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The Last Voyage - to India and Australia, in the 'Sunbeam'
by Lady (Annie Allnutt) Brassey
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Mr. Savage has been out here for two years, thirteen months of which time he has lived entirely by himself. Mr. and Mrs. Hunt are now going to inhabit Murray Island, with only one European carpenter as their companion, while Mr. Savage will be stationed principally at the Fly River. The mission receives all its supplies from England via Thursday Island, from which place they are fetched in the little schooner, built by the carpenter Bruce, who was formerly a yacht-builder. The life of these good people appears to be one of much self-abnegation. I hope with all my heart that the mission may succeed, and that the devoted missionaries will be rewarded for their self-denying exertions.

Saturday, August 27th.—A grey morning, with the wind blowing stronger than ever. Navigation in these seas is by no means easy. During the night we had dragged our anchor a little, enough to get unpleasantly near the shore; and just as we weighed, the sails did not fill so quickly as they ought to have done, which caused the yacht to pay off with her head towards the shore instead of off shore. There was barely a ship's length between us and the reef. It was with great difficulty, and only by promptly dropping the anchor, that we prevented ourselves from running straight on to shore. On first starting we thought we should only get to Bet Island, one of the three sisters. These islets swarm with turtle, which lay their eggs on the sandy shores all the year round. We were looking forward to turtle soup, turtle eggs, and all sorts of delicacies, to make a pleasant change in the monotony of our daily fare. The wind, however, blew so fresh that, though close-reefed, we sailed from ten to twelve knots an hour, which of course caused a considerable amount of motion.

At a little before noon to-day we were off Cocoa-nut Island. Later we passed in succession the Bet, Sue, and Poll Islands, and the Ninepin Rock, a curious-shaped little islet, though anything less like a ninepin I cannot imagine. In the afternoon, by dint of hard driving, we were able to reach a good anchorage in Flinders Channel, between Horn and Wednesday Island. As an instance of the rapidity of our sailing speed, I may mention that seven measured miles between the two islands was done in rather less than half an hour; which, considering we were close-hauled, was not bad work. We had a fairly quiet night, though it was blowing a gale, and of course the ship tumbled and rocked about a good deal.

Sunday, August 28th.—As the tide was running very strong, it was decided not to start until eleven o'clock. We therefore had prayers before starting, and sailed slowly across to our old anchorage, which we reached about midday.

In the afternoon I was carried ashore to see Mrs. Milman, who appears to be a great invalid. She has two nice little girls, who look after the house and save their mother a great deal of trouble. There was another little girl there, a daughter of Canon Taylor, who had come up from Cooktown on a visit.

The Residency is a pleasant house, open to every breath of wind that blows; of which, according to our experience of these parts, there is plenty. The inhabitants tell us that this is the normal condition of the weather here during nine months of the twelve. No doubt these breezes are health-giving, but the perpetual blowing of the wind must be fatiguing. It roars and whistles and shakes the house like an incessant hurricane. The three months during which there is no wind is at the period of the north-east monsoon, and then the rain descends in torrents. Life during this time of the year at Thursday Island is described as being dreary indeed.

We returned on board at half-past five, and everybody but myself landed again later, and went to church at half-past seven at the Court House. Mr. Milman read prayers and a sermon, and Tom read the lessons.



Monday, August 29th.—A very windy morning. Some pearl-merchants came on board, bringing fine specimens of pearls, which seem quite as costly here as in London. I bought some shells, more as specimens of queer freaks of nature than for any intrinsic beauty or value they possessed. In the afternoon we landed again on Thursday Island, and Tom and I explored the little town, round which I was carried in a comfortable chair. The place is larger than I expected, and the stores seemed well furnished with dry goods of all kinds, besides tinned meats, vegetables, and fruit; but there are no fresh provisions. A few goslings, very like our wild geese, but not so big as a good-sized duck, were running about, for which the owners asked 30s. apiece! There were also some chickens to be bought for 10s. each. Some of the houses are really not unsightly when seen from a distance, but when you approach them the adjacent ground is found to be strewn with straw, paper, old tins, broken bottles, and rubbish of every description. I should like to have all the rubbish taken out to sea and sunk, and then I would plant more trees and shrubs. At present some miserable-looking cocoa-nuts, and a few hibiscus-bushes, with their bright red blossoms, comprise everything in the way of vegetation. On our way from the town to the Residency we passed Mr. Symes's house. His mother very kindly came out to welcome us, and asked us to go into their comfortable bungalow and have some tea, which we were most thankful for. I was so tired. Mrs. Symes had a married daughter and two nice little grandchildren living with her, and we had a pleasant chat. She gave me what she says is an infallible cure for bronchitis, and I only hope it may prove so. I spoke to Mrs. Symes and her daughter, to whom I had previously sent papers, about the Ambulance; and they appeared to be quite keen about it, and promised to do all in their power to aid any classes that might be established here. Continuing our walk we went to the excellent lawn-tennis ground just below Mr. Milman's house. We could only make a short stay, for the sun had set and it was rapidly getting dark. The sea was rough going off, and I felt rather exhausted by the time I arrived on board. Mr. Hall and Dr. Salter came to dinner, and with the latter I had a long talk about the Ambulance. Dr. Salter is quite willing to give the lectures, but there would be great difficulty in bringing people together for the classes, for the tides are strong and shifty, and so uncertain that one can never know till the morning what they are going to be. The Doctor says the only chance of inducing people to come will be to find out approximately the most convenient day and hour and then hoist the signal on the flagstaff, so that the inhabitants of the neighbouring islands may see it and attend if they choose. Several of the masters and managers of the pearl-shelling stations have promised to come themselves, and then to try and pass on the knowledge they may acquire to their Malay, Manilla, and other 'boys' who go out pearl-fishing and after beche-de-mer. The instructions will be useful to these people, for accidents often happen, principally from their own carelessness. The divers are sometimes hoisted up to the surface asphyxiated from want of air, and requiring almost precisely similar treatment to the apparently drowned. Only last week they had a man on board one of the schooners very nearly dead, but still able to speak and move. Instead of attempting to relieve him they brought him here, a distance of fifteen miles; and by the time he arrived, of course the little spark of life he had possessed was quite extinguished. If only a knowledge such as that conveyed by the instructions given by the St. John Ambulance Association can be spread here, particularly among the people employed at the pearl-fishing stations, it will be most valuable. There are a great many men engaged in the pearl trade in the Torres Straits, New Guinea, and the numerous islands in the vicinity. It is, of course, impossible to establish a centre here; but I hope before I leave to set a class on foot, with Mr. Hall for the secretary, as he is most enthusiastic on the subject. Tom and I will, as usual in such cases, become life members, so as to give the movement a start.



APPENDIX.



PART I.

VOYAGE FROM DARNLEY ISLAND TO PORT DARWIN, MAURITIUS, CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, AND ENGLAND.

(By LORD BRASSEY.)

The pen having fallen from her hand, the task which a brave yet gentle spirit was struggling so hard to complete must be accomplished by one who does not possess her gifts. For obvious reasons, the description of the remainder of the voyage will be compressed within the closest limits.

The 'Sunbeam' sailed from Thursday Island on September 1st. For three days the winds were favourable, from the eastward. The next two days being calm, the voyage was pursued under steam.

On September 5th, in the evening, the 'Sunbeam' was navigated, not without difficulty, through the intricate channels of Clarence Strait. On the 6th, at an early hour the anchor was dropped off the settlement of Palmerston. Our arrival at Port Darwin took place under such circumstances as render it impossible to offer any description from personal observation.

Palmerston, the name given to the settlement at Port Darwin, is beautifully situated on wooded headlands, jutting out into the harbour, in whose ample waters it is no figure of speech to say the navies of Europe could be anchored. The buildings have been erected with considerable taste. A fine esplanade has been laid out along the sea front. The electric wire connects Palmerston with all the great colonies of Australia. In constructing the overland telegraph from South Australia, a great middle section of the continent was discovered, capable of producing pasture for tens of millions of sheep and millions of cattle and horses. The first section from the north, of what will eventually be the Trans-Australian Railway, has been commenced, and is being carried out with energy by Messrs. Miller, the well-known Melbourne contractors for public works.

The total area of the northern territory of South Australia is 523,620 square miles. Within this vast expanse are stony wastes and waterless tracts, vast rolling downs, wide grassy plains, rich alluvial flats, large navigable rivers, and metalliferous areas, exceptionally rich in tin, coal, copper, and silver. Thus far mining has been more successful than agriculture. The Chinese have alone been able to accomplish anything in cultivation. They have gathered harvests of rice and sugar-cane from the limited areas which they have taken in hand. On the banks of the rivers coffee could be grown in many places.

The climate is tropical, and malaria, with its fever and ague, is prevalent. The mean temperature of the year is 75 degrees, and the thermometer has never been seen lower than 68 degrees. The atmosphere is dank, steamy, and heavy with moisture during the wet season, and parching and malarial during the dry season.

From Port Darwin to the Cape of Good Hope, and thence to Sierra Leone, the voyage lay for the most part within the zone of the South-east Trades. Rodriguez Island was sighted on September 26th, and Mauritius was reached on September 29th. It is a painful task to attempt to describe scenes which would have been painted so much more effectively by another. To give the daily life, which, needless to say, was very sad, I will not attempt.

Mauritius is one of the few ports in which sailing ships still hold the field against steamers. It was filled with a noble fleet. As a mark of sympathy, which touched us deeply, their flags were hoisted at half-mast as soon as our sad intelligence became known.

Viewed from the anchorage of Port Louis, the island of Mauritius presents a scene of much beauty. A chain of peaks and craters of picturesque and fantastic forms runs through the island from end to end. The needle-shaped Peter Botte, 2,784 feet, and the Pouce, 2,707 feet, are conspicuous summits. All the mountains are of volcanic formation. Their barren precipices are blue and purple, and their vegetation, watered by frequent and abundant showers, is of the richest green. The landscape displayed admirable effects of colour, varying with every change from rain to sunshine.

The Botanical Gardens and the Observatory are the most interesting objects which Port Louis offers to the passing traveller. The gardens are lovely. The lakes, surrounded by palm trees and a most rich and abundant tropical vegetation, are a charming feature. The fine and rare specimens in the gardens included the Traveller's tree, abounding in water, the Ruffia palm from Madagascar, the lettuce-headed palm, the talipot palm, the Latania aurea from Rodriguez, and another variety of latania from Round Island.



The Observatory, under the supervision of Dr. Meldrum, is chiefly devoted to meteorological and astronomical investigations. In addition to these subjects, observations of the solar spots are taken daily, and transmitted monthly to the Solar Physics Committee in London. The transit of the moon has been observed with much success. Sea observations from the log-books of vessels touching at Mauritius are carefully recorded. The tracks and positions at noon of 299 tropical cyclones, which swept over the Indian Ocean south of the equator from 1856 to 1886, have been laid down on charts, and are ready for publication. The in-curving theory of cyclones, as worked out by Dr. Meldrum, is now generally adopted, and it would appear that the rules given for the guidance of ships in the Southern Indian Ocean have been the means of saving much life and property.

On the second day of our short stay we paid a quiet visit to the Acting Governor. The recent political convulsions in Mauritius, in connection with Sir John Pope Hennessy, had by no means subsided. During his leave of absence the Governor was being represented with admirable tact and judgment by Mr. Fleming, who had already succeeded in establishing amicable relations with both sides. Considerable jealousies exist between the English and French residents in Mauritius. They have been unfortunately aroused to an unprecedented degree of violence by the proceedings of Sir John Pope Hennessy. The mass of the population of Mauritius are of mixed race, descendants of the coolies employed on the plantations. French—or rather patois—speaking Creoles come next in point of numbers. The Chinese are the universal shopkeepers.

Later in the day we ascended the Pouce. It commands a view over the harbour of Port Louis and the interior of the island. The broad and shallow valleys, green with sugar-cane, reminded us much of our own South Downs. From the Pouce we drove to the residence of a relative, who is the owner of extensive sugar-cane plantations. The staple industry of Mauritius is the cultivation of sugar. More than 100,000 tons are annually exported. India and Australia are the chief markets. The bounty on the production of sugar in France and Germany has driven the sugar of Mauritius altogether out of Europe. Mauritius received a great blow from the opening of the Suez Canal, but it still possesses abundant resources. The wealth of the island may in some degree be measured by its public revenue, which amounts to no less than 700,000l. a year.

Mauritius produces scarcely anything required for its own consumption. It imports rice from India, grain from Australia, oxen from Madagascar, and sheep from the Cape.

Our last morning at Port Louis was devoted to the defences and the docks. Progress is being made with the improvement of existing defences and the construction of new forts. The works are well advanced, and the guns are promised shortly from home. Mauritius possesses three graving-docks. The Albion Dock could be readily enlarged to receive a ship of war. It would be a wise policy on the part of the Government to assist in the work.

The passage from Port Louis to Algoa Bay occupied eleven days. To the southward of the Trades, off the coast of Natal, a short but severe gale from the south-west was encountered. The gale was followed by a fresh breeze from the east, which carried the 'Sunbeam' rapidly to the westward. In three days a distance of 797 miles was covered, with winds from S.E. to N.E.

The 'Sunbeam' reached Port Elizabeth on October 12. The anchorage is protected from all winds except those from the south-east. Port Elizabeth from the sea has the aspect of a small Brighton. On landing it presents many cheerful indications of prosperity in its pier, railway station, municipal buildings, streets and shops, and last, but not least in the estimation of the traveller, its excellently appointed and hospitable club. The residential quarter is happily situated on elevated ground, swept by refreshing breezes from the ocean. A large space is covered with good houses and well-kept lawns. The public gardens are a great feat of horticulture. The arid and sterile soil has been converted by liberal irrigation into a green oasis, containing groves of palms and a varied tropical vegetation. Needless to say the work is the achievement of a Scotch gardener.

The prosperity of this active commercial centre is due to the trade carried on with Kimberley, of which it is the port. The value of the diamonds produced at Kimberley was estimated for 1883 at 2,359,000l.; 1884, 2,562,000l.; 1885, 2,228,000l.; and 1886, 3,261,000l. These amounts will be exceeded in later returns. As yet, the price per carat shows no tendency to decline. The work of mining for diamonds gives employment to a large amount of well-paid labour. Some 2,000 white employes are engaged at an average wage of 5l. 9s. per week. Twelve thousand coloured men are working under their direction, their earnings exceeding 1l. per week.

Port Elizabeth is the chief entrepot for ostrich feathers. The value of this article of export for 1886 was over half a million sterling. The process of selling the feathers by auction is one of the most singular business transactions at which it has been my lot to assist. One of the buyers in attendance, on the occasion of our visit, represents a London firm, and is said to be making an income of over 1,000l. per year. A spirited effort is being made to establish an entrepot for the Cape wines at Port Elizabeth. We visited the extensive cellars under the public market, where a company has opened a business, which it is intended to conduct in accordance with the most approved methods of treatment in the wine-growing districts of Europe.

A day was spent at Port Elizabeth, and two days of rapid sailing before an easterly wind brought the 'Sunbeam' into Table Bay on the morning of October 15, just in time to gain the anchorage before one of the hard gales from the south-east, which are not unfrequently experienced at the Cape, set in. Between Port Darwin and the Cape the distance covered was 1,047 knots under steam, and 5,622 knots under sail. The average speed under steam and sail was exactly eight knots. In the fortnight, October 13 to 27, 3,073 knots, giving an average speed of nine knots an hour, were covered under sail alone, with winds of moderate strength. Balloon canvas was freely used.



Table Mountain is admirably described by Huebner as a mighty buttress confronting the restless billows of the Southern Ocean. It was covered, on the morning of our arrival, with the graceful wreaths of mist which have so often excited the admiration of travellers. A strong south-east gale was blowing on the occasion. Table Mountain presents to the dwellers in Cape Town a scene of beauty which changes from hour to hour. Every veering of the wind brings some new yet ever effective adjustment of a mantle of vapour, seldom cast aside, which is sometimes silver, sometimes purple, and from time to time subdued to a sombre tone by an approaching fall of rain.

In former years many and disastrous were the losses of life and property in Table Bay. Gales from the N.W. and the NN.E. are frequent in the winter, and blow occasionally with resistless fury. In the old sailing days ships caught at anchor in the bay by one of these terrible storms were doomed to destruction. By the enterprise of the Colonial Government, and the skilful engineering of Sir John Coode, a wide area of sheltered anchorage is now afforded. The breakwater has been extended to a length of 560 yards, and a further extension is far advanced, which will give a total length of breakwater of 1,500 yards.

A wet dock has been formed, capable of receiving the largest steamers in the ocean mail service, and broad enough for an ironclad. The principal dimensions are: length, 540 feet; breadth, 68 feet; depth, 26 feet. An outer harbour, 44 acres in extent, will be gradually formed under the protection of the breakwater. When these works are completed, Cape Town will afford advantages to shipping such as are scarcely exceeded in any port of Great Britain.

Cape Town contains not a few buildings of which the inhabitants of an older capital might justly be proud. The House of Assembly is a noble structure. The admirably kept and beautifully situated Observatory, the banks, the railway station, and the docks are all excellent. The Botanical Gardens, and the shady avenue dividing them from Government House, would be an adornment to the finest capital in Europe.

Considerable as are the attractions of Cape Town, they are far exceeded by the charm of its picturesque suburbs, extending for some miles along the foot of Table Mountain on its eastern side. The country is richly wooded, chiefly with our own dear English trees, and abounds with pleasant buildings, surrounded with gardens bright with the flowers of the summer of our Northern latitudes. The scene recalls the most favoured part of Surrey. The cantonments of the troops at Wynberg, on a well-wooded plateau, have all the lovely features of an English park.

We made an excursion with Sir Gordon Sprigg and his kind family to Constantia, where the Government have purchased an old Dutch manor-house, and are cultivating the vine under the superintendence of Baron Von Babo, with the view of producing wines on the most approved European principles. Our host has made one of those interesting and honourable careers for which colonial life offers so many opportunities to those who know how to use them. He began life in the gallery of the House of Commons, as a reporter of debates, in the days of Cobden. As Premier of a Colonial Parliament, he has had an opportunity of applying the maxims of political wisdom gathered from a close observation of our own Parliamentary proceedings.

Another excursion was made to Stellenbosch, a characteristic example of the old Dutch towns of the Cape Colony. We were under the guidance of Sir Gordon Sprigg, Mr. Hofmeyr, and Mr. Tudhope, the Colonial Secretary. The journey from Cape Town occupied an hour by railway. Stellenbosch is in many ways a perfect reproduction of a country town in Holland. If we miss the canals, we have the domestic architecture, the fine avenues running through the principal streets, and the Dutch characteristics of the people. These features give to this distant settlement in South Africa, not one of whose inhabitants probably has ever visited Holland, a markedly national aspect.

On our arrival at Stellenbosch we were driven, under the guidance of the Mayor, to the University, where a mixed staff of professors, English and Dutch, are doing excellent work in education. We were received by a guard of honour, furnished by the students' Volunteer Corps. Having inspected the University buildings, we drove out to an old Dutch farm, under a burning sun, and through a country in which the foliage of the temperate and the tropical zones was closely intermingled.

The farm we visited comprises an extensive range of buildings, with an excellent dwelling-house, roomy stables, and the stores, filled with butts of wine, which are characteristic of the district. The buildings form a large quadrangle, surrounding a plot of grass shaded by noble trees. The situation of the farm is very striking. It stands in a deep valley, green, fertile, and well watered, but completely hemmed in by mountains of volcanic formation some 4,000 feet in height, beautiful in form, but entirely devoid of vegetation. Want of rain and the phylloxera are constant anxieties at the Cape. We observed that the field labourers were invariably men of colour. Their earnings do not exceed one shilling per day.

Cape politics have been a fertile source of trouble and anxiety to the British Government at home. With the necessarily imperfect knowledge of local circumstances, it is impossible, from London, to deal in a satisfactory manner with the relations between the Government of a distant colony and neighbours so little known as the Boers, and savages so rude as the Kaffirs and Zulus. Our errors of the past will not be repeated, if only we resolve firmly not to fetter the discretion of the local Governments, which, in pursuance of a wise policy, we have called into existence.



The visit of President Kruger, of the Transvaal, to President Brand, of the Free State, was a prominent topic at the time of our visit. It had led to the delivery of a speech by Mr. Kruger, in which he had declared the determination of the Boers to preserve their complete independence. In the Cape Colony people are more interested in the establishment of railway communication with the new gold-fields within the borders of the Transvaal than in the question of political union. As yet a certain reluctance is manifested by the Boers to establish railway communication with the Cape. An English company has made a railway from Delagoa Bay to the Transvaal frontier, and the line will shortly be extended to Pretoria. In the meanwhile the people of the Cape Colony are desirous of extending their system of railways, already 1,483 miles in length, into the interior. Considerable discoveries of gold have recently been made within the limits of the Transvaal, but close to the border, and all the workers at the mines are Englishmen from the Cape Colony. There is no reason to doubt that permission to establish railway communication with this newly discovered gold-mining district will be ultimately granted.

Among the Boers of the Transvaal a large number are friendly to the English. Once connected with the Cape by railway, and by a Customs union, which has been much under discussion, the Cape Colony and the Transvaal will be for all practical purposes of trade united. A divided administration of government in a country of such wide extent is an unmixed advantage.

It was particularly gratifying to hear from Mr. Hofmeyr, the head of the Dutch party in the Cape Parliament, and a most able representative of the Colony in the late Colonial Conference, how entirely satisfied his people are to live under British rule as now conducted. The Dutch colonists at the Cape have no personal relations with Holland. They look back upon their former connection as an interesting historical association; but the protection which England affords against the occupation of the Cape by some other foreign power is a practical boon, and one greatly valued. There is a party at the Cape which regards with disfavour the dependence of the present Premier, Sir Gordon Sprigg, on the Dutch vote, or, as it is called, the Africander Bond. From another point of view we may hail with satisfaction the success which an Englishman has achieved in winning the confidence of the Dutch. While conducting the government to their satisfaction, he is thoroughly loyal to his own nationality. Baron Huebner speaks in discouraging tones of our position at the Cape. A much more cheerful impression was conveyed by the present able Governor, Sir Hercules Robinson, and by other eminent men whom I had an opportunity of consulting.

Judging from such indications as came under our personal notice, the native races, so far from being a source of weakness, are a great strength to the colony. The Indians in North America, the Maoris in New Zealand, the aborigines of Australia, have disappeared or dwindled away before the white man. The Zulus and Kaffirs have proved themselves capable of adopting and promoting civilisation. They show in numerous instances a high appreciation of the blessings of education. They are ready to labour on the farms, on the railways, and in the mines. They are content to live under the rule of a superior race.



Material prosperity has been greatly advanced by the discoveries of gold, the opening up of gold-fields, and still more by the large amount of wealth which has been derived from the exportation of diamonds.

The 'Sunbeam' left Cape Town on October 24th. St. Helena was reached on November 3rd. Like all the islands of the Atlantic, it is of volcanic formation. It presents to the ocean on every side a coast-line of precipices, sharp peaks, and gloomy chasms. The contorted shapes of rock and mountain give a powerful impression of the tremendous forces of nature in a period of volcanic activity. The landing-place for St. Helena is under the lee of the island, at Jamestown, a small town depending entirely on shipping.

Above Jamestown for some 2,000 feet the country is inexpressibly sterile. At a higher level the soil is watered by the frequent showers brought up from the ocean by the South-east Trades, and is covered with a rich carpet of grass. In every sheltered dell the growth of timber is abundant and varied, combining the trees of the tropics with those of our cold English latitudes. The water-courses are innumerable. The bed of every stream is filled, and every bank is covered with lovely masses of arum-lilies. The scenery of the island is most beautiful. The Acting Governor occupies a fine country house surrounded by a noble park. It is sad to visit Longwood, and to reflect on the intolerable weariness of such a place of confinement to the victor in many battles, and the former arbiter of the destinies of Central Europe.

A personal visit to St. Helena is necessary to appreciate the facilities for the defence of the island. The landing-places are few, and they are commanded by works of considerable strength. New works are in progress which will give an extended range of fire to seaward. The guns are not yet to hand. The expenditure recently authorised, amounting to some 10,000l., appears fully justified in view of the importance of St. Helena as a coaling station for the Cape route to the East. As a sanatorium it might be of great value to the ships of the African Squadron.

The 'Sunbeam' touched at Ascension on November 7th. This barren and inhospitable volcanic island has presented a singularly unpromising field of labour to the naval detachment which for many years has been maintained there. Solid and capacious stores, extensive ranges of buildings, miles of roads, the tanks, the hospitals on the seashore and on the mountain, the farm on the peak—a green oasis crowning a heap of cinders—attest the zeal of a succession of officers and men. To the naval reformer they give occasion for reflections on the considerable cost which has been thrown upon the country in the creation of an establishment which has become practically useless through the universal use of steam and the suppression of the slave trade. In the present circumstances St. Helena offers unquestionably superior advantages for all naval purposes. As a coaling station it is in a better position, being approximately equidistant between the Cape and Sierra Leone, and less exposed to rollers, which frequently interrupt the coaling of ships at Ascension. It is repugnant to abandon to utter ruin an establishment created with much labour and expense. To this alternative, however, we must come, unless we are prepared to put Ascension in a state of defence. The value of the naval stores is not less than 50,000l., and the ample stock of coal would offer an irresistible temptation to an enemy's cruiser. Three or four long-range, armour-piercing guns, with a few machine-guns, would give security against a coup de main. We should look to the fleet to prevent an attack in force.



Sierra Leone was reached on November 14th. In this section of the voyage the distance under canvas was 3,327 knots, the average speed 7.7 knots, and the distance under steam 289 knots, with an average speed of 7 knots. The South-east Trades were light, and balloon canvas again proved extremely serviceable.

Sierra Leone is an important coaling station, halfway between England and the Cape. The harbour is large and safe for ships of heavy tonnage. The works of defence are in active progress. The cost is estimated at 22,000l. for works and 15,000l. for armaments. It is to be regretted that the armament is almost entirely composed of muzzle-loading rifled guns. In addition to the works now in hand, a battery is thought desirable to prevent an attack with long-range guns from seaward. Having admitted Sierra Leone into the list of our coaling stations of the first class, its defence should be made complete against a powerful cruiser.

The British settlements on the West Coast of Africa date from 1672, when the British African Company was first formed. The British protectorate is estimated to extend over 3,000 square miles. Freetown, the capital, is built on a peninsula about eighteen miles long.

The town is backed by mountains of considerable elevation, richly wooded, and beautiful in outline. The streets are laid out with regularity on ground sloping rapidly to the river. The houses are of wood, and the roadways are unpaved. The population is 37,000. The throng at the landing-place has a decided family resemblance to any similar assemblage of the negro race in the West Indies. The general aspect is cheerful and free from care. The washerwomen, in Manchester print gowns of gorgeous colour, are conspicuous and grotesque personages.

At Sierra Leone the Church of England is strongly supported by the Church Missionary Society. It has a large body of adherents, and is the see of a Bishop. It has a college, affiliated to the Durham University, which has turned out coloured students of distinguished ability. My friend Mr. Blyden, author of 'Christianity, Islam, and the Negro Race,' is a distinguished leader of the higher culture among the negro race.

The capabilities of the coloured races are nowhere seen to greater advantage than at Sierra Leone. They supply the official staff of the Government. A coloured barrister of marked ability is the leader of the Bar, and makes a professional income of 3,000l. a year.



The day seems drawing near when it will be no longer necessary to send Englishmen to administer the government in a climate so often fatal to the health of the European. The trade of Sierra Leone, in common with that of the Gold Coast generally, consists mainly in the exportation of the palm kernel, from which an oil much used in the manufacture of soap and candles is extracted. Marseilles and Hamburg are the chief centres of this business. The imports are mainly Manchester goods and spirits. The trade has fallen off in recent years owing to the constant warfare among the tribes bordering on the colony.

The greatest excitement prevailed in Sierra Leone at the time of our visit. An expedition was being sent to punish a neighbouring tribe for frequent deeds of violence to British subjects. It achieved a rapid success. The forces engaged consisted of the men of the West India regiment and some seamen of the ships. Sir Francis de Winton was in command, supported by Major Piggott and Captain Brown. Sierra Leone is the headquarters of the West India regiment stationed on the West Coast of Africa. Their number is 400. The barracks are a large and airy range of buildings, in a commanding situation on the heights above the town.

We breakfasted with the Acting Governor. An old fort has been adapted as the official residence. Its thick walls, originally built as a defence against the bullets of an enemy, give some protection from the heat of the African sun. The wide ramparts afford a shady walk, commanding lovely views of the town and harbour beneath, and the noble amphitheatre of mountains above. Sierra Leone would be delightful but for its climate and the fevers which it brings.

The 'Sunbeam' left Sierra Leone at sunset on November 15th under steam. The North-east Trades were picked up in latitude 11 deg. N. A call of a few hours was made at Porto Praya on November 19th. The French frigate of instruction for cadets, the 'Iphigenie,' a heavily rigged ship of 4,000 tons displacement, had anchored on the previous day. Porto Praya wears the air of decay so commonly observable in foreign settlements under the Portuguese flag. The country is fertile, but progress is checked by the great weight of taxation, the public income being misapplied in keeping the unemployed in unprofitable idleness. We noticed a considerable number of able-bodied men hoeing weeds in the public square.

We found three kind Englishmen leading a life of exile, in charge of the station of the West African Telegraph Company. St. Vincent, the only island of the Cape de Verdes which has any trade, is a coaling station much used by steamers on the South American route.

On the day after leaving Porto Praya the 'Sunbeam' lay becalmed under the lee of St. Antonio. The anchorage used by us in 1876 was in view, as was also the house and plantation of which a drawing is given in my dear wife's 'Voyage in the Sunbeam.' There were many sad reminiscences as the former track of the 'Sunbeam' was crossed. On November 29th, without warning from the barometer, a strong gale commenced from the east, and lasted without intermission for four days. Under low canvas and close-hauled, the 'Sunbeam' gallantly struggled forward, making 130 knots, on November 29th, and on the three following days 112, 57, and 92 knots respectively. While hove-to in this gale the canvas was severely punished. All the lower sails were more or less damaged, and sail was reduced to storm trysails. Two large barques were passed lying-to under lower main topsails and mizen storm staysails. At dawn on December 2nd Fayal was sighted.



The gale was blowing dead on shore at Horta, and it was preferable to run for shelter under the lee of the island. As we closed the land, grand effects were produced by the clouds and mist driving before the gale down the green slopes of the mountains to the dark cliffs of lava and basalt, on which the mighty surges of the Atlantic were breaking into foam. Late in the afternoon of December 2nd the 'Sunbeam' gained the northern entrance to the channel which divides Fayal and Pico. An attempt was made to reach Horta, but it was found that a heavy sea was running into the anchorage. It was a pitchy night, and we determined to wait outside till daylight, standing across to Pico under steam for shelter from the wind and sea.

At dawn on the 3rd the moon was still shining on the northern face of the noble mountain, towering in solitary grandeur to a height of 7,800 feet. The snowy peak stood up from its mantle of clouds, and took the rosy hues of the morning. An hour's steaming carried us into the anchorage at Fayal, where we remained through the day of December 3rd. The passage from Sierra Leone to Fayal had been accomplished, with adverse winds during a considerable part of the voyage, in 16-1/2 days, 2,005 knots being covered under sail at an average speed of 6.3 knots, and 460 miles under steam at an average speed of 6 knots.



We found several sailing vessels at anchor in the roadstead of Horta. One British vessel had come in for provisions, another to repair a damaged rudder. A barque hailing from Boston was one of a line which carries on a regular service under canvas between the Azores and America. They depend chiefly on passengers, who make the cruise for the sake of health. The Norwegian flag was represented by one most crazy wooden ship, 70 years old, and by another of nearly equal antiquity, and in a like condition of unseaworthiness. The captains of both the Norwegians were hoping that the surveyors might condemn them as unfit for further service.



Fayal offers especially favourable opportunities for the obsequies of an unseaworthy ship insured beyond her value. The danger to life from the attempt to navigate in vessels no longer fit to contend with storm and tempest can only be removed by compelling the owners to bear some share of the pecuniary risk.

The local prosperity depends mainly on shipping. Business is on the decline. The opening of the Suez Canal, the introduction of powerful iron and steel built ocean liners, which suffer comparatively little from the effects of heavy weather, and, as the people of Fayal allege, the legislation promoted by Mr. Plimsoll, which has withdrawn their best customers, the weakly and unsound vessels, from active service at sea, have combined to produce a marked diminution in the number of ships calling at the port. The whalers under the United States flag still make it their headquarters in the summer season. During the present year nine have been seen at the anchorage at the same time. Exciting chases in pursuit of the sperm whale sometimes take place in the channel between Fayal and Pico. Numerous whale-boats are kept on the island, and are instantly launched when a whale is seen near the shore. A breakwater is now in progress at Horta, but the work is proceeding with the customary festina lente method of the Portuguese.

Having taken in water and provisions, the voyage was resumed on the evening of December 3rd, with a favourable wind from the SS.E. At midnight the wind shifted suddenly to the north-east, and on the following morning the 'Sunbeam' bore up, before a severe gale, for shelter under the lee of Terceira. Late in the day the veil of lowering clouds was drawn aside, and the sun descending to the west, lighted up the landscape with a flood of golden light.

Terceira is of volcanic formation. Its highest ridges attain an elevation of 4,000 feet. The crests of the hills are clothed with forests of pine and rich pastures. At a lower level the indications of laborious cultivation are seen in range upon range of terraced gardens and vineyards. The island is densely inhabited, and the numerous white houses give an air of cheerfulness and prosperity to the scene, which recalls the more familiar charms of the Bay of Naples and the Straits of Messina.

On December 5th, the gale subsided to a calm, and the voyage homewards was commenced under steam. In a few hours the engines broke down, and sail was made to a light breeze from the north-east. On the succeeding days favourable winds were experienced from the westward. On the 11th the wind shifted to the south-east, accompanied by drizzling rain and fog, which rendered observations impossible, and which continued until the Scilly Island lights were sighted in a fortunate lifting of the haze, on the evening of the 12th. The run from the Scilly Islands to Spithead was made at the rate of 11-1/2 knots an hour, before a south-westerly gale.

The total distance from Fayal, including the call at Terceira, was 1,440 miles, of which sixty only were under steam. The average speed was 7 knots. The 'Sunbeam' entered Portsmouth Harbour at noon on December 14.



PART II.

(A) ABSTRACT OF LOG OF 'SUNBEAM,' PREPARED BY THOMAS ALLNUTT BRASSEY.

(B) OUTLINE OF VOYAGE, REPRINTED FROM 'THE TIMES' OF DECEMBER 15TH, 1887.

[Transcriber's Note: In order to keep the following tables to a maximum width of 80 characters, some headings have been abbreviated (e.g., Barometer is abbreviated to Bar.), and times in headings have been rendered without periods or spaces. Within the tables, latitude and longitude readings are rendered without spaces, and in the "Wind" column, the word "Variable" is abbreviated to "Var." Sideways text spanning several rows is marked with an asterisk, and is rendered below the table. Lengthy text in the "Wind" column is marked with two asterisks and rendered below the table.]

PORTSMOUTH to BOMBAY.

Date Remarks Bar. Temp. (Fahr.) Lat. Long. Distance Wind Water Air Steam Sail 8AM 8AM noon 6PM 1886 deg. deg. deg. deg. deg. ' deg. ' Nov. 16 6 P.M. left Portsmouth. 8 P.M. arrived Cowes — — — — — — — 12 — — 17 9 A.M. left Cowes. 10 A.M. arrived Southampton. 6 P.M. sailed for Plymouth — — — — 52.6 — — 10 — — 18 ... ... ... 30.12 — 51 52 53.5 50.26N 2.43W 30 73 NW 5 19 8 A.M. arrived Plymouth. 2 P.M. sailed for Gibraltar 30.27 — 61 61 59 50.22N 4.08W — 82 SW 3 to 4 20 8 A.M. rounded Ushant 30.30 — 59 59 58 48.18N 5.42W 126 23 SW 3 to 5 21 ... ... ... 30.35 — 59.5 61 60.5 45.02N 8.22W 152 40 SW 1/2 S 2 22 NOON, Cape Finisterre abeam 30.26 — 58 61 61 42.56N 9.26W 23 207 ESE 5 23 ... ... ... 30.26 60 62 62 62.5 40.25N 10.07W 45 121 E by N 3 to 4 24 ... ... ... 30.20 63 61 61 61.5 37.33N 9.28W — 185 E 2 to 4 25 ... ... ... 30.08 67.5 62 61.5 60 36.26N 7.52W — 115 ENE 3 26 3.30 P.M. arrived Gibraltar 29.98 65 59 60 60 35.52N 5.40W 36 111 E by S 7 27 ... ... ... — 63 61 61.5 61 — — 30 — 28 ... ... ... — 62 61 62 61 — — — — — 29 11 A.M. sailed from Gibraltar for Port Said — 61.5 61.5 62 62 — — — — — 30 ... ... ... 30.09 61.5 61.5 61.5 62 36.20N 2.27W 90 86 W 4. Calm

Dec. 1 ... ... ... 29.98 63.5 60 55 57 36.54N 1.04E — 185 NNW to NNE 6 to 2 2 Called off Algiers 30.00 62.5 57 55 58 36.50N 3.11E 48 74 Var. 3 ... ... ... 29.97 63 60 55 61 37.27N 6.23E — 158 SW to N 3 to 6 4 ... ... ... 29.91 65 57 53 55 37.35N 9.59E — 179 NW to NNW 3 to 7 5 ... ... ... 29.97 65.5 60.5 61 60 36.15N 14.25E — 240 NW 5 to 9 6 2 P.M. called off Malta 30.11 66 61 66 64 36.35N 17.07E — 155 S to WNW 3 to 4 7 ... ... ... 30.13 68 62 67 65 34.33N 20.14E 147 16 Calm 8 Heavy rain. No observations 29.90 68.5 67 66 64 33.19N 23.57E 198 — Calm 9 ... ... ... 29.66 71 65 66.5 65 32.46N 28.14E — 222 SW to W 6 to 9 10 NOON, anchored Port Said 30.05 70 64 66 62 31.18N 32.21E 4 238 W to WNW 6 to 7 11 8 A.M. left Port Said. 8 P.M. anchored off Ismailia — 65 56 64 60 — — 24 — — 12 6.15 A.M. weighed anchor. 3 P.M. reached Suez. 5 P.M. sailed for Aden — 63 54.5 70 63 — — 66 — — 13 ... ... ... 30.07 72 64 71 69 27.42N 33.57E 18 168 NNW to SW 4 14 ... ... ... 30.18 75 68 72 72 24.53N 35.57E — 212 W to NW 3 to 6 15 ... ... ... 30.15 78 73 75 75.5 22.31N 37.38E — 169 N to NNW 2 to 5 16 ... ... ... 30.15 81 77 79.5 79 20.18N 38.32E — 209 N to NNW 4 17 ... ... ... 30.08 81.5 80 82.5 82 17.04N 40.37E 183 13 Calm 18 ... ... ... 29.98 80 80 81.5 81 14.36N 42.35E 188 — S 1/2 E 3 19 4 P.M. Anchored in Assab Bay 30.05 79 79 80 79.5 13.14N 42.37E 114 — SE to S by E 5 to 7 20 6.30 A.M. weighed anchor. 9 P.M. passed through Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb 30.00 78.5 78 79.5 79 13.09N 43.07E 50 — SSE 6 21 ... ... ... 30.09 78 78.5 80 79 11.59N 44.07E 111 16 E to S by E 5 22 10 A.M. anchored in Aden inner harbour. Coaled, and sailed at 7 P.M. 30.18 79 80 83 80 12.46N 44.59E 69 68 E by N 4 23 ... ... ... 30.08 78.5 79 81.5 79.5 12.52N 46.44E 110 — E 3 to 5 24 ... ... ... 30.18 78 78 80 78.5 13.53N 49.09E 168 — ENE 3 25 ... ... ... 30.15 75.5 75 76 76 14.49N 51.50E 178 — ENE 3 to 4 26 ... ... ... 30.16 77.5 75 76 75 15.19N 53.43E 162 — NE by E 6 27 ... ... ... 30.21 78 74 76 75 15.41N 55.02E 68 86 NNE to E by N 6 28 ... ... ... 30.11 78 75 76 75 14.50N 57.27E — 149 NE 6 29 ... ... ... 30.02 77 75 76 75 14.09N 59.36E — 133 NNE 4 30 ... ... ... 30.08 78 75 77 76 13.41N 62.11E 16 146 NE to NNE 3 31 ... ... ... 30.07 78.5 75 77 76 15.01N 65.02E 190 — NE 2

1887 Jan. 1 ... ... ... 30.08 78.5 75 77 76 16.22N 68.03E 192 — NE 1 2 ... ... ... 30.08 80 75.5 80 77.5 17.49N 71.08E 173 28 NNE to N by W 3 3 4 A.M. made the Prongs Light. Lay-to until daylight. 3 P.M. arrived Bombay — 78.5 76 77.5 76.5 — — 1 139 N to NNE

BOMBAY to KURRACHI, RANGOON, BORNEO, and MACASSAR.

Date Remarks Bar. Temp. (Fahr.) Lat. Long. Distance Wind Water Air Steam Sail 8AM 8AM noon 6PM 1887 deg. deg. deg. deg. deg. ' deg. ' Jan. 6 2 A.M. left Bombay 30.05 78.5 76 79 76.5 19.26N 71.55E 47 22 NNE 4 7 ... ... ... 30.04 76.5 73.5 76 73.5 20.46N 70.16E — 135 NE by E to NW 3 to 5 8 Off Poubundu, Kattywar 30.08 75 71 75 73 21.34N 69.30E — 115 N to NNE 1 to 3 9 ... ... ... 30.08 74.5 73 76 73 23.06N 67.43E 96 54 NW to W by S 1 to 3 10 6.10 A.M. arrived Kurrachi — 70 67 69 67.5 — — 132 — SW to E 4 to 6 From January 10th to February 7th at Kurrachi — — — — — — — — — — Feb. 7 6 P.M. left Kurrachi — 65 65 65 65 — — — — — 8 ... ... ... 30.18 70 65 69 66 22.20N 67.55E — 168 W to NE by E 4 to 6 9 9 P.M. made Spit Light Bombay. Hove-to 30.11 74.5 68 71 70 19.48N 71.22E — 268 NE 4 to 7 10 3 P.M. arrived Bombay — 74 70 73.5 73 — — — 115 NE by N to N by E 4 11 ... ... ... — 72 67 74 73 — — — 10 — From February 11th to February 22nd at Bombay — — — — — — — — — — 22 6.45 A.M. left Bombay. 11 P.M. lay-to off Rajpuri — 77 79 81 79.5 — — — 20 — 23 8 A.M. anchored off Jinjeera Fort. 1 P.M. weighed anchor 29.93 79 80 83 81 18.17N 72.55E — 87 NW to NNE 1 to 4 24 ... ... ... 30.00 80.5 80 81 81 17.35N 73.00E — 50 NW 3. Calm 25 8 P.M. brought up in Aguada Roads 30.00 82 80 82 81 16.09N 73.21E — 85 NNW to NNE 1 to 3 26 To Goa in steam launch. 8 P.M. weighed anchor — 82.5 81 83 81.5 — — — 57 NNW 4 27 ... ... ... 29.96 83 82 83.5 82.5 13.39N 73.41E — 115 WNW to NNW 3 28 ... ... ... 29.97 83 83 84.5 82.5 12.55N 74.28E — 75 S 2 to N 1 Mar. 1 ... ... ... 29.98 83.5 83 86 82.5 11.33N 75.13E — 95 Var. 2 ... ... ... 30.02 83.5 83.5 85 82 9.59N 76.00E — 106 NNW to WNW 1 to 3 3 ... ... ... 30.12 83 82 84 82.5 8.13N 76.48E — 120 W by S 4 to NW 1 4 ... ... ... 30.05 81.5 81.5 83.5 82 7.38N 76.08E — 88 NW. Calm 5 9 A.M. arrived Colombo 30.00 82 80.5 83 80 6.56N 79.50E 98 12 Calm From March 5th to March 8th at Colombo — — — — — — — — — — 8 1.15 A.M. left Colombo 30.02 82.5 80 81.5 81 5.56N 80.25E 86 — Var. 9 7.30 P.M. anchored off Trincomalee dockyard 30.09 82 80.5 82 81.5 7.50N 81.44E 184 — " 10 8.15 P.M. left Trincomalee — 82 80.5 83 81 — — 60 — — 11 ... ... ... 30.05 81.5 80 83.5 82 9.45N 83.04E 140 — Calm 12 ... ... ... 30.07 81.5 81 83 81.5 10.50N 86.00E 184 — ENE 2 13 ... ... ... 30.07 82 81.5 83.5 81.5 12.17N 88.55E 195 — ENE 2 14 4 P.M. made the Andamans 30.05 81.5 79 80 79 13.28N 91.49E 170 10 Calm. N by W 3 15 8 A.M. made Great Coco 30.05 81.5 79 79.5 79 14.06N 93.29E — 120 NNW 2 16 MIDNIGHT anchored at mouth of Irrawaddy River 30.01 82 80 83 81 15.28N 95.40E — 150 NNW to W by N 1 to 4 17 6 A.M. weighed anchor. 10.30 anchored at Rangoon 29.95 83 84 89 86 16.45N 96.09E 40 60 — 18 11.30 P.M. left Rangoon — 83.5 83 87 88 — — — — — 19 1.30 P.M. anchored off Amherst — 81 81 84 82 — — 109 — — 20 9 A.M. weighed. 1 P.M. anchored off Moulmein — * 80.5 87 82.5 — — 50 — — 21 At Moulmein — * 81 86 82.5 — — — — — 22 1.30 P.M. left Moulmein. 5.30 P.M. passed out of river — * 80 82 81 — — — — — 23 ... ... ... 30.06 * 82 83 82 15.33N 97.13E 40 60 S by E to WSW 2 24 ... ... ... 30.05 * 82 84 84 14.32N 97.26E — 101 SW to WSW 25 ... ... ... 30.02 * 82 85.5 83 11.41N 97.14E 130 40 Calm. E 4 26 11 P.M. passed Sayer's Islands 29.98 * 82 85 84 9.19N 97.01E — 160 ENE to SE by E 3 to 5 27 6 A.M. made The Brothers 29.95 * 83 84 83 7.05N 98.16E 139 11 SE 5 to N 1 28 2 A.M. made Penang Light 29.92 * 84 84.5 83 5.01N 100.02E 170 — S by E 4 29 In Macassar Strait 30.02 * 83 84 82 2.35N 101.28E 188 — S by E 30 8 A.M. arrived Singapore — * 82 84 83 — — 175 — } 31 3 P.M. weighed. } 7 P.M. arrived } Johore — * 82 83 82 — — — — } ** Apr. } 1 11 A.M. weighed. } 3 P.M. anchored } Singapore — * 83 85 84 — — 74 — } 2 2 A.M. left Singapore. 6 P.M. Barren Island abeam 30.03 * 88 85 84.5 1.26N 105.36E 105 — SW 2 3 10 P.M. anchored } off Tanjong Po 30.05 * 83 85 84 2.04N 109.10E 225 — } 4 6.30 A.M. } weighed, and } proceeded up } Kuching River. } 10 A.M. anchored } off Sarawak. 7 } P.M. sailed — * 83 83.5 83.5 — — 113 — } 5 ... ... ... 29.97 * 83 84 83 3.48N 112.04E — — } 6 7 A.M. made } land; set by } ** current 30 miles } to ENE. 2 P.M. } anchored } Victoria } Harbour, Labuan — * 83 85 82 — — 230 — } 7 7 A.M. weighed. } 9 A.M. anchored } off mouth of } Brunei River. } 5 P.M. weighed. — * 83 84.5 83.5 — — 40 — } 8 6 A.M. fine view of Kina Balu, 13,000 ft. 4 P.M. anchored Kudat 29.95 * 84 86 85 6.56N 116.34E 160 — NE 2 9 6.30 A.M. left Kudat. 4.30 P.M. touched on coral patch, 6 deg. 40'N. 117 deg. 52' E. MIDNIGHT arrived In Millewalle Sandakan — * 82 85 82.5 Channel 87 — SE 1 to 2 10 } 11 } At Sandakan — * — — — — — 100 — Calm 12 } 12 9.30 P.M. left Sandakan — * 81 84 82 — — — — — 13 6 P.M. anchored in Darvel Bay, off Silam — 82 85 83 83.5 4.57N 118.47E 135 — } 14 At Silam — — 82.5 86 83 — — 54 — } 15 8.45 A.M. left } Silam. 9 P.M. }Calm entered Celebes } Sea — — 83 84 84 4.40N 118.34E 32 — } 16 ... ... ... 29.95 — 83 84.5 84 2.27N 119.30E 235 — NW 2 17 7.15 A.M. crossed the line 29.92 — 86 87.5 86 0.51S 118.50E 207 — } 18 8 A.M. off Cape } Mandai. 11 P.M. } hove-to off } Spennar di }Calm Archipelago 29.89 — 84 87 85 4.14S — 211 — } 19 12.15 P.M. } arrived Macassar — — 83 85.5 84 — — 144 — }

* No temperature of water taken.

** Calms and light airs

MACASSAR to ADELAIDE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA.

Date Remarks Bar. Temp. (Fahr.) Lat. Long. Distance Wind Water Air Steam Sail 8AM 8AM noon 6PM 1887 deg. deg. deg. deg. deg. ' deg. ' Apr. 20 8 P.M. left Macassar — — — — — — — — — — 21 ... ... ... 29.91 — 84 85.5 85 6.00S 118.34E 63 23 N 3 to 5 22 4 P.M. entered Allas Strait 29.87 — 85 83 84 7.56S 116.56E — 174 NW to W by S 3 to 5 23 ... ... ... 29.92 — 81.5 81 80.5 9.52S 116.39E 66 62 W to SW by W 3 to 7

24 ... ... ... 30.02 — 80 80.5 80 11.52S 116.39E — 127 S by W to W 3 to 5 25 6 P.M. slight showers. Picked up trade wind from S by E 30.05 — 80 80 80 13.59S 114.52E 158 8 Calm 26 ... ... ... 30.02 — 79.5 81 80 15.24S 113.10E 36 104 SSE 27 ... ... ... 29.96 — 78.5 78.5 78 16.56S 111.32E — 131 SE to S by E 3 28 ... ... ... 30.01 — 76.5 77 77 18.43S 109.24E — 148 S to SE by S 4 to 5 29 ... ... ... 30.03 — 76 75 74.5 20.25S 107.31E — 143 SSE to SE by S 3 to 4 30 ... ... ... 30.12 — 72 73.5 72.5 22.27S 105.35E — 162 S by E to SE 3 to 5 May 1 ... ... ... 30.18 — 69 70.5 69 24.39S 104.14E — 153 SE by S to SE 4 to 6 2 ... ... ... 30.23 — 67 68.5 68 26.46S 103.38E — 131 SE to ESE 2 to 6 3 ... ... ... 30.19 — 67 67 66.5 29.02S 103.02E — 140 SE to SE by E 2 to 4 4 5 P.M. spoke 'Liguria' of Orient Line 30.20 — 64 65 64 30.22S 104.20E 86 40 Var. 5 Moderate gale with heavy squalls 30.10 — 62 60 60 31.29S 105.48E — 136 WSW to SSW 7 to 10 6 ... ... ... 30.10 — 60 60.5 60 32.28S 108.06E — 144 SW to SSW 7 to 4 7 ... ... ... 30.22 64 62 62.5 61 33.12S 110.30E 7 122 SW 2. Calm 8 ... ... ... 30.19 63.5 60 62 61 34.47S 113.54E 136 58 Calm. W 5 9 10 A.M. made West Point Howe. 4 P.M. arrived Albany, K.G. Sound 30.21 63 59 59 58 — — 33 181 W to SW 4 to 5 9th to 17th at Albany — — — — — — — — — — 17 11.15 A.M. weighed anchor — 61 59 66 64 — — 6 — — 18 ... ... ... 30.03 61 63.5 66 64 35.38S 119.54E 10 100 E by N to NNW 4 19 ... ... ... 30.10 60.5 63 66.5 64 36.23S 122.10E — 120 ENE to N by W 4 20 ... ... ... 30.18 60 63 67 64 36.25S 125.13E — 148 NNW to NNE 3 21 ... ... ... 30.15 60 58 63 59 35.59S 127.56E — 135 W to NW 2 to 4 22 1 to 3 P.M. blowing heavily 30.12 61 63 66 63.5 35.55S 132.07E — 206 WSW to WNW 5 to 9 23 7 A.M. made Kangaroo Island. 7.30 P.M. hove-to off Glenelg 30.19 63 62 64.5 61.5 35.30S 137.10E — 265 W to WSW 8 to 6 24 7.30 A.M. anchored off Glenelg — 61 56 63 60 — — — 95 —

ADELAIDE to MELBOURNE, SYDNEY, and PORT DARWIN.

Date Remarks Bar. Temp. (Fahr.) Lat. Long. Distance Wind Water Air Steam Sail 8AM 8AM noon 6PM 1887 deg. deg. deg. deg. deg. ' deg. ' May 26 11 A.M. left Glenelg. 3 P.M. arrived Port Adelaide — 60 59 64 61 — — 23 — — May 26th to June 3rd at Adelaide — — — — — — — — — — June 3 7 A.M. left Port Adelaide — 60 52 50 50 — — 14 8 — 4 2 A.M. laid to. 9.30 A.M. rounded Cape Willoughby 29.94 59 48 49 48 36.06S 138.23E — 103 SSW to W by N 4 to 7 5 MIDNIGHT, made Cape Otway light 29.84 57 47.5 47 47 38.57S 140.55E — 200 S by W to W by S 4 to 8 6 Heavy gale. 3 P.M. arrived Williamstown 29.63 56.5 40 44 45 38.08S 144.48E — 225 NW by W to SW 7 to 9 7th to 29th at Melbourne — — — — — — — — 29 — [Transcriber's Note: "29" above probably should be a dash] 29 9 A.M. left Williamstown — — — — — — — — — — 30 9.30 A.M. rounded Wilson's Promontory 30.20 — — 55 — 39.03S 146.42E — 145 NE by N to NW July 1 5 P.M. rounded Cape Howe 30.00 — — 59 — 37.50S 149.31E 143 10 NE 2 ... ... ... 30.05 — — 59 — 35.35S 150.30E 142 8 NNE to NW by N 3 10 A.M. arrived Sydney — — — — — — — 7 113 NW by W to WSW 3 July 3rd to 18th at Sydney — — — — — — — — — — 18 5 P.M. left Sydney — 5 59.5 66 63.5 — — — — — [Transcriber's Note: In Water column above, beginning of number is missing in original.] 19 7 A.M. arrived Newcastle — — 58 70 60 — — 4 65 West [Transcriber's Note: In Air 8 A.M. column above, number or dash is missing in original.] 20 7.30 A.M. left Newcastle — — — — — 32.43S 152.19E — 25 NW 3 21 ... ... ... 30.02 — — 64 — 30.25S 153.12E — 150 WNW to WSW 2 to 5 22 ... ... ... 29.95 — — 64 — 29.08S 153.39E — 79 Var. 23 2.15 P.M. rounded Cape Moreton. 10 P.M. arrived Brisbane — — — — — 27.26S 153.35E — 133 NNW to W 4 to 6 24 ... ... ... — — — — — — — 62 18 — 24th to 28th at Brisbane. 28th, 1.30 P.M. left Brisbane — — — — — — — — — — 29 6 A.M. off Indian Head — 65 64 71.5 64.5 24.23S 153.24E 20 184 SE to ESE 5 30 7.15 A.M. anchored at Sea View. 3 P.M. proceeded. 9 P.M. arrived Rockhampton — 66 61 72 64 — — 12 138 — 31 ... ... ... — 65 63 73 64.5 — — 46 — — July 31st to Aug. 4th at Rockhampton — — — — — — — — — — Aug. 4 10 P.M. left Rockhampton — 66 65 72.5 64 — — — — — 5 2 A.M. anchored Johnson Point. 8 A.M. proceeded. 10 A.M. cleared river — 66 58 63 60 — — 43 — — 6 6 P.M. anchored off Glo'ster Island 30.22 67 63 70 64.5 20.42S 149.05E — 214 SE to SSE 5 7 9 A.M. weighed. 2 P.M. arrived Bowen — 67.5 64 71 66 — — — 67 SSE 4 to 5 8 6 A.M. left Bowen. Anchored in Cleveland Bay 30.25 68 64 70 66 19.30S 147.41E — 60 SSE 4 9 2 P.M. left Townsville. 6 P.M. anchored near Palm Islands — 68.5 65 72 67 — — — 64 SE 10 10 A.M. weighed anchor. 4 P.M. anchored off Dungeness. Hinchinbrook Channel 30.17 69 69 70 70 18.42S 146.30E — 42 SE 4 11 At Dungeness. Rain 30.15 69.5 70 72 70 18.30S 146.20E — 22 SE 3 12 10 A.M. left Dungeness. NOON, anchored Cardwell. 3 P.M. proceeded. 7, reached Mourilyan — 70 70 72 70 18.14S 146.05E 24 — Calm 13 8 P.M. left Mourilyan — 71 71 75 72 17.35S 146.08E 41 — Calm 14 ... ... ... 30.07 72.5 72 76 72.5 16.37S 145.47E 4 67 Var. 15 8 A.M. arrived Cooktown — 73 72.5 75 73.5 15.28S 145.17E 3 74 Var. 16 At Cooktown — 73 72 77 74 — — — — — 17 8 A.M. left Cooktown. 4.30 P.M. anchored under lee of Howick Islands — 72.5 74 77 74 14.52S 145.30E 4 38 SE 4 18 6 A.M. weighed. 7 P.M. anchored near Cape Sidmouth lightship 30.12 72 74 76 73.5 14.07S 144.17E — 97 SE 4 to 5 19 10 A.M. weighed. 8.30 P.M. anchored under Piper Islands 30.10 72.5 74.5 77 75 13.21S 143.40E — 75 SE 5 20 6 A.M. weighed. 6 P.M. moored in Albany Pass 30.06 72.5 76 77.5 76 11.31S 142.55E — 130 ESE 5 21 In Albany Pass. Strong tides 30.05 75 76 77 76.5 10.41S 142.35E — 53 SE 5 22 10 A.M. weighed. 4 P.M. arrived Thursday Island 30.02 75 76.5 77.5 77 10.33S 142.25E — 16 SE 5 23 ... ... ... 30.05 75 77 78 77.5 — — 7 17 SE 5 24 Steamed to Goode Island and back — 75.5 77 79 77.5 — — 8 — SE 5 25 6 A.M. left Thursday Island. 6 P.M. anchored off York Island 29.95 75.5 77 79 79.5 10.13S 142.41E 13 24 SE 5 26 6 A.M. weighed. 11 A.M. anchored at Darnley Island 29.98 76.5 78.5 80 79.5 9.36S 143.44E 83 — SE 5 27 8 A.M. left Darnley Island. 7 P.M. anchored under King Point, Howe Island 29.98 77 78.5 81 79 9.50S 143.09E — 40 SE by E 5 28 Dropped down to Thursday Island under jib — 76 78 80 78 — — — 74 SE by E 5 to 6 Aug. 28 to Sept. 1st at Thursday Island — — — — — — — — — — Sept. 1 6 P.M. left Thursday Island — 75.5 76.5 79 77 — — — — — 2 ... ... ... 30.05 77.5 77 79 77.5 10.36S 139.46E — 150 ESE 4 3 ... ... ... 30.00 77.5 77.5 80 78 10.40S 136.11E — 215 SSE 3 to 5 4 ... ... ... 29.90 77.5 78 80 78 10.43S 134.19E — 112 SE by E to E 1 to 4 5 6 A.M. made land. 7 P.M. passed through Clarence Strait 30.00 78 78 80.5 79.5 11.27S 131.39E 181 — Calm 6 2 A.M. hove to. 7.30 A.M. anchored Palmerston, Port Darwin 30.05 81 79 82 80 — — 92 — Calm

PORT DARWIN to MAURITIUS and CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.

Date Remarks Bar. Temp. (Fahr.) Lat. Long. Distance Wind Water Air Steam Sail 8AM 8AM noon 6PM 1887 deg. deg. deg. deg. deg. ' deg. ' Sept. 7 2 A.M. left Port Darwin 30.02 79 81.5 83 82 12.27S 129.46E 72 — Calm 8 ... ... ... 30.07 78.5 81 81 80.5 12.56S 126.30E 200 — Calm 9 ... ... ... 30.06 79 78.5 80 79 13.07S 124.31E 68 54 E 1 to SE 3 10 ... ... ... 29.95 79 79 80.5 79.5 13.17S 121.03E 208 — S to SE 1 to 2 11 ... ... ... 29.98 79 78 80 79 13.39S 118.53E 51 76 SSE 1 to 3 12 ... ... ... 30.05 79 78 80 79 14.11S 116.47E — 128 SSE to SE 2 to 3 13 ... ... ... 30.07 79 77.5 79 78 15.17S 114.28E — 150 SSE to ESE 1 to 3 14 + Lady Brassey died 11 A.M., committed to the deep at sunset, lat. 15.50S, long. 110.38E — 77 76.5 76 75.5 15.45S 111.39E — 168 S by E to SE 2 to 4 15 ... ... ... 30.05 76 74.5 74 74 16.14S 107.38E — 242 SSE 4 to 5 16 ... ... ... 30.10 74 74 73.5 73.5 16.40S 104.15E — 198 SE by S 3 to 4 17 ... ... ... 30.10 73.5 73 73 73 16.58S 100.36E — 208 SE 3 to 5 18 ... ... ... 30.12 73 72 72.5 72 17.16S 96.45E — 222 SE 3 to 5 19 ... ... ... 30.15 72.5 71 71 71 17.24S 91.53E — 273 SE by S 5 to 6 20 ... ... ... 30.11 72.5 72 72 71.5 18.17S 88.02E — 226 SE 6 to 3 21 ... ... ... 30.14 73 71.5 72 71.5 18.28S 84.57E — 177 SE 2 to 4 22 ... ... ... 30.12 72.5 72 72 71.5 18.37S 80.19E — 276 SE 4 to 6 23 ... ... ... 30.24 72 71.5 72 71.5 19.21S 76.45E — 207 SE to E 5 to 3 24 ... ... ... 30.22 72.5 71 72 71.5 19.21S 72.45E — 227 SE 4 25 ... ... ... 30.17 73 71 72 72 19.23S 69.07E — 206 SE 4 26 4 P.M. made Rodriguez 30.15 74 72 72.5 72 19.18S 64.52E — 241 SE to SE by S 4 to 6 27 ... ... ... 30.22 73 72.5 73 72.5 19.38S 61.11E — 210 SE by S to E by S 6 to 3 28 4 P.M. made Round Island 30.22 73.5 73 74.5 74 19.53S 58.45E — 133 E to E by N 3 to 2 29 12.30 A.M. anchored off Port Louis — 73.5 73.5 75 74 — — 71 8 Calm 30 At Mauritius — 73 74 75 74 — — — — — Oct. 1 1 P.M. left Port Louis — 73 73.5 74 73.5 — — — — — 2 In sight of Bourbon all day 30.22 72 74 76 74.5 22.00S 55.39E — 155 SE by E to E by N 5 to 2 3 NOON, Bourbon still visible 30.30 72 70 72.5 72 22.28S 54.14E — 83 SE 1 var. 4 ... ... ... 30.40 72 70.5 72 71 24.22S 49.58E — 266 SSE to SE by E 5 to 7 5 ... ... ... 30.40 71.5 69.5 71 70.5 27.02S 45.39E — 282 SE to E 5 to 7 6 ... ... ... 30.28 67.5 69.5 72 71 28.49S 41.27E — 247 ESE to E 6 to 4 7 ... ... ... 30.20 78.5 70.5 71 70 29.41S 38.39E 138 19 E by N 2 to 1 8 Brisk gale. MIDNIGHT, wind fell light 29.96 69.5 69.5 71 70 30.12S 34.18E 96 131 E 2 to NNE 8 9 Hard gale from SW. Nasty sea. MIDNIGHT, gale moderated 29.75 71 71 72.5 72 31.44S 31.17E — 183 NE by E 8 to SW 10 5 A.M. made land at Gordon Bay 30.10 71 64 68 66 32.17S 29.13E 24 88 SW by S 9 to E 1 11 Beating to windward under steam and sail. 10 P.M. made Cape Recife light 29.90 63 65 67 63 33.57S 26.39E 33 120 E by N 9 W by S 7 12 2.30 A.M. anchored Algoa Bay 30.36 62 63 65 64 — — 56 — — 13 6 A.M. left Algoa Bay 30.40 62 63 64.5 63.5 34.14S 25.20E 11 24 SE by E 7 14 2 P.M. rounded Cape Agulhas. 10.30 P.M. made Cape of Good Hope light 30.10 64 64 64 64 35.50S 20.18E — 260 SE by E 6 to 7 15 8 A.M. anchored Table Bay — 56 63 64 65 — — 19 134 SSE 7

N.B.—On this passage the 'Sunbeam' made the fastest long run she has ever made. In the fortnight Sept. 13 to 27 she did 3,073 knots.



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE to PORTSMOUTH.

Date Remarks Bar. Temp. (Fahr.) Lat. Long. Distance Wind Water Air Steam Sail 8AM 8AM noon 6PM 1887 deg. deg. deg. deg. deg. ' deg. ' Oct. 24 10.30 A.M. weighed and proceeded to sea. NOON, returned 30.15 55 55 56.5 56 — — — 5 W by N 7 25 7 P.M. left Cape Town. MIDNIGHT, off Robben Island under steam. 5 P.M. ceased steaming 30.40 60 56.5 58 57.5 33.10S 17.12E 72 3 Calm 26 ... ... ... 30.20 61 62 63.5 63 30.49S 13.34E 40 193 S by N to S 2 to 7 27 ... ... ... 30.21 60.5 59 60.5 60 27.55S 10.22E — 243 6 to 8 28 ... ... ... 30.23 61.5 61 61.5 61 25.38S 7.08E — 223 S to S by E 6 29 'Roslin Castle' passed 'Sunbeam,' homeward bound 30.24 63.5 60.5 63 62.5 24.09S 3.39E — 209 SE to SSE 5 30 'Norham Castle' passed 'Sunbeam,' outward bound 30.25 63.5 62 64.5 63.5 22.06S 2.02E — 152 SE 4 to SE by S 2 31 ... ... ... 30.23 64.5 64 66 64.5 19.46S 0.03W — 182 SE 5 to 2 Nov. 1 ... ... ... 30.20 65.5 65 66 65 17.48S 1.32W — 146 SE 3 to 2 2 ... ... ... 30.17 67.5 65 66.5 66 16.18S 3.25W — 140 SE by S to SE by E 2 to 3 3 3 A.M. made St. Helena. 9 A.M. anchored off James Town. 10.30 P.M. left St. Helena 30.14 68 66 69 66.5 — — — 140 S by E 4 to 2 4 1 A.M. ceased steaming 30.13 69 68 69 69 14.26S 7.03W 17 97 ESE 5 to 3 5 ... ... ... 30.13 71 70 71 70.5 12.11S 9.15W — 186 SE 3 to 4 6 ... ... ... 30.17 73 73 74.5 74 9.59S 11.06W — 171 SE 4 to 2 7 4 P.M. made Ascension. 10 P.M. hove to 30.02 74.5 73.5 75 75.5 8.33S 13.33W — 169 SE to SSE 2 to [Transcriber's Note: In Wind column, final number missing in original] 8 7 A.M. anchored Clarence Bay 30.04 76.5 76.5 78 77 — — — 68 SE 3 9 5 P.M. left Ascension 30.00 77 76.5 65 77 4.44S 14.53W — 200 SE 6 [7] to 5 10 1 A.M. passed H.M.S. 'Wye' 30.00 77 77 78 77.5 — — — — — 11 ... ... ... 30.00 78 78 79.5 79.5 .58S 14.30W — 227 SE to SSE 6 to 4 12 ... ... ... 30.00 80.5 79 80 79.5 2.16N 13.54W — 196 SE by E 3 to 4 13 11 P.M. commenced steaming 30.00 82.5 81 81 82 5.21N 13.47W — 185 SE by S 3 to 2 14 3 P.M. made hills about Sierra Leone. 9 P.M. anchored at Free Town 30.00 81.5 80.5 81.5 82 7.57N 14.00W 104 52 ESE 2. Calm 15 6 P.M. left Sierra Leone 30.00 82 81 82.5 81.5 — — 56 — Calm 16 ... ... ... 30.00 83 82.5 83.5 83 9.35N 14.57W 120 — NNE 1 17 8 A.M. heavy rain-squall with wind. 12.45 P.M. ceased steaming 30.04 81.5 81 82 81.5 11.04N 17.06W 182 — NNE [8] 1 to 8 18 ... ... ... 30.02 80 81 81.5 80.5 12.30N 20.34W — 205 NE by N 6 to 7 19 NOON, arrived Porto Praya. 6 P.M. proceeded 30.05 78.5 79 80 79 14.55N 23.25W — 240 NE by N 6 to 7 20 1 A.M. to 2.30 A.M. under steam. Passed to leeward of St. Vincent, &c. 30.05 78 77.5 78.5 78 16.25N 24.55W 15 130 NE by E 6 21 Sighted two ships and a barque bound south 30.10 78 77 77 76 19.14N 25.42W 15 160 E by [8] N 6 19.01N to 7 22 Passed numerous sailing ships 30.12 77 74.5 74 73.5 22.37N 25.54W — 203 E [8] 1/2 22.20N N 7 to 5 23 6 A.M. commenced steaming. 10 A.M. stopped to repair boiler tubes. NOON, proceeded 30.05 76.5 73 74 73 24.05N 27.04W 23 100 NE 4 to 1 24 7 A.M. ceased steaming. Heavy swell from NNE 30.05 75 69.5 70.5 70 26.13N 28.03W 81 34 NNE [8] to 25.58N NE 25 ... ... ... 30.20 73 70 71.5 70 27.30N 30.50W — 175 N by E to NE by N 6 26 ... ... ... 30.29 72 68.5 69 67.5 29.40N 32.14W — 151 NE 3 to 5 27 Finally lost NE trade 30.25 72 68 69 68 30.55N 31.58W — 85 Var. 28 ... ... ... 30.13 70 66.5 67.5 65.5 32.38N 31.39W — 112 WNW 4 to E 2 29 Moderate gale 30.15 68 63 64 62.5 34.54N 31.20W — 130 E 3 to E by S 7 30 Gale increasing. Split mainsail, mizen foresail, and jib 30.33 67 61.5 62.5 62 36.43N 30.40W — 112 ESE 8 to 9 Dec. 1 Gale moderating towards night 30.17 64.5 62.5 63.5 63 37.35N 30.09W — 57 SE [8] [8] 8 to 9 2 Daybreak, made Fayal. Worked up under steam and sail to Pico 30.10 64.5 62.5 65 63 38.42N 28.48W — 92 S by E 8 to 9 3 7 A.M. anchored Horta Bay. 4.30 P.M. weighed 30.10 64.5 62 63.5 62.5 — — 37 — S 3 to 4 4 2 A.M. wind flew suddenly to NNE. 10 A.M. blowing a gale. Bore up for Terceira. Hove to 30.03 64 60.5 60.5 59.5 — — 8 99 NE 5 to 10 5 10 A.M. commenced steaming. 10 P.M. ceased, boiler having finally given out 30.30 64 60 61 60 38.48N 27.22W 11 61 Calm. E 3 6 ... ... ... 30.40 63 60 61 61 39.09N 25.15W 50 55 NE to ENE 3 7 ... ... ... 30.44 63 59 59.5 60 40.59N 23.30W — 135 E to S 3 8 ... ... ... 30.26 63.5 60 60 60 42.43N 20.00W — 190 SW to W 5 to 6 9 ... ... ... 30.10 58 58.5 60 58 45.08N 16.04W — 217 W by [8] S 7 44.53N to 8 10 3.30 A.M. wind fell suddenly. No observations 30.10 54 54.5 54 53 46.11N 13.24W — 134 W by S 8 to NE 11 Weather thick with rain. No observations — 55 53 — — 47.09N 11.10W — 109 SE 2 [8] [8] to 6 12 8 P.M. made Bishop and St. Agnes lights. Position 35 miles to N of reckoning — — — — — 49.17N 7.18W — 201 S by [8] [8] E 6 to SSW 2 13 Weather thick. 4 P.M. made stand near St. Catherine's. 8 P.M. anchored close to the Nab — — — — — 50.13N 2.17W — 230 SSW [8] 7 to 8 14 Towed into Portsmouth Harbour — — — — — — — — 64 —

[Footnote 7: On Gum Mountain.]

[Footnote 8: By account.]

SUMMARY.

Steam Sail

Portsmouth to Bombay 3,040 miles 4,046 miles. Bombay to Macassar 4,585 " 2,509 " Macassar to Adelaide 601 " 3,256 " Adelaide to Port Darwin 976 " 3,285 " Port Darwin to Cape of Good Hope 1,047 " 5,622 " Cape of Good Hope to Portsmouth 831 " 6,668 " ——— ——— 11,080 " 25,386 "

Total distance under steam and sail, 36,466 miles.

* * * * *

(B) THE CRUISE OF THE 'SUNBEAM.'

REPRINTED FROM THE 'TIMES' OF DECEMBER 15, 1887.

The 'Sunbeam' reached Portsmouth Harbour on Wednesday after her long voyage of 36,000 nautical miles among the British Possessions in all parts of the world. We are enabled to give the following short account of this very interesting cruise.

For certain duties of the navy, such as protection of the revenue, supervision of fisheries, the police of the Pacific, instruction in pilotage, small vessels are required which will be thoroughly seaworthy, capable under sail of taking full advantage of the winds, and in calms making fair speed under steam with a low consumption of fuel. It is believed that such a type is represented in the 'Sunbeam,' and that her performances during an extended cruise recently completed may be of interest in a naval point of view.

The principal dimensions of the hull and spars of the 'Sunbeam' are as follows:—Length between perpendiculars, 137 ft.; beam, 27 ft. 6 in.; depth of hold, 13 ft. 9 in.; displacement in tons, 576; sail area in square yards, 9,200.

In fourteen years of active cruising in all parts of the world the seaworthiness of the 'Sunbeam' has been thoroughly tested. Neither when lying to nor scudding has she ever shipped a green sea. She can be worked with a complement of eighteen seamen and three stokers. She can carry an armament of machine and quick-firing guns.

The consumption of fuel may be taken at three tons in twenty-four hours for a speed of 7-3/4 knots; four tons for eight knots; and seven tons for nine knots. The measured-mile speed was 10.27 knots. Seventy tons of coal can be carried.

Under sail alone in the most favourable circumstances 13 knots is an extreme speed. Three hundred knots have been made good on a few occasions, with some contributions to the day's run from current. On a passage the average distance made good is 1,000 miles a week, of which one-third is under steam.

The recent cruise of the 'Sunbeam' included India, the Eastern Archipelago, and Australia. The outward voyage was by the Suez Canal and the return voyage by the Cape. On leaving Portsmouth calls were made at Cowes and Southampton, the departure being finally taken from Plymouth on the 19th of November. Gibraltar was reached on the 26th of November, Algiers on the 1st of December, Malta 5th, Port Said 10th, Assab Bay 19th, Aden 21st of December, and Bombay 3rd of January. From England fine weather was experienced as far as Algiers. Thence to Port Said the winds were strong from the westward, with an interval of calm lasting nearly two days. In the northern portion of the Red Sea fresh northerly winds prevailed. On leaving Aden the north-east monsoon blew with such force that it was decided to make a stretch to the eastward under sail. As the distance from the Arabian coast increased the monsoon gradually abated, and a course was laid under steam direct to Bombay. On nearing the coast of India the monsoon became more northerly, and the 'Sunbeam' fetched Bombay under sail. Having given a general description of the weather, the records of the log-book may be summarised as follows:—Distance under sail, 4,046 knots; distance under steam, 2,830 knots; the average speed in each case being within a fraction of seven knots.

On the first section of the voyage the average speed of 1,000 miles a week was maintained with remarkable uniformity. Bombay was reached on the precise day which had been estimated before leaving England.

After a few days at Bombay the 'Sunbeam' proceeded to Kurrachee, and remained in its salubrious climate from the 10th of January to the 7th of February. Lord Brassey and his family in the interval made an extended journey in North-Western India. The return passage from Kurrachee to Bombay, favoured by a brisk north-east monsoon, was made entirely under sail in less than forty-eight hours, the distance covered on the 9th of February being 268 miles. The Queen's Jubilee was celebrated during the second visit of the 'Sunbeam' to Bombay.

The voyage was resumed on the 22nd of February. Touching at Jinjeera and Goa, Colombo was reached on the 5th of March. The entire distance from Kurrachee to Cape Comorin, including both entering and leaving port, had been accomplished under sail. The monsoon was not felt on the Malabar coast. From Bombay to Cape Comorin the passage was made with the daily sea breezes, blowing fresh in the afternoon, followed by calm prolonged through the night and the first part of the day. Calling at Trincomalee en route, the 'Sunbeam' next proceeded to Burmah. March is a busy season in the rice trade, and a noble fleet of sailing ships was assembled at Rangoon.

After leaving Rangoon the 'Sunbeam' proceeded to Borneo, touching at Moulmein and Singapore. The Sarawak river was reached on the 3rd of April. Following the northern and eastern coast of Borneo, Labuan, Brunei, Kudat Bay, Sandakan, and Darvel Bay were successively visited. Macassar was reached on the 19th of April. In the section of the voyage extending from Bombay to Kurrachee, and thence by the route which has been described, the total distances covered were 4,695 knots under steam at an average speed of 8.3 knots, and 2,509 knots under sail at an average speed of 5.1 knots.

The 'Sunbeam' left Macassar on the evening of the 20th of April. The Indian Ocean was entered from the Allas Straits, which divides the islands of Lombok and Sumbawa, on the 24th. A heavy swell was encountered from the east, caused, as it was afterwards learned, by a cyclone which did great damage to the fleet engaged in the pearl-fishery on the north-west coast of Australia. The South-east Trades were picked up on the 25th, and blew steadily until the 3rd of May. On the 5th of May a gale, with furious squalls, was experienced from the south-west. It was followed by a calm, and afterwards by westerly winds. Albany was reached on the 8th of May. The 'Sunbeam' again put to sea on the 17th of May. A week was occupied on the passage to Adelaide. In the great Australian Bight north-east winds were encountered, gradually shifting to the west, and blowing a gale during the last two days before reaching port. On the day before the arrival at Adelaide the distance of 265 knots was made good; sail having been much reduced for several hours to avoid running down on Kangaroo Island in thick weather at night. Between Macassar and Adelaide a distance of 3,256 knots was covered under sail at an average speed of 6.3 knots. The distance under steam was 601 knots and the average speed seven knots.

From Adelaide the 'Sunbeam' made a smart run to Melbourne, encountering a heavy gale with furious squalls off Cape Otway. After a long stay at Melbourne the voyage was resumed to Sydney, Newcastle, and Brisbane.

On leaving Brisbane the passage was taken inside the Great Barrier Reef without the assistance of a pilot. Fourteen hundred miles of this difficult navigation were traversed under sail. The 'Sunbeam' touched at all the ports of Northern Queensland, and between Cooktown and the Albany Pass anchored in the three intervening nights under the lee of the coral reefs. A somewhat prolonged stay at Thursday Island was broken by a visit to Darnley Island and other anchorages in the Torres Straits. Port Darwin was reached on the 8th of September. Between Adelaide and Port Darwin the distance under sail was 3,311 knots, and the average speed 7.2 knots. The distance under steam was 966 knots, and the average speed 6.5 knots. On arrival at Port Darwin the 'Sunbeam' had completed successfully the circumnavigation of the Australian continent. Unhappily the cruise, so auspiciously commenced, ended with that painful event which has cast a dark shadow over all its other memories.

From Port Darwin to the Cape of Good Hope, and thence to Sierra Leone, the voyage lay for the most part within the zone of the South-east Trades. Rodriguez Island was sighted on the 26th of September, and Mauritius was reached two days later. The passage from Port Louis to Algoa Bay occupied 11 days. To the southward of the Trades, off the coast of Natal, a short but severe gale from the south-west was encountered. The gale was followed by a fresh breeze from the east, which carried the 'Sunbeam' rapidly to the westward from off Gordon Bay, her landfall on the coast of Africa. A day was spent at Port Elizabeth, and two days of rapid sailing before an easterly wind brought the yacht into Table Bay on the morning of the 15th of October, just in time to gain the anchorage before one of the hard gales from the south-east set in which are not infrequently experienced at the Cape. The construction of a noble breakwater has given complete security to the anchorage off Cape Town.

Between Port Darwin and the Cape the distance covered was 1,047 knots under steam and 5,622 knots under sail; the average speed under steam and sail was exactly eight knots. In the fortnight from September 13 to 27, 3,073 knots, giving an average speed of nine knots, were covered under sail alone, with winds of moderate strength. Balloon canvas was freely used.

The 'Sunbeam' left Cape Town on the 24th of October. She touched at St. Helena on the 3rd of November, Ascension on the 7th, and Sierra Leone on the 14th. In this section of the voyage the distance under canvas was 3,327 knots, the average speed 7.7 knots; and the distance under steam 289 knots, with an average speed of seven knots. The South-east Trades were light, and balloon canvas again proved extremely serviceable.

The 'Sunbeam' left Sierra Leone at sunset on the 15th of November, under steam. The North-east Trades were picked up in latitude 11 deg. N. A call of a few hours was made at Porto Praya on the 19th of November. On the following day the northern islands of the Cape Verde group were sighted. During the 21st and 22nd of November a great number of sailing ships were passed, outward bound. The Trades were interrupted by a calm on the 24th of November and stopped finally on the 27th. On the following day, without warning from the barometer, a strong gale commenced from the east, and lasted without intermission for four days. Under low canvas and close hauled the 'Sunbeam' gallantly struggled forward, making 130 knots on the 29th of November, and on the three following days 112, 57, and 92 knots respectively. While hove-to in this gale the canvas was severely punished. All the lower sails were more or less damaged, and sail was reduced to storm trysails. Two large barques were passed lying-to under lower main topsails and mizzen storm staysails. At dawn on the 2nd of December Fayal was sighted.

Shelter was obtained for 24 hours under the lee of the island of Pico, and on the following day the 'Sunbeam' anchored off Horta, the port of Fayal. The passage from Sierra Leone to Fayal had been accomplished, with adverse winds during a considerable part of the voyage, in 16-1/2 days, 2,005 knots being covered under sail at an average speed of 6.3 knots, and 460 miles under steam at an average speed of six knots. Having taken in water and provisions, the voyage was resumed on the evening of the 3rd of December, with a favourable wind from the south-south-east. At midnight the wind shifted suddenly to the north-east, and on the following morning the 'Sunbeam' bore up before a severe gale for shelter under the lee of Terceira.

On the 5th of December the gale subsided to a calm, and the voyage homewards was commenced under steam. In a few hours the engines broke down, and sail was made to a light breeze from the north-east. In the succeeding days favourable winds were experienced from the westward. On the 11th the wind shifted to the south-east, accompanied by drizzling rain and fog, rendering observations impossible, which continued until the Scilly Island lights were sighted in a fortunate lifting of the haze on the evening of the 12th. The run from the Scilly Islands to Spithead was made at the rate of 11-1/2 knots before a south-westerly gale. The total distance from Fayal, including the call at Terceira, was 1,440 miles, of which 60 only were under steam. The average speed was seven knots. The 'Sunbeam' entered Portsmouth Harbour at noon on the 14th of December. The total distance covered during the voyage was 36,709 nautical miles, 25,800 under sail and 10,909 under steam. The runs under sail only included 39 days over 200 knots, 15 days over 240, seven days over 260, three days over 270. The best day was 282 knots. The total consumption of coal was 330 tons. Though the quality taken in abroad was in many instances inferior, an average distance of 33 knots was steamed for every ton of coals consumed.

When the 'Sunbeam' reached the Cape it was found that the tubes of the boiler had been seriously injured by the great varieties of fuel burnt during the voyage. The pressure of steam was considerably reduced, with a corresponding loss of speed. On leaving Terceira the boiler broke down completely, and for the remainder of the voyage the winds were the only resource.

The crew, consisting of 24 men in various ratings, have behaved in a highly creditable manner. The offences when in port have been few, and at sea every duty has been carried out in a manner worthy of British seamen. Three men joined at King George's Sound. They had been sentenced to a short term of imprisonment for insubordination on board a yacht returning from a cruise in Australian waters. To oblige the Government Resident, Lord Brassey consented to receive these men on board on trial. Better men it would not have been possible to obtain had they been recruited through the usual agencies.



PART III.

SPEECHES IN AUSTRALIA, TO WHICH SPECIAL REFERENCE IS MADE IN THE LAST JOURNAL OF LADY BRASSEY. REPRINTED FROM THE AUSTRALIAN PRESS.

ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF AUSTRALASIA.

ADELAIDE, MAY 27TH, 1887.

The annual meeting of the South Australian Branch of the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia was held at the Society's rooms, Waymouth Street, on Friday afternoon, May 27th. Sir Samuel Davenport (Vice-President) occupied the chair.

The ordinary business of the meeting having been concluded, and speeches of welcome having been delivered by the Chairman, Lord Brassey said: 'You have spoken of the voyages that have been taken on the "Sunbeam" as adventures not unworthy of those old Northmen in whose distant fame England and Australia equally share. I cannot take to myself the credit of being an adventurer in the same sense in which our northern forefathers were adventurers. I will not speak of the morality of their proceedings, but simply of the feats of navigation in which they engaged. Those northern forefathers of ours were not provided with all the information which geographers and explorers have given to the navigators of modern days. Consider for a moment the hazards and the difficulties encountered by Captain Cook. Going about as I do with all the facilities afforded by the most recent discoveries in science, and still finding the art of navigation not made so very easy, I confess that when I look back to a great man like Captain Cook, who entered these seas with no information, and with no other resource but his general seamanship and knowledge of navigation, my admiration of his achievements grows continually stronger. I particularly rejoice that so excellent a society as this has been established in Adelaide. I understand it is a society collateral with others which exist in the other colonies of Australia. It seems to me that you are doing a most valuable work. Exploration must precede settlement. It is a necessary process, by which alone you can arrive at the proper settlement and development of this country. A previous speaker expressed deep satisfaction that the control of this fifth continent had devolved on the Anglo-Saxon race. In coming to these colonies I touched at two seaports, which, by the contrast they present, brought forcibly to my mind the advantage of a liberal policy in dealing with commerce. The two ports to which I refer are Singapore and Macassar. Singapore dates from some fifty or sixty years ago at the most, but it has grown to a magnificent emporium of trade; and how has it reached that position? By declaring on the very first day that the protecting flag of England was hoisted that equal privileges should be given to men of commerce to whatever nationality they might belong. When we turn to Macassar—a place which might be not unfairly compared in regard to facilities of position with Singapore—we find the Dutch determined to close it to the enterprise of every foreign nationality. The result of this selfish spirit is that Macassar presents all the indications of languor and decay, while Singapore presents all the indications of prosperity and wealth. Before I sit down, may I refer to some portion of the report, in which reference was made to recent spheres of exploration in which the society is interested? You refer to the exploration of New Guinea. There are some delicate questions connected with New Guinea, on which I certainly shall not now touch, but I may say that what I have seen of the world has tended to impress on my mind most deeply the conviction that latitude does fix in a very decisive manner a limitation upon the sphere of the Anglo-Saxon race for direct physical labour. I feel convinced that unless you have temperate weather, such as we are now enjoying in Adelaide, to make up for the hot season, the Anglo-Saxon race cannot undertake outdoor labour. You may direct and administer it; you may be able to go through figures in the office; but, to go out into the field to dig and delve is impossible. Despite this, however, the tropical countries may prove of inestimable benefit. Although they may not be suitable for the employment of the Anglo-Saxons as field labourers, it does not follow that they are not to be of great benefit—even a direct benefit—to our own race in regard to the employment of labour. If we can succeed in developing these tropical regions by employing the labour of the tropical races, the increasing prosperity will serve to extend the markets for the products of Anglo-Saxon labour in countries adapted to our race. A visit to Australia must be a matter of deep interest to every patriotic Englishman. In the old country we are becoming more and more sensible that it is the highest statesmanship to keep together every limb of the British Empire. There is an increasing affection to the colonies in England, and an increasing pride in their advancement. National sentiment and enlightened self-interest will bind and keep us together, so that not one limb of the great British Empire shall be severed. I have said more than strictly belongs to the motion, but I was prompted to do so by my friend in the chair. I move a vote of thanks to the Chairman.'

* * * * *

ADELAIDE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.

ADELAIDE, JUNE 1ST, 1887.

The hall of the Chamber of Commerce was crowded on Wednesday afternoon, it having been announced that Lord Brassey would deliver an address. The audience included most of the prominent merchants of the city, and others interested in commerce, and Dr. Kennion, the Anglican Bishop of Adelaide. Mr. A.W. Meeks presided, and said that a special meeting of the Chamber had been called to hear Lord Brassey give an address on mercantile affairs. The Committee knew the great interest he (Lord Brassey) had taken in all matters referring to maritime and mercantile affairs, and the voyages made in the 'Sunbeam' had made Lady Brassey well known. Lord Brassey's father was well known in connection with great public works.

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