The Later Cave-Men
by Katharine Elizabeth Dopp
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When the news came about the reindeer, everybody was excited. Everybody hurried to the pitfall so as to see the reindeer. Nobody noticed the boys steal out of the cave. Nobody noticed them run to the pitfall.

But soon after she started, Antler saw the tracks of their bare feet. She guessed at once where the boys had gone. And it was then that she thought of making them clothing.

While the children slept that night, Antler talked with the women. And when morning came, the women took skins and made the children warm clothes and moccasins.

When the children put on their wolf-skin suits, they looked like a pack of wolves. Sometimes they played they were wolves. Then they chased make-believe wild horses.

Sometimes when the children were playing in the snow, they found the antlers of a full-grown stag. The children began to look for the antlers of the full-grown stags in early winter. But they knew that the other reindeer kept their antlers until early spring.

An old stag's antlers were large and strong, and the children liked to find them. They would pick them up and hold them in their hands and would then make believe they were Cave-men trapping reindeer in the snow.

One day Greybeard showed Fleetfoot and Flaker how to trap the reindeer in the snow. He showed them how to dig a pitfall in the drifts. The boys found a large drift near the trail and they cut out a large block of snow. They hollowed a deep pit under the crust which they took pains not to break. Then they fitted the block of snow in its place, thus covering the pit.

To make sure that the reindeer would come to the pitfall they scattered moss over the thin crust. Then Greybeard taught them to say,

"Come down to the river, reindeer; Come down to the river to drink. Come eat the moss I have spread for you, Come and fall into my trap."

All the Cave-men believed that these words would charm the reindeer to the spot. They always muttered such lines as charms when they went out to hunt. And so Greybeard taught the boys the lines, for he wanted them to know all the Cave-men's charms.


Name the animals which you know by their tracks. Draw a picture of the tracks you know best.

Tell a story about hunting an animal by tracking it.

Next time there is a heavy fall of snow, play hunting animals by driving them into the drifts.

See if you can show in your sand-box how the pitfall was made.

See if you can think of a way of having real drifts in your sand-box.

Draw a picture of the children playing with the antlers of the reindeer.

Draw a picture of the reindeer in the pitfall.



Do you know whether we can tell what the weather is going to be?

Have you ever heard any one talking about the signs of the weather? What signs do you know?

Notice animals and see how they act before a storm.

Notice what animals and birds are here in summer that are not here in winter. Are any here in winter that are not here in the summer?

Why did the bison go away from the Cave-men's hunting grounds each winter? When they went away would they go in large or small herds?

If the weather kept pleasant how do you think they would travel? What would they do if it looked like a storm?

Notice the animals that live near you and see whether they turn their heads or backs toward the storm.

Overtaken by a Storm

Winter passed and summer came and now it was almost gone. The cattle had gone to the forests in the lowlands where they spent the winter. Straggling lines of bison were moving down the valley. Now and then they stopped a few days to eat the tall grass. Then they slowly moved onward toward the lower lands.

The days were like the Indian summer days which we sometimes have in late autumn. Everybody enjoyed each day as it came, and thought little about the coming cold. But one morning the sky was gray and gloomy, and the sun could not pierce through the heavy clouds. The air was cold and now and then a snowflake was falling.

There was no meat at the cave, and everybody was hungry. So Bighorn said to the men, "Let's hunt the bison to-day."

The men crowded around, for they were always glad to go hunting with Bighorn. As soon as he had shown them his plan, they took their weapons and started toward the herd.

Bighorn expected to find the herd feeding quietly on a hillside. But, instead, the bison were tossing their horns, sniffing the air, and looking this way and that.

Bighorn saw that the bison were restless and that he could not take them by surprise. "We shall have a hard chase," said he to the men, "if we get a bison to-day."

The men stood still for a moment, for they did not know what to do. Fine snowflakes were now falling and the dark clouds threatened a heavy storm. But the men were hungry and they were not ready to give up the hunt at once.

"Listen!" said Bighorn, as a low rumbling sound came from the upper valley.

The Cave-men put their ears to the ground and heard a sound like distant thunder. As they listened it came nearer and nearer and the ground seemed to shake.

The Cave-men were not afraid. They knew what the sound meant. The bison, too, knew what it meant. They knew that winter was coming, and that it was time for them to be gone. They knew that the laggard herds were racing with the storm.

And so the sentinels of the scattered herds gave signals to the bison. And before the Cave-men were on their feet, the bison had started toward the ford.

Louder and louder the rumbling sound grew as the great herd galloped on. The snow was now falling thick and fast, and a cold northwest wind was blowing. But in spite of the wind and the snow, the Cave-men pressed on toward the ford. Bighorn still hoped to get a bison as the great herd passed.

By the time the herd reached the ford, the wind had become a strong gale. The air was so thick with the snow that it nearly blinded the men. Then Bighorn turned and said to the men, "We must find a shelter from the storm."

The bison, too, tried to find a shelter. Some of them hugged up closely to the sheltered side of the cliffs. Others sought cover in the ravines. But many could find no protection, so they turned about and faced the storm.

The Cave-men wished they were safe at home, but they dared not go through the storm. They huddled together and felt their way to a spot where the snow did not drift. There they lay down in the snow and waited for the storm to cease.


Name some bird that migrates. Tell all that you know about the way it migrates.

When you go out to play, show how the bison migrated in warm weather. Show how they migrated in cold weather.

Show in your sand-box where the deep drifts would be. Show places where the snow would not drift. If you cannot be sure about where the drifts would be, see if you can find out by watching the storms during winter.

If the Cave-men are buried in the snow, how do you think they can get air to breathe? How can they tell when the storm is over?



What do you think those who stayed in the cave will do during the storm? Can you think of any way by which they could get food?

Did you ever walk on snowshoes? How do you think people came to make snowshoes?

How Antler Happened to Invent Snowshoes

Antler saw the coming storm and at once she thought of the fire. She called to the women. And soon they were all breaking branches with stone axes and mauls. The children piled the fagots together and carried them to the cave.

The snow was falling fast before they finished their work. They watched the storm for a little while and then went into the cave.

The children were hungry and asked for meat. But there was no meat in the cave. Antler tried to get the children to play and to forget that they were hungry. And the children played for a little while, but they soon grew tired. And so Antler gathered the children together and began to tell them stories.

As the storm raged fiercer and fiercer, Antler told stories of other storms. She had braved many storms on the wooded hills and the children liked to hear her stories.

Among the stories she told that day was the story of the Big Bear. She said that the Big Bear lived in a cavern away up in the mountain. She said that he kept watch of the game and that sometimes he shut the game in his cavern. Antler said she had often heard the Big Bear above the voice of the storm. And Fleetfoot, listening for his voice, thought he heard it in the wailing of the storm.

In spite of the stories Antler told, the day was long and dreary. The next day was still more dreary, for the children were crying for food. Toward the close of day they were very tired, and soon they fell asleep.

Most of the women slept that night, but there was no sleep for Antler. She could not sleep when the children were hungry and when the men were out in the storm. She stayed awake and watched and listened all through the long dark night.

Toward morning the storm began to slacken, and Antler gave a sigh of relief. She felt sure that many bison were floundering in the drifts. She hoped they were not far away from the cave. So she dressed in her fur garments and took a large knife and an ax. And at break of day she set out hoping to find a bison.

But the snow was very deep and Antler could scarcely walk. She was faint from hunger and cold. For a while she struggled through the drifts, but soon her strength failed, and she sank down in the snow.

As Antler lay in the deep drifts, she seemed powerless to move. The thought of the hungry children, however, made her turn to the gods. Then the branches of spruce trees seemed to urge her on.

And so Antler took courage and grasping a strong branch of a friendly spruce struggled through the deep snow. She stepped upon the partly buried branches and they helped her on her way.

A bison, floundering in a drift, filled her heart with hope. But when she started toward the bison, Antler sank down once more into the drifts. So again she turned to the friendly trees, and again she reached out to them for aid. And she broke branches from the trees and bound them to her feet.

Starting once more, Antler walked as if on winged feet. She ran over the deep drifts. And since she could hunt as well as the men, she soon had plenty of meat.

As Antler was strapping her load upon her back, she heard a familiar voice. Quickly she turned, and her heart beat fast as she listened to hear it again. And seeing the men struggling through the drifts, she knelt and gave thanks to the gods.

Soon Antler arose and laid down her load; and breaking a handful of branches, she hurried over the drifts and met the Cave-men.

When the men saw Antler gliding over the drifts they wondered if it was one of the gods. Not until Antler spoke were they really sure it was she. And not until she showed them how to tie the branches to their feet did they understand what she had done. And even then they did not know that Antler had invented the snowshoe. Many people worked upon snowshoes before fine snowshoes were made. For when people heard what Antler had done, they tried different ways for themselves.

Of course all the people were glad when Antler returned with the men. They feasted and told stories all day long. And afterward the children played they were hunters overtaken by a storm, and they made little snowshoes and learned to walk over the drifts.


The next time there is a storm listen to it and see if you can hear what the Cave-men thought was the voice of the Big Bear. See if you can tell what it is that makes the music of the storm.

Listen to the music of the birds and see if you can give their songs and calls.

What other animals do you hear calling one another? See if you can give their calls.

Tell a story of some storm you have seen.

Draw one of these pictures;Antler praying to the gods for help. A bison floundering in the drift. Antler bringing aid to the men.

Find a picture of a snowshoe, and tell how you think it was made.

Find something which you can use for making snowshoes. Make a pair, and use them when you have a chance.

See if you can find out why the snowshoe keeps one from sinking in the snow.



Why would the women be apt to make traps before the men did?

What animals did the men hunt most? How did they hunt them?

What animals did the women hunt most? How?

How many kinds of knots can you tie? Which of these knots slip? Which of these knots would be the best to use in a trap?

How Antler made Snares

While Fleetfoot and Flaker were little boys, they learned a few lessons in trapping. The men seldom trapped at that time, but the women trapped in several ways.

Antler was only a little girl when she learned to catch birds with a seed on a string. She was called Snowflake then and she lived in another cave.

Snowflake's mother taught her to do all the things that little girls needed to know. She learned to hunt for roots and berries, to catch birds, and to make traps, besides learning to make tents, to prepare skins, and to make them into garments. It would take too long to tell all the things that little girls learned in those days.

Snowflake learned her lessons well and she found new ways of doing things. It was when she found a reindeer caught in the vines that she took the first step in making a snare. She had started to the hillside to dig roots and had gone only a little way when she heard something pulling and tugging among the vines.

She peeked through the branches to see what it was, and there stood a beautiful reindeer. His antlers were caught in the tangled vines and he was trying to get loose.

Snowflake's heart went pit-a-pat, pit-a-pat, when she saw the reindeer. But she kept going nearer, and the reindeer pulled and pulled until he was strangled by the vines.

When Snowflake came to the cave dragging the handsome reindeer, the people shouted for joy. And when they had knocked off the beautiful antlers, they gave them to Snowflake and changed her name.

Whenever she went to the spot where the reindeer was caught she always looked for another reindeer. But the reindeer kept away from the spot.

So, at length, Antler thought of cutting vines and fastening them to branches. Then she learned to tie knots that would slip and tighten when pulled. And, after a while, she used the slipknots in making many kinds of snares.

Antler watched the birds until she knew the spots where they liked to alight. Then she set snares on the ground and fastened them to strong branches.

The birds, alighting on the spot, caught their feet in the snare. When they tried to fly away, they pulled the slipknot which held them fast.

Some of the birds were frightened away, and did not return to the spot. So Antler tried to coax them back by scattering seeds near the snare.

Once Antler set a snare in a rabbit path just high enough to catch the rabbit's head. A rabbit was caught, but he nibbled the cord and ran off with the snare. And so Antler learned to protect the cord by running it through a hollow bone.

There was no better trapper than Antler among all the Cave-men. It was she who taught the boys and girls how to make and set traps. When the marmots awoke from their long winter's sleep, all the children learned to catch them in traps. They learned to loosen the bark of a tree without breaking it except along one edge. They used the bark as a leadway to a trap which they set near a marmot's hole. After placing the noose inside the bark, they fastened it to a bent sapling.

When the children went to the trap, they clapped their hands and shouted. Then they took the marmot out of the trap and carried it to the cave. And they made a great noise when Bighorn said, "You will soon be very good trappers."

Then the children wanted to catch another marmot, so Antler went with them and showed them how the trap worked. The marmot coming out of his hole smelled the bait on the string. So it ran along and nibbled the bait until its sharp teeth cut the cord. Then the sapling sprang up and jerked the snare upward. And the weight of the marmot, pulling downward, drew the slipknot tight.


Tie a slipknot at one end of a string, and show how to set it for snaring birds. Show how to set it for snaring rabbits. Find a hollow stick or a bone to protect the snare from the rabbit's teeth. Show how the marmot trap was set.

Tell how you catch mice. Tell how you catch flies.

What animals do you know that sleep during the winter? How can they live so long without eating?

Draw one of these pictures:Snowflake finds a reindeer caught in the vines. Antler teaches the children to set traps.

Model a marmot in clay.

Name all the animals you know that burrow in the ground. Watch one of them and find out what it does.



Why would the Cave-men be apt to lose many spears and javelins?

How could they keep from losing the shafts?

Can you think of how they might find a way of saving their spearheads?

Find a picture of a barbed spearhead. Why did people begin to make barbs?

How Spears were Changed into Harpoons

None of the clans could make better weapons than the men of the Bison clan. Since boyhood, Greybeard had been known for his delicate spear points and knives. No workshop in all the valley was better known than his. But even Greybeard's weapons sometimes were known to fail. Even his spear points sometimes were lost in the chase.

For several days the men were at home making new weapons. They never made spears and javelins with sharper and finer points. They never made straighter and smoother shafts. When they started out to hunt, they were proud of their new weapons. All the Cave-men expected that before the day passed, they would have new trophies and fresh meat.

The women, trapping birds on the hillsides, listened from time to time. They expected to hear Bighorn's whistle when the animals were ready to be skinned. But the day passed, and no signal came.

At sunset the men returned, but they were gloomy and silent. They brought no trophies, and they spoke not a word of the chase.

No wonder the men were gloomy and silent. Their precious spears and javelins had been lost in the chase. It was not because the men were careless. It was not because they were not skillful in making spears and javelins. It was because these weapons, when thrown from the hand, could not strike deadly blows.

The Cave-men had thrown at the wild horses with a sure aim. Their javelins and spears went right to the mark. When the horses ran, the Cave-men followed. But in spite of all they could do, the wild horses were soon out of sight.

Some of the horses received ugly wounds and carried the weapons far away. Others received slight wounds; they brushed off the spears and javelins, which fell and were lost in the tall grass.

Time and again, hunted animals had escaped with only a wound. Wounded animals had often escaped with a spear or javelin. But never before had so many animals escaped with so many precious weapons.

Of course there was nothing for the Cave-men to do but to make new weapons. But it took a long time to season the sticks for straight and smooth shafts. It took patience and skill for the Cave-men to make delicate flint points. Perhaps this was why the Cave-men learned to retrieve the weapons they threw.

Ever since the Cave-men had learned to make spears, they had lashed the head to the shaft. They thought that this was the only way to make a good spear. Chipper was the first Cave-man who invented a new way.

Chipper was all alone in the workshop. He had finished a spear point which he held in his hand. Without thinking what he was doing, he slipped the tang into a hollow reed which he picked up from the ground. If it had not been for a hungry wolf, he might have thought no more about it.

But the wolf had smelled the meat which was on the ground close to the workshop. Hearing a sound, Chipper looked just in time to see the wolf spring toward the meat.

The spear flew from Chipper's hand before he stopped to think. And Chipper sprang upon the wolf and engaged in a hand-to-hand fight.

At the first sound of the combat the Cave-men rushed to the spot. There they found that Chipper had already secured his prize.

While the Cave-men looked at the wolf, Chipper told them what had happened. He showed them the reed which he had used in hurling his new spear point. The men looked at the hollow reed and tried it to see how it worked. Other reeds were on the ground. So the men fitted spearheads into the reeds and practiced throwing that way. They played with the reeds the rest of the day.

When they worked at their weapons again, Chipper, alone, tried a new way. He made a loose shaft with a socket in the end. During the next chase they lost many weapons. Chipper lost many spearheads; but he always found his loose shaft.

When the Cave-men noticed that Chipper never lost his shaft they began to make loose shafts. And they got the idea of a barbed spearhead from a wound which was made by a broken point. They found such a point deep down in the wound of a bison. The sharp edge had caught in the bison's flesh. And every movement of the bison had driven the spearhead deeper.

It was by paying attention to such little things that the Cave-men learned to make barbed spears. When the Cave-men learned that barbed spearheads made very dangerous wounds, they were willing to take the trouble of making the barbed points.

But no Cave-man was willing to lose one of his barbed spear points. Perhaps that is why the men began to tie the barbed heads to the loose shaft. When they first did this, they did not know that their spears had become harpoons.


Find a hollow reed and use it for a shaft. Make a shaft with a socket in it. Fit a spearhead into the socket. Change the spear so as to make a harpoon.

Draw a picture of the chase of the wild horses.

Think of a wild horse running very fast. See if you can model a wild horse in clay so as to show that it has great speed.



Why was the harpoon a better weapon for hunting than the spear or javelin? What could hunters do to keep smooth shafts from slipping from their hands? What is the harpoon used for to-day?

Why do animals become more cunning after they are hunted?

How the Cave-men Hunted with Harpoons

Once again the Cave-men went out to hunt the wild horses. Once again they took new weapons. But instead of spears and javelins they carried barbed harpoons.

From a high hill they saw the horses on the edge of a grassy upland. They hurried over the wooded hills and crept through the tall grass. When Bighorn gave the signal the sentinels pricked up their ears. But before they could give the alarm, the men had thrown their harpoons.

The frightened horses crowded upon one another. Snapping sounds of breaking shafts, sharp cries of wounded horses, and loud shouts of Cave-men added to their terror.

The snorting of the sentinels warned the Cave-men back. A signal from the leader brought order to the herd. It began to move as though it were one solid mass.

Away the herd galloped, striking terror to all creatures in the way. But the wounded horses soon lagged. In vain they tried to keep up. At each step the shaft of the harpoon swung under their feet. At each step the barbed head pierced deeper and deeper. So the Cave-men had little trouble in finishing the chase.

Perhaps you think the Cave-men had no trouble in hunting after that. They had less trouble for some time, and they all prized their harpoons. But on cold days, when their hands were stiff, the smooth shafts slipped from their grasp.

When they used shafts with knobs and large joints, it was easy to keep a firm hold. So the men made shafts with larger knobs and they put girdles around the smooth shafts.

At their games of throwing spears and javelins, Bighorn was almost sure to win. It was partly because he had large hands and very strong fingers. By bending one finger like a hook and striking the butt of the shaft, he could send a harpoon straight to the mark.

Chipper's hands were not very large. His fingers were not so strong as Bighorn's. But Chipper was a bright young man, and he found a way of using a spear-noose so that he could throw as well as Bighorn.

The spear-noose was a simple thing. Chipper made it by tying a noose in each end of a cord. When he used it, he slipped one noose around his thumb and the other around one finger. Then he grasped the spear near the butt and slipped the cord around the knob. The spear-noose was a great help to hunters whose hands were not large and strong.

Every time the Cave-men made new weapons, they worked very well for a short time. But as soon as the animals learned about them, they became more cunning in getting away. Wild horses kept sentinels on knolls and hilltops so that they could see an enemy from afar. They guarded their herds so carefully that the Cave-men could scarcely get near enough to hit them with their harpoons.

And so the Cave-men returned many times bearing no trophies. They returned many times giving no signal for the women to come for fresh meat.


Take a harpoon and show how the shaft would swing against the feet of an animal that had been hit by the head.

Make a girdle around a smooth shaft, or make a shaft with a knob or large joint near the butt.

Make a spear-noose and show how Chipper used it.

Think of the wild horses during the first few minutes after the men threw their harpoons. See if you can draw a picture of them.



Think of as many hard things as you can that the Cave-men had to do.

Why did they have to do these things? What kind of men did the Cave-men have to be?

Think of as many ways as you can that the Cave-men would use to teach the boys. What tests do you think they would give the boys?

How the Cave-men Tested Fleetfoot and Flaker

Winters came and went, and Fleetfoot and Flaker grew to be large boys. They watched the men; they heard them talk; they learned what a Cave-man had to do.

Greybeard told them stories of brave hunters that lived long ago. He told them about the animals they must learn to hunt. The boys listened to the stories. And they thought there was no animal too fierce for them to fight. They thought there was no river too swift for them to cross. They thought there was no mountain too steep for them to climb.

But the boys had not learned how fierce a bison can be. They had never crossed a raging river nor climbed a mountain peak.

The men knew that the boys needed to try their strength before they could be really strong. They knew they must do brave deeds before they could be really brave. They knew they must suffer patiently before they could have self-control. And so the Cave-men tested the boys in many different ways.

If the boys stood the tests, the Cave-men shouted praises; but if they showed any sign of fear, the Cave-men jeered at them.

Sometimes the boys were given nothing to eat until they brought food from the hunt. And even then they were not always allowed to touch the food which was near. When the boys were fasting, the Cave-men tempted them with food. And if the boys took even a bite, they failed in the test. So Fleetfoot and Flaker learned to fast without a word of complaint.

One of the hardest things which the boys had to do was to make their own weapons. At first, Greybeard helped them; but, later, they had to do their own work.

So the boys learned to go to the trees that had the best wood for shafts. They learned to cut, and peel, and scrape, and oil, and season, and polish the sticks before they were ready to use. No wonder the boys became tired before all this work was done.

Then they worked very carefully before they could make good spearheads. They hunted for the best stones and learned to shape them very well. When they forgot and struck hard blows, they spoiled the flint points. Then Greybeard would tell them that the strongest and bravest hunters were those who could strike the gentlest blows.

It was work of this kind that was harder for the boys than chasing a wild horse or a reindeer. If they had not known that they must have weapons, they would not have had patience to do it.

While the boys worked at their weapons, they thought of what they would do with them. They thought of the trophies they would bring home and what the people would say. And they learned to sing at their work and to mark the time for each blow. And so they managed to keep at work until the weapons were done.

One day when the boys were flaking spear points, Fleetfoot turned to Flaker and said, "Do you know who made the first flaker?"

"Yes," answered Flaker, "it was Greybeard."

"No, no!" said Fleetfoot, "Nimble-finger did it."

Greybeard heard Fleetfoot speak his name and he came to the spot. Then it was that Fleetfoot learned that Greybeard was Nimble-finger.

After that Fleetfoot took great pains to learn how to flake flint points. He watched Greybeard as he worked and he listened to all he said.

Before many years had passed, the boys could make good weapons. They knew every spot on their own hunting ground. They knew the wild animals that lived there and what they liked to do. They knew each animal by its track. Each sound of the woods, each patch of light, they learned to read as you read a book.


Name things you will have to learn before you are full-grown.

What kind of tests do you have to take?

Tell a story of the way the Cave-men tested Fleetfoot and Flaker.

Tell a story of all that you think happened the day that Fleetfoot learned that Greybeard was Nimble-finger.

Name the birds you can tell by their song. Name those you can tell by sight.

Draw one of these pictures:Testing Fleetfoot and Flaker. Fleetfoot and Flaker in the workshop. Fleetfoot discovers Nimble-finger.



What animals would the Cave-men see just before winter? Which of these live in herds? How are the leaders of the herds chosen?

What kind of a voice does the reindeer have when it is good-natured?

What kind of a voice does it have when it is angry?

Fleetfoot and Flaker see a Combat

One day just before winter, Fleetfoot and Flaker went out on the hills. The reindeer were coming back and the boys wanted to see them.

They had gone only a little way, when they saw two handsome stags. Each wanted to be leader of the reindeer herd, and so they were trying their strength.

The stags stood head to head, their red eyes blazing like fire. Their hair stood on end. They stamped their hoofs on the hard ground. They hissed fierce blasts to and fro.

Slowly and carefully they changed their position, still keeping head to head. Each reindeer knew that the lances of the other could strike deadly blows. Each reindeer had fought too many battles to expose himself to such blows.

And so the stags eyed each other, getting more angry all the while. Louder and fiercer sounded their blasts. Then their antlers crashed in a swift charge.

They pulled and pushed with all their might in a life and death struggle. Not until their strength was exhausted did they stop a moment to rest.

Then they tried to draw apart, but they found they could not do it. Each stag was held a prisoner by the antlers of the other. In vain the handsome creatures pulled and pushed. Each was held fast. And the boys, seeing their chance, secured both of the reindeer.

Perhaps it was well for the reindeer that the boys were there. At least, the boys saved them from a more horrible death. Reindeer caught in this way have suffered from hunger and thirst many days before death came.

The boys admired the beautiful reindeer as they lay stretched out on the ground. They felt of their polished antlers that had dealt many powerful blows. And they wished they had such weapons as these to use all of the time.


Show how the reindeer stood in the combat and how they changed their positions. Draw the picture.

Take a flat surface of clay and see if you can model a reindeer so that it will stand out a little from the surface.

Tell a story of what you think happened at the cave after the boys killed the reindeer.



If you have ever seen a cat hunt, tell how she does it. Can you think why cats do not hunt together?

Do dogs hunt alone, or with one another? How do wolves hunt?

In what ways can animals help one another in hunting? What animals do wolves hunt to-day? What animals did the wolves hunt in the time of the Cave-men?

What Happened when Fleetfoot and Flaker Hunted the Bison

When summer came, Fleetfoot and Flaker watched the bison from day to day. The wolves, too, watched the bison. One day the boys saw two wolves hunt a bison that had strayed from the herd.

The wolves walked boldly up toward the bison until they were only a few paces away. Then they went cautiously.

The bison paid no attention at first; but when the wolves came closer, he stamped his foot and shook his horns. Any animal could know that the bison meant, "It is dangerous here. Keep away!"

But the wolves had a plan and they carried it out. The smaller wolf kept the bison's attention by making believe attack from the front. This gave the big wolf a chance; and he cut the large muscles of the bison's knees with his sharp teeth. The bison was thus crippled so badly that the wolves were more than a match for him.

"I wonder if we could get a bison," said Flaker as the boys watched the wolves at their feast.

"Let's try," said Fleetfoot.

"But how can we get close up," said Flaker, "without frightening the bison away?"

"Let's dress in wolf-skins," said Fleetfoot, "and make believe we are wolves."

And the boys dressed in wolf-skins and took their best hunting knives. They watched the herd until they saw a large bison stray away. Then the boys approached the bison, and they looked so much like wolves that they got very close before the bison threatened with his horns.

Then the boys made the attack. Flaker took the part of the little wolf and attacked the bison's head. Fleetfoot took the part of the big wolf and tried to cripple the bison.

But the boys had not counted upon the bison's tough skin. They had not counted upon his muscles, which were as hard as boards. Flaker's dagger glanced off at one side and merely scratched the bison. But it made the creature so angry that he charged upon Flaker.

Meanwhile Fleetfoot was doing his best to cut the hard muscles of the bison's knee. He forgot about everything else until he had lamed one of the forelegs. It was then that the bison charged and that Flaker called for help. And then Fleetfoot tried to rescue Flaker by drawing the bison's attention away.

Fleetfoot did this just in time to save Flaker's life. He struck at the Bison's head, then dodged in time to escape his horns. He dodged again and again until he was almost exhausted. The bison limped, but he seemed as strong and as furious as ever. Once again the bison charged, and again Fleetfoot dodged. Then a spear whizzed past Fleetfoot's head and a voice called, "Climb a tree."

Fleetfoot never remembered running to the tree. He never remembered climbing it. But for many days he seemed to see himself in the tree and the bison just beneath. For many days he seemed to hear Greybeard's welcome voice.

Greybeard and Fleetfoot stayed in the trees until the bison started up the ravine. Then they climbed down from one of the trees and hurried to see what had happened to Flaker.


Tell something that you have learned from watching an animal.

Mention as many things as you can that you think the Cave-men learned from animals.

Straighten and bend your elbow or knee so as to find where the strong muscles are.

Tell why the Cave-men tried to cut the strong muscles of the bison's knee. We say when we cut these large muscles that we have "hamstrung" the animal.

Look at the picture of a Cave-man's carving of an animal which has been "hamstrung." Can you tell what animal it is?

Think of the two wolves coming up toward the bison. Model one of them in clay. See if the children can guess which one it is.



What do you think had happened to Flaker? If any of his bones were broken, do you think the Cave-men could set them? Do you think there were doctors when the Cave-men lived? Who would do the work which doctors do to-day?

What the Cave-men did for Flaker

Fleetfoot ran ahead of Greybeard and found Flaker on the ground. Fleetfoot stooped and looked into his face. He called him by name. No answer came. Then Fleetfoot asked Greybeard if Flaker was dead.

Greybeard shook his head as he bent down and laid his hands upon the boy. He examined his wounds, then said to Fleetfoot, "Let's carry him down to the cool spring."

So Greybeard and Fleetfoot lifted Flaker and carried him gently down to the spring. There they bathed his face and the ugly wounds with fresh cool water. They bound his wounds with strips of the skins that the boys wore that day.

When Greybeard tried to set the broken bones, Flaker began to moan. He opened his eyes for a moment; then he fell back in a swoon.

Then Greybeard sent Fleetfoot to the cave for help. And Fleetfoot hurried and told Antler; and Antler, picking up some little things which she knew she would need, and telling the women to follow quickly with a large skin, went with Fleetfoot to the spot where Flaker lay.

Greybeard was watching beside the boy when Antler arrived. He helped her set the broken bones and then they prepared to carry him home.

Taking the skin which the women brought, Antler stretched it upon the ground. Then the women helped her lift the boy and lay him upon the skin. Gently they laid him upon the stretcher. Softly they stepped as they carried him home. They tended him carefully many days.

Flaker's wounds soon healed. But when he was strong enough to walk, the Cave-men saw that he was lame.

Flaker was always lame after that. The bones had slipped out of place and now it was too late to reset them. Afterwards the Cave-men learned better ways of setting broken bones. They found better ways of holding them in place while they grew together.

Perhaps the Cave-men learned this by watching the wild animals. Some birds, when they break a leg, hold the bones in place with wet clay. Sometimes we use a plaster cast, but the Cave-men knew nothing about such a way.

The days seemed long to Flaker while he was getting well. Everybody was kind to him, but it seemed hard to keep quiet when everybody else was moving about.

When Fleetfoot went out to hunt, Flaker wanted to go too. But he could not go, and so Fleetfoot used to tell him everything that happened.


Show how the women helped Antler put Flaker upon the skin. Show how they carried him home. Draw one of the pictures.

Find out why a child's bones will grow together more easily than an old person's bones. See if you can find out what bones are made of. Soak a bone in acid and see what happens to it. Burn a bone and see what happens to it. Why do a child's bones break less easily than an old person's?

If there is a spring in your neighborhood, go and see it. Find out where the water comes from.



If Flaker is lame, how will he be able to get food? What do you think he can do that will be useful to the clan?

Do you think the Cave-men took as good care of the sick, and the lame, and the old people, as we do? What could they do for them?

Why did the men use weapons more than tools? Why did the women use tools more than weapons?

Think of as many tools as you can that the women used.

How Flaker Learned to Make Weapons of Bone

Before Flaker was hurt he and Fleetfoot had planned to do many things. But now Flaker was lame, and all the Cave-men knew he would never be able to hunt.

When Flaker first knew it, he was very sad. And so Fleetfoot tried to comfort him. Each day he brought him a bird or a rabbit, and he told him all that had happened.

For a while Flaker thought that if a man could not hunt, there was nothing else for him to do. But soon he found there were many things to do besides going out to hunt.

Flaker began by doing a few little things to help Fleetfoot. He helped him flake heads for harpoons and javelins and make strong shafts.

When Greybeard and Fleetfoot praised his work, Flaker was very happy. And so Flaker busied himself in the workshop when the men went out to hunt. Sometimes Chipper helped him, and often Greybeard worked with him.

When Flaker was tired he would look at the trophies which were fastened on the wall near the cave. He was always glad to see the locked antlers of the two stags.

As he looked at the strong antlers, he could almost see the handsome stags. He thought of them standing head to head ready to strike deadly blows. And he wished he had had such powerful weapons to meet the bison's charge.

The children wanted to be good to Flaker and so they brought him the antlers they found. They liked to play with the antlers, and their mothers used them in many ways. They had learned to cut them with choppers and chisels, and sometimes they cut them with stone knives.

All the women used the small prongs of the antlers. They used them as wedges in prying the bark loose from the sap-wood of young trees. All the women had learned to make hammers of antler by making two cuts near the base. And sometimes they used the broad end of the brow antler instead of a stone chisel.

Once when Flaker was watching Antler, he thought she was making a dagger. But Antler had not thought of making a dagger. She was making a hammer and wedge. When she had finished, she dropped the long beam of the antler upon the ground and went away with her tools.

Flaker kept his eyes fixed upon the long beam. The more he looked at it, the more it looked like a dagger. At length he reached and picked it up. Then he took his knife and began to cut it.

That night when Fleetfoot came home, Flaker gave him a dagger of reindeer horn. Fleetfoot showed it to Bighorn, who took it, then tossed it on the ground.

Bighorn had never seen such a dagger. He thought a good dagger had to be made of stone. So he made fun of Flaker's weapon, then thought no more about it.

But Greybeard and Chipper did not make fun of the weapons Flaker made. They tried the dagger next day, and found that it stood the test. So they asked Flaker to make each of them daggers and javelins of reindeer horn.


Tell all you know about the antlers of full-grown stags. Tell all you know about the antlers of other reindeer.

Look at the antlers in the pictures on pages 16, 17, 108, and 121. Find the part that would make such a wedge as is shown on page 119. Find the part that would make such a hammer as is shown on page 74. Find a part for a chisel or scraper. Find the long beam that was used in making such a dagger as is shown on page 123. Do you think that Flaker's first dagger was carved in this way? Can you tell why the Cave-men carved their weapons?

Act out the part of this story you like best.

Draw one of these pictures:Flaker watching for Fleetfoot's return. The children bringing antlers to Flaker. The women at work making tools. Fleetfoot showing the dagger to Bighorn. Greybeard and Chipper asking Flaker to make daggers.

Make as many simple tools as you can out of bone or horn. Find ways of using them.



What do you think Flaker used in cutting the antler? What tools will he need to use in making weapons of bone or horn?

What do you think the first saws were? How do you think people came to use saws? How large do you think they were?

What are files used for? Can you think what the first files were like? What do you think they were used for?

How Flaker Invented the Saw

How glad Flaker was when Greybeard and Chipper asked him to make them some daggers! He looked at all the antlers the children had brought. He thought of the reindeer he had seen with antlers such as these. He remembered the handsome reindeer with their deadly weapons, and at length he chose the large antlers which had belonged to a handsome stag.

Flaker looked at the long beams and decided to use them for daggers. He took his knife to cut off the prongs, but he could scarcely cut them with a knife.

Flaker knew that the women cut the prongs with a chopper, but a chopper was a woman's tool. And Flaker wanted to be like the men. And so he kept working with his knife, but he wished he had taken a beam which the women had left.

When he was tired using his knife, he played with some flint flakes. He ran his fingers over the sharp edges. Then he carelessly pressed off tiny flakes.

But Flaker soon tired of this and he picked up the antler again. He pushed a flint flake back and forth upon one of the prongs of the antler.

Flaker was simply playing at first; but when he saw that the flint was cutting, his play became real work. And he kept on pushing and pulling the flake until the prong fell to the ground. Then he sawed off other prongs, but he did not know he was sawing.

Flaker had never seen a saw and he did not know what it was. He did not know that when he pressed off the tiny flakes he made the teeth of a flint saw.

But Flaker had made a saw. It was only the rough edge of a flint flake. No doubt such rough edges had been made many times before. But Flaker learned to use the rough edge by pushing and pulling it back and forth.

When Flaker sawed the prongs from the beam, some of the places were rough. So he rubbed them with the face of the flint until he made them smooth. When Flaker did this, the flake, which had been only a knife, became a file as well as a saw.

Greybeard and Chipper tried the new daggers and found that they were sharp and strong. And the next time they went on the chase they took the new weapons along.

Bighorn saw the new weapons, but he said little about them. For Bighorn knew better than to make fun of weapons Greybeard used.

Nothing pleased Flaker more than to be able to help Greybeard. And so he cherished the new tool that he used in shaping reindeer horn. Sometimes he showed it to Greybeard, who was always kind to the boys. But even the wise old man had no idea of what a wonderful tool it was.

The other Cave-men saw the tool, but they thought very little about it. They cared a great deal about the weapons they used in the chase. But few of the Cave-men ever thought of making anything they did not need right away.

And so little was said about the new tool which was a knife with two blades, a saw, and a file, all in one. Nobody dreamed at that time that the little tool was the forerunner of a great change.


If you can strike off a large flint flake with three faces, see if you can make it into a knife-saw-file.

Look at the picture, or at the real tool you have made, and find the plain face that can be used as a file.

Find the two edges which can be used as knives. Find the edge which has a crest of teeth, and which can be used as a saw.

Draw one of these pictures:The women chopping prongs from the beam of the antler. Flaker sawing the prongs off the antler.



Can you think why the females and the young males of the reindeer herd could drive the old stags away during the winter? Could they do it in the summer?

Why can the reindeer walk easily in the snow or on slippery places?

What is it that makes the clicking sound when reindeer walk or run?

Why were the Cave-men careful to make no mistake in the dance?

The Reindeer Dance

Fleetfoot did not hunt with the men, but he learned many things from them. In early winter, he heard them tell stories of dangerous encounters with ugly stags. When the old stags shed their antlers, he saw the men dance the reindeer dance.

Fleetfoot mimicked the reindeer's movements and the grunting sounds they made. But he was not allowed to join with the men in dancing the reindeer dance. Only brave men were allowed to join in the dance. Only the bravest men were allowed to lead.

But Fleetfoot stood near and saw everything that was done. Some of the men put on headdresses made of the antlers of the reindeer. Others put on reindeer suits without the headdress of antlers. Those that were to be the Cave-men painted their faces and carried trophies.

Fleetfoot wished that he could have a headdress and take part in the dance. He wondered how long he would have to wait before he could dance with the men. He wondered how many brave things he must do before he would rank as a man.

And when Fleetfoot saw the men standing in silence while Greybeard made offerings to the gods, he looked at the brave old man and wondered how a man could be so wise. Then he thought of Chew-chew's stories of brave men of olden times.

At length Fleetfoot saw Flaker, who was sitting all alone. He went and sat beside him and they watched the men dance.

The men had finished dressing, and the women were seated on the ground. They had rolls of skin, and rude drums, and rattles of reindeer hoofs.

At a signal from Bighorn, a group of men came dancing to the music of the rattles. They moved about and made low grunting sounds as though they were a reindeer herd.

Then the music changed. The women drummed upon skins and hummed in a weird way. They tried to show by the sound of the music the coming of a storm.

At the first sound of the weird music, the reindeer pricked up their ears. Then the larger reindeer that had lost their antlers started off to make-believe higher lands. There they made believe paw the snow until they found the moss. As the music of the storm grew louder, the herd followed to the higher lands. And with many an angry threat they drove the old stags away.

Then the drumming and humming became fainter, and at last the sounds died away. But still the faint clicking of the rattles marked each step of the men in the dance.

Another signal from Bighorn marked the change to a new scene. Trails were marked upon the ground and sticks placed for hills and streams.

While the reindeer pretended to feed, a group of Cave-men appeared. Bighorn, who was still the leader, sent Little-bear to watch where the trail crossed the hills. Chipper was sent to lie in wait at the spot where the trail crossed the river. And Bighorn, himself, took his stand at the point where the trails crossed.

When the men took their places, others crept back of the herd. Only the light music of the rattles sounded as the reindeer moved about.

As the men came nearer the reindeer herd, the sentinels showed signs of fear. The clicking of the rattles was quicker. The herd became thoroughly alarmed and the women shook the rattles and made a loud din.

Then the reindeer started on their old trails and came near the spots where the men were hid. The clicking of the rattles marked the time for the running, and the beating of the drum showed when javelins were hurled. Soon the shouts of the men and the rattles and drums made a loud noise.

All the Cave-men enjoyed the dance. They danced it without a mistake. And so they felt sure that the god of the reindeer would give them success in the chase.


Model in your sand-box the spot where the reindeer dance was danced.

Model the trails where the Cave-men thought the reindeer would run when alarmed.

Make rattles of something which you can find, and show how to mark time with them.

If you can get a skin, see if you can stretch it over something so as to make a drum. Try different ways, and tell which is best.

Dramatize this lesson.

Draw a picture to illustrate it.



Can you think why hunters frequently have famines? At what season of the year would they be most likely to have a famine?

Can you think why they did not preserve and save food in times of plenty?

If game should be scarce on a hunting ground, do you think all of the people could stay at home? What do you think would happen at such a time?

Have you ever heard that the Indians used to be afraid of having their pictures taken? Why were they afraid of it?

Fleetfoot Prepares for His Final Test

Toward the close of winter rumors of famine came to the Bison clan. Several times people came from neighboring clans and asked Antler for food. There was plenty of meat in the cave, so she gave to those who asked. The strangers soon went away, and the Bison clan forgot about them.

The next summer game was scarce on several of the old hunting grounds. There was not enough food for all. People began to wander away from their old homes. Small groups of men, women, and children, set out in different directions.

Game was still plenty on the lands of the Bison clan. When the neighbors knew this, they came to hunt on these lands. The day Fleetfoot went away to fast, strange people came and camped.

The next day the Bison clan drove them away. A few days later other strangers came, and they, too, were driven away. Bighorn was angry when the strangers first came, but soon he became alarmed.

Just as the men and women were holding a council to consider what to do, the strangers disappeared. Not until Fleetfoot returned did the Bison clan know who they were or why they came.

Before Fleetfoot went away to fast, he had been curious about the Big Bear. He had heard many stories about the Big Bear ever since he was a child. He had heard that the Big Bear guarded the game and kept the animals in the rocky cavern. He had wondered if he could climb the mountains and find the cave of the Big Bear.

Before Flaker was hurt, the boys had planned to go to the mountains. They had planned to make friends with the Big Bear and learn where he kept the game. They had planned to climb the highest peaks and see what there was beyond.

Once, when the boys asked Greybeard if they might go to the mountains, Greybeard said, "No, no, my children! Wait a while. You are not yet old enough to go."

And so the boys waited, but they still talked about going to the cavern of the Big Bear. After Flaker was hurt they still planned, but they planned for Fleetfoot to go alone.

One day when the boys were talking together, Greybeard came to Fleetfoot and said, "The time you have waited for has come. Prepare for your final test."

This was glad news for Fleetfoot. At last he was to have a chance to prove himself worthy to rank with the men. Flaker rejoiced with Fleetfoot, yet he could not help feeling sad.

The Bison clan had decided that Fleetfoot should go to a quiet spot. There he was to fast and pray until he received a sign from the gods. And when he had done their bidding, he was to return for his final test. This test once passed, Fleetfoot would be counted one of the men.

Before Fleetfoot went, Greybeard instructed him in the use of prayers and charms. Antler gave him a magic powder and showed him how to prepare it from herbs. And the men told him of their tests, and the signs they received from the gods.

Flaker had listened to every word that Greybeard had said. He had thought of all the dangers which Fleetfoot might encounter. And he wondered if there was not a way to protect Fleetfoot from harm.

Flaker knew that the reindeer dance was a prayer of the Cave-men to their gods. He knew each movement in the dance was to help the gods understand. He felt sure that the gods would help Fleetfoot if he could make them understand. And so he determined to make a prayer which Fleetfoot could carry with him.

Perhaps you will think that the prayer Flaker made was a very strange prayer. But many people in all parts of the world have made such prayers. It was a prayer to the Big Bear of the mountains. Flaker scratched it upon a smooth pebble with a flint point. It was a picture of the Big Bear, and Flaker made it so that Fleetfoot could control the actions of the Big Bear.

When Flaker gave the prayer to Fleetfoot he told him to guard it with great care. Fleetfoot took the prayer and promised to keep it near his side. Then the boys made an offering to the Big Bear and asked him to guide the way.

When at length Fleetfoot was ready to start, Greybeard spoke these parting words: "Forget not the offerings to the gods, and remember they must be made with true words and a faithful heart."


Show in your sand-box where you think the mountains were. Model them and show that they were almost covered with snow. Show good places for neighboring hunting grounds.

Tell why game might be scarce in some hunting grounds and plenty in others.

Dramatize this story. Draw pictures which will show what happened. See if you can engrave some animal upon wood or soft stone.



Where do you think Fleetfoot will go while he is away from home?

Find a picture of a glacier, and see if you can tell how a glacier is made. In what places does the snow stay all the year round? If a great deal of snow falls each year, what do you think will become of it?

Find out whether there have ever been glaciers near where you live. If there have, see if you can find any traces of them.

Fleetfoot Fasts and Prays

None of the Cave-men knew where Fleetfoot would go to fast and pray. He scarcely knew himself, but all the time he kept thinking of the Big Bear of the Mountains. And so he turned his steps toward the high mountain peaks.

He followed the bison trail, for that was a sure guide. It led up the river a long way, and then skirted a dark forest. He crossed the river and went to the forest. There he sought out a lonely spot where he stayed several days.

As soon as he had made a fire, Fleetfoot made offerings to the gods. His offerings were fish he caught in the river and birds he caught in snares.

Although Fleetfoot offered meat to the gods, he did not taste it himself. When he was ready to sleep, he rubbed a pinch of wood-ashes upon his breast and prayed thus to the fire god: "O fire god, hover near me while I sleep. Hear my prayer. Grant good dreams to me this night. Grant me a sign that thou wilt aid me. Lead my feet in the right way."

The first night Fleetfoot had no dreams. The second night he dreamed he was a child again and that he lived in his old home. The third night he dreamed of the Big Bear of the Mountains. He thought that he climbed the mountain crags and went to the Big Bear's cave. He dreamed that the Big Bear spoke to him and asked him whence he came. Then strange people seemed to come out of the cave and wave their weapons in a threatening way. After that Fleetfoot remembered nothing except that the Big Bear seemed like a friend.

At daybreak Fleetfoot awoke, and at once he thought of his dream. He took the pebble from a little bag. Then he made an offering to the bear as he spoke these words: "O Big Bear! O mighty hunter! Show me the way to thy caverns. Show me where thou keepest the game. Give me strength to meet all dangers. Fill my enemies with fear."

Then, remembering what Greybeard had said, Fleetfoot gave offerings to all the animals he hoped to kill. In this way he thought the gods would help him when he went out to hunt.

As soon as the offerings were made, Fleetfoot looked for a sign from the gods. The winds began to blow. Dark clouds began to climb the sky. Then the thunders pealed through the heavens.

Fleetfoot, faint from his long fast, took courage from these signs. The winds seemed to be messengers bearing his prayer to the gods. The dark clouds seemed to be the enemies he would meet on the way. The peals of thunder sounded to him like promises of strength. The bright lightning in the sky flashed a message of hope. A flock of swallows circling near seemed to point the way. And so Fleetfoot refreshed himself and started toward the mountains.

It would take too long to tell all the things that happened to Fleetfoot before he returned. One of the first things he did was to kill a cave-bear and take the trophies.

When Fleetfoot started out again, he wore a necklace of bear's teeth. He wore them partly because they were trophies and partly because they were charms.

Fleetfoot followed the trail along the edge of the forest until he reached a ridge of hills. Behind him lay the River of Stones and all the places he had known. Before him lay a pretty valley about a day's journey across. To his left the snow-covered mountain peaks shone with a dazzling light.

He stopped only to sleep and to make offerings to the gods. Fleetfoot was full of courage, and yet he was weak from his fast. He longed to be strong against all foes. He longed to be a great hunter. He longed to strengthen his people and to meet the dangers which threatened his clan.

At midday he reached the river, where he sat down to rest. Then he went up the little river, which flowed over a rocky bed.

Fleetfoot followed the river until he came to a spot where it seemed to end. Great masses of snow and ice covered the river bed. Farther up they reached the top of the cliffs and stretched out into the valley.

It was the melting of this glacier which fed the little stream.

Fleetfoot stood and gazed at the glacier with its rough billows of snow and ice. He looked at the green forests which stretched to its very edge. He looked at the great ice sheets which covered the mountain peaks. He looked at the bare crags which jutted out from the rocks. And he wondered if the Big Bear's cave was in one of these rocks.

Then he crossed the stream and approached the cliff on the opposite side. There he found a cave, and he looked about, but he found no one at home.

As Fleetfoot was looking about, he began to think of Chew-chew. Everything upon which his eyes rested seemed to speak of her. And yet he could not remember seeing the place before.

Night came again and Fleetfoot slept. Again he saw the Big Bear in his dreams. Again he saw the enemies of his clan, and again he dreamed of his old home.

For several days Fleetfoot explored the country near the mountains. He found several good hunting grounds, but he did not find the Big Bear.

As the days passed it seemed to Fleetfoot that he was no longer alone. He heard no steps, and he saw no tracks; yet he felt sure that some one was near.

One morning, when he awoke, there was some one watching him through the thick leaves. He grasped his spear and was ready to throw, when he heard a merry laugh.

Then a lovely maiden appeared with dark and glossy hair. Her eyes shone with the morning light and her breath was as fresh as the dew.

Fleetfoot dropped his spear and stepped forward to greet the girl. A moment they gazed in each other's eyes, and then they knew no fear.

They sat on a mossy bank where they talked for a long, long time. And Fleetfoot learned that she was called Willow-grouse and that her people were away.

Before he could ask her more, she inquired from whence he came. And then she asked him what had brought him so far away from his home.

While Fleetfoot was telling his story, Willow-grouse listened with sparkling eyes. When he had finished, her eyes fell, and she seemed to be buried in thought. Willow-grouse knew that her own people were plotting against the Bison clan. She wanted Fleetfoot to stay with her; and she feared that if she told him what her people were doing, he would go away.

For a few minutes Willow-grouse kept silent; but, at length, she decided to speak. She told Fleetfoot of the famine of the springtime and of the scarcity of game. She told how the people separated and traveled far and wide. Many of her own people had been to the grounds of the Bison clan. Now the clans were at the rapids. But as soon as the salmon season was over, they were going to attack the Bison clan.

When Fleetfoot heard what Willow-grouse said, he gave up his search for the Big Bear. He decided to go to the salmon feast and learn what the clans were doing. He hoped he could do this and still have time to warn the Bison clan.


See if you can find a way of making a glacier in your sand-box.

Model a river valley whose upper part is filled with a glacier. Show where the bed and banks are covered with snow and ice. Show where the cliffs are covered. Show where the ice-sheets are. Show on the sand-map Fleetfoot's journey to the place where he fasted. Show the remainder of his journey.

Draw pictures of the following:Fleetfoot prays to the fire-god. Fleetfoot receives signs from the gods. Fleetfoot standing on the ridge of hills. Fleetfoot's meeting with Willow-grouse.



Can you think why the salmon feast was at the rapids of the river?

Show in your sand-map a place where rapids might be. If there is a river near you which has rapids, go to the spot and see if you can tell what it is that makes the rapids.

Show in your map the hunting grounds of the clans which met at the rapids. Find the trails they would follow in going to the rapids.

Find out all you can about the habits of the salmon.

The Meeting of the Clans

At his parting from Willow-grouse, Fleetfoot gave her a necklace of fossil shells. Then saying, "We shall meet when the new moon comes," he started on his way.

He followed Sweet Briar River on his way to the meeting of the clans. At sunset he knew he was nearing the place where Willow-grouse said they had met. He could hear the roaring of the rapids, and above this sound, the shouts of the clans.

Fleetfoot waited for the cover of darkness, for he did not wish to be seen. Then he approached cautiously toward the spot where the camp fire crackled and blazed. In the light of the flames dark trunks of oaks and fir trees stood out of the blackness. Then moving forms appeared on the banks and lighted the clans seated around the fire. At first Fleetfoot did not go near enough to see the faces distinctly. But he could tell from the various movements that they were preparing for a dance.

All eyes seemed fixed on an old woman who was offering gifts to the gods. She lifted hot stones from the fire and dropped them into a basket of water. Then she took a piece of salmon and dropped it into the water.

As Fleetfoot watched the old woman, he thought of Chew-chew and his old home. Then he wondered if all women would look like Chew-chew when they grew old.

When the offerings were made, the men began a war dance. Some were dressed in masks of horses, and others wore masks of reindeer and cattle.

When the men took off their masks, Fleetfoot looked as if in a dream. For among the strangers moving about there appeared familiar forms.

For a few minutes Fleetfoot could not tell whether he was awake or asleep. What he saw seemed very real, and yet it seemed like a dream. He had almost forgotten his own people. He had not seen them since the day he was lost. And now, only a few paces away, stood Scarface and Straightshaft. Then other familiar forms appeared moving near the fire. And among the women who had beaten the drums were Chew-chew and Eagle-eye.

When Fleetfoot saw his mother and Chew-chew, he almost shouted for joy. He wanted to go and speak to them, but something seemed to hold him back.

Then his heart began to beat so loud and so fast that Fleetfoot was afraid he would be discovered; so he hurried away from the spot to a hollow tree where he spent the night.

For a long time he lay awake thinking about what to do. He could not go back to Willow-grouse and leave his work undone. He could not make himself known to Cave-men who were planning to attack the Bison clan. He could not return to the Bison clan without learning the enemies' plans.

And so Fleetfoot took the pebble from its bag and asked the Big Bear for aid. Then he fell asleep and did not awake until the break of day.

All through the day he watched the clans. He saw them fish at the rapids and feast and play around the fire. He saw them go to a smooth spot near the bank where they played games. When night came he said to himself, "I'll watch the dance and learn their plans."

Scarface offered gifts to the gods before the dance began. As he performed the magic rites, all the people were still. Every eye was turned toward the old man. No one suspected danger.

Fleetfoot, watching from a safe retreat, had heard a rustling sound. And, looking in the direction from which the sound came, he saw a big tiger in a neighboring tree.

The tiger had crept out on a strong branch and was watching for his prey. The eyes of the big cat snapped fire as they followed each movement that Scarface made.

There was not a moment to be lost. The tiger was about to spring. Fleetfoot's spear whizzed through the air and dealt a powerful blow. Another followed, but with less force although Fleetfoot hurled it with all his might.

With a cry of rage the tiger turned, and leaving Scarface upon the ground, he sprang toward Fleetfoot. And the Cave-men grasped their weapons and rushed to the spot.

They found the tiger dying from the effect of the first blow. They watched his death struggles. Then they looked for the man who had hurled a spear that struck a death blow.

If Fleetfoot had not been struck senseless, he might have made his escape. But as it happened, the Cave-men found him lying on the ground, and they raised him up and carried him to a spot near the bright camp-fire.


Show on your sand-map where the clans had camped. Show where you think Fleetfoot watched. Show where the ceremonies were performed.

Draw one of these pictures:Fleetfoot bids farewell to Willow-grouse. The clans seated around the camp-fire. Fleetfoot watching the dance. Fleetfoot saves Scarface's life.

Watch a cat as it springs upon a mouse, and then think of the tiger as he sprang upon Scarface. Model it in bas-relief.



What do you think the people will do with Fleetfoot?

Can you think of any way that Fleetfoot might prevent them from attacking the Bison clan?

What Happened when the Clans Found Fleetfoot

While Chew-chew and Eagle-eye were attending to Scarface, others took care of Fleetfoot. They knew nothing about him except that he had saved Scarface's life. Everybody wanted to see him; and so a great crowd gathered around.

People looked at the strange young man as he lay pale and still on the ground. They looked and looked again, then said, "How like he is to Scarface."

Eagle-eye had not forgotten Fleetfoot. She never spoke of him, but she still hoped that he was alive and that she would see him again. When strangers came she always inquired for tidings of the lost boy.

And so when Eagle-eye heard what the people said, she pushed her way through the crowd. The moment she saw him, she cried, "Fleetfoot!" and then bent over his lifeless form.

Chew-chew, hearing Eagle-eye's cry, hurried to the spot. She knelt by his side and murmured his name, and thought of Scarface when he was young.

Those who stood near turned and asked, "Who is Fleetfoot?" Many of the people had never heard of him. Others had heard of Eagle-eye's boy. All were curious to know more about the strange young man. All were anxious to know if he was dead or alive.

Fleetfoot was not dead. He was only stunned by the tiger's blow. When Eagle-eye bathed him with cold water, he began to show signs of life. When at length he opened his eyes, he knew that he was recognized.

When those who stood near found out who the young man was, they shouted the tidings to those who were farther away. Then the people rejoiced and thanked the gods for thus befriending them.

Before Fleetfoot slept that night, he wondered how the meeting would end. He wondered if he could find a way to prevent an attack upon the Bison clan. And, turning once more to the Big Bear, he soon fell asleep. Next morning the people caught salmon just below the rapids. They feasted a while and then played games in which Fleetfoot took part.

When the games were over, the young men crowded around him. They asked him how he could throw a spear so as to strike a deadly blow. Fleetfoot told all he knew about the use of spears and harpoons, but he scarcely knew himself how he had thrown with such force.

But he took two spearheads in his hand, just as he had held them when he saw the tiger. He threw one at a mark and the spear went with such force that the young men shouted for joy. Then they all practiced throwing until they could throw in the same way. It was in this way that people learned to hurl weapons with a throwing-stick. Instead of hurling one spear by resting the butt against the barb of another, as Fleetfoot had done when he threw at the tiger, they learned to shape sticks for throwing spears, and they called them "throwing-sticks."

The older men watched as Fleetfoot showed the young men how he threw spears and harpoons. And soon they all agreed to ask Fleetfoot to lead in the dance that night.

Scarface invited him to lead, and Fleetfoot accepted. He was glad to lead in a real hunting dance, but he was still more glad to have a chance to prevent an attack upon the Bison clan. And so he resolved to plan a dance which would make them forget their plan.

When the time came to begin the dance, Fleetfoot was ready to lead. He knew that the men all wanted to find good hunting grounds. So he showed them where to find such grounds and what trails to follow.

A few days later he went with the people to these very grounds. There they hunted the bison herds and the Irish deer. And when each of the clans had chosen a place to camp, Fleetfoot bade them farewell. Then it was that the bravest young men came forward and said that they would follow him. And so the young men agreed to be brothers and to help one another in times of need. They agreed upon signs which they should use when they wanted to meet. And when Fleetfoot started homeward, the young men escorted him.

Of the adventures on the way to the Bison clan's cave there is little time to tell. All the young men were faithful. And as they journeyed on their way, they recalled Fleetfoot's brave deeds in a victory song.


Show how the people acted from the time Fleetfoot threw his spear until they knew who he was. Draw pictures which will illustrate the story.

Make such a hunting dance as you think Fleetfoot led. Show in your sand-map the places where the hunting grounds were.

Name all the running games you know. Tell how you play one of them. Draw a picture of the Cave-men playing games.

Make a throwing-stick.

Look at the picture of the Irish deer and tell how it appears to differ from other deer you know. For what do you think it uses its large and heavy antlers?



What do you think Flaker will do while Fleetfoot is gone? What do you think the Bison clan will do when Fleetfoot returns?

Which do you think will be the greater man—Fleetfoot or Flaker?

What things do you think Fleetfoot will do? What do you think Flaker will do?

Fleetfoot's Return

Flaker missed Fleetfoot more than he could tell. Awake, he thought of his dangerous journey. Asleep, he was with him in his dreams. Many, many times each day he prayed for Fleetfoot's safe return.

Ever since the strangers had camped on their lands, the Bison clan had been anxious. When questioned about it, Greybeard was sad and Bighorn shook his head. So the women were trying to arouse their courage, and Flaker was carving prayers.

When Fleetfoot announced his return, it was Flaker who heard his whistle. It was he who shouted the glad tidings to all the Cave-men. And though he was lame, he was the first who ran ahead to greet him.

Fleetfoot and his companions had halted on a hillside not far from the cave. It was from this hill that Fleetfoot whistled so as to announce his return. Here his companions waited, while Fleetfoot advanced alone.

While Fleetfoot greeted his friends and showed them his wonderful necklace, his companions chanted his brave deeds in a victory song. It was thus that the Bison clan learned of Fleetfoot's brave deeds. It was thus that they learned of his courage which came from fasting and prayer.

When the song was ended, Bighorn advanced with Fleetfoot, and together they escorted the brave young men to the cave of the Bison clan. There they feasted, and rested, and played games until it was time for Fleetfoot's last test.

Meanwhile the young men became acquainted with Flaker. Fleetfoot had told them about him. He had shown them the dagger Flaker made and the engraving of the Big Bear. And so the young men were glad to see him and make him one of their brotherhood.

When the time came for Fleetfoot's last test, he asked permission to speak. And when Bighorn nodded his head, Fleetfoot told the people the story of how he and Flaker had worked and played together. He told of Flaker's bravery the day he was hurt by the bison. He told of Flaker's poniard which he used to kill the cave-bear. He told of the tools which Flaker had made for working bone and horn.

Then he said that the people of the Bison clan had taught them to worship the gods. He said that Flaker had the favor of the gods and that his prayers would bring success. And he urged the Cave-men, on account of these things, to forget that Flaker was lame, and to admit him into the ranks of the full-grown men.

The Cave-men listened to what Fleetfoot said and they all gave assent. And when they made ready to receive Fleetfoot, Flaker was brought forward. The nose of each of the boys was pierced and they were given nose ornaments. On account of his bravery Fleetfoot was given a baton which showed that he might lead the men. And Flaker, too, received a baton, but his was to show that he could lead in the worship of the gods.

And so every one knew that Fleetfoot and Flaker were brave young men. They had passed the tests that had been given for courage, and patience, and self-control. Fleetfoot's companions stayed at the cave until the ceremonies were ended. Then they renewed their vows to help one another and took leave of the Bison clan. And Fleetfoot, having done his duty, was free to return to Willow-grouse.


See if you can make such a victory song as you think the young men sang. See if you can make the speech which Fleetfoot made for Flaker.

Dramatize this lesson, and then draw a picture of the part you like the best.

See if you can make a baton.



Why do you think people began to live in places where there were no caves? Can you think what kind of a shelter they might find?

Find out all you can about the difference between the winter and summer coat of some animal you know.

Which skins do you think would be used for curtains and beds? Which skins would be used for clothing? Which for the heavy winter coats?


Soon after the salmon feast, Willow-grouse saw her people again. When they went away, no one knew why she stayed behind. When they returned, no one noticed how eager she was to hear all that was said. So Willow-grouse kept her secret from every one in the clan.

Many days the people hunted; but, at length, there were signs of the coming cold. It was then that the wise men gave an order to prepare for the journey to the winter home.

All but Willow-grouse obeyed; but she heeded not what was said. It was not because she did not hear the command. It was not because she did not care to live with her own people. It was simply because she remembered Fleetfoot and was waiting for his return.

And so, when the women chided her for being a thoughtless girl, they little thought that Willow-grouse was making plans of her own. In the confusion of packing, nobody noticed that she stayed behind, and many moons passed before they learned what Willow-grouse did.

As soon as her people were out of sight Willow-grouse began to make ready for Fleetfoot. There was no cave near at hand, but there were high overhanging rocks. Under one of these the people had camped. They found the roof and back wall of a dwelling ready-made. So they simply camped at the foot of the rock and built their camp-fire.

Willow-grouse knew that the bare rock was a good shelter in summer. But she also knew that it would soon be too cold to live in such an open space. So she cut long poles and braced them under the roof so as to make a framework for front and side walls. Then she covered the framework with plaited branches, and left a narrow doorway which she closed with a skin.

It was hard work to make the rock shelter, but Willow-grouse did not mind it. She kept thinking of Fleetfoot all the time, and she hoped the rock shelter would be their new home.

When Willow-grouse looked at her dress, she saw it was much the worse for wear. So she set snares in the reindeer trails and caught two beautiful reindeer.

The soft summer skins of the reindeer had short, fine hair. Willow-grouse scraped and pounded them and then polished them with sandstone.

Willow-grouse took great pains in making her new garments. She flattened the seams with a piece of sandstone until they were nice and smooth. Then she gathered fossil shells from the rocks and trimmed the neck and sleeves. And she made a beautiful headband and belt, and pretty moccasins for her feet.

And when the time drew near for Fleetfoot's return, Willow-grouse dressed in her new garments. She put on the necklace of fossil shells and thought of Fleetfoot's last words.

Fleetfoot kept his promise. When the new moon came he appeared. Then Willow-grouse became his wife and he lived with her in their new home.


Look at the picture of a rock shelter on page 14.

Find some large rocks and put them in your sand-box so as to show a natural rock shelter. Make a framework for front and side walls, and see if you can make it into a warm hut. Model the upper valley.

Find a piece of sandstone which you can use in polishing skins.

Dress a doll the way you think Willow-grouse dressed. Dress a doll the way you think Fleetfoot dressed.

Find pretty seeds and shells which you can use in trimming belts and headbands. Before sewing the seeds or shells on the band, lay them so as to make a pretty pattern. After you have made your pattern draw it on paper, so that you can look at it while you are trimming the band.



Look at what you have modeled in your sand-box and see if you can tell in what parts of the valley the snow will be deepest.

When the snow is very deep, what do the wild animals do? What do the people do?

Can you think how people learned to use poison in hunting?

Does the poisoned weapon poison any part of the animal's flesh? Why do people try to be careful not to leave poison around?

How Fleetfoot and Willow-grouse Spent the Winter

When Willow-grouse was living alone, she had to hunt for her own food. Sometimes she caught animals in traps, and sometimes she hunted with spears and harpoons. When the wounded animal escaped, Willow-grouse was disappointed. So she tried all sorts of ways to make sure of the game.

One day she happened to use a harpoon which had been thrust into a piece of decayed liver. She wounded a reindeer with the harpoon and the animal soon died.

And so Willow-grouse soon learned to mix and to use poisons. When Fleetfoot made simple spearheads of antler, she helped him make grooves to hold the poison. When they used poison on their weapons, they were sure of the game without a long chase.

They lived happily in the rock shelter until the middle of winter. Then heavy snowstorms came and the wild animals went away. Fleetfoot and Willow-grouse were left without food. They ate a piece of sun-dried meat which Willow-grouse had left in a tree; and when that was gone, they put on their snowshoes and started toward the south.

Before many days had passed, they arrived at the cave of the Bison clan. There they were made so welcome that they stayed for two moons.

It was during this time that the Bison clan learned to use the throwing-stick. While Fleetfoot taught the use of the throwing-stick, Flaker made wonderful harpoons. And as fast as Fleetfoot found new ways of using weapons in hunting, Flaker invented new weapons for the men to use.

Ever since Fleetfoot had been away, Flaker had been working at harpoons. He had made harpoon heads with two or three barbs, and now he was trying to make a harpoon with four or five barbs on each side.

It took a long while to make a harpoon with many beautiful barbs. It took more patience to make it than most of the Cave-men had. For when Flaker traced a regular outline of the harpoon on one side of the antler, he traced the same outline upon the other side. Then he cut upon these lines, and he shaped the barbs one by one, until he had made them all of the same shape and size.

He finished the base of the head with a large ridge near the end so as to make it easy to attach it to the shaft. Then he traced Fleetfoot's property-mark upon it, and thought that it was done.

But Willow-grouse, who had been watching him, spoke up and said, "No, there is one thing more. You must put a groove in each of the barbs to carry the magic poison."

And so, although Willow-grouse learned a great deal from watching Flaker use his tools, she taught him something he did not know.

When the harpoon was really finished, Flaker gave it to Fleetfoot. And all the Cave-men gathered around to see the new harpoon.

When everybody had seen it, Fleetfoot placed the harpoon upon his throwing-stick and hurled it again and again. To the people who stood near, the barbs carried the harpoon through the air like the wings of a bird. The deep grooves which held the poison carried sure death with each wound. And the throwing-stick with which it was hurled helped in getting a firm hold and a sure aim.


Find a piece of soft wood and trace the outline of a harpoon upon it. See if you can whittle a harpoon with barbs.

Experiment until you can tell whether you like to have a ridge on the base of the harpoon head.

Draw one of these pictures:— "Heavy snowstorms came and the wild animals went away." Fleetfoot and Willow-grouse find some dried meat in a tree. Fleetfoot and Willow-grouse arrive at the cave of the Bison clan. Flaker working at the barbed harpoon. "The barbs carried the harpoon through the air like the wings of a bird."



How did people sew before they had needles? What bones do you think the Cave-men would use first in making needles and awls? Why would people want the hardest bones for needles?

See if you can find out where the hardest bones are found.

See if you can think of all the things that would have to be done in making a needle out of a piece of ivory or a large bone.

Why do we sometimes wax thread? What do you think the Cave-men would use instead of wax?

Why did the Cave men make holes in their awls? What were the first holes which they made in their needles used for?

How do you think they would think of carrying the thread through the needle's eye?

Why do we use thimbles when we sew? When do you think people began to use thimbles? What do you think the first thimbles were like?

How Willow-grouse Learned to Make Needles

Willow-grouse soon made friends with the women. They admired the clothing she wore, and they wanted to learn how to polish skins and to make beautiful clothing. So Willow-grouse showed the women how to polish skins and to make them into beautiful garments.

While the women sewed with bone awls, Willow-grouse watched Flaker, who was sawing a bone with a flint saw.

It was soon after this that Willow-grouse learned to make needles of large hard bones. The first ones she made were not very beautiful needles. They were not so smooth nor so round as the awls she had made of bird's bones. But she made a beginning and after a while all the women learned to make fine needles.

They made the needles of a hard bone which they took from the leg of a horse. They traced out the lines they wished to cut just as Flaker traced the harpoon. Then they sawed out slender rods and whittled one end to a point. The other end they made thin and flat, for this was the end where the hole was made.

They made the rods round and smooth by drawing them back and forth on a piece of soft sandstone. This made long grooves in the sandstone, which became deeper and deeper every time the sandstone was used. Then they polished the rods by drawing them back and forth between the teeth of a flint comb.

The first needles had no eyes. They were more like awls and pins, than needles. Perhaps the first eyes were made in needles to keep them from getting lost.

It was hard work to saw the bone rods and to round and polish them. No wonder the women did not want to lose them. No wonder they bored little holes in the thin flat end and hung them about their necks.

It may have been Willow-grouse who first discovered that the eye of the needle could carry the thread. She may have discovered it when she was playing with a needle she carried on a cord. At any rate, the women soon learned to sew with the thread through the needle's eye. And then they began to make finer needles with very small eyes.

These fine needles were used at first in sewing the softest skins. They were used, too, in sewing trimming on beautiful garments. But when the women sewed the hard skins, instead of a needle they used a bone awl.

At the meeting of the clans in the salmon season, the Cave-men wore their most beautiful garments. And soon the clans began to vie with one another in wearing the most beautiful skins. And the women hunted for the choicest sands to use in polishing their needles. They still gave the first polish with a piece of sandstone or a gritty pebble. But when they gave the last polish the women used a powder of the finest sand.

Instead of beeswax, the women used marrow which they kept in little bags. Instead of a thimble, they used a small piece of leather. And instead of pressing the seams with a hot iron, they made them smooth with a rounded stone.

From the tough sinews of the large animals, every Cave-man made his own thread. All the children learned to prepare sinew and to shred the fibers with a jagged flint comb.


Find bones which you can make into needles. See if you can find a piece of flint for a saw.

Find a piece of sandstone with which you can polish your needle.

Make a collection of the different kinds of sand in your neighborhood and tell what they can be used for.

Make a collection of needles and find out how they were made.



If the animals went away in search of shelter from the storms, do you think the Cave-men would know where they went? What do you think they would say when they noticed that the animals had gone?

How did the Cave-men learn what they knew? Why did they make more mistakes than people do to-day?

What changes did the Cave-men see take place in the buds? in seeds? in eggs?

When they found shells in the hard rocks instead of in the water, what do you suppose they would think?

Have you ever heard any one say "It rained angleworms?"

Have you ever heard any one say that cheese or meat had "changed to maggots?"

Can you tell what really happened in each of these cases?

Can you see how stories of animals that turned into men could be started? Is there anything that we can learn from these stories?

How Flaker Became a Priest and a Medicine Man

The winter was long and stormy. Wild animals found little food. Herds of horses and reindeer went to the lowland forests. Game was scarce on the wooded hills. Few horses or reindeer were seen near the caves. The trails were filled with snow and everything seemed to tell of the coming of a famine.

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