The people ate the frozen meat that was left near the caves, and when they found they could get no more they began to pray to their gods. "O, Big Bear," they prayed, "send us thine aid. Help us now or we die. Drive the horses and reindeer out of thy caverns. Send them back to our hunting grounds."
When the first rumor of famine came, Fleetfoot took down his drum. And he set out over the hills to call a meeting of the brotherhood.
At the first sound of the drumbeat, the people knew what it meant. Everybody felt a gleam of hope. The young men passed the signal along and fresh courage came to the hearts of the people in the neighboring clans.
Buckling their hunger-straps around them, the young men started at Fleetfoot's call. They met near the Bison clan's cave. There they told of the heavy snowstorms and the disappearance of the herds. They told of the beginnings of famine and considered ways of finding food.
Some said, "Let us leave the old hunting grounds for our elders. Let us take wives and go to far away lands."
Others said, "No, let us dwell together and let each clan keep its own hunting ground."
"But how can we dwell together," said one, "when there is not food enough for all?"
The silence which followed the young man's question showed that no one could reply. It was then that Fleetfoot turned to Flaker and asked him to speak what was in his mind. And Flaker arose, and turning his eyes toward the heavens, he raised his baton, whereupon all the young men were silent. Then he turned to the young men and said, "The gods will surely provide food for the hungry Cave-men."
"But the people need food and game is scarce," said one of the brave young men. "How can we prevent the famine? How can we make the gods understand?"
"Remember the Big Bear," said Flaker. "He heard our prayer when we made his likeness on stone. Let us make likenesses of the animals. The gods will then understand our prayers and send many herds to our hunting grounds."
Saying this, Flaker picked up a flint point and a flat piece of stone and quickly engraved two herds of wild horses. The young men believed in the power of magic. And when they saw Flaker engraving the herds, they believed the wild horses would come. And so they all tried to make the likeness of an animal they wished to hunt.
When they had made offerings to the gods, the young men were ready to go out to hunt. Flaker stayed at the cave, but it was he who directed them in the right way. He remembered all that the Cave-men had said about the reindeer and the wild horses. And so when they started Flaker said, "Follow the trail to the dense forests."
It so happened that just as the young men were starting to hunt, the herds were coming back from the forests. And so the young men had great success, and soon all the Cave-men had plenty of food.
When the young men returned to their homes, they had strange stories to tell. They said that Flaker had brought back the herds by his wonderful magic. They showed the engravings they had made and told of their magical power.
And so wherever stories of Fleetfoot's bravery went, stories of Flaker's magic were told. And just as Fleetfoot worked to learn all the arts of the hunter, so Flaker worked to learn the arts which made him both a priest and a medicine man.
Flaker listened to all the stories that were told by the best hunters. He questioned them eagerly and learned many things which the hunters themselves soon forgot. He learned the haunts of the wild animals in the various seasons. He knew where to look for the best feeding grounds and the places of shelter from storms.
And so when the fame of Flaker was noised about among all the clans, people came from near and from far to make gifts and to get his advice.
THINGS TO DO
Find soft wood or stone and see if you can engrave some animal on it.
Find a stick with branches and carve the head of some animal upon the end of the short branches.
Dramatize this story.
Draw one of these pictures:— Fleetfoot starting out with his drum. Flaker speaking to the young men of the brotherhood. Flaker inquiring of returning hunters about the game and the feeding grounds. Strangers coming with gifts to get Flaker's advice.
THINGS TO THINK ABOUT
Think of as many simple ways of catching fish as you can. How do you think the Cave-men fished?
What do you think people mean when they say that some one is living a "hand-to-mouth" life?
How do you think people learned to dry meat, fish, or fruit?
Why would the people honor the one who taught them to preserve food by drying it?
Can you think of anything which could be used as food when it was boiled, that would not be a good food eaten raw?
Name a bitter vegetable. What happens to the water in which a bitter vegetable is boiled?
Name a sweet vegetable. What happens to the water in which a sweet vegetable is boiled?
What do you mean by "parboiling?"
Do you think the Cave-men will learn how to boil food?
How the Cave-men Learned to Boil and to Dry Foods
Again the salmon feast came, and again the neighboring clans camped at the rapids. This time they caught more salmon than they had ever caught before. And this was the summer that the Cave-men began to dry salmon and to fish with harpoons.
It was Willow-grouse who thought of drying salmon, and carrying it to the caves. She remembered the berries dried on the bushes, and the dried meat she found in a tree. No doubt all the Cave-men had eaten dried meat many times before. Often the Cave-men left strips of meat hanging from the trees.
Anybody could leave meat which he did not care to eat. Anybody could eat meat which had been dried in the sun. But not every one was bright enough to think of drying meat.
Chew-chew had never dried meat, nor had any of the women. It was enough for them to prepare the meat which they needed day by day. Few of the people ever thought of laying up stores for the morrow. They lived a "hand-to-mouth" life.
But Willow-grouse remembered the famines. She knew food was scarce in the early spring. And when she saw the river full of salmon, she thought of the sun-dried meat.
And so Willow-grouse caught some salmon and cleaned them and hung them on the branches of a tree. And when they had dried, she took them down and the Cave-men said that dried salmon were good. And so all the people caught salmon and dried them in the sun.
The first few days the people fished as they had fished before. They waded in the water and caught salmon with their hands, or they stunned them with clubs or with stones. But soon the men began to catch salmon by spearing them with barbed harpoons.
Afterward the Cave-men fished with harpoons which had barbs on only one side. Perhaps they first used a broken harpoon. Perhaps they found they could throw with a surer aim when the barbs were on only one side. At any rate, the Cave-men used harpoons with barbs on one side for fishing, while they used harpoons with barbs on both sides when they went out to hunt.
It was about the time of the salmon feast that people began to boil food. Pigeon first boiled food to eat. She remembered the broth and partly boiled meat which Chew-chew said the gods had left. And she boiled meat and gave it to the men, and they all sounded her praises.
For a while the only boiling pot Pigeon used was a hole in the ground which she lined with a skin. Then she used a water-tight basket for boiling little things.
Pigeon always boiled by dropping hot stones into the water. She had never heard of a boiling-pot which could be hung over the fire. She had never heard of a stove. The Cave-men knew nothing about such things as stoves. It would have done them no good if they had, for their boiling-pots could not stand the heat. So instead of putting the boiling-pot over the fire, the Cave-men brought the fire to the boiling-pot by means of hot stones.
In times of famine, Pigeon learned to boil all sorts of roots and leaves. Many bitter plants, when boiled, were changed so that they tasted very well. Some plants which were poison when eaten raw were changed to good foods by being boiled.
And so the young women had their share in procuring food for the clans. While the young men invented new weapons for hunting, and tried to control the animals by magic, the young women learned to preserve foods and to keep them for times when game was scarce.
When the end of the salmon feast came, the people had dried many salmon. It was soon after this that the young men captured wives and took them to new hunting grounds. And one of the very bravest young men was the one who captured Pigeon.
THINGS TO DO
Find some kind of raw food which you can dry. Dry it and tell what happens. What dried foods do we eat? In what kind of a place do we keep dried foods?
Find the best way of boiling bitter vegetables. Tell what happens when you boil them. Find the best way of boiling sweet vegetables.
Draw one of these pictures:— Catching salmon just below the rapids. Drying salmon. Pigeon boiling meat for the Cave-men.
THINGS TO THINK ABOUT
Do you think that any of the young men and their wives would live with Fleetfoot and Willow-grouse? Where do you think Flaker will live?
Can you think why Willow-grouse would take great pains to embroider her baby's clothing?
Why would Willow-grouse want pretty colors? Think of new ways she might find of getting pretty colors. How could she get the color out of plants into the stuff she wished to color?
Why was it easier to make pretty dyes after people knew how to boil?
The New Home
A year or so passed and Fleetfoot and Willow-grouse were settled with their kinsfolk in a new rock shelter. Its framework was covered with heavy skins instead of woven branches. Heavy bone pegs and strong thongs served to keep the skins in place.
Flaker and other young men with their wives lived in the rock shelter. There were little children, too, and tiny babies.
Willow-grouse had a baby and she thought he was a wonderful child. She dressed him in the softest skins which she embroidered with a prayer. And she hung a bear's tooth about his neck because she thought it was a charm. In winter she put him in a skin cradle and wrapped him in the warmest furs. In summer he played in a basket cradle which Willow-grouse wove on a forked stick.
In all that Willow-grouse did, she always asked the gods for help. The baskets she made for boiling food, were also prayers to the gods.
She searched for the choicest grasses and spread them on a clean spot to dry. No one knew so well as Willow-grouse when to gather the twigs. She knew the season when they were full-grown and gathered them before the sap had hardened. She gathered them when the barks peeled easily and when the rich juices flowed.
When the twigs were gathered the women soaked them and peeled off the bark. They left some of the twigs round, but others they made into flat splints. Sometimes they stained them with the green rind of nuts, and sometimes they dyed them with pretty dyes.
Instead of weaving the baskets, Willow-grouse sewed them with an over-and-over stitch. In this way she made the soft grasses into a firm basket. She began by taking a wisp of grass in the left hand and a flat splint in the other. She wound the splint around the wisp a few times then turned the wrapped portion upon itself. When she had fastened it with a firm stitch, again she wound the splint around the wisp and took another stitch.
Sometimes Willow-grouse made baskets for boiling food, and sometimes she made them for carrying water. The baskets she prized most were the ones into which she put a prayer. The prayer was a little pattern which she made for a picture of one of the gods. Sometimes it was a wild animal and sometimes it was a bird. Sometimes it was the flowing river and sometimes a mountain peak. And sometimes it was a flash of lightning, and sometimes it was the sun.
All the Cave-men wanted the gods to be friendly and they wanted them to stay near. That is why they took so much pains in making pictures of them. That is why that soon after the rock shelter was made they engraved a reindeer upon the wall.
Greybeard, now old and feeble, walked all the way to the spot. Fleetfoot and Flaker wanted him to perform the magic rites.
Not all the people who lived there were allowed to take part in the ceremonies. Only the grown people were allowed to see the first part. And only the wisest and bravest ones went into the dark shelter.
For a moment, those who went in stood in silence waiting for a sign. Then, by the light of a torch, Fleetfoot chiseled a reindeer on the hard rock, and Greybeard, holding a reindeer skull, murmured earnest prayers.
A feeling of awe came over them while they worked. They began to feel that the god of the reindeer was really there with them. They asked the god to take good care of those who lived in the rock shelter, and to send many herds of reindeer to the Cave-men's hunting grounds.
THINGS TO DO
Make a rock shelter with walls of skin instead of plaited branches. Use bone pegs to keep the curtains drawn tight.
Find a forked stick and several smaller ones and make a framework for a basket-cradle. If you cannot weave such a cradle as the one shown in the picture, make one in some other way and fasten it to the framework.
Find grasses and splints and see if you can make a sewed mat or basket. Make a simple pattern for your mat.
Look at the picture of a water basket. Why do you think it was made to bulge near the bottom? Why was the bottom made flat? Why was the neck made narrow? Why were handles put on this basket? Tell or write a story about this basket.
Turn to the frontispiece and find a picture with this legend: "A feeling of awe came over them while they worked."
THINGS TO THINK ABOUT
What might happen that would lead the Cave-men to work together? At what times might the clans help one another?
Think of as many ways as you can of making tents out of poles and skins.
How the Clans United to Hunt the Bison
In spite of all the Cave-men did to appease the wrath of the gods, it seemed to them that a powerful god was trying to do them harm. Soon after the bison came, the grass near the caves disappeared. Then the herds scattered and the Cave-men said, "The god has driven them away."
As the word passed from cave to cave, all the people were frightened. Wise men shook their heads and looked about in despair. Then it was that the younger men spoke of Fleetfoot and Flaker.
Scarface knew of Fleetfoot's courage. And when he heard of Flaker's magical power, he sent messengers, bearing gifts, to invite them with their people to a meeting of the clans.
Fleetfoot and Flaker accepted the gifts and made ready to go. The women made a stretcher for Flaker. And when they had buried their household treasures, all set out to the meeting of the clans.
They arrived at the Fork of the River where Fleetfoot had lived when he was a child. There the frightened clans had gathered to seek aid against a common foe.
When the people saw Flaker upon the stretcher, their voices were hushed and all was still. And when Flaker, arising, fixed his eyes upon something that no one else could see, they scarcely breathed. They were sure that something was going to happen.
Instead of offering gifts, Flaker threatened the angry god. He made faces at him; he shook his fists, and he made a great noise. And the people, becoming excited, joined Flaker in making threats. They made faces, they joined hands, they danced about and they made such a horrible noise that they began to feel that the god was frightened and that he had gone away.
When the ceremony was ended, the people hoped to find the herds. Scarface asked for young men to go ahead and act as scouts. Several young men at once stepped forward from different parts of the circle of the clans. And Scarface selected Fleetfoot and Blackcloud to go in search of the herds.
The people listened as Scarface spoke thus to the young men: "Go follow the tracks; listen to each sound; find where the herds are feeding. Do not frighten them away. Return quickly and report what you have seen. If you speak not the truth when you return, may the fire burn you; may the lightning strike you; may the Big Bear shut you in his dark cavern!"
The scouts nodded their heads, and looked to Flaker for a sign. And Flaker, turning to the scouts, said, "The gods will lead you. Follow where the green grass is cropped. Follow where the grass is trampled. These are the signs which the gods will give to show that you are on the right way."
The scouts departed. The first day the clans made ready to move. The second day the scouts returned and brought news of the herds. The third day all the clans were traveling toward the fertile plains.
Fleetfoot and Blackcloud led the way and at midday caught sight of the herds. At once, Fleetfoot gave the signal and Scarface ordered the clans to stop. Then the men prepared to attack the herds, while the women built the tents.
There were no large trees in sight, but there were a few small ones. A grassy plain stretched all around for a long, long way. And so the women built their tents out of slender saplings.
Most of the women made a framework by leaning poles against the branch of a tree. The roof and the walls of such a tent were one and the same thing. Willow-grouse and her companions tried a different way.
It was by trying different ways in the different places where they camped, that the women at length learned to make tents with the roof separated from the wall. The Cave-men made pictures of some of these tents upon a piece of antler.
When the men parted from the women, they considered ways of attacking the herd. It was hard to approach it on the grassy plain without being seen. And the men knew that if the herd was alarmed, it would gallop far away.
At length Fleetfoot showed the Cave-men a plan for surrounding the herd. And he asked who would volunteer to follow two leaders in separate lines.
All the bravest men volunteered, for they were eager to make an attack. Fleetfoot placed them in two lines and told them what each one was to do.
Fleetfoot led one of the lines through the grass to the right, and Blackcloud led the other to the left. They crept softly through the tall grass until they had surrounded the herd. Approaching the herd cautiously, they drew nearer and nearer together.
Fleetfoot gave the signal to attack when they were about a spear's throw away. At once the harpoons whizzed through the air and struck many a mortal blow. The bison were taken by surprise and they attempted to escape. But no sooner had they run from one side than they were attacked from the other.
Many a bison was killed that day and many others were wounded. Many of the Cave-men carried away marks of an ugly bison's horns.
But all of the people had food and all the people were happy. And to show that they honored both Fleetfoot and Flaker they bored holes through their batons.
THINGS TO DO
Make such a stretcher as you think the women made to carry Flaker.
Make tents whose roof and walls are one and the same thing. Make a tent whose roof and walls are separated. Tell how you think people learned to make such perfect tents.
Dramatize one of the following scenes and then draw a picture to illustrate it:— The fear of the people at the disappearance of the herds. Bearing gifts to Fleetfoot and Flaker. Flaker threatening the angry god. Sending the scouts. Surrounding the herds. Showing honors to Fleetfoot and Flaker.
THINGS TO THINK ABOUT
If there were not men enough to surround a herd can you think of anything the Cave-men might do to drive them where they wanted them to go?
How do we get animals into traps?
Why do you think people first began to make fences and walls?
How do you think they used them?
Why do we have fences? What do we use them for?
How Things were Made to Do the Work of Men
When the clans returned to their own hunting grounds, they could not surround the large herds. There were not enough men in one cave to hunt in this way. Sometimes they partly surrounded a herd and drove the animals over a cliff, but unless the herd was near the cliff, there were not enough men to drive them.
And so the men tried to coax the animals to the edge of the cliff. Sometimes they did it by imitating the cries the animals made. Sometimes they did it by dressing so as to look like the animals themselves. But even then they often failed to get the animals into their trap.
It was when Fleetfoot saw a bison frightened by a feather that he thought of making things do the work of live men.
The greater part of the day the bison fed some distance from the cliff. Fleetfoot wanted to find a way of driving them up to the very edge. The bison drive which he invented was the way he succeeded in doing it.
It was shaped like a letter V with the point cut off. The sides were piles of brush, or stones, or vines stretched from tree to tree. At the edge of the cliff where they started, the sides were only a short distance apart. But the farther out they extended, the farther they were apart.
Men, women, and children joined in making the bison drive. They piled stones and heaped up brush, and they hunted for long vines. Then they hunted for feathers and bits of fur, which they tied along the lines.
Flaker performed the magical ceremony before the hunt began. Fleetfoot dressed in a bison's skin so as to coax the herd along. Women and children hid behind piles of stone and brush. And the men formed themselves in line far out from the cliffs in the rear of the herd.
Everybody kept still until Fleetfoot's signal sounded. Then the men sprang up and with loud shouts they ran after the herd. The bison saw Fleetfoot in disguise; and, thinking he was one of the herd, they followed where he led.
When the bison came near a pile of stones a woman or child frightened them. When they came near the fence of vines they were frightened away by the feathers and fur. And so the herd kept on toward the steep cliff.
And with loud shouts and drumbeats, with the clatter of weapons and hard hoofs, the bellowing herd galloped madly on toward the steep cliff. Then Fleetfoot, throwing off his disguise, slipped under one of the lines; but the frantic herd rushed headlong to the brink of the precipice. Then, seeing the danger, the foremost ones attempted to escape. But the maddened herd pressed blindly on and pushed them over the cliff.
After such a hunt as this, there was food enough for many days. Very likely the women dried meat during this time.
THINGS TO DO
Model in your sand-box a good place for the bison drive. Make the drive and show what happened from first to last.
Draw one of these pictures:— Bison feeding some distance from the cliff. Building a bison drive. Fleetfoot leading the herd. The bison at the edge of the cliff. Drying meat.
THINGS TO THINK ABOUT
Can you think why people make rules and laws? Why do we have them?
What kind of rules and laws do you think the Cave-men made?
What laws do you think they would make about hunting animals?
What laws would they make about the use of plants?
What people did the Cave-men honor most? What must any one do to be honored? What were some of the signs that a man was honored?
When dangerous work needs to be done, what kind of men and women are needed?
How the Cave-men Rewarded and Punished the Clansmen
Again the clans went to hunt on the fertile plains. Again the women built the tents while the men went out to hunt. But before the tents were finished, the women heard the thunder of the galloping herd. Angry shouts followed, and the women began to feel alarmed.
All the men were angry with Blackcloud. He had frightened the herd away. Fleetfoot had planned to surround the bison as they were surrounded before. But a stronger and braver young man than Blackcloud, helped Fleetfoot lead the lines.
Nobody dreamed that Blackcloud would do it. Everybody knew that each one must be careful not to frighten the herd. The men crept quietly through the grass when they saw a bison browsing near the line. But when Blackcloud saw a young cow, he rushed forward and made an attack.
The loud bellow of the wounded cow gave the alarm to the herd. And before the Cave-men could stop them, the bison were galloping madly away.
And so all the men were angry with Blackcloud. Bighorn wanted to have him flogged. Others wanted to kill him. He dared not come near them for many days. No one would hunt with him, and no one would give him food.
Afterward, when he begged to be taken back, the people let him come. But first they gave him a hard flogging in the presence of the clan.
As years passed, the custom grew of making rules for the hunt. And those who broke any of the rules were punished by the clan.
Every day the Cave-men recited the brave deeds of the clan. They watched every one carefully, so as to know who the brave men were. Those who were found most useful to the clan were given special honors. And when a man did a very brave deed he was given a hole in his baton.
Brave hunters, besides keeping trophies, engraved a record of their brave deeds. Sometimes they kept a hunter's tally, and sometimes they engraved the animal they killed.
Many of the Cave-men engraved these records upon the weapons they used in the chase. They believed that the weapons which had such engravings were of great value for their magical powers. The wise men, who led the people, engraved their records upon their batons. Others engraved them upon their trophies or upon bone hairpins which they used in their hair.
The engraving of a seal upon a bear's tooth probably recorded a trip to the sea, while the rude sketch of the mammoth made on the mammoth's tusk, probably recorded a great hunt.
By all these signs of brave deeds, the Cave-men knew who the brave men were. And these same records help to tell the story of THE LATER CAVE-MEN.
THINGS TO DO
Write out some of the rules you have helped make for your games.
Do you think the rules are good ones?
See if you can engrave or carve an ornament on some weapon you have made. Before doing it, think what you would like to have the ornament mean.
Draw one of these pictures:— "All the Cave-men were angry with Blackcloud." Engraving records upon trophies and batons.
Tell a story of how bone hairpins came to be used.
Tell a story of the Cave-men's trip to the sea.
Tell a story of a mammoth hunt.
* * * * *
"The Industrial and Social History Series," of which this is the third number, emphasizes, first of all, the steps in the development of industrial and social life. But in addition to its use as a series of text-books in history or social science, it has a place as a mode of approach to the different subjects included in the curriculum of the elementary school. Whether the work suggested under "Things to Think About" and "Things to Do" is carried out in the period devoted to the study and recitation known as history (possibly some may prefer to call it reading), or in those periods devoted to geography, nature study, language, constructive work, and art, is largely a question of administration. The point for the teacher to make sure of is that the interests of the child which are aroused through the use of the books be utilized not merely in history, but in geography, nature study, reading, language, constructive work, and art. If this is done, subjects which too long have been isolated from the interests of real life, will become the means of stimulating and enriching all of the activities of the child.
The list of references and the tabulated facts presented in The Early Cave-men, pp. 159-165, will be of service to the teacher who wishes to engage in a further study of the subject.
Lesson I. It seems best to let the child read the first story before asking questions. Afterwards, however, the following questions may be of service: Did you ever see a reindeer? Where do reindeer live now? Where were the reindeer at the time of the Tree-dwellers? Where were they at the time of the early Cave-men? (See The Tree-dwellers, pp. 125-129, and The Early Cave-men, pp. 163-167.) Why did the reindeer come to the wooded hills by the caves at the time of the Cave-men? Why do reindeer live in herds? Name other animals that live in herds. Do you think the reindeer herds would stay near the caves all the year?
Should any child inquire how we know that it was once very cold here, tell him of the tracks that the glaciers made, and of the work of the glaciers in grinding hard rocks so as to make fertile soil. Let the children turn to the picture of a glacier on page 136, and let them hunt for a rock which has markings made by glacial action. But reserve the fine points of this topic for a later period.
The children will be helped to get a conception of the great number of reindeer in a herd partly through the story, partly through illustrations, and partly through tearing reindeer from paper and mounting them so as to represent great herds. The child's experiences in seeing processions or large numbers of people assembled can also be used in forming a picture of the large number of reindeer that met at the ford.
In this and in succeeding lessons, which refer to the women carrying the fresh meat to the cave, remember that animals no larger than the reindeer were carried to the cave. Larger animals, such as the wild horse, the cow, and the bison, were divided on the spot. The bones having the greater amount of flesh were removed from the carcass and carried to the cave where the flesh was eaten and the bones left. Three women could carry the flesh of one bison without the skin. When the skins were good they were carried to the cave. In addition to the skin and the flesh the Cave-men prized the head as a trophy and also as a means of gaining control over the animals by sympathetic magic. All the skulls were broken, probably for the sake of removing the brains, which are usually considered a delicacy among primitive peoples.
Lesson II. Help the children to see that when people had no books, the person who knew most was of great service to the clan. The older people, because they had more experience, took the place of books. That is one reason why people were glad to take care of older and wiser people than themselves, when the latter were no longer able to do hard work.
Lesson III. This lesson illustrates one form which education among primitive peoples takes. Relate what is given regarding the speed of the wild horse in the lessons on pp. 61-71, in The Tree-dwellers, which show the influence of such flesh-eating animals as wolves in developing the speed of the wild horse on the grassy uplands.
Lesson IV. This lesson illustrates the ideas of primitive peoples regarding sickness and methods of treating the sick, which consisted largely of ceremonies for driving the "angry god," the "evil spirit," away. In dealing with a superstition of primitive peoples always try to lead the child to discover the mistaken idea which gave rise to it.
Lesson V. Let the children experiment in making straight shafts. The value of this work is not in the product—the shaft—but in its power to arouse the inventive spirit, to call forth free activity, and to yield an experience which lies at the basis of a great variety of subjects.
Reference: Katharine E. Dopp, The Place of Industries in Elementary Education, pp. 133, 140, 145.
Lesson VI. In most places throughout the United States there is some one who has a small collection of Indian arrows. If the children can see some of these arrows or other flint implements, it will add greatly to their interest in this subject. In places where flint can be found, the children should collect specimens and experiment in chipping and flaking off small pieces. Where no flint is to be found, it is possible to get good specimens by exchanging materials with children in other localities.
References: Katharine E. Dopp, The Place of Industries in Elementary Education, pp. 72, 138-140.
Lessons VII and VIII. The habit horses have of pawing the ground is thought to be a survival of the ancient habit of pawing snow away from the grass. The horses and reindeer stayed in the neighborhood of the caves all through the winter, going to protected places only in times of severe storms. The bison and wild cattle, on the contrary, went to the lowland plains and forests at the close of summer, and returned only after the snow had melted.
Since few children now have the opportunity to observe the bison, and no child has the opportunity to see great herds, they must rely upon books, pictures, and other symbols as sources for the necessary facts. In bringing the sources of knowledge to the children, the teacher should remember that the modern European bison, which is a descendant of the aurochs of Pleistocene times, the species of bison we are considering, is smaller than the ancient form. The Pleistocene bison of Europe was similar to the American type that lived in the woodlands.
Although the teacher should make use of available materials in supplying herself with information regarding the bison, the following summary is presented, especially for those who do not have access to public libraries.
The bison are naturally shy, avoiding the presence of man; they have a keen sense of smell, and hence man has difficulty in approaching a herd, except from the leeward side. They have little intelligence, are sluggish and timid, rarely attacking man or beast, except when wounded or in self-defense. In migrating they travel in large herds, but when feeding they separate into herds of about two or three hundred each. The leader maintains his position by superior intelligence and brute force. If he fails in duty he is punished. Scouts go ahead of the herd in search of new pastures; and guards, or sentinels surround the herd and guard it while feeding and during the night. When the guards have been on duty awhile, they give place to fresh guards. In case of danger, the guards give a signal of alarm by tossing up the head and bellowing furiously. At this the leader gives a signal and the herd starts off at once. Bison run swiftly for a short distance, but are not able to continue a rapid flight. They can run faster than cattle, however, and when pursued always run against the wind. When surprised or wounded, they turn upon their assailants and attack them furiously, fighting with horns and hoofs. They show their rage by thrusting out the tongue, lashing the tail, and projecting the eyes. At such times they are fierce and formidable. The enemies of the bison are the carnivorous animals. A herd of bison has no cause to be afraid of wolves or bears, but solitary bison are often killed by these creatures. The cry of a bison resembles that of a groan or grunt. In case the leader is killed and no bison is able to assert his authority, there is great confusion until the question of leadership is settled.
References: Richard Irving Dodge, The Plains of the Great West, pp. 119-147. W. T. Hornaday, The Extermination of the American Bison, in "The Smithsonian Report of the U. S. National Museum," 1887, pp. 367-548. Poole's Index will supply references to magazines, and the encyclopedias and natural histories will furnish further facts.
Lessons IX and X. Boiling is such a common process that one seldom thinks of the importance of the discovery of the art. These lessons will show the child how people may have learned to boil and the explanation they would be apt to give of the changes which take place during the process. Boiling was undoubtedly used as a religious ceremony long before it was used for cooking food.
Lessons XI and XII. If possible let the children take a field trip in connection with these lessons. If there are no nuts or wild fruits to gather, let the children gather fruits from a garden or some of the products of the farm. The particular conditions in which the children are placed will determine the form this lesson shall take. At any rate, there will be an opportunity to observe birds, squirrels, or rabbits.
Lessons XIII and XIV. The shelter described is a very early form and is important as a step in the evolution of shelter. The remains found give ample evidence that such a form was adopted by the Cave-men of France.
Lesson XV. It was a common practice among primitive peoples to adopt a child or even a grown person into the clan. The custom is important as revealing one method of introducing new ideas at a time when means of communication were undeveloped.
The description of the method of softening skins by beating and treading upon them illustrates the common use of rhythm and song as a means of holding the attention to what otherwise would be tedious work.
Lessons XVI and XVII. The data for these lessons is taken from drawings made by the Cave-men and from the results of anthropological research among primitive peoples. It will be best not to confine the children to any one mode of clothing, but to allow them to express their own ideas regarding the first forms used.
Lesson XVIII. In connection with this lesson the children will be interested in observing the signs of a storm, the actions of animals before and during a storm, methods they adopt to protect themselves, as well as the animals and birds which migrate from the place where the children live.
Lesson XIX. Let the children think of ways in which snowshoes might be invented, and the things the Cave-men would be able to do after having the snowshoes.
Lesson XX. The invention of traps requires more forethought than the invention of weapons and was at a later date. The accidental catching of animals in natural traps, such as vines, pot-holes, soft places in the marshes and cliffs, offered a suggestion; and the tediousness of lying in wait, on the one hand, and the danger of a direct conflict with large animals, on the other, offered a strong motive for the use of nature's suggestions in the way of traps. Undoubtedly women made a large use of traps in catching the smaller animals before men gave much attention to this mode of hunting.
If the children make as many simple traps as they can think of and arrange them in the order of their complexity, they will be able after a few months to work out a fairly complete series in the evolution of traps.
Lesson XXI. This lesson illustrates the constant interaction between man's inventions and the animal's habits. A new invention which gives man greater power in hunting, makes the animals more timid, more watchful, more skillful in escaping from man's presence. Hence, man is constantly stimulated to make new inventions, in order to be successful in the hunt.
Reference: Katharine E. Dopp. The Place of Industries in Elementary Education. (See Index under Animals and Traps.)
Lesson XXII. No animal was more difficult to hunt than the wild horse. Herds of horses were organized under a leader and sentinels which were very alert in detecting the least sign of danger; and as soon as the alarm was given, the herds would run with great speed until they were out of sight. When unable to escape they would fight furiously with hoofs and teeth. When in need of a new pasture, scouts—the old, experienced, wise, cautious, and observant members of the herd—would be sent out to search for good feeding grounds and to report to the herd.
Lesson XXIII. Help the children to see that, although the children of the caves did not go to such schools as we have, they had lessons to learn and tests to take. Those who lived together had to learn to work together. Each one must learn to be patient, brave, and self-controlled. The thoughtless, impatient, and cowardly were apt to prevent the capture of wild animals in the hunt, and to risk the lives of their clansmen. Hence, from early childhood the old men and women gave attention to teaching the children, preparing them for the tests which must be passed before they ranked with the men and women.
Lesson XXIV. Instances of stags meeting death by having their horns interlocked are well known.
Lesson XXV. Encourage the children to notice the difference between those animals which live in herds and those which lead a solitary life. Although the dog has changed greatly since it was domesticated, a study of the dog will be helpful in understanding the habits of packs of wolves. Jack London's Call of the Wild, and Ernest Thompson Seton's stories will be helpful in this connection. The cat, having changed less than the dog, will furnish the child with a good type of carnivorous animals that lead a solitary life.
Lesson XXVI. From an examination of the skeletons which have been referred to the late Pleistocene period, it is evident that the Cave-men were able to treat wounds and to set bones. "No one could have survived such wounds as we have described," writes Mr. Nadaillac, "but for the care and nursing of those around him, such as the other members of his tribe. The wounded one must have been fed by the others for months; nay more, he must have been carried in migrations, and his food and resting place must have been prepared for him."
Lesson XXVII. There was little difference between weapons and tools until the period of the later Cave-men. A piece of chipped stone served as a tool and a weapon. The children learned when they read The Tree-dwellers how people used the tools in their bodies and how they supplemented these by the use of natural tools, such as sticks, stones, shells, bones, and horns. In reading The Early Cave-men they learned how people chipped flint and bound strong handles to heavy spear points and axes. At this time they can learn how people came to make use of new materials—materials which require the use of tools in shaping into weapons. Tools had been used by women from a very early time. The digging-stick, the hammer-stone, the chopper, the knife, and the bone awl are tools which every woman used. Men, on the contrary, were more interested in weapons than in tools, and it is quite likely that the first steps which led to the differentiation of tools from weapons was made by a man who had been wounded and thus disabled for the hunt.
The incident of Bighorn making fun of the bone dagger is introduced to illustrate the conservative tendency which is still present in society, a tendency less powerful now than in early times, yet strong enough to keep many people out of sympathy with the forces which work for progress.
Let the children examine a real antler, if possible, and notice its fitness for being made into a variety of tools and weapons. If no antler can be found let them examine the picture of one, so as to determine what part of it is used in making a dagger, a hammer, a baton, a tent peg, and an awl.
Lesson XXVIII. The invention of the flint saw marks an important step in the evolution of both tools and weapons. Without the saw it would have been impossible to use such material as bone, horn, and ivory. It is interesting to notice that the saw was at first not clearly differentiated from the file and the knife, the three tools being united in one piece of flint.
Lesson XXIX. In representing the action of a story by means of pantomime, let the children choose a leader who shall take charge of the action. Where this has been tried the results have been very satisfactory. The children, because they feel the responsibility, are stimulated to their best thought. The pleasure they take in the play leads them to a far more careful study of the book than they would make without this stimulus. In addition to this, it leads them to be alert in making use of various sources of knowledge.
Lesson XXX. Hunting peoples, because they live a hand-to-mouth life, have either a feast or a famine. Game was so plentiful during the late Pleistocene period that we may suppose that the Cave-men usually had plenty of food. The time when a famine was most likely to occur was early spring, before the grass furnished food for the herds which came a little later. When food supplies begin to fail, the clan breaks up into smaller groups, and, in case of great scarcity, each of these groups subdivides so that food may be found.
The worship of the bear and other large animals can be traced back to a very ancient period. It undoubtedly originated in the Pleistocene period when man first stood in fear of these animals and tried to win their favor by offering gifts.
Lesson XXXI. In Central France, the region from which the greater part of the data used in this book is derived, small glaciers were to be found in the upper portions of the mountain valleys, but they did not extend far down the river valleys. In other places, however, glaciers extended far down into the lowlands.
While this is not the place for a thorough study of the glacier, it is possible for the children of primary grades to understand certain phases of the subject. The teacher who attempts to make clear the formation of the glacier may find the following quotation from Prof. Shaler helpful: "When a glacial period comes upon a country, the sheets of ice are first imposed upon the mountain tops, and then the ice creeps down the torrent and river beds far below the snow line, in a manner now seen in Switzerland and Norway. As long as the ice streams follow the torrent-channels, they act in something like the fashions of the flowing waters—to gouge out the rocks and deepen the valleys; but as the glacial period advances and the ice sheet spreads beyond the mountains enveloping the plains as well, when the glacier attains the thickness of thousands of feet, it disregards the valleys in its movements and sweeps on in majestic march across the surface of the country. As long as the continental glaciers remain the tendency is to destroy the river valleys. The result is to plane down the land and, to a certain extent, to destroy all preexisting river valleys."
If this subject is studied while snow is on the ground it will be interesting to the children to experiment out of doors in making glaciers. If there are no hills present the children can readily make small hills on their playground and the falling and partial melting of the snow will do the rest.
Lesson XXXII. Neighboring clans are accustomed to meet at the rapids of a river during the salmon season. At such places, and in all places where abundant sources of food are to be found, neighboring clans participate in feasting, dancing, and general merrymaking. Just as scarcity of food tends to separate people, so abundance of food tends to draw them together. At such gatherings people of different clans exchange ideas, learn new ways of doing things and become accustomed to act in larger groups for the accomplishment of a common purpose.
Lesson XXXIII. On the side of invention the throwing-stick is a point to be emphasized in this lesson. On the side of social cooperation, the organization of the brotherhood is the point of interest. Such organizations are characteristic of primitive peoples, and similar organizations among children are of common occurrence.
Lesson XXXIV. This lesson serves to bring out the contrast between Fleetfoot, the brave, active young man, who is beginning to develop the arts which require great personal bravery and force, and Flaker, the crippled young man, whose ability is directed toward the development of tools and the arts which later make him a priest and medicine man. Originally, there was no sharp distinction between the priest and the medicine man. One person performed both functions, and in many cases this person was a woman. Later, those who made use of supplication and entreaty constituted the priesthood, while those who attempted to frighten the gods were known as medicine men.
Lesson XXXV. Overhanging rocks were made use of for natural shelters from the earliest times. The improvement of the natural shelter by the addition of front and side walls was a later step and was doubtless an invention of woman. The motives for such an invention may be found in the fact that in many places near good hunting grounds there were not enough caves to shelter the people. Under such circumstances, as well as in districts where no caves abound, women would not be slow to take advantage of the overhanging rocks and to use their ingenuity in converting them into comfortable habitations.
Let the children compare summer and winter skins, if possible; if not, let them notice the difference between the horse's coat in winter and summer.
Lesson XXXVI. To help the children to realize the importance of the discovery of the use of poison, let the children think of the many advantages which the Cave-men enjoyed because they could use it.
The dependence of man upon animals for his food supply is shown here. The disappearance of the herds caused Fleetfoot and Willow-grouse to leave the rock-shelter. This is the beginning of a series of events which culminates in a famine. With this in mind, the teacher can emphasize the points which lead up to the famine.
Lesson XXXVII. Let the children bring together from various sources the materials and tools required to make needles by the processes of the Cave-men. Do not require the children to make needles, but permit them to experiment with the materials so as to understand the subject. If the children label and arrange the collection they make in an orderly way, the work itself will be of great value to them, and the collection will constitute an interesting feature in the children's industrial museum.
Lesson XXXVIII. Such a lesson as this ought to be helpful in freeing the child from superstitions without putting him out of sympathy with people who entertain them. In their origin superstitions are unsuccessful attempts to explain the phenomena of life. In spite of the fact that many of the beliefs of mankind have been false, they have served a useful purpose in the development of the individual and in uniting individuals into social groups.
The art of the Cave-men, as illustrated in this and in other lessons, shows a belief in sympathetic magic, a belief that is universal among primitive peoples. The fear formerly entertained by the American Indians of having their photographs taken was due to a belief in sympathetic magic. The one who possessed the likeness was supposed to have some mysterious power over the person.
Help the children to distinguish between the things the Cave-men did which really helped and those which they thought helped. Notice that Flaker actually learned a great deal about the topography of the country, the location of the best hunting grounds, the movements and habits of the herds, and, because of this, was often able to give the Cave-men good advice. The magical ceremonies he practiced were of use to him in getting the people to believe in his wonderful power. (See, also, notes under XXXIV.)
Lesson XXXIX. Although there was a great variety and abundance of fish, not all the Cave-men used fish. From the remains which have been found, however, we know that different clans used nearly all the varieties of fish which still may be found in our rivers and lakes; and we may readily believe that a salmon stream would be held as property common to all the neighboring tribes, as it is to-day among hunting and fishing peoples.
Fishing tackle of the Cave-men was very crude. Fish were sufficiently abundant, however, to be caught with the hands or by means of stones and clubs. A fish hook made of a bear's tooth, by removing the enamel and crown and lessening the thickness by rubbing, has been found. The barbed harpoons, which were originally made for hunting, were later used in spearing fish. Harpoons with barbs on both sides were well adapted for throwing through the air, while those with barbs on one side were better adapted for use in the water. An experiment with a pencil in a glass of water will show the child that the part in the water is not where it appears to be, and from this he can readily reach the conclusion given above.
Lesson XL. If one will notice the clothing and the cradles of the North American Indians in a museum, he cannot fail to observe that care was taken in their preparation. They are comfortable and, in many cases, beautiful. We may well believe from what is known that among all primitive peoples the beauty, especially that of ornamentation, was for the sake of some supposed magical power. The representation of an animal was supposed to secure the especial protection of that animal, which was worshiped as a god. The bear's tooth, which was pierced and strung about the neck of an infant, served a useful purpose when the child was cutting teeth, and it was supposed to be a charm which served to protect the child.
Lesson XLI. The strongest motives for cooperation were doubtless the common need of protection from dangerous beasts of prey and the need of adopting methods of hunting wild animals which required the united efforts of many people. Notice that the different batons and fragments of batons represented in this book differ in the number of holes bored through them. It is thought that the number of holes indicated the rank of the owner. Although many theories are given regarding the use of batons, the one which seems most tenable to the author is that which views them as marks of distinction and instruments used in magical ceremonies and in hunting dances.
Lesson XLII. The method of hunting herds by surrounding them is a cooperative method suitable to such regions as grassy plains, and comparatively level tracts which are sparsely wooded. The drive, on the contrary, is adapted to regions where steep cliffs are to be found. It is a natural development of the earlier method of hunting by taking advantage of the proximity of animals to steep cliffs. In that case man's part was to lie in wait until a favorable opportunity presented itself for frightening the animals over. The lesson in The Tree-dwellers on "How the Hyenas Hunted the Big-nosed Rhinoceros," and the one in The Early Cave-men on "Hunting the Mammoth," illustrate early stages of this method.
Notice that there is a new principle employed in this lesson—that of the decoy—and that the method of hunting by means of the drive makes use of various ideas worked out before.
Lesson XLIII. The experience of children in games is sufficient to enable them to realize the necessity of making laws and rules for regulating the conduct of the members of the group. This lesson should serve to connect this narrow experience with that of the race.
Many of the representations of the Cave-man's art, as shown in the illustrations of this book, might well have been made the subjects of special lessons. The limits of this book, however, forbid further expansion.
* * * * *
Industrial and Social History Series
By KATHARINE ELIZABETH DOPP, Ph. D.
Lecturer in Education in the Extension Division of the University of Chicago. Author of "The Place of Industries in Elementary Education."
WHAT THE BOOKS ARE
Book I. THE TREE-DWELLERS. THE AGE OF FEAR.
Illustrated with a map, 14 full-page and 46 text drawings in half-tone by Howard V. Brown. Cloth, square 12mo, 158 pages. For the primary grades.
This volume makes clear to the child how people lived before they had fire, how and why they conquered it, and the changes wrought in society by its use. The simple activities of gathering food, of weaving, building, taming fire, making use of stones for tools and weapons, wearing trophies, and securing cooperative action by means of rhythmic dances, are here shown to be the simple forms of processes which still minister to our daily needs.
Book II. THE EARLY CAVE-MEN. THE AGE OF COMBAT.
Illustrated with a map, 16 full-page and 71 text drawings in half-tone by Howard V. Brown. Cloth, square 12mo, 183 Pages. For the primary grades.
In this volume the child is helped to realize that it is necessary not only to know how to use fire, but to know how to make it. Protection from the cold winters, which characterize the age described, is sought first in caves; but fire is a necessity in defending the caves. The serious condition to which the cave-men are reduced by the loss of fire during a flood is shown to be the motive which prompts them to hold a council; to send men to the fire country; to make improvements in clothing, in devices for carrying, and in tools and weapons; and, finally, to the discovery of how to make fire.
Book III. THE LATER CAVE-MEN. THE AGE OF THE CHASE.
Illustrated with 27 full-page and 87 text drawings in half-tone by Howard V. Brown. Cloth, square 12mo, 197 Pages. For the primary grades.
Here is portrayed the influence of man's presence upon wild animals. Man's fear, which with the conquest of fire gave way to courage, has resulted in his mastery of many mechanical appliances and in the development of social cooperation, which so increases his power as to make him an object of fear to the wild animals. Since the wild animals now try to escape from man's presence, there is a greater demand made upon man's ingenuity than ever before in supplying his daily food. The way in which man's cunning finds expression in traps, pitfalls, and in throwing devices, and finally in a remarkable manifestation of art, is made evident in these pages.
Book IV. THE EARLY SEA PEOPLE. FIRST STEPS IN THE CONQUEST OF THE WATERS.
Illustrated with 21 full-page and 117 text drawings in half-tone by Howard V. Brown and Kyohei Inukai. Cloth, square 12mo, 224 pages. For the intermediate grades.
The life of fishing people upon the seashore presents a pleasing contrast to the life of the hunters on the wooded hills depicted in the previous volumes. The resources of the natural environment; the early steps in the evolution of the various modes of catching fish, of manufacturing fishing tackle, boats, and other necessary appliances; the invention of devices for capturing birds; the domestication of the dog and the consequent changes in methods of hunting; and the social cooperation involved in manufacturing and in expeditions on the deep seas, are subjects included in this volume.
Other volumes, dealing with the early development of pastoral and agricultural life, the age of metals, travel, trade, and transportation, will follow.
Write us for detailed information regarding these books and a complete list of our up-to-date publications.
RAND McNALLY & COMPANY EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHERS CHICAGO NEW YORK LONDON