to leave the room and go to dinner, while the Pages of Honour continue to serve the whole dinner really wonderfully well, poor boys, considering it is no easy task.
To-morrow we leave Koenigsberg for Dantzic—we have not had one day's bad weather here, nothing but sunshine and a bright blue sky. I was so glad that Heaven smiled upon us yesterday, it would have been so sad if it had poured; it looked a little threatening early in the morning and a few drops fell, but it cleared completely before nine o'clock.
Fritz would thank you for your dear letters himself, but he is at the University, where they have elected him Rector Magnificus, and where he has to make a speech. We have all got our servants and carriages and horses here every day—300 footmen in livery, together with other servants in livery, make 400. All the standards and colours of the whole Army are here, and all the Colonels. Altogether, you cannot imagine what a crush and what a scramble there is on every occasion; there was a man crushed to death in the crowd the other day, which is quite dreadful. I must say good-bye now, and send this scrawl by a messenger, whom Lord Clarendon means to expedite. Ever your most dutiful and affectionate Daughter,
[Footnote 39: George Housman Thomas, artist (1824-1868). The picture he produced on this occasion was entitled, Homage of the Princess Royal at the Coronation of the King of Prussia.]
[Footnote 40: Charles Alexander, 1818-1901, grandfather of the present Grand Duke.]
[Footnote 41: Prince John, brother of King Pedro, was making a tour with his elder brother, Louis, the Duc d'Oporto.]
[Footnote 42: Prince Charles Anthony of Hohenzollern was the father of the young Queen Stephanie of Portugal, who had died in 1859.]
[Footnote 43: Prince Charles Frederick, 1823-1891.]
[Footnote 44: Prince Albert, who became King in 1873.]
[Footnote 45: Brother of King Maximilian II.]
[Footnote 46: Son of the Elector Frederick William I.]
[Footnote 47: Brother of the reigning Grand Duke.]
[Footnote 48: Uncle of the King of Holland.]
[Pageheading: THE PRINCESS ROYAL]
The Earl of Clarendon to Queen Victoria.
KOENIGSBERG, 19th October 1861.
Lord Clarendon presents his humble duty to your Majesty, and humbly hopes that your Majesty will not be displeased at his not having written sooner, but every moment has been occupied by fetes and ceremonies here, and the visits to Royal Personages, who are in great numbers, and Lord Clarendon also wished to delay sending off the messenger until the Coronation was over.
That most interesting and imposing ceremony took place yesterday, and with the most complete and unalloyed success; everything was conducted with the most perfect order; the service not too long, the vocal music enchanting, but the great feature of the ceremony was the manner in which the Princess Royal did homage to the King. Lord Clarendon is at a loss for words to describe to your Majesty the exquisite grace and the intense emotion with which Her Royal Highness gave effect to her feelings on the occasion. Many an older as well as younger man than Lord Clarendon, who had not his interest in the Princess Royal, were quite as unable as himself to repress their emotion at that which was so touching, because so unaffected and sincere....
If His Majesty had the mind, the judgment, and the foresight of the Princess Royal, there would be nothing to fear, and the example and influence of Prussia would soon be marvellously developed. Lord Clarendon has had the honour to hold a very long conversation with Her Royal Highness, and has been more than ever astonished at the statesmanlike and comprehensive views which she takes of the policy of Prussia, both internal and foreign, and of the duties of a Constitutional King.
Lord Clarendon is not at all astonished, but very much pleased, to find how appreciated and beloved Her Royal Highness is by all classes. Every member of the Royal Family has spoken of her to Lord Clarendon in terms of admiration, and through various channels he has had opportunities of learning how strong the feeling of educated and enlightened people is towards Her Royal Highness. All persons say most truly that any one who saw Her Royal Highness yesterday can never forget her.
Lord Clarendon is sorry to say that the Princess Royal has a feverish cold to-day—nothing at all serious—and as Her Royal Highness stayed in bed this afternoon, did not attend the great concert at the Palace this evening, and, as Lord Clarendon hopes, will not go to Dantzic to-morrow, Her Royal Highness will probably be quite fit for the many fatiguing duties she will have to perform next week....
[Pageheading: THE EMPEROR NAPOLEON'S AIMS]
[Pageheading: AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA]
The Earl of Clarendon to Queen Victoria.
BERLIN, 20th October 1861.
Lord Clarendon presents his humble duty to your Majesty, and humbly begs to say that yesterday he had the honour of being sent for by the Queen, with whom he had a long and interesting conversation....
The Queen expressed her deep regret at the tone of the English newspapers, but admitted that the German Press repaid the English insults with large interest. Her Majesty said, however, that she and the King, and all sensible men with whom their Majesties hold communication, were determined to disregard the attacks, and by every possible means to draw nearer to England.
Lord Clarendon took the opportunity of warning the Queen respecting the Emperor and his idee fixe, that his dynasty could only be secured by the territorial aggrandisement of France. Lord Clarendon expressed his conviction that if the King had resembled M. de Cavour, some strong proposals would already have been made to them, but that the Emperor's plans had been foiled by the honourable character of the King. There ought, nevertheless, to be no delusion here, but on the contrary, a careful avoidance of the traps which cajolery and flattery were setting for Prussia, because at any moment the Emperor might think it necessary for his own purposes in France to seize upon the left bank of the Rhine, and that all classes in France, no matter to what party belonging, would be delighted at his so doing, and his popularity and power in France would be enormously increased by it. The Queen agreed, but was under the notion, which Lord Clarendon was able effectually to dispel, that the dilapidated state of French finances would prevent the Emperor from undertaking a war upon a large scale.
Lord Clarendon thinks that he strengthened the Queen's opinion respecting "eventualities" and the necessity of making preparations and evoking a national spirit against foreign aggression, such as that recently manifested in England, and which had done so much in favour of peace as far as we ourselves were concerned. Her Majesty, however, said that Prussian policy towards Germany opened so large a chapter that she wished to reserve the discussion of it for our next conversation.
Lord Clarendon fears that Count Bernstorff is disposed to think that Austria's difficulty is Prussia's opportunity, and to be exigent as to the concessions upon which a better understanding between the two countries must be based. Lord Clarendon was confidentially informed yesterday that a Cabinet had just been held for the first time since Count Bernstorff became a member of it, and that with respect to internal affairs he had greatly alarmed and annoyed some of his colleagues by his retrograde opinions. Lord Clarendon had the honour of dining with the Crown Prince and Princess last night. The dinner was perfect, and everything conducted in the most admirable manner; there was afterwards a ball at "The Queen's" which was really a splendid fete. The festivities and the visitings are so uninterrupted that everybody is unwell and tired. The Duc de Magenta's grand fete takes place on the 29th. The Austrian Minister gives a ball to-morrow (Sunday), which day has unfortunately been fixed by the King, to the annoyance of all the English; but Lord Clarendon has determined that the Embassy shall attend, otherwise the King might consider that we wished to give him a public lesson upon the observance of the Sabbath. Lord Clarendon trusts that your Majesty will approve the decision. Lord Granville's visit appears to be highly appreciated by the Court.
Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians.
BALMORAL, 21st October 1861.
MY DEAREST UNCLE,—You will excuse a long letter as this is our last day, alas! Many, many thanks for your dear letters of the 17th and 18th, which I received yesterday. I am glad to see that my account of our mountain expedition amused you, and that you remember all so well. If it could amuse you later, I would send you my Reisebeschreibung to read. I will have it copied and send it you later. We have had a most beautiful week, which we have thoroughly enjoyed—I going out every day about twelve or half-past, taking luncheon with us, carried in a basket on the back of a Highlander, and served by an invaluable Highland servant I have, who is my factotum here, and takes the most wonderful care of me, combining the offices of groom, footman, page, and maid, I might almost say, as he is so handy about cloaks and shawls, etc. He always leads my pony, and always attends me out of doors, and such a good, handy, faithful, attached servant I have nowhere; it is quite a sorrow for me to leave him behind. Now, with Albert's affectionate love, ever your devoted Niece,
[Pageheading: THE TIMES AND PRUSSIA]
Queen Victoria to Viscount Palmerston.
WINDSOR CASTLE, 25th October 1861.
The Queen has long seen with deep regret the persevering efforts made by the Times, which leads the rest of our Press, in attacking, vilifying, and abusing everything German, and particularly everything Prussian. That journal had since years shown the same bias, but it is since the Macdonald affair of last year, that it has assumed that tone of virulence, which could not fail to produce the deepest indignation amongst the people of Germany, and by degrees estrange the feelings of the people of this country from Germany. Lord Palmerston, probably not reading any German newspaper, nor having any personal intercourse with that country, can hardly be aware to what extent the mischief has already gone, though he will agree with the Queen that national hatred between these two peoples is a real political calamity for both. The Queen had often intended to write to Lord Palmerston on the subject, and to ask him whether he would not be acting in the spirit of public duty if he endeavoured, as far at least as might be in his power, to point out to the managers of the Times (which derives some of its power from the belief abroad that it represents more or less the feelings of the Government) how great the injury is which it inflicts upon the best interests of this country. She has, however, refrained from doing so, trusting in the chance of a change in tone, and feeling that Lord Palmerston might not like to enter into discussion with the Editors of the Times....
The Queen believes that Lord Palmerston is the only person who could exercise any influence over Mr Delane, and even if this should not be much, it will be important that that gentleman should know the mischief his writings are doing, and that the Government sincerely deplore it.
[Footnote 49: At Bonn, in September 1860, Captain Macdonald, a railway passenger, had been ejected from his seat in the train by the railway authorities, and committed to prison. The incident became the subject of considerable diplomatic correspondence, as well as of some fierce attacks on Prussia in the Times.]
[Pageheading: THE ENGLISH PRESS]
Mr Delane to Viscount Palmerston.
16 SERJEANT'S INN, 28th October 1861.
MY DEAR LORD,—I shall be very glad to give the Prussians a respite from that most cruel of all inflictions—good advice.
Indeed, I would not have intruded anything so unwelcome during the splendid solemnities of the Coronation had not the King uttered those surprising anachronisms upon Divine Right.
Pray observe, too, in extenuation of my offence that I sent a faithful chronicler to Koenigsberg, who has described all the splendours in a proper and reverent spirit, and done what man can do to render such ceremonies intelligible, and the recital of them not too wearisome to those who believe in Divine Right as little as your Lordship's very faithful Servant,
JOHN T. DELANE.
[Footnote 50: Enclosed in the following letter.]
[Pageheading: THE TIMES]
Viscount Palmerston to Queen Victoria.
WINDSOR CASTLE, 30th October 1861.
Viscount Palmerston presents his humble duty to your Majesty, and begs to state that when he received a few days ago from Lord Russell the Memorandum which your Majesty intended for him, and which he returned to Lord Russell, he wrote to Mr Delane in accordance with your Majesty's wishes, and he has this morning received the accompanying answer.
Viscount Palmerston would, however, beg to submit that an erroneous notion prevails on the Continent as to English newspapers.
The newspapers on the Continent are all more or less under a certain degree of control, and the most prominent among them are the organs of political parties, or of leading public men; and it is not unnatural that Governments and Parties on the Continent should think that English newspapers are published under similar conditions.
But in this country all thriving newspapers are commercial undertakings, and are conducted on commercial principles, and none others are able long to maintain an existence. Attempts have often been made to establish newspapers to be directed by political men, and to be guided by the same considerations by which those men would govern their own conduct, but such papers have seldom succeeded. The Peelite Party tried some years ago such an experiment with the Morning Chronicle, but after spending a very large sum of money on the undertaking they were obliged to give it up. The Times is carried on as a large commercial enterprise, though, of course, with certain political tendencies and bias, but mainly with a view to profit upon the large capital employed.
The actual price at which each copy of the newspaper is sold barely pays the expense of paper, printing, and establishment; it is indeed said that the price does not repay those expenses. The profit of the newspaper arises from the price paid for advertisements, and the greater the number of advertisements the greater the profit. But advertisements are sent by preference to the newspaper which has the greatest circulation; and that paper gets the widest circulation which is the most amusing, the most interesting, and the most instructive. A dull paper is soon left off. The proprietors and managers of the Times therefore go to great expense in sending correspondents to all parts of the world where interesting events are taking place, and they employ a great many able and clever men to write articles upon all subjects which from time to time engage public attention; and as mankind take more pleasure in reading criticism and fault-finding than praise, because it is soothing to individual vanity and conceit to fancy that the reader has become wiser than those about whom he reads, so the Times, in order to maintain its circulation, criticises freely everybody and everything; and especially events and persons, and Governments abroad, because such strictures are less likely to make enemies at home than violent attacks upon parties and persons in this country. Foreign Governments and Parties ought therefore to look upon English newspapers in the true point of view, and not to be too sensitive as to attacks which those papers may contain.
[Pageheading: DEMOCRACY IN PRUSSIA]
The Earl of Clarendon to Queen Victoria.
BERLIN, 5th November 1861.
Lord Clarendon presents his humble duty to your Majesty, and humbly begs to say that as he leaves Berlin to-morrow, the Princess Royal has most kindly just given him an Audience of leave, although Her Royal Highness was still suffering considerable pain in her ear, and was quite unfit for any exertion. Her Royal Highness's countenance bears traces of the severe illness of the last few days, but Lord Clarendon trusts that the worst is now over, and that care alone is necessary for her complete recovery. Her Royal Highness is still so weak that she was obliged to desist from writing, which she attempted this morning, and Lord Clarendon took the liberty of earnestly recommending that the journey to Breslau, upon which Her Royal Highness appeared to be bent, should be given up. Lord Clarendon intends to repeat the same advice to the Queen, whom he is to see this evening, as there are to be four days of rejoicings at Breslau, for the fatigue of which the Crown Princess must be utterly unfit.
Her Royal Highness is much alarmed at the state of things here, and Lord Clarendon thinks with great reason, for the King has quite made up his mind as to the course that he will pursue. He sees democracy and revolution in every symptom of opposition to his will. His Ministers are mere clerks, who are quite content to register the King's decrees, and there is no person from whom His Majesty seeks advice, or indeed who is capable or would have the moral courage to give it. The King will always religiously keep his word, and will never overturn the institutions he has sworn to maintain, but they are so distasteful to him, and so much at variance with his habit of thought and settled opinions as to the rights of the Crown, that His Majesty will never, if he can avoid it, accept the consequences of representative Government, or allow it to be a reality. This is generally known, and among the middle classes is producing an uneasy and resentful feeling, but as far as Lord Clarendon is able to judge, there is no fear of revolution—the Army is too strong, and the recollection of 1848 is too fresh to allow of acts of violence.
Lord Clarendon had the honour of an Audience of the King on Sunday. His Majesty was most friendly and kind, but evidently unwell and irritable. Lord Clarendon therefore thought that it would be neither prudent nor useful to say the many things that the Queen had wished that the King should hear from Lord Clarendon. He touched upon the subject of Constitutional Government, and His Majesty said: "I have sworn to maintain our Institutions, and I declare to you, and I wish you to inform your Government, that I will maintain them."
Lord Clarendon proposes to remain Friday at Brussels, and hopes to have the honour of seeing the King.
[Pageheading: DEATH OF KING OF PORTUGAL]
Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians.
WINDSOR CASTLE, 12th November 1861.
MY BELOVED UNCLE,—I hardly know how to write, for my head reels and swims, and my heart is very sore! What an awful misfortune this is! How the hand of death seems bent on pursuing that poor, dear family! once so prosperous. Poor Ferdinand so proud of his children—of his five sons—now the eldest and most distinguished, the head of the family, gone, and also another of fifteen, and the youngest still ill! The two others at sea, and will land to-morrow in utter ignorance of everything, and poor, dear, good Louis (whom I thought dreadfully low when we saw him and Jean for an hour on Friday) King! It is an almost incredible event! a terrible calamity for Portugal, and a real European loss! Dear Pedro was so good, so clever, so distinguished! He was so attached to my beloved Albert, and the characters and tastes suited so well, and he had such confidence in Albert! All, all gone! He is happy now, united again to dear Stephanie, whose loss he never recovered.... Ever your devoted Niece,
[Footnote 51: King Pedro of Portugal died of typhoid fever on the 11th of November; his brother Ferdinand had died on the 6th; and Prince John, Duke of Beja, succumbed in the following December.]
[Footnote 52: The young Queen Stephanie of Portugal had died in 1859.]
[Pageheading: THE AFFAIR OF THE TRENT]
Viscount Palmerston to Queen Victoria.
DOWNING STREET, 13th November 1861.
... Viscount Palmerston met yesterday at dinner at Baron Brunnow's the Grand Duke Constantine and the Grand Duchess, and they were overflowing with thankfulness for the kind and gracious reception they had met with at Windsor Castle.
There was reason to suspect that an American federal steamer of war of eight guns, which had lately arrived at Falmouth, and from thence at Southampton, was intended to intercept the Mail Packet coming home with the West Indian Mail, in order to take out of her Messrs Mason and Slidell, the two Envoys from the Southern Confederacy, supposed to be coming in her.
Viscount Palmerston had on Monday a meeting at the Treasury of the Chancellor, Doctor Lushington, the three Law Officers, the Duke of Somerset, Sir George Grey, and Mr Hammond. The result of their deliberation was that, according to the Law of Nations, as laid down by Lord Stowell, and practised and enforced by England in the war with France, the Northern Union being a belligerent is entitled by its ships of war to stop and search any neutral Merchantmen, and the West India Packet is such; to search her if there is reasonable suspicion that she is carrying enemy's despatches, and if such are found on board to take her to a port of the belligerent, and there to proceed against her for condemnation. Such being ruled to be the law, the only thing that could be done was to order the Phaeton frigate to drop down to Yarmouth Roads from Portsmouth, and to watch the American steamer, and to see that she did not exercise this belligerent right within the three-mile limit of British jurisdiction, and this was done. But Viscount Palmerston sent yesterday for Mr Adams to ask him about this matter, and to represent to him how unwise it would be to create irritation in this country merely for the sake of preventing the landing of Mr Slidell, whose presence here would have no more effect on the policy of your Majesty with regard to America than the presence of the three other Southern Deputies who have been here for many months. Mr Adams assured Viscount Palmerston that the American steamer had orders not to meddle with any vessel under any foreign flag; that it came to intercept the Nashville, the Confederate ship in which it was thought the Southern Envoys might be coming; and not having met with her was going back to the American coast to watch some Merchantmen supposed to be taking arms to the Southern ports.
Viscount Palmerston heard from a source likely to be well informed that at the interview between the Emperor and the King of Prussia at Compiegne, the Emperor, among other things, said to the King that there were three systems of alliance between which France and Prussia might choose: an alliance of France with England, an alliance of Prussia with England, an alliance of France with Prussia. The first the Emperor said now to a certain degree exists, but is precarious and not likely to last long, because England is too exacting; the second would not be useful to Prussia, but might be dangerous, inasmuch as it would look like hostility to France, and England would not be likely to back Prussia effectually if a rupture took place between Prussia and France. The last was the system best for Prussia, and was calculated to promote her interests; at all events, the Emperor hoped that if at any time there should be a rupture between France and England, Prussia would remain neutral. The King of Prussia said he was not come to discuss matters of that kind with the Emperor, but only to pay him a visit of compliment. Your Majesty will be able to compare this statement with the accounts your Majesty may have received of what passed at that visit....
The Chancellor told the Cabinet as he was going away that he would soon have to shut up the Court of Chancery in consequence of having disposed of all the suits before it; and that in future the progress of a Chancery suit will be the emblem of rapidity, and not as formerly synonymous with endless delay.
[Footnote 53: See ante, Introductory Note to Chapter XXX.]
[Footnote 54: Sir William Atherton, Attorney-General, Sir Roundell Palmer, Solicitor-General, and Dr Phillimore, Counsel to the Admiralty.]
[Footnote 55: Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, afterwards Lord Hammond.]
[Footnote 56: Lord Westbury.]
Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians.
WINDSOR CASTLE, 26th November 1861.
MY BELOVED UNCLE,—... Albert is a little rheumatic, which is a plague—but it is very difficult not to have something or other of this kind in this season, with these rapid changes of temperature; unberufen, unberufen, he is much better this winter than he was the preceding years. ...
[Footnote 57: The Prince had been unwell, even before the receipt of the distressing news from Portugal, and began to suffer from a somewhat continuous insomnia. On the 22nd of November, he drove to Sandhurst to inspect the new buildings in progress there. The day was very wet, and, though he returned in the middle of the day to Windsor, the exertion proved too severe for him; on the 24th he complained of rheumatic pains, and of prolonged sleeplessness.]
[Pageheading: REDRESS DEMANDED]
Viscount Palmerston to Queen Victoria.
DOWNING STREET, 29th November 1861.
Viscount Palmerston presents his humble duty to your Majesty, and begs to state that the Cabinet at its meeting this afternoon resumed the consideration of the forcible capture of the Southern Envoys from on board the Trent steamer upon which the law officers had yesterday given the opinion contained in the accompanying report. The law officers and Doctor Phillimore, Counsel to the Admiralty, were in attendance. The result was that it appeared to the Cabinet that a gross outrage and violation of international law has been committed, and that your Majesty should be advised to demand reparation and redress. The Cabinet is to meet again to-morrow at two, by which time Lord Russell will have prepared an instruction to Lord Lyons for the consideration of the Cabinet, and for submission afterwards to your Majesty. The general outline and tenor which appeared to meet the opinions of the Cabinet would be, that the Washington Government should be told that what has been done is a violation of international law, and of the rights of Great Britain, and that your Majesty's Government trust that the act will be disavowed and the prisoners set free and restored to British Protection; and that Lord Lyons should be instructed that if this demand is refused he should retire from the United States.
It is stated by Mrs and Miss Slidell, who are now in London, that the Northern officer who came on board the Trent said that they were acting on their own responsibility without instructions from Washington; that very possibly their act might be disavowed and the prisoners set free on their arrival at Washington. But it was known that the San Jacinto, though come from the African station, had arrived from thence several weeks before, and had been at St Thomas, and had there received communications from New York; and it is also said that General Scott, who has recently arrived in France, has said to Americans in Paris that he has come not on an excursion of pleasure, but on diplomatic business; that the seizure of these envoys was discussed in Cabinet at Washington, he being present, and was deliberately determined upon and ordered; that the Washington Cabinet fully foresaw it might lead to war with England; and that he was commissioned to propose to France in that case to join the Northern States in war against England, and to offer France in that case the restoration of the French Province of Canada.
General Scott will probably find himself much mistaken as to the success of his overtures; for the French Government is more disposed towards the South than the North, and is probably thinking more about Cotton than about Canada....
[Pageheading: AN ULTIMATUM]
Earl Russell to Queen Victoria.
FOREIGN OFFICE, 29th November 1861.
Lord Russell presents his humble duty to your Majesty; Mr Gladstone has undertaken to explain to your Majesty what has taken place at the Cabinet to-day.
Lord Russell proposes to frame a draft for to-morrow's Cabinet of a despatch to Lord Lyons, directing him to ask for the release of Messrs Mason and Slidell and their two companions, and an apology. In case these requirements should be refused, Lord Lyons should ask for his passports.
The Lord Chancellor and the law officers of the Crown are clear upon the law of the case.
Lord Russell will be glad to have your Majesty's opinion on the draft which will go to your Majesty about four o'clock to-morrow, without loss of time, as the packet goes to-morrow evening.
[Footnote 58: The draft of the despatch to Lord Lyons reached Windsor on the evening of the 30th, and, in spite of his weak and suffering state, the Prince prepared the draft of the Queen's letter early the following morning. The letter has been printed in facsimile by Sir Theodore Martin, who adds that it has a special value as "representing the last political Memorandum written by the Prince, while it was at the same time inferior to none of them, as will presently be seen, in the importance of its results. It shows, like most of his Memorandums, by the corrections in the Queen's hand, how the minds of both were continually brought to bear upon the subjects with which they dealt."]
[Pageheading: THE PRINCE'S LAST LETTER]
Queen Victoria to Earl Russell.
WINDSOR CASTLE, 1st December 1861.
Note in the Queen's handwriting.
[This draft was the last the beloved Prince ever wrote; he was very unwell at the time, and when he brought it in to the Queen, he said: "I could hardly hold my pen."
The Queen returns these important drafts, which upon the whole she approves, but she cannot help feeling that the main draft, that for communication to the American Government, is somewhat meagre. She should have liked to have seen the expression of a hope that the American captain did not act under instructions, or, if he did, that he misapprehended them—that the United States Government must be fully aware that the British Government could not allow its flag to be insulted, and the security of her mail communications to be placed to jeopardy, and Her Majesty's Government are unwilling to believe that the United States Government intended wantonly to put an insult upon this country, and to add to their many distressing complications by forcing a question of dispute upon us, and that we are therefore glad to believe that upon a full consideration of the circumstances, and of the undoubted breach of international law committed, they would spontaneously offer such redress as alone could satisfy this country, viz. the restoration of the unfortunate passengers and a suitable apology.
Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians.
WINDSOR CASTLE, 4th December 1861.
MY DEAREST UNCLE,—I have many excuses to make for not writing yesterday, but I had a good deal to do, as my poor dear Albert's rheumatism has turned out to be a regular influenza, which has pulled and lowered him very much. Since Monday he has been confined to his room. It affects his appetite and sleep, which is very disagreeable, and you know he is always so depressed when anything is the matter with him. However, he is decidedly better to-day, and I hope in two or three days he will be quite himself again. It is extremely vexatious, as he was so particularly well till he caught these colds, which came upon worries of various kinds.... Ever your devoted Niece,
[Pageheading: ILLNESS OF THE PRINCE]
Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians.
WINDSOR CASTLE, 6th December 1861.
MY BELOVED UNCLE,—I am thankful to report decidedly better of my beloved Albert. He has had much more sleep, and has taken much more nourishment since yesterday evening. Altogether, this nasty, feverish sort of influenza and deranged stomach is on the mend, but it will be slow and tedious, and though there has not been one alarming symptom, there has been such restlessness, such sleeplessness, and such (till to-day) total refusal of all food, that it made one very, very anxious, and I can't describe the anxiety I have gone through! I feel to-day a good deal shaken, for for four nights I got only two or three hours' sleep. We have, however, every reason to hope the recovery, though it may be somewhat tedious, will not be very slow. You shall hear again to-morrow. Ever your devoted Niece,
[Pageheading: HOPE NOT ABANDONED]
Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians.
WINDSOR CASTLE, 9th December 1861.
MY BELOVED UNCLE,—I enclose you Clark's report, which I think you may like to hear. Our beloved invalid goes on well—but it must be tedious, and I need not tell you what a trial it is to me. Every day, however, is bringing us nearer the end of this tiresome illness, which is much what I had at Ramsgate, only that I was much worse, and not at first well attended to. You shall hear daily.
You will, I know, feel for me! The night was excellent; the first good one he had. Ever your devoted Niece,
The Americans may possibly get out of it.
The King of the Belgians to Queen Victoria.
LAEKEN, 11th December 1861.
MY BELOVED VICTORIA,—How I do feel for you from the bottom of my heart; that you should have this totally unexpected tribulation of having dear Albert unwell, when not long ago we rejoiced that he was bearing this time of the year so well. Now we must be very patient, as an indisposition of this description at this time of the year is generally mending slowly. The great object must be to arrange all the little details exactly as the patient may wish them; that everything of that description may move very smoothly is highly beneficial. Patients are very different in their likings; to the great horror of angelic Louise, the moment I am ill I become almost invisible, disliking to see anybody. Other people are fond of company, and wish to be surrounded. The medical advisors are, thank God! excellent, and Clark knows Albert so well. Albert will wish you not to interrupt your usual airings; you want air, and to be deprived of it would do you harm. The temperature here at least has been extremely mild—this ought to be favourable. I trust that every day will now show some small improvement, and it will be very kind of you to let me frequently know how dear Albert is going on. Believe me ever, my beloved Victoria, your devoted Uncle,
Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians.
WINDSOR CASTLE, 11th December 1861.
DEAREST UNCLE,—I can report another good night, and no loss of strength, and continued satisfactory symptoms. But more we dare not expect for some days; not losing ground is a gain, now, of every day.
It is very sad and trying for me, but I am well, and I think really very courageous; for it is the first time that I ever witnessed anything of this kind though I suffered from the same at Ramsgate, and was much worse. The trial in every way is so very trying, for I have lost my guide, my support, my all, for a time—as we can't ask or tell him anything. Many thanks for your kind letter received yesterday. We have been and are reading Von Ense's book to Albert; but it is not worth much. He likes very much being read to as it soothes him. W. Scott is also read to him. You shall hear again to-morrow, dearest Uncle, and, please God! each day will be more cheering. Ever your devoted Niece,
[Footnote 59: The Memoirs of Varnhagen von Ense (1785-1858), who served for some years in the Austrian and the Russian Armies, and was later in the Prussian Diplomatic Service.]
Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians.
WINDSOR CASTLE, 12th December 1861.
MY BELOVED UNCLE,—I can again report favourably of our most precious invalid. He maintains his ground well—had another very good night—takes plenty of nourishment, and shows surprising strength. I am constantly in and out of his room, but since the first four dreadful nights, last week, before they had declared it to be gastric fever—I do not sit up with him at night as I could be of no use; and there is nothing to cause alarm. I go out twice a day for about an hour. It is a very trying time, for a fever with its despondency, weakness, and occasional and invariable wandering, is most painful to witness—but we have never had one unfavourable symptom; to-morrow, reckoning from the 22nd, when dear Albert first fell ill—after going on a wet day to look at some buildings—having likewise been unusually depressed with worries of different kinds—is the end of the third week; we may hope for improvement after that, but the Doctors say they should not be at all disappointed if this did not take place till the end of the fourth week. I cannot sufficiently praise the skill, attention, and devotion of Dr Jenner, who is the first fever Doctor in Europe, one may say—and good old Clark is here every day; good Brown is also most useful.... We have got Dr Watson (who succeeded Dr Chambers) and Sir H. Holland has also been here. But I have kept clear of these two. Albert sleeps a good deal in the day. He is moved every day into the next room on a sofa which is made up as a bed. He has only kept his bed entirely since Monday. Many, many thanks for your dear, kind letter of the 11th. I knew how you would feel for and think of me. I am very wonderfully supported, and, excepting on three occasions, have borne up very well. I am sure Clark will tell you so. Ever your most devoted Niece,
[Footnote 60: Dr (afterwards Sir) William Jenner, K.C.B. (1815-1898), was at this time Physician-Extraordinary to the Queen.]
[Footnote 61: Afterwards Sir Thomas Watson (1792-1882), F.R.S.]
[Footnote 62: Dr. William Frederick Chambers (1786-1855) was well known as a consulting physician.]
[Footnote 63: Sir Henry Holland (1788-1873) was Physician-in-Ordinary to the Queen and the Prince Consort.]
General Grey to Sir Charles Wood.
WINDSOR CASTLE, 13th December 1861.
MY DEAR WOOD,—The Queen desires me to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, and to say that she quite approves of the purport of your despatch to the Governor-General, understanding it to be, not that there is to be any reduction of the Artillery force which it had been determined to leave permanent in India as the proper establishment for that country, but simply that some batteries which it had been resolved to bring home, at all events, are to return somewhat sooner than had been intended, etc., etc., etc.,
[Pageheading: DEATH OF THE PRINCE]
Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians.
OSBORNE, 20th December 1861.
MY OWN DEAREST, KINDEST FATHER,—For as such have I ever loved you! The poor fatherless baby of eight months is now the utterly broken-hearted and crushed widow of forty-two! My life as a happy one is ended! the world is gone for me! If I must live on (and I will do nothing to make me worse than I am), it is henceforth for our poor fatherless children—for my unhappy country, which has lost all in losing him—and in only doing what I know and feel he would wish, for he is near me—his spirit will guide and inspire me! But oh! to be cut off in the prime of life—to see our pure, happy, quiet, domestic life, which alone enabled me to bear my much disliked position, CUT OFF at forty-two—when I had hoped with such instinctive certainty that God never would part us, and would let us grow old together (though he always talked of the shortness of life)—is too awful, too cruel! And yet it must be for his good, his happiness! His purity was too great, his aspiration too high for this poor, miserable world! His great soul is now only enjoying that for which it was worthy! And I will not envy him—only pray that mine may be perfected by it and fit to be with him eternally, for which blessed moment I earnestly long. Dearest, dearest Uncle, how kind of you to come! It will be an unspeakable comfort, and you can do much to tell people to do what they ought to do. As for my own good, personal servants—poor Phipps in particular—nothing can be more devoted, heartbroken as they are, and anxious only to live as he wished!
Good Alice has been and is wonderful.
The 26th will suit me perfectly. Ever your devoted, wretched Child,
[Footnote 64: By a singular coincidence, the Princess was to pass away on the anniversary of the Prince's death. She died on the 14th of December 1878.]
[Pageheading: DEATH OF LADY CANNING]
Sir Charles Wood to Queen Victoria.
22nd December 1861.
Sir Charles Wood, with his humble duty, begs to enclose to your Majesty two letters from India, one giving an account of Lord Canning's investing the Indian Chiefs with the Star of India; and the other an account of poor Lady Canning's illness and death, which, even at this sad moment, may not be without interest for your Majesty.
Sir Charles Wood hopes that he may be forgiven if, when having to address your Majesty, he ventures to lay before your Majesty the expression of his heartfelt sympathy in the sorrow under which your Majesty is now suffering, and his deep sense of the irreparable calamity which has befallen your Majesty and the country.
Though it cannot be any consolation, it must be gratifying to your Majesty to learn the deep and universal feeling of regret and sorrow which prevails amongst all classes of your Majesty's subjects, and in none so strongly as in those who have had the most opportunity of appreciating the inestimable value of those services, of which by this awful dispensation of Providence the country has been deprived.
[Pageheading: DEATH OF LADY CANNING]
Earl Canning to Queen Victoria.
BARRACKPORE, 22nd November 1861.
Lord Canning presents his humble duty to your Majesty. Your Majesty will have heard by the last mail of the heavy blow which has fallen upon Lord Canning. The kindness of your Majesty to Lady Canning has been so invariable and so great that he feels it to be right that your Majesty should receive a sure account of her last illness with as little delay as possible.
The funeral is over. It took place quite privately at sunrise on the 19th. There is no burial-place for the Governor-General or his family, and the cemeteries at Calcutta are odious in many ways: Lord Canning has therefore set a portion of the garden at Barrackpore (fifteen miles from Calcutta) apart for the purpose. It is a beautiful spot—looking upon that reach of the grand river which she was so fond of drawing—shaded from the glare of the sun by high trees—and amongst the bright shrubs and flowers in which she had so much pleasure.
Your Majesty will be glad, but not surprised, to know of the deep respect which has been paid to her memory, not only by the familiar members of the household and intimate friends, who refused to let any hired hands perform the last offices, but by the Civil and Military bodies, and by the community at large. The coffin was conveyed to Barrackpore by the Artillery, and was borne through the Garden by English soldiers.
Lord Canning feels sure that your Majesty will not consider these details as an intrusion. He feels sure of your Majesty's kind sympathy. She loved your Majesty dearly, and Lord Canning is certain that he is doing what would have been her wish in thus venturing to write to your Majesty. In the last connected conversation which he had with her, just before the illness became really threatening, she said that she must write again to the Queen, "for I don't want her to think that it was out of laziness that I was not at Allahabad." The fact is, that she had always intended to be present at the Investiture, and had made all her arrangements to go from Darjeeling to Allahabad for the purpose; but Lord Canning, hearing of the bad state of the roads, owing to the heavy and unseasonable rains, and knowing how fatiguing an additional journey of nearly 900 miles would be, had entreated her to abandon the intention, and to stay longer in the Hills, and then go straight to Calcutta. Whether all might have gone differently if the first plan had been held to, God alone knows. His will has been done.
[Footnote 65: Received on the 22nd of December, or thereabouts.]
[Pageheading: A NOBLE RESOLVE]
Queen Victoria to the King of the Belgians.
OSBORNE, 24th December 1861.
MY BELOVED UNCLE,—Though, please God! I am to see you so soon, I must write these few lines to prepare you for the trying, sad existence you will find it with your poor forlorn, desolate child—who drags on a weary, pleasureless existence! I am also anxious to repeat one thing, and that one is my firm resolve, my irrevocable decision, viz. that his wishes—his plans—about everything, his views about every thing are to be my law! And no human power will make me swerve from what he decided and wished—and I look to you to support and help me in this. I apply this particularly as regards our children—Bertie, etc.—for whose future he had traced everything so carefully. I am also determined that no one person, may he be ever so good, ever so devoted among my servants—is to lead or guide or dictate to me. I know how he would disapprove it. And I live on with him, for him; in fact I am only outwardly separated from him, and only for a time.
No one can tell you more of my feelings, and can put you more in possession of many touching facts than our excellent Dr Jenner, who has been and is my great comfort, and whom I would entreat you to see and hear before you see any one else. Pray do this, for I fear much others trying to see you first and say things and wish for things which I should not consent to.
Though miserably weak and utterly shattered, my spirit rises when I think any wish or plan of his is to be touched or changed, or I am to be made to do anything. I know you will help me in my utter darkness. It is but for a short time, and then I go—never, never to part! Oh! that blessed, blessed thought! He seems so near to me, so quite my own now, my precious darling! God bless and preserve you. Ever your wretched but devoted Child,
What a Xmas! I won't think of it.
[Pageheading: BUSINESS STILL TRANSACTED]
Viscount Palmerston to Queen Victoria.
PICCADILLY, 30th December 1861.
Viscount Palmerston presents his humble duty to your Majesty, and has read with deep emotion your Majesty's letter of the 26th, every word of which went straight to the heart. Viscount Palmerston would, however, humbly express a hope that the intensity of your Majesty's grief may not lead your Majesty to neglect your health, the preservation of which is so important for the welfare of your Majesty's children, and for that of your Majesty's devotedly attached and affectionate subjects; and which is so essentially necessary to enable your Majesty to perform those duties which it will be the object of your Majesty's life to fulfil.
Lord Granville has communicated to Viscount Palmerston your Majesty's wish that Mr Dilke should be made a Baronet, and that Mr Bowring should be made a Companion of the Bath, and both of these things will be done accordingly. But there are three other persons whose names Viscount Palmerston has for some time wished to submit to your Majesty for the dignity of Baronet, and if your Majesty should be graciously pleased to approve of them, the list would stand as follows:
Mr William Brown, of Liverpool, a very wealthy and distinguished merchant, who lately made a magnificent present of a public library to his fellow-citizens.
Mr Thomas Davies Lloyd, a rich and highly respectable gentleman of the county of Carnarvon.
Mr Rich, to whom the Government is under great obligation, for having of his own accord and without any condition vacated last year his seat for Richmond in Yorkshire, and having thus enabled the Government to obtain the valuable services of Mr Roundell Palmer as your Majesty's Solicitor-General.
Viscount Palmerston has put into this box some private letters which Lord Russell thinks your Majesty might perhaps like to look at.
[Footnote 66: Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke was on the Executive Committee of the Exhibition of 1851, and on the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1862. He died in 1869.]
[Footnote 67: Mr Edgar Bowring's Companionship was conferred on him for services in connection with the earlier Exhibition. He was afterwards M.P. for Exeter, 1868-1874.]
[Footnote 68: Mr Brown became a baronet in 1863.]
[Pageheading: COMFORT AND HOPE]
Queen Victoria to Earl Canning.
OSBORNE, 10th January 1862.
Lord Canning little thought when he wrote his kind and touching letter of the 22nd November, that it would only reach the Queen when she was smitten and bowed down to the earth by an event similar to the one which he describes—and, strange to say, by a disease greatly analogous to the one which took from him all that he loved best. In the case of her adored, precious, perfect, and great husband, her dear lord and master, to whom this Nation owed more than it ever can truly know, however, the fever went on most favourably till the day previous to the awful calamity, and then it was congestion of the lungs and want of strength of circulation (the beloved Prince had always a weak and feeble pulse), which at the critical moment, indeed only two hours before God took him, caused this awful result. To lose one's partner in life is, as Lord Canning knows, like losing half of one's body and soul, torn forcibly away—and dear Lady Canning was such a dear, worthy, devoted wife! But to the Queen—to a poor helpless woman—it is not that only—it is the stay, support and comfort which is lost! To the Queen it is like death in life! Great and small—nothing was done without his loving advice and help—and she feels alone in the wide world, with many helpless children (except the Princess Royal) to look to her—and the whole nation to look to her—now when she can barely struggle with her wretched existence! Her misery—her utter despair—she cannot describe! Her only support—the only ray of comfort she gets for a moment, is in the firm conviction and certainty of his nearness, his undying love, and of their eternal reunion! Only she prays always, and pines for the latter with an anxiety she cannot describe. Like dear Lady Canning, the Queen's darling is to rest in a garden—at Frogmore, in a Mausoleum the Queen is going to build for him and herself.
Though ill, the Queen was able to tell her precious angel of Lord Canning's bereavement, and he was deeply grieved, recurring to it several times, and saying, "What a loss! She was such a distinguished person!"
May God comfort and support Lord Canning, and may he think in his sorrow of his widowed and broken-hearted Sovereign—bowed to the earth with the greatest of human sufferings and misfortunes! She lived but for her husband!
The sympathy of the many thousands of her subjects, but above all their sorrow and their admiration for him, are soothing to her bleeding, pierced heart!
The Queen's precious husband, though wandering occasionally, was conscious till nearly the last, and knew her and kissed her an hour before his pure spirit fled to its worthy and fit eternal Home!
(The page references in italics refer to Introductory Notes or footnotes.)
Abd-el-Kader, i, 43, 57; ii. 31, 146
Abercorn, Marchioness of, i. 310
Abercrombie, Dr, physician, i. 448
Abercromby, James, see Dunfermline, Lord
Abercromby, Sir Ralph, iii. 111
Aberdeen, Earl of, Foreign Secretary, i. 22, 309; political power and views, i. 29, 30; Palmerston's opinion of, i. 375; Emperor Nicholas, ii. 1; Queen's appreciation of, ii. 17, 87, 105; iii. 101, 102, 190; Corn Laws, ii. 49; takes leave of the Queen, ii. 85; ii. 103, 248, 263, 291, 293, 294; failure to form a Government, ii. 296, 298, 299; ii. 356, 393; forms a Government, ii. 413-429; Lord Derby's attack on, ii. 418; Queen Victoria's approval of, ii. 430; Eastern Question, ii. 432, 437-444, 449-451, 452, 455-472; India Bill, ii. 447; as to giving up office, ii. 458; on Lord Palmerston's resignation, ii. 467, 468; Crimea, iii. 1, 44; anomalous position of Prince Consort, iii. 3, 4; Orleans family, iii. 7; declaration of war with Russia, iii. 12, 13, 19; unsatisfactory speech, iii, 34; Lord John Russell's possible resignation, iii. 57-60; Queen's confidence in, iii. 66; Knight of the Garter, iii. 67, 68; Lord John Russell's resignation, iii. 71, 72; Government's resignation on result of Roebuck's motion, iii. 77-80; Lord John Russell, iii. 88; Government of 1855, iii. 97-104; iii. 190; on Oudh Proclamation, iii. 286; and W. E. Gladstone, iii. 349; death, iii. 453
About, Edmond, French writer, iii. 357
Accession, Queen Victoria's reminiscences of, i. 75
Achmet Bey, i. 57
Adams, Mr, iii. 467
Adelaide, Madame, King Louis Philippe's sister, death, ii. 143-147; will, ii. 148
Adelaide, Queen (wife of William IV.), parentage and marriage, i. 23, 24; character, i. 24; interests in life, i. 24; letter on Queen's accession, i. 77; on Queen's coronation, i. 120; Protestant Church at Valetta, i. 138; letters, i. 371, 399, 437; visits a convent, i. 437; letter, i. 464; death, ii. 230
Adelaide, Princess, of Hohenlohe, question of marriage, ii. 356, 408, 409
Adelaide, Queen Marie, of Sardinia, death, iii. 206
Adolphus, John, History of England, i. 453
Adrianople, Treaty of, i. 229
Adriatic, reported demonstration in, ii. 193
Aemilia, The, iii. 380
Afghanistan, Dost Mahommed dethroned, i. 142; surrender, i. 209; insurrection, i. 254; disasters retrieved, proclamation, i. 370; troubles, i. 373, 382; Fall of Cabul, i. 385; successful issue, i. 441; medals, i. 444; operations against Afghans, ii. 218
Africa, South, The Transvaal and Orange Free States, ii. 142; iii. 200
Agriculture, motion on distress of, ii. 285-286; protection, ii. 384; see Corn Laws
Airey, Sir Richard, Quartermaster-General, iii. 175
Ak Mussid, iii. 45
Akbar Khan (son of Dost Mahommed), i. 254, 370, 442
Aland Islands, iii. 36
Alava, Miguel Ricardo di, Spanish General, i. 59
Alba, Duke of, ii. 435
—— Duchess of, death, iii. 415
Albemarle, sixth Earl of, Master of the Horse, i. 76, 81, 121, 219
Albert, Archduke, ii. 219
—— Edward, see Wales, Prince of
—— Prince, see Consort, Prince
Albertine branch of House of Saxe-Coburg, history of, i. 2
Aldershot, review of Crimean troops, iii. 198
Alexander, Grand Duke (afterwards Czar Alexander II.), iii. 112, 172; crowned at Moscow, iii. 158; his character, iii. 204
Alexandria, i. 179
Alford, Dean of Canterbury, iii. 227
Alfred, Prince, birth, ii. 21; iii. 399; visit to the Cape, iii. 410, 413; visit to Ireland, iii. 420; joins the Euryalus, iii. 433
Algiers, i. 43
Ali, Mehemet, Pasha of Egypt, i. 141, 179, 182, 190; ultimatum, i. 209, 232-240; resigns claim to Syria, i. 252
Alibaud, i. 407
Alice, Princess, birth and christening, i. 480, 501; iii. 240; birthday, iii. 396; engagement to Prince Louis of Hesse, iii. 405, 415, 416-419; Prince Consort's death, iii. 474
Allahabad, mutiny, iii. 224
Allen, Mr, librarian, Holland House, i. 359
Allt-na-Giuthasach, Shiel of, Queen's visits to, ii. 322, 392
Alma, victory of, iii. 1, 43, 49, 252
Amritsar, ii. 74
Anarchists, ii. 3
Anglesey, Marquess of, i. 388; ii. 86
Annual Summary of Events, 1821-1835, i. 27; 1836, i. 43; 1837, i. 56; 1838, i. 102; 1839, i. 141; 1840, i. 209; 1841, i. 253; 1842, i. 370; 1843, i. 450; 1844, ii. 1; 1845, ii. 30; 1846, ii. 71; 1847, ii. 115; 1848, ii. 141; 1849, ii. 208; 1850, ii. 231; 1851, ii. 283; 1852, ii. 356; 1853, ii. 431; 1854, iii. 1; 1855, iii. 63; 1856, iii. 158; 1857, iii. 223; 1858, iii. 261; 1859, iii. 307; 1860, iii. 379; 1861, iii. 420
Anson, George, i. 199; Private Secretary to Prince Albert, i. 201, 206; interviews with Baron Stockmar, i. 224, 330, 331; interviews with Lord Melbourne, i. 224, 256, 268, 269, 296, 297, 303, 304, 311; interviews with Sir Robert Peel, i. 271, 273, 284, 312; memoranda by, i. 295, 298, 322, 337, 338, 368; illness, i. 490; ii. 36, 46, 67
—— Sir George, i. 201
Antonelli, Cardinal, iii. 311
Antwerp, Queen's visit to, ii. 45; ii. 68
Apponyi, Count, Austrian Ambassador, i. 237
Apprenticeship in Jamaica, i. 102
Aquila, Comte d', ii. 32
Arbuthnot, Colonel, i. 314, 398
Ardenne, ii. 16
Argyll, eighth Duke of, Lord Privy Seal, ii. 420; Government of 1855, iii. 97; Privy Seal, iii. 104; Divorce Bill, iii. 231; Lord Privy Seal, iii. 348; Abolition of Paper Duty, iii. 403
Argyll, Duchess of, ii. 376
"Aristocratic," meaning of, i. 107
Army (see Militia), estimates i. 99; civil government of, i. 147; bravery of troops, ii. 74; victory, ii. 77; Peninsular medals, ii. 109-113; officers' commissions, ii. 185; in India, ii. 212; Prince Consort, ii. 365; military appointments, ii. 393; national defences, ii. 396-398; Queen on augmentation of, iii. 12; embarkation for the Crimea, iii. 14; reserve to be sent out, iii. 36; Bomarsund, iii. 36; battle of the Alma, iii. 44; Indian contingents, iii. 46; Balaklava, iii. 50; Sebastopol, iii. 50, 63; Inkerman, iii. 53; Foreign Enlistment Bill, iii. 58; fall of Sebastopol, iii. 64; privations of the Army, iii. 68-70; New Board, iii. 71; laxity of discipline, iii. 153; land transport, iii. 157; retrenchments, iii. 188; peace establishment, iii. 191; review of Crimean troops at Aldershot, iii. 198, 199, 200; military education, iii. 218, 220; Indian Mutiny, iii. 224, 234, 236; Militia embodied, iii. 241; Queen's view on need of increasing, iii. 245, 257; vote of thanks to, iii. 261; question of control, iii. 293; indivisibility of, iii. 319; Committee on Military Departments, iii. 351
Arnold, Dr, ii. 273
Arrow, Chinese dispute, iii. 223, 228
Arthur, Prince (afterwards Duke of Connaught), christening, ii. 231; iii. 121; birthday, iii. 189; iii. 436
Ascot, Queen's visit to the races, ii. 13
Ashburton, Baron, i. 368, 462
Ashley, Lord, afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury, i. 165; Labour Bill, i. 370; Factory Labour Bill, ii. 1; Duchy of Lancaster, iii. 116; Oudh Proclamation, iii. 282, 290
Asis, Don Francisco de, ii. 72, 99
Aston, Mr (Diplomatic Service), i. 329, 432, 495
Athens, revolution at, i. 494; ii. 231
Atherton, Sir William, Attorney-General, iii. 467
Athole, Duchess of, ii. 376
Attock, fort of, captured, ii. 218
Attwood, Thomas, Birmingham Political Union, i. 69, 425
Auchterarder, Church case, i. 448
Auckland, Baron (afterwards Earl of), Governor-General of India, i. 142; policy in Afghanistan, i. 209, 266, 373, 383; ii. 10, 86
Audley, Baron, i. 124
Augusta, of Cambridge, Princess, afterwards Grand Duchess-Dowager of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, i. 434, 437, 440; ii. 256; iii. 264
—— Princess, of Saxony, i. 92
—— Princess, daughter of George III., i. 228; death, i. 230
Augustus, Prince, of Saxe-Coburg, see Saxe-Coburg
Augustus, Prince Ernest, afterwards Duke of Cumberland, iii. 456
Aulaire, Ste., Ambassador, i. 321, 334, 508
Aumale, Duc d', i. 95, 493, 502; ii. 153, 167; gallantry, ii. 192-193, 267, 337; visit to New Lodge, iii. 386
Australasian colonies, self-government of, iii. 64
Australia, emigration to, i. 102; wine from, ii. 41
Austria, Empress Elizabeth of, iii. 414
—— Emperor of (Francis Joseph), ii. 318; attempted assassination of, ii. 440; King Leopold's opinion of, ii. 447, 448; Queen's letter to, iii. 322, 323; reply, iii. 324, 325; proposed meeting with the Queen, iii. 408, 409
—— and the Porte, i. 191; abdication of Emperor, ii. 141; Pope declares war against, ii. 141; ascendency in Lombardy, ii. 174; and Italy, ii. 174; war with the Piedmontese, ii. 178, 182, 186, 190, 193; and England, ii. 183, 186, 190, 191, 198, 380; declines mediation, ii. 193; ascendency in N. Italy, ii. 208; ii. 229, 275; and Prussia, ii. 276; ii. 379, 402; and Eastern Question, ii. 440-444, 451, 452; alliance with Prussia, iii. 1; and Russia, iii. 13, 25; proposed alliance with England, iii. 49, 50, 51, 66; men required, iii. 115; negotiations broken off, iii. 118; and the Four Points, iii. 120, 161, 165; and France, iii. 168, 306; and Italy, iii. 307; war with Sardinia and defeat, iii. 308; and the Papal States, iii. 313; proposed congress, iii. 325-334; troops cross the Ticino, iii. 327; French victories, iii. 352; conclusion and terms of peace, iii. 354, 359, 360; Italy, iii. 382
Ayrton, Mr, iii. 239
Azeglio, Count, Premier of Sardinia, ii. 386; iii. 368
Baden, crisis at, ii. 220
—— Princess Mary of, i. 470
Bagot, Sir Charles, Governor-General of Canada, i. 323, 334
Baines, Matthew Talbot, Chancellor of Duchy of Lancaster, iii. 116, 149; Conspiracy Bill, iii. 265, 272
Bala Rao, Indian Mutiny, iii. 351
Balaklava, successes at, iii. 2, 50; hurricane and loss of life at, iii. 56; iii. 189
Ballard, Lieutenant, siege of Silistria, iii. 36
Ballot, the, i. 56; ii. 335
Balmoral Castle, Queen's description of, ii. 194, 323; Queen's first occupation of, iii. 141
Baltic, English, expedition to the, iii. 16, 115
Bandeira, Sa da, i. 55
Bands, on Sundays, iii. 194
Bank Charter Act, ii. 1; infringement of, ii. 115; suspension of, iii. 224
Barbes, Armand, i. 179
Barclay & Perkins' brewery, attack on General Haynau, ii. 269
Barham, Lady (afterwards Countess of Gainsborough), i. 124, 318; ii. 274
Baring, F. (afterwards Lord Northbrook), Chancellor of the Exchequer, i. 264, 281, 308, 314; ii. 60, 84, 287, 312, 347; capture of Lagos, ii. 365, 366; Board of Works, ii. 421; iii. 79; Government of 1855, iii. 91
—— Thomas, ii. 368; Indian Mutiny debate, iii. 239; India Bill, iii. 294
Barkly, Sir H., Governor of Victoria, iii. 190
Barnard, General, death at Delhi, iii. 243
Barrackpore, funeral of Lady Canning, iii. 475
Barrot, Odilon, i. 248; ii. 149
Barrow, Sir John, i. 432
Barry, Sir Charles, knighted, ii. 363
Bastide, M., ii. 187
Baudrand, General Comte, i. 83
Bayley, Rev. Emilius, iii. 416
Bean, attempt on the Queen's life, i. 370, 407
Beas, River, ii. 74
Beatrice, Princess (afterwards Princess Henry of Battenberg), birth and christening, iii. 234
Beauclerk, Lord Amelius, i. 108
Beaufort, Duke of, i. 334
Beauharnais, Eugene de, Duke of Leuchtenberg, iii. 354
Beauvale, Lord (afterwards second Viscount Melbourne), i. 191; i. 232, 418, 490, 512; ii. 165, 436
Beche, Sir Henry T. de la, geologist, i. 315
Bedford, seventh Duke of, i. 296, 509; ii. 130, 132, 195, 257; opinion of Lord Palmerston, ii. 260, 261; ii. 403; iii. 89; Queen's appreciation of Endsleigh, iii. 203
Begum, the ex-Queen of Oudh, iii. 351
Belgians, King of, see Leopold
—— Queen of, see Louise
Belgium, dispute with Holland, i. 43, 102, 119, 142, 145, 146; independence of, i. 118; King Leopold's views on, i. 152, 153; and England, i. 134, 151; ii. 68; and Germany, i. 379; and Emperor of Russia, ii. 15; abortive insurrection, ii. 172; neutrality of, iii. 171
Belsham, William, History of Great Britain, i. 467
Bengal Mutiny, iii. 224
Bentinck, Lord George, attack on Sir R. Peel, ii. 79, 80; ii. 87; sudden death, ii. 208
—— Major-General Sir Henry, K.C.B., wounded at Inkerman, iii. 52; interview with the Queen, iii. 56, 60
Beresford, Lord John George de la Poer, Archbishop of Armagh, ii. 224
—— Major, iii. 78
—— Viscount, i. 420; ii. 393
Berkeley, Admiral, M.P., Gloucester, iii. 78
Bernadotte, Marshal, iii. 448
Bernard, Dr, trial of, iii. 261, 274
Bessarabia, cession of, iii. 152, 158, 208
Bessborough, Earl of, see Duncannon
Bethell, Sir Richard (afterwards Lord Westbury), Attorney-General, Divorce Bill, iii. 232; India Bill, iii. 267; Lord Chancellor, iii. 442
Beust, Baron, Minister in Saxony, iii. 151, 151, 171
Beverloo Camp, i. 41
Beyens, Baron, Secretary of Legation at Madrid, ii. 436
Beyrout, bombardment of, i. 238; iii. 10
Bickersteth, Robert, afterwards Bishop of Ripon, iii. 206, 217
Bilbao, battle at, i. 67
Birch, Mr, formerly tutor to Prince of Wales, iii. 431
Birmingham, Chartist riots, i. 179; political condition, i. 506
Births, registration of, i. 43
Bishops, seats in House of Lords, i. 56; and Dr Hampden, ii. 139; appointments of, iii. 416, 417
Black Sea, Russia's Fleet, iii. 120; neutralisation of, iii. 152, 158; England sends fleet to, iii. 208
Blagden, Mr, i. 14
Blanc, Louis, organisation du travail, ii. 168
Bloemfontein, ii. 200
Blomfield, C. J., see London, Bishop of
Bloomfield, Baron, ii. 256; Minister at Berlin, ii. 285; iii. 161, 253
Boers, defeat of, ii. 142, 200
Bois-le-Comte, Mons., French Minister at Madrid, i. 96
Bolgrad, iii. 208
Bomarsund, capture of, iii. 36
Bonaparte, see Napoleon
Bordeaux, Duc de (afterwards Comte de Chambord), i. 495, 498, 499, 506, 508; visit to London, i. 509, 510; ii. 3, 177; rumoured visit to England, iii. 7; and the King of the Belgians, iii. 296
Borthwick, Peter, ii. 34
Bourquency, Mons. de, iii. 151
Bouverie, Mr, iii. 131
Bowring, Edgar, C.B., iii. 477
—— Sir John, British Plenipotentiary, Hong-Kong, iii. 223, 227
Bowyer, Sir George, M.P., iii. 445
Brabant, Duchess Marie Henriette de (afterwards Queen of the Belgians), iii. 276
—— Dukes of, see Leopold
Bracebridge, Mr and Mrs, iii. 62
Braganza, Duchess of, i. 51, 178
Breadalbane, Marquess of, i 429; Lord Chamberlain, ii. 425; review at Edinburgh, iii. 407
—— Marchioness of, Lady of the Bedchamber, i. 143
Brescia, ii. 269
Bresson, Count, ii. 98, 99, 107 [107 correct]
—— M., aids King Louis Philippe's escape, ii. 157
Bribery at elections, i. 90
Bridgewater, eighth Earl of, treatises, i. 349
Bright, John, on war with Russia, iii. 20; appeal for ending the war, iii. 63; loses his seat, iii. 223; India Bill, iii. 280; Oudh Proclamation, iii. 281, 290; Reform Bill, iii. 324; proposed honour, iii. 349; England and Savoy, iii. 394; privilege resolutions, iii. 404; and Palmerston, iii. 429
Brighton, i. 140
British Columbia, name given, iii. 296
Broadfoot, Major, political agent, India, death, ii. 76
Broadstairs, Queen's visit to, i. 19
Brock, Mrs, Queen's nurse, i. 14
Brocket Hall, Lord Melbourne's house, i. 150; Queen's visit to, i. 296
Broglie, Duc de, ex-Minister of Foreign Affairs, i. 149; ii. 37
Brougham, Lord, i. 56; on Canadian difficulties, i. 102, 128; advice against dissolution, i. 293; right of audience, i. 344; as a protectionist, ii. 81
Brown, Sir George, wounded at Inkerman, iii. 53, 129
—— Sir William, Baronet, iii. 477
Bruce, Commodore, ii. 366
—— Colonel, iii. 306
—— Lady Augusta, ii. 434; iii. 451
Brunnow, M. de, Russian Minister, i. 190, 232; ii. 250, 286, 408, 442, 456; iii. 176, 189, 466
Brunswick, House of, history of, i. 1, 6
Brussels, Russian Minister to, ii. 17
Brydon, Dr, i. 254
Buccleuch, Duke of, i. 509; ii. 49, 63-65
—— Duchess of, Mistress of the Robes, i. 310
Buchanan, Mr, afterwards Sir Andrew, Secretary of Legation at St Petersburg, ii. 221
—— Mr (afterwards President), American Minister to Great Britain, iii. 105, 182; receives the Prince of Wales, iii. 380, 405
Buckingham, second Duke of, i. 278; Lord Privy Seal, i. 309; i. 386; ii. 33
—— Palace, proposed alterations, ii. 33
Buckland, Dr, Irish Commissioner, ii. 48
Buenos Ayres, blockade by British Fleet, ii. 133
Bull Run, battle of, iii. 421
Buller, Charles, i. 142, 425
Bulwer, Sir Henry (afterwards Lord Dalling), Minister at Madrid, i. 235, 238, 334; ii. 97, 119; 133, 136; recall, and Queen's opinion of, ii. 175, 179; at Rome, ii. 365; declines governorship of Victoria, iii. 190, 191
—— Lytton, Sir Edward (afterwards Lord Lytton), i. 350; iii. 79; motion of censure on Lord John Russell, iii. 131, 132, 292, 296, 301
Bunsen, Chevalier, ii. 139, 182; recall of, iii. 31
Buol, Count, Austrian Prime Minister, ii. 380, 440; iii. 11, 66, 121, 131, 176, 306, 328, 329
"Bureaucratic," Palmerston's definition of, i. 107
Burghersh, Francis Lord (afterwards Earl of Westmorland), A.D.C. to Lord Raglan, iii. 50
Burgoyne, Sir John, ii. 141
Burnes, Captain (afterwards Sir Alexander), mission to Cabul, i. 142; murdered, i. 254
Burnet, Bishop, History of his own Time, i. 435
Burney, Miss (Madame D'Arblay), diary, i. 406, 467
Bury, Lord, Straits Settlements, iii. 277
Bushey Park, residence of the Duke and Duchess of Clarence, i. 33
Bushire, capture of, iii. 159
Bussahir, iii. 360
Butler, Captain, siege of Silistria, iii. 36
Buxted, residence of Lord Liverpool, Queen visits, i. 50
Buxton, Charles, iii. 443
Bygrave, Captain, i. 442
Byng, Sir John, see Strafford, Earl of
—— George, i. 60, 467
Byron, Lady, i. 310
—— seventh Lord, i. 307
Cabrals, the, ii. 134, 135
Cabul, i. 254, 370, 383; fall of, i. 385, 442; ii. 218
Cadiz, Duke of, ii. 89
Cadogan, Honoria, Countess, died September 12, 1845, i. 62
Cagliari, seizure of the, iii. 262, 274
Cairns, Sir Hugh, Solicitor-General, Oudh Proclamation debate, iii. 290
Camarilla, i. 58
Cambridge, first Duke of, i. 4; political views, i. 5, 6; Regent of Hanover, i. 7; marriage, i. 99, 207, 208, 245; daughter's marriage, i. 434, 437, 440, 475, 476; death, ii. 247, 256
Cambridge, Prince George of (afterwards second Duke of Cambridge), i. 212; Ireland, ii. 226; Earldom of Tipperary, ii. 245-247; Ireland, ii. 303; Ranger of the Parks, ii. 393; in Paris, iii. 14; interview with Napoleon, iii. 24-26; writes from Constantinople, iii. 27, 28; illness and return from the Crimea, iii. 70; iii. 78; council of war, iii. 160, 167; Commander-in-Chief, iii. 199, 200; proposed marriage of Princess Mary, iii. 206, 209; Army control, iii. 293
Cambridge, Duchess of, i. 11, 31, 99, 494
—— Queen's visit to, i. 496, 501, 503
Campbell, Mr, M.P. for Weymouth, iii. 239
—— Sir Colin (afterwards Lord Clyde), Queen's high opinion of, iii. 152, 155; Commander-in-Chief, Indian Mutiny, relief of Lucknow, iii. 224, 250, 259, 278; Peerage, iii. 262; iii. 405, 455
—— Lord, Bernard trial, iii. 274; Lord Chancellor, iii. 348; reports of divorce cases, iii. 378
Canada, friction in, i. 56, 98, 100, 102, 103; Lord Durham, Governor-General, i. 104, 128, 133, 135-137; resignation, i. 137; union of, i. 209; dispute with United States, i. 254; ii. 30; resignation of Lord Metcalfe, ii. 47; Government of, ii. 94; Clergy Revenues Bill, ii. 431; Nova Scotia, iii. 189; Colonial Governorships, iii. 190; Ottawa selected as capital, iii. 262; British Columbia, iii. 296; United States claim to St Juan, iii. 373; Prince of Wales's visit to, iii. 380, 404; proposed increase in Army and Navy for, iii. 440
Candahar, i. 407
Canning, Right Hon. G., speech on Queen's education, i. 10, 229
—— Viscount (afterwards Earl), ii. 346; Post Office, ii. 421; not in the Cabinet, ii. 427; Government of 1855, iii. 98; Post Office, iii. 104; Governor-General of India, iii. 128, 159, 178; arrival in India, iii. 179; Indian Mutiny, iii. 224, 236-238; his clemency, iii. 249-252; Oudh Proclamation, iii. 262, 281-285, 289, 291; Viceroy, iii. 304; Earldom, iii. 313; Indian Army Question, iii. 318; termination of Mutiny, iii. 350; Indian titles, iii. 387; Queen's pleasure at progress in India, iii. 405; K.G., iii. 441; Queen's high opinion of, iii. 453; death of his wife, iii. 475; touching letter from the Queen, iii. 477, 478
—— Viscountess, i. 310, 397; iii. 405; death, iii. 474; Queen's appreciation of, iii. 477, 478
—— Sir Stratford, see Stratford de Redcliffe
Canrobert, Marshal, Commander of French army, iii. 1, 64; resignation, iii. 126
Canterbury, Archbishop of (William Howley), report as to Queen's education, i. 17, 55; announces to the Queen William IV.'s death, i. 74, 75; attends Queen's first council, i. 77; convocation address, i. 299; (John Bird Sumner), Bishopric of Capetown, ii. 448; on Sunday bands, iii. 194; (C. T. Longley), iii. 206; national prayer and humiliation iii. 247
—— Viscount, iii. 230
Canton, England's occupation of, iii. 223, 226
Capetown, Bishopric of, ii. 448
Caradoc, Sir John Hobart, see Howden, Lord
Carbonari Society, iii. 261
Cardigan, Earl of, i. 263, 264, 386, 394; iii. 67; censure on, iii. 175
Cardwell, Mr (afterwards Viscount), ii. 368; Secretary at War, ii. 421; President of Board of Trade, ii. 468; Oudh Proclamation, iii. 282; vote of censure withdrawn, iii. 290; Chief Secretary for Ireland, iii. 349
Carlisle, sixth Earl of, i. 419
—— seventh Earl (sometime Lord Morpeth), Chief Secretary for Ireland, i. 62, 281, 308; ii. 79, 95; Chief Commissioner of Woods and Forests, ii. 168, 324, 427, 428; iii. 452
Carlists, i. 50, 67; ii. 3
Carlos, Don, i. 44, 57, 488; abdication, ii. 31
Carlton House, residence of George IV., Queen's visit to, i. 11
Carmarthen Riots, i. 484
Carolina, South, iii. 381
Cartwright, Sir T., i. 409
Cashmere, ii. 74
Castlerosse, Lord, iii. 291
Cathcart, Earl, Governor-General of Canada, ii. 47
Cathcart, General Sir George, Kaffir War, ii. 283; death at Inkerman, iii. 52; iii. 134
Cavaignac, General, French Minister for War, ii. 184, 190, 191, 207, 387
Cavour, Count, Sardinian Premier, iii. 63, 66, 156, 161, 170, 307, 333; resignation, iii. 359; Papal States, iii. 380; death, iii. 420, 441
Cawdor, Earl, i. 484
Cawnpore, Mutiny, iii. 224, 238; massacre of the garrison, iii. 247, 248, 261
Cecile, Admiral, ii. 213
Chalmers, Dr, i. 448, 450
Chambers, Dr William Frederick, consulting physician, iii. 473
Chambord, Comte de, see Bordeaux, Duc de
Chandos, Lord (afterwards Duke), Secretary to the Treasury, ii. 423
Chantrey, Sir Francis, sculptor, i. 313, 333, 337
Chapman, Dr, iii. 431
Chapoo, captured by Sir Hugh Gough, i. 441
Charier, Mdlle., ii. 3
Charlemont, Viscount, i. 344
Charles of Hesse, Prince, iii. 458
—— X., of France, character and death, i. 52
—— Archduke, i. 431
—— Albert, King of Sardinia, ii. 141, 175; Piedmontese war, ii. 178, 182, 183, 186, 187, 190, 191, 197, 198; defeat at Custozza, ii. 191; at Novara, ii. 248; abdication in favour of his son, ii. 248
Charleston, surrender of, iii. 421
Charlotte, Princess (daughter of George IV.), i. 8; character, ii. 39, 40; bust, i. 203
—— Princess of Prussia (afterwards Hereditary Princess of Saxe-Meiningen), birth of, iii. 406
Charlotte, Princess of Belgium, ii. 185; illness, ii. 255, 271; beauty of, ii. 367; proposed marriage of, iii. 207, 211; marriage of, iii. 240, 241
Chartists, i. 83; riots, i. 179; ii. 134; demonstration, ii. 168; fiasco, ii. 169
Chartres, Duc de, i. 266, 414; iii. 453
Chateaubriand, Vicomte de, i. 508
Chatsworth, Queen's visit to, i. 509
Chelmsford, Lord, Lord Chancellor, iii. 272
Chelsea pensioners, arming of, i. 486
Cherbourg, Queen's visit to Napoleon, iii. 295
Chester, Dean of, see Davys
Childers, Col., Life of Right Hon. H.C.E. Childers, ii. 77
Chillianwalla, ii. 208
Chimay, Prince de, iii. 274
China, opium trade dispute, i. 142, 209, 219, 254, 260, 265; operations in, i. 261, 337, 370, 441; war of 1857, iii. 223, 226, 231; Treaty of Tien-tsin, iii. 262, 301; refusal to ratify treaty, march to Pekin, iii. 381
Chiswick, ii. 17
Chobham camp, review at, ii. 449, 450
Cholera, epidemic of, ii. 228
Christian, Prince, of Gluecksburg, afterwards King Christian IX. of Denmark, ii. 358
—— Princess, see Helena, Princess
Christina, Queen, Regent of Spain, i. 59, 62, 95; abdication, i. 244, 346, 349, 351; marriage question, ii. 4, 31, 96, 97, 99, 100, 183