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The Lady's Own Cookery Book, and New Dinner-Table Directory;
by Charlotte Campbell Bury
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Pigeons, biscuit of.

Wash, clean, and parboil, your pigeons, and stew them in strong broth. Have a ragout made for them of strong gravy, with artichoke bottoms and onions, seasoning them with the juice of lemons, and lemons diced, truffles, mushrooms, morels, and bacon cut as for lard. Pour the broth into a dish with dried sippets, and, after placing your pigeons, pour on the ragout. Garnish with scalded parsley, lemons, and beet-root.

Pigeons, en compote. No. 1.

The pigeons must be young and white, and the inside entirely taken out. Let none of the heart or liver remain, which is apt to render them bitter. Make some forcemeat of veal, and fill the pigeons with it; then put them in a braise, with some bacon, a slice of lemon, a little thyme, and bay-leaf, and let them stew gently for an hour. The sauce is made of cucumbers and mushrooms, and they must be sweated in a little butter till tender; then strain it off the butter, and put in some strong gravy and a little flour to thicken it. Lastly, add the yolks of two eggs and a little good cream, which, when put to it, must be well stirred, and not suffered to boil, as it would curdle and spoil the sauce.

Pigeons, en compote. No. 2.

Have the birds trussed with their legs in their bodies, but stuffed with forcemeat; parboil and lard them with fat bacon; season with pepper, spices, parsley, and minced chives; stew them very gently. While they are stewing, make a ragout of fowls' livers, cocks'-combs, truffles, morels, and mushrooms, and put a little bacon in the frying-pan to melt; put them in, and shake the pan three or four times round; then add some rich gravy, and let it simmer a little, and put in some veal cullis and ham to thicken it. Drain the pigeons, and put them into this ragout; let them just simmer; take them up, put them into your dish, and pour the ragout over.

Pigeons, en compote. No. 3.

Lard, truss, and force them; season and stew them in strong broth. Have a ragout garnished with sippets, sweetbreads, and sprigs of parsley; then fry the pigeons in a batter of eggs and sliced bacon. You may garnish most dishes in the same way.

Pigeons, a la Crapaudine.

Cut the birds open down the back, and draw the legs through the skin inside, as you would do a boiled fowl, then put into a roomy saucepan some butter, a little parsley, thyme, shalots, and, if you can have them, mushrooms, all chopped together very fine. Put the pigeons in this, and let them sweat in the butter and herbs for about five minutes. While they are warm and moist with the herbs and butter, cover them all over with fine bread crumbs; sprinkle a little salt upon them, and boil them on a slow fire. The sauce may be either of mushrooms or cucumbers, made by sweating whichever you choose in butter till quite tender, then adding a little gravy, cream, and flour.

Pigeons in disguise.

Draw, truss, and season the pigeons with salt and pepper, and make a nice puff; roll each pigeon in a piece of it; tie them in a cloth, but be careful not to let the paste break. Boil them in plenty of water for an hour and a half; and when you untie them take great care they do not break; put them into a dish, and pour a little good gravy to them.

Pigeons in fricandeau.

Draw and truss the pigeons with the legs in the bellies, larding them with bacon, and slit them. Fry them of a fine brown in butter: put into the stewpan a quart of good gravy, a little lemon-pickle, a tea-spoonful of walnut ketchup, cayenne, a little salt, a few truffles, morels, and some yolks of hard eggs. Pour your sauce with its ingredients over the pigeons, when laid in the dish.

Pigeons aux Poires.

Let the feet be cut off, and stuff them with forcemeat, in the shape of a pear, rolling them in the yolk of an egg and crumbs of bread, putting in at the lower end to make them look like pears. Rub your dish with a piece of butter, and then lay them over it, but not to touch each other, and bake them. When done, lay them in another dish, and pour some good gravy into it, thickening with the yolk of an egg; but take care not to pour it over the pigeons.

Another way.

Cut off one leg; truss the pigeons to boil, and let the leg come out of the vent; fill them with forcemeat: tie them with packthread, and stew them in good broth. Roll the pigeons in yolks of eggs, well beaten with crumbs of bread. Lard your stewpan, but not too hot, and fry your birds to the colour of a popling pear; lay them in a dish, and send up gravy and orange in a terrine with them.

Pigeons, Pompeton of.

Butter your pan, lay in it some sliced bacon, and cover all the inside of it with forcemeat. Brown the pigeons off in a pan, and put them in a good ragout, stewing them up together, and put also a good ladleful of ragout to the forcemeat: then lay your pigeons breast downward, and pour over them the ragout that remains; cover them with forcemeat, and bake them. Turn them out, and serve up.

Pigeons au Soleil.

Make some forcemeat, with half a pound of veal, a quarter of a pound of mutton, and two ounces of beef, and beat them in a mortar with salt, pepper, and mace, till they become paste. Beat up the yolks of four eggs, put them into a plate, and mix two ounces of flour and a quarter of a pound of grated bread. Set on your stewpan with a little rich beef gravy; tie up three or four cloves in a piece of muslin, and put into it; then put your pigeons in, and stew them till nearly done; set them before the fire to keep warm, and with some good beef dripping in your pan, enough to cover the birds, set it on the fire; when boiling, take one at a time, and roll it in the meat that was beaten, then in the yolk of an egg, till they are quite wet; strew them with bread and flour in boiling dripping, and let them remain till brown.

Pigeons a la Tatare, with Cold Sauce.

Singe and truss the pigeons as for boiling, and beat them flat, but not so as to break the skin; season them with salt, pepper, cloves, and mace. Dip them in melted butter and grated bread; lay them on a gridiron, and turn them often. Should the fire not be clear, lay them upon a sheet of paper buttered, to keep them from being smoked. For sauce, take a piece of onion or shalot, an anchovy, and two spoonfuls of pickled cucumbers, capers, and mushrooms: mince these very small by themselves; add a little pepper and salt, five spoonfuls of oil, one of water, and the juice of a lemon, and mix them well together with mustard. Pour the sauce cold into the dish, and lay the birds, when broiled, upon it.

Pigeons, Surtout of.

Take some large tame pigeons; make forcemeat thus: parboil and bruise the livers fine; beat some boiled ham in a mortar; mix these with some mushrooms, a little chopped parsley, a clove of garlic shred fine, two or three young onions minced fine, a sweetbread of veal, parboiled and minced very fine, pepper, and salt. Fill the pigeons with this stuffing; tie them close, and cover each pigeon with the forcemeat: tie them up in paper to keep it on, and while roasting have some essence of ham heated; pour it into your dish, and lay your pigeons upon it.

To preserve tainted Poultry.

Have a large cask that has been just emptied, with part of a stave or two knocked out at the head, and into the others drive hooks to hang your fowls, but not so as to touch one another, covering the open places with the staves or boards already knocked out, but leaving the bung-hole open as an air vent. Let them dry in a cool place, and in this way you may keep fish or flesh.

Pullets with Oysters.

Boil your pullets. Put a quart of oysters over the fire till they are set; strain them through a sieve, saving the liquor, and put into it two or three blades of mace, with a little thyme, an onion, parsley, and two anchovies. Boil and strain all these off, together with half a pound of butter; draw it up, and squeeze into it half a lemon. Then let the oysters be washed, and set one by one in cold water; put them in the liquor, having made it very hot, and pour it over the pullets. Garnish, if you please, with bacon and sausages.

Pullets to bone and farce.

Bone the pullets as whole as you possibly can, and fill the belly with sweetbreads, mushrooms, chesnuts, and forcemeat balls; lard the breast with gross lard, pass them off in a pan, and either roast or stew them, making a sauce with mushrooms and oysters, and lay them under.

Rabbits, to boil.

Truss and lard them with bacon, boiling them white. Take the liver, shred with it fat bacon for sauce, and put to it very strong broth, vinegar, white wine, salt, nutmeg, mace, minced parsley, barberries, and drawn butter. Lay your rabbits in the dish, and let the sauce be poured over them. Garnish the dish with barberries and lemon.

Rabbits, to boil with Onions.

Truss the rabbits close; well wash; boil them white; boil the onions by themselves, changing the water three times. Strain them well, and chop and butter them, putting in a quarter of a pint of cream; then serve up the rabbits covered with onions.

Rabbits, brown fricassee of.

Fry your rabbits brown, and stew it in some gravy, with thyme, an onion, and parsley, tied together. Season, and thicken it with brown thickening, a few morels, mushrooms, lemon, and forcemeat balls.

Rabbits, white fricassee of. No. 1.

Cut the rabbits in slices; wash away the blood; fry them on a slow fire, and put them into your pan with a little strong broth; seasoning, and tossing them up with oysters and mushrooms. When almost done, put in a pint of cream, thickened with a piece of butter and flour.

Rabbits, white fricassee of. No. 2.

Take the yolks of five eggs and a pint of cream; beat them together, and put two ounces of butter into the cream, until the rabbits are tender. Put in this liquor to the rabbits, and keep tossing them over the fire till they become thickened, and then squeeze in a lemon; add truffles, mushrooms, morels, artichoke bottoms, pallets, cocks-combs, forcemeat balls, or any of these.

Rabbits, white fricassee of. No. 3.

Cut them in the same manner as for eating, and put them into a stewpan, with a pint of veal gravy, a little beaten mace, a slice of lemon-peel, and anchovy, and season with cayenne pepper and salt. Stew over a slow fire, and, when done enough, thicken the gravy with butter and flour; then strain and add to it two eggs, mixed with a glass of cream, and a little nutmeg. Take care not to let it boil.

Turkey, to boil.

Fill a large turkey with oysters; take a breast of veal, cut in olives; bone it, and season it with pepper, salt, nutmegs, cloves, mace, lemon-peel, and thyme, cut small; take some lean veal to make forcemeat, with the ingredients before mentioned, only adding shalot and anchovies; put some in the olives and some in the turkey, in a cloth; roast or bake the olives. Take three anchovies, a little pepper, a quarter of a pint of gravy, as much white wine; boil these with a little thyme till half is consumed; then put in some butter, meat, oysters, mushrooms, fried balls, and bacon; put all these in a pan, and pour on the turkey; lay the olives round, and garnish the dish with pickles and lemon. If you want sauce, add a little gravy, and serve it up.

Turkey, with Oysters.

Boil your turkey, and serve with the same sauce as for pullets, only adding a few mushrooms.

Turkey a la Daube.

Bone a turkey, and season it with pepper and salt; spread over it some slices of ham, over them some forcemeat, over that a fowl, boned, and seasoned as the turkey, then more ham and forcemeat, and sew it up. Cover the bottom of a stewpan with veal and ham cut in slices; lay in the turkey breast downward: chop all the bones to pieces, and lay them on the turkey; cover the pan close, and set it over the fire for five minutes. Put as much clear broth as will cover it, and let it do for two hours. When it is more than half done, put in one ounce of the best isinglass and a bundle of sweet-herbs; skim off all the fat, and, when it is cold, break it with whites of eggs as you do other jelly. Put part of it into a pan or mould that will hold the turkey, and, when it is cold, lay the turkey upon it with the breast downward; then cover it with the rest of the jelly. When you serve it, turn it out whole upon the dish.

Roasted Turkey, delicate Gravy for.

Prepare a very rich brown gravy with truffles cut in it; slit the skins off some chesnuts with a knife, and fry them in butter till thoroughly done, but not burned, and serve them whole in the sauce. There may be a few sausages about the turkey.

Turkey or Veal stuffing.

Mix a quarter of a pound of beef suet, the same quantity of bread crumbs, two drachms of parsley, a drachm and a half of sweet marjoram, or lemon-thyme, and the same of grated lemon-peel; an onion or shalot chopped fine, a little salt and pepper, and the yolks of two eggs, all pounded well together. For a boiled turkey, add the soft part of a dozen oysters, a little grated ham or tongue, and an anchovy, if you please.



GAME.

Hare, to dress.

Stuff and lard the hare, trussing it as for roasting: put it into a fish-kettle, with two quarts of strong beef gravy, one of red wine, a bunch of sweet-herbs, some slices of lemon, pepper, salt, a few cloves, and a nutmeg. Cover it up close, and let it simmer over a slow fire till three parts done. Take it up, put it into a dish, and strew over it crumbs of bread, a few sweet-herbs chopped fine, some grated lemon-peel, and half a nutmeg. Set it before the fire, and baste it till it is of a fine light brown; and, while it is doing, skim the gravy, thicken it with the yolk of an egg and a piece of butter rolled in flour, and, when done, put it in a dish, and the rest in a boat or terrine.

Hare, to roast.

Take half a pint of cream, grate bread into it; a little winter savory, thyme, and parsley; shred these very fine; half a nutmeg grated, and half of the hare's liver, shred; beat an egg, yolk and white together, and mix it in with it, and half a spoonful of flour if you think it too light. Put it into the hare and sew it up. Have a quart of cream to baste it with. When the hare is roasted, take some of the best of the cream out of the dripping-pan, and make it fine and smooth by beating it with a spoon. Have ready melted a little thick butter, and mix it with the cream, and a little of the pudding out of the hare's belly, as much as will make it thick.

Another way.

Lard the hare well with bacon; make a pudding of grated bread, and chop small the heart and liver, parboiled, with beef-suet and sweet-herbs. With the marrow mix some eggs, spice, and cream; then sew it in the belly of the hare; roast, and serve it up with butter, drawn with cream, gravy, or claret.

Hare, to hash.

Cut the hare into small pieces, and, if any stuffing is left, rub it small in gravy, and put to it a glass of red wine, a little pepper, salt, an onion, and a slice of lemon. Toss it up till hot through, and then take out the lemon and onion.

Hare, to jug. No. 1.

Cut and put it into a jug, with the same ingredients as for stewing, but no water or beer; cover it closely; set it in a kettle of boiling water, and keep it boiling three hours, or until the hare is tender; then pour your gravy into the stewpan, and put to it a glass of red wine and a little cayenne; but if necessary put a little more of the gravy, thicken it with flour; boil it up; pour it over the hare, and add a little lemon-juice.

Hare, to jug. No. 2.

Cut and joint the hare into pieces; scald the liver and bruise it with a spoon; mix it with a little beaten mace, grated lemon-peel, pepper, salt, thyme, and parsley shred fine, and a whole onion stuck with a clove or two; lay the head and neck at the bottom of the jar; lay on it some seasoning, a very thin slice of fat bacon, then some hare, and bacon, seasoned well in. Stop close the jug or jar with a cork, to prevent any water getting in or the steam evaporating; set it in a pot of hot water, and let it boil three hours; then have ready some strong beef gravy boiling, and pour it into the jug till the hare is just covered; shake it, pour it into your dish, and take out the onion.

Hare, to jug. No. 3.

Cut the hare in pieces, but do not wash it; season with an onion shred fine, a bunch of sweet-herbs, such as thyme, parsley, sweet marjoram, and the peel of one lemon. Cut half a pound of fat bacon into thin slices; then put it into a jug, first a layer of hare and then one of bacon; proceed thus till the jug is full: stop it close, that no steam may escape; then put it in a pot of boiling water, and let it boil three hours. Take up the jug; put in a quarter of a pound of butter mixed with flour; set it in your kettle again for a quarter of an hour, then put it in your dish. Garnish with lemon-peel.

Hare, to jug. No. 4.

Cut the hare in pieces, and half season and lard them. Put the hare into a large-mouthed jug, with two onions stuck with cloves, and a faggot of sweet-herbs; close down, and let it boil three hours. Take it out, and serve up hot.

Hare, to mince.

Boil the hare with onions, parsley, and apples, till tender; shred it small, and put in a pint of claret, a little pepper, salt, and nutmeg, with two or three anchovies, and the yolks of twelve eggs boiled hard and shred very small; stirring all well together. In serving up, put sufficient melted butter to make it moist. Garnish the dish with whites of eggs, cut in half, and some of the bones.

Hare, to stew.

Cut off the legs and shoulders, and cut out the back bone; cut into slices the meat that comes off the sides: put all these into a vessel with three quarters of a pint of small beer, the same of water, a large onion stuck with cloves, whole pepper, some salt, and a slice of lemon. Let this stew gently for an hour closely covered, and then put a quart of good gravy to it, stewing it gently two hours longer, till tender. Take out the hare, and rub half a spoonful of smooth flour in a little gravy; put it to the sauce and boil it up; add a little cayenne and salt if necessary; put in the hare, and, when hot through, serve it up in a terrine stand.

Hare stuffing.

Two ounces of beef suet, three ounces of bread crumbs, a drachm of parsley, half a drachm of shalot, the same of marjoram, lemon-thyme, grated lemon-peel, and two yolks of egg.

Partridge, to boil.

Cover them with water, and fifteen minutes will boil them. Sauce—celery, liver, mushroom, or onion sauces.

Partridge, to roast.

Half an hour will be sufficient; and for sauce, gravy and bread sauce.

Partridge a la Paysanne.

When you have picked and drawn them, truss and put them on a skewer, tie them to a spit, and lay them to roast. Put a piece of fat bacon on a toasting fork, and hold it over the birds, that as it melts it may drop upon them while roasting. After basting them well in this manner, strew over a few crumbs of bread and a little salt, cut fine some shalots, with a little gravy, salt and pepper, and the juice of half a lemon. Mix all these over the fire; thicken them up; pour them into a dish, and lay your partridges upon them.

Partridge a la Polonaise.

Pick and draw a brace of partridges, and put a piece of butter in their bellies; nut them on the spit, and cover them with slices of bacon, and over that with paper, and lay them down to a moderate fire. While roasting, cut same shalots and parsley very small; mix these together, adding slices of ginger with pepper and salt; take a piece of butter, and work them up into a stiff paste. When the birds are nearly done, take them up; gently raise the wings and legs, and under each put a piece of paste; then hold them tight together, and squeeze over them a little orange juice and a good deal of zest from the peel. Serve them up hot with good gravy.

Partridge a la Russe.

Pick, draw, and cut into quarters some young partridges, and put them into white wine; set a stewpan with melted bacon over a brisk fire; then put your partridges in, turning them two or three times. Add a glass of brandy; set them over a slow fire, and, when they have stewed some time, put in a few mushrooms cut into slices, with good gravy. Simmer them briskly, and skim the fat off as it rises. When done, put in a piece of butter rolled in flour, and squeeze in the juice of lemon.

Partridge rolled.

Lard some young partridges with ham and bacon, and strew over some salt and pepper, with beaten mace, sweet-herbs cut small, and some shred lemon-peel. Take some thin beef steaks, taking care that they have no holes in them, and strew over some seasoning, squeezing over some lemon-juice. Lay a partridge upon each steak, roll it up, and tie it round to keep it together, and pepper the outside. Set on a stewpan, with some slices of bacon and an onion cut in pieces; then carefully lay the partridges in, put some rich gravy to them, and stew gently till they are done. Take the partridges out of the beef; lay them in a dish, and pour over them some rich essence of ham.

Partridge stewed.

Stuff the craws with bread crumbs, grated lemon-peel, a bit of butter, shalot chopped, parsley, nutmeg, salt and pepper, and yolk of egg; rub the inside with pepper and salt. Half roast them; then stew them with rich gravy and a little Madeira, a piece of lemon-peel, an onion, savory, and spice, if necessary, for about half an hour. Take out the lemon-peel and onion, and thicken with a little flour; garnish with hard yolks of eggs; add artichoke bottoms boiled and quartered.

Salme of Partridges.

Cut up the partridges neatly into wings, legs, and breast; keep the backs and rumps apart to put into sauce; take off all the skin very clean, so that not a bit remains; then pare them all round, put them in a stewpan, with a little jelly gravy, just to cover them; heat them thoroughly, taking care they do not burn; strain off the gravy, and leave the partridge in the pan away from the fire, covering the pan. Take a large onion, three or four slices of ham, free from all fat, one carrot, cut in dice, a dessert-spoonful of mushrooms, clear washed from vinegar if they are pickled, two cloves, a little parsley and thyme, and a bit of butter, of the size of a walnut; fry these lightly; add a glass and a half of white wine, together with the jelly in which the partridges were heated, and as much more as will make up a pint of rich sauce, thickened with a little flour and butter; put in the parings of the birds except the claws; let them stew for an hour and a half on the corner of the stove; skim very clear; put in one lump of sugar, and strain the whole through a sieve; put the saucepan containing the partridges in boiling water, till thoroughly heated; lay the different parts of the birds neatly in a very hot dish; pour the sauce over them; have some slices of bread cut oval, rather broad at one end, neatly fried; lay them round the dish, and serve up.

Partridge, to pot.

For two brace of partridges take a small handful of salt, and of pepper, mace, and cloves, a quarter of an ounce each. With these, when well mixed, rub the birds thoroughly, inside and outside. Take a large piece of butter, season it well, put it into them, and lay them in pots, with the breasts downward. The pots must be large enough to admit the butter to cover them while they bake. Set them in a moderate oven; let them stand two hours; then take them out, and let them well drain from the gravy. Put them again into the pots; clear the butter in which they were baked through a sieve, and fill up the pots with it.

Partridge Pie.

Bone your partridges, and stuff them with forcemeat, made of breast of chicken and veal, ham and beef-suet, all chopped very fine, but not pounded in a mortar, which would spoil it. Season with mace, pepper, salt, a very little shalot, and lemon-peel. Put the whole into a stewpan; keep it stirred; add three eggs; have a raised crust, and lay thin slices of good fat bacon at the bottom and all round.

Pheasant, to boil.

Boil the birds in abundance of water; if they are large, they will require three quarters of an hour; if small, about half an hour. For sauce—stewed white celery, thickened with cream, and a bit of butter rolled in flour; pour this over them.

Pheasant, with white sauce.

Truss the bird with the legs inward, (like a fowl for boiling); singe it well; take a little butter and the fat of some bacon, and fry the pheasant white; when sufficiently firm, take it out of the pan; then put a spoonful of flour into the butter; fry this flour white; next add a pint of veal or game jelly; put in a few mushrooms, if pickled to be well washed; cut small a bunch of parsley, a large onion, a little thyme, one clove, a pinch of salt, cayenne pepper, and a small lump of sugar; stew the bird in this sauce till done; this may be known by putting a fork into the flesh, and seeing that no blood issues out; then skim off the fat and drain the pheasant; then strain and boil the gravy in which it has been stewed; have ready a few mushrooms fried white in butter; then thicken the gravy with the yolk of four eggs and two table-spoonfuls of cream, throw in the mushrooms, place the pheasant in a hot dish, pour the sauce over it, and serve it up.

Pheasant a la Braise.

Put a layer of beef, the same of veal, at the bottom of the stewpan, with a thin slice of bacon, a little bit of carrot, an onion stuck with cloves, a bunch of sweet-herbs, some black and white pepper, and a little beaten mace, and put in your pheasant; put over it a layer of veal and the same of beef; set it on the fire for five or six minutes; then pour two quarts of boiling water, cover it down close, and put a damp cloth round the outside of the cover to prevent the steam escaping: it must stew gently for an hour and a half; then take up the pheasant and keep it hot, and let the gravy stew till reduced to about a pint; strain it off, and put it into a saucepan, with a sweetbread, which must have been stewed with the bird, some liver of fowls, morels, truffles, artichoke bottoms, and the tops of asparagus, and let these simmer in the gravy; add two spoonfuls of red wine and of ketchup, and a piece of butter rolled in flour; let them stew for five or six minutes: lay the pheasant in the dish, pour the ragout over it, and lay forcemeat balls round it.

Pheasant a l'Italienne.

Cut the liver small: and to one bird take but six oysters; parboil them, and put them into a stewpan with the liver, a piece of butter, some parsley, green onions, pepper and salt, sweet-herbs, and a little allspice; let them stand a little over the fire, and stuff the pheasant with them; then put it into a stewpan, with some oil, green onions, sweet basil, parsley, and lemon juice, for a few minutes; take them off, cover your pheasant with slices of bacon, and put it upon a spit, tying some paper round it while roasting. Then take some oysters, and stew them in their own liquor a little, and put in your stewpan four yolks of eggs, half a lemon cut in dice, a little beaten pepper, scraped nutmeg, parsley cut small, an anchovy cut small, a rocambole, a little oil, a small glass of white wine, a little of ham cullis; put the sauce over the fire to thicken, then put in the oysters, and make the sauce relishing, and, when the pheasant is done, lay it in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.

Pheasant, Pure of.

Chop the fleshy parts of a pheasant, the wings, breast, and legs, very fine, and pound them well in a mortar. Warm a pint of veal jelly, and stew the bird in it. Strain the whole through a sieve. Mix it all to the consistency of mashed potatoes. Serve in a dish with fried bread round it.

Widgeon, to dress.

To eat widgeon in perfection, half roast the birds. When they come to table, slice the breast, strew on pepper and salt, pour on a little red wine, and squeeze the juice of an orange or lemon over; put some gravy to this; set the plate on a lamp; cut up the bird; let it remain over the lamp till enough done, turning it. A widgeon will take nearly twenty minutes to roast, to eat plain with good gravy only.

Wild Duck, to roast.

It will take full twenty minutes—gravy sauce to eat with it.

Woodcocks and Snipes, to roast.

Twenty minutes will roast the woodcocks, and fifteen the snipes. Put under either, while roasting, a toast to receive the trail, which lay under them in the dish. Melted butter and good gravy for sauce.

Woodcocks a la Francaise.

Pick them, then draw and truss them; let their breasts be larded with broad pieces of bacon; roast and serve them up on toasts dipped in verjuice.

Woodcocks, to pot.

The same as you pot pigeons.



SAUCES.

Essence of Anchovies.

Take two pounds of anchovies, one ounce of bay salt, three pints of spring water, half a gill of red port, half a gill mushroom ketchup; put them into a saucepan until the anchovies are all dissolved; let them boil; strain off the liquor with a one hair sieve, and be careful not to cork it until it is quite cold.

Anchovy Pickle.

Take two pounds of bay salt, three quarters of a pound of saltpetre, three pints of spring water, and a very little bole armeniac, to grate on the liquor to give it a colour; it must not be put to the anchovies until it is cold.

If anchovies are quite dry, put them into a jar, with a layer of bay salt at the bottom, and a little on the top.

Anchovy Sauce.

Take one or two anchovies; scale, split, and put them into a saucepan, with a little water, or good broth, a spoonful of vinegar, and a small round onion. When the anchovy is quite dissolved, strain off the liquor, and put into your melted butter to your taste.

To recover Anchovies.

When anchovies have, through the loss of the pickle, become rusty or decayed, put two pounds of saltpetre to a gallon of water, and boil it till reduced to a fourth part, continuing to skim it as it rises; then add a quarter of an ounce of crystal tartar; mix these, and stir them well. Take away the spoiled fish, put them together lightly, and pour in the new pickle, mixed with a pint of good old pickle, and stop them up close for twenty-four days. When you open them again, cover them with fine beaten bay salt; let them remain about four days; and, as you take them out for use, cover them carefully down.

Bacchanalian Sauce.

Take a spoonful of sweet oil, a gill of good broth, and a pint of white wine vinegar, adding two glasses of strong white wine: boil them together till half is consumed; then put in some shalot, garden cresses, tarragon, chervil, parsley, and scallions, all shred very fine, with some large pepper. Let the whole boil up, and serve it. A little cullis added will improve it.

Bechamel, or White Sauce. No. 1.

Take half a quarter of a pound of butter, three pounds of veal, cut into small slices, a quarter of a pound of ham, some trimmings of mushrooms, truffles, and morels, two white onions, a bunch of parsley, and thyme, put the whole into a stewpan, and set it on the fire till the meat is made firm; then put in three spoonfuls of flour, moistened with boiling hot thin cream. Keep this sauce rather thin, so that while you reduce it the ingredients may have time to be stewed thoroughly. Season with a little salt and cayenne pepper, and strain it through a sieve. This is excellent for pouring over roast veal instead of butter, and is a good sauce for hashed veal, for any white meat, and for all sorts of vegetables.

Bechamel. No. 2.

Two pounds of lean veal, cut in square pieces, half an inch thick; half a pound of lean ham. Melt in your stewpan two ounces of butter; simmer it until nearly ready to catch the stewpan, which must be avoided: add three table-spoonfuls of flour. When well mixed, add three pints of broth, or water, pouring in a little at a time that the thickening may be smooth. Stir till it boils; set it on the corner of the hob to boil gently for two hours. Season with an onion, twelve peppercorns, a few mushrooms, a faggot of parsley, a sprig of thyme, and a bay-leaf. Let the sauce be reduced to a quart; skim off the fat; and strain through a tamis.

Bechamel. No. 3.

Proceed much in the same way as for the brown sauce, (see Cullis) only it is not to be drawn down brown, but filled up and thickened with flour and water, some good cream added to it, and then strained.

Sauce for Beef Bouilli.

Four hard eggs well mixed up with half a table-spoonful of made mustard, eight capers, and one table spoonful of Reading sauce.

Sauce for boiled Beef a la Russe.

Scrape a large stick of horseradish, tie it up in a cloth, and boil it with the beef; when boiled a little, put it into some melted butter; boil it some time, and send it up in the butter. Some persons like to have it sent up in vinegar.

Bread Sauce. No. 1.

Put into half a pint of water a good sized piece of bread-crumb, not new, with an onion, a blade of mace, a few peppercorns, in a bit of cloth; boil them a few minutes; take out the onion and spice, mash the bread smooth, add a little salt and a piece of butter.

Bread Sauce. No. 2.

Take a French roll, or white bread crumb; set it on the fire, with some good broth or gravy, a small bag of peppercorns, and a small onion; add a little good cream, and a little pepper and salt; you may rub it through a sieve or not.

Bread Sauce. No. 3.

Take the crumb of a French roll; put it into a saucepan, with two large onions, some white peppercorns, and about a pint of water. Let it boil over a slow fire till the onions are very tender; then drain off the water; rub the bread and onions through a hair sieve; put the pulp into a stewpan, with a bit of butter, a little salt, and a gill of cream; and keep it stirring till it boils.

Bread Sauce. No. 4.

Put bread crumbs into a stewpan with as much milk as will soak them; moisten with broth; add an onion and a few peppercorns. Let it boil or simmer till it becomes stiff: then add two table-spoonfuls of cream, melted butter, or good broth. Take out the onion and peppercorns when ready to serve.

Bread Sauce for Pig.

To the sauce made as directed in No. 1 add a few currants picked and washed, and boil them in it.

Browning for made dishes.

Beat four ounces of loaf sugar very fine: put it into an iron frying-pan, with an ounce of butter; set it over a clear fire, mixing it well all the time: when it begins to be frothy, the sugar is dissolving; hold it high over the fire. When the butter and sugar is of a deep brown, pour in a little white wine; stir it well; add a little more wine, stirring it all the time. Put in the rind of a lemon, a little salt, three spoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, half an ounce of whole allspice, four shalots peeled; boil them slowly eight minutes, then pour into a basin, cover it close, and let it stand till next day. Skim and bottle it. A pint of white wine is the proper quantity for these ingredients.

Another.

Take some brown sugar, put a little water to it, set it on the fire, and let it boil till it nearly comes to burning, but it must not quite burn, as it would then be bitter: put some water to it, and when cold strain it off, and put it in a bottle. When you want to give a higher colour to gravy or sauce, you will find this very useful.

Butter, to burn.

Put your butter into a frying-pan over a slow fire; when it is melted, dust in some flour, and keep stirring it till it is thick and brown: then thicken some with it.

Butter, to clarify.

Let it slowly melt and then stand a little; and when it is poured into pots, leave the milk, which will settle at the bottom.

Another way.

Melt the butter, and skim it well before it is poured upon any thing.

Plain melted Butter—very simple, but rarely well done.

Keep either a plated or tin saucepan for the sole purpose of melting butter. Put into it a little water and a dust of flour, and shake them together. Cut the butter in slices; as it melts, shake it one way; let it boil up, and it will be smooth and thick.

Another.

Mix a little flour and water out of the dredger, that it may not be lumpy; then put in a piece of butter, set it over a quick fire; have it on and off every instant to shake it, and it will not oil, but will become thick and smooth.

To thicken Butter for Peas, &c.

Put two or three spoonfuls of water in a saucepan, sufficient to cover the bottom. When it boils, put half a pound of butter; when it is melted, take off the saucepan, and shake it round a good while, till very smooth.

Caper Sauce.

Chop half of the capers, and the rest put in whole; chop also a little parsley very fine, with a little bread grated very fine, and add salt: put these into smooth melted butter.

Carp Sauce.

One pint of Lisbon wine, with a small quantity of mace, cloves, and cinnamon, three anchovies, a bit of bay-leaf, a little horseradish not scraped, and a slice or two of onion; let the whole boil about a quarter of an hour, and, when cold, mix as much flour with the sauce as will make it of a proper thickness. Set it over the stove; keep it stirred till it boils. Just before you serve up, put in a quarter of a pint of cream, more or less according to the thickness of your sauce.

Boil the carp in as much water as will cover them, with some wine, a little vinegar, and slices of lemon and onion.

Another.

Four large anchovies, eight spoonfuls of white wine, four of vinegar, two onions, whole, a nutmeg quartered, some mace, whole pepper, two or three cloves; boil it nearly half away, then strain it off, thicken it with butter and flour, and three spoonfuls of thick cream; the sauce should not be too thick.

Light brown Sauce for Carp.

To the blood of the carp put thyme, parsley, onions, and anchovies; chop all these small, and put them together in a saucepan. Add half a pint of white wine, a quarter of a pint of elder vinegar, and a little tarragon vinegar: mix all these together, set the pan on the fire, and boil till it is almost dry. Mix some melted butter with the sauce, and pour it on the fish, being plain boiled.

Sauce for Carp and Tench.

Boil a pint of strong gravy drawn from beef, with three or four anchovies, a small bit of lemon-peel and horseradish, a little mushroom ketchup, and a great deal of black pepper. When boiled enough, strain it off, and when it is cold take off all the fat. Then add nearly half a pound of butter, well mixed with flour, to make it of a proper thickness. When it boils, add a cupful of red wine and a little lemon-juice.

White Sauce for Carp.

Boil half a pint of white wine, a quarter of a pint of elder vinegar, a little tarragon vinegar, half a pint of water, a bunch of sweet-herbs, an onion stuck with cloves, and some mace, till the goodness is out of the ingredients. Thicken with melted butter, the yolk of an egg beat, and a quarter of a pint of good cream.

Dutch Sauce for Carp or Tench.

Take six fine anchovies well washed and picked, put them in a stewpan, add to them four spoonfuls of vinegar, eight spoonfuls of water, one large onion sliced, two or three blades of mace, and four or five cloves. Let them stand one hour before the sauce is wanted; set them on the stove, and give them a boil up; strain the liquor into a clean stewpan; then add the yolks of four eggs well beaten; put to it some good thick melted butter; add half a pint of very nice thick cream. Mix all these well together; put it on a slow fire; stir it till it boils; season to your taste.

Carp Sauce, for Fish.

Put a little lean bacon and some slices of veal at the bottom of a stewpan, with three or four pieces of carp, four anchovies, an onion, two shalots, and tarragon, or any root to flavour to your taste. Let it remain over a very slow fire for half an hour, and, when it begins to thicken, or to stick to the pan, moisten it with a large glass of white wine, two spoonfuls of cullis, and the same quantity of broth. Skim and strain it through a sieve; it will want no salt.

Cavechi, an Indian Pickle. No. 1.

This is excellent for sauce. Into a pint of vinegar put two cloves of garlic, two spoonfuls of red pepper, two large spoonfuls of India soy, and four of walnut pickle, with as much cochineal as will colour it, two dozen large anchovies boned and dissolved in the juice of three lemons, and one spoonful of mustard. Use it as an addition to fish and other sauce, or in any other way, according to your palate.

Cavechi. No. 2.

Take three cloves, four scruples of coriander seed, bruised ginger, and saffron, of each ten grains, three cloves of garlic, and one pint of white wine vinegar. Infuse all together by the fireside for a fortnight. Shake it every day; strain off the liquor, and bottle it for use. You may add to it a pinch of cayenne.

Cavechi. No. 3.

One pint of vinegar, half an ounce of cayenne, two table-spoonfuls of soy, two of walnut pickle, two of ketchup, four cloves of garlic, and three shalots cut small; mix them well together.

Celery Sauce, white.

Make some strong boiled gravy, with veal, a good deal of spice, and sweet-herbs; put these into a stewpan with celery cut into pieces of about two or three inches in length, ready boiled, and thicken it with three quarters of a pound of butter rolled in flour, and half a pint of cream. Boil this up, and squeeze in some lemon-juice; pour some of it into the dish.

This is an excellent sauce for boiled turkey, fowl, or veal. When the stuffing is made for turkey, make some of it into balls, and boil them.

Celery Sauce, brown.

Put the celery, cut into pieces about an inch long, and the onions sliced, with a small lump of butter; stew them on a slow fire till quite tender; add two spoonfuls of flour, half a pint of veal or beef broth, salt, pepper, and a little milk or cream. Boil it a quarter of an hour.

Sauce for boiled Chickens.

Take the yolks of four eggs, three anchovies, a little of the middle of bacon, and the inside of half a lemon; chop them all very fine; add a little thyme and sweet marjoram; thicken them all well together with butter, and pour it over the chickens.

Another.

Shred some anchovies very fine, with the livers of the chickens and some hard eggs; take a little of the boiling water in which the chickens were boiled, to melt the butter. Add some lemon juice, with a little of the peel cut small.

Sauce for cold Chicken or Game.

Chop a boned anchovy or two, some parsley, and a small onion; add pepper, oil, vinegar, mustard, and ketchup, and mix them all together.

White Sauce for Chickens.

Half a pint of cream, with a little veal gravy, three tea-spoonfuls of the essence of anchovies, half a tea-spoonful of vinegar, one small onion, one dozen cloves: thicken it with flour and butter; rub it through a sieve, and add a table-spoonful of sherry.

Consomme.

To make this foundation of all sauces, take knuckle of veal and some new ham. One pound of ham will be sufficient for six pounds of veal, with onions and roots of different sorts, and draw it down to a light colour: fill up with beef broth, if there is not enough. When the scum rises, skim it well, and let it simmer gently for three or four hours, keeping it well skimmed. Strain it off for use.

Cream Sauce for White Dishes.

Put a bit of butter into a stewpan, with parsley, scallions, and shalots, the whole shred fine, and a clove of garlic entire; turn it a few times over the fire; shake in some flour, and moisten it with two or three spoonfuls of good cream. Boil it a quarter of an hour, strain off the sauce, and, when you are ready to use it, put in a little good butter, with some parsley parboiled and chopped very fine, salt, and whole pepper, thickening it over the fire.

Cullis, to thicken Sauces.

Take carrot, turnip, onion; put them in the bottom of a stewpan; slice some veal and ham, and lay over your carrot, with thyme, parsley, and seasoning; put this over a fire gently; when it sticks to the bottom, pour in some good stock, put in the crumb of some French rolls, boil them up together, strain it through a sieve, and rub the bread through; this will thicken any brown sauce.

Fish cullis must be as above, only with fish instead of meat.

Brown Cullis.

Take two pounds of veal and half a pound of ham, with two or three onions; put a little bit of butter in the bottom of your stewpan, and lay in it the veal and ham cut small, with the onions in slices, a little of the spices of different sorts, and a small piece of bay leaf. Let it stew gently over the stove until it comes to a fine colour; then fill it up with broth, but, if you have no broth, with water; then make some smooth flour and water, and put it to it, until you find it thick enough: let it boil gently half an hour; skim the grease from it, and strain it.

Another.

Put a piece of butter in a stewpan; set it over a fire with some flour to it; keep it stirring till it is of a good colour; then put some gravy to it; this cullis will thicken any sauce.

Cullis a la Reine, or Queen's Stock.

Cut some veal into thin slices; beat them, and lay them in a stewpan, with some slices of ham; cut a couple of onions small, and put them in; cut to pieces half a dozen mushrooms and add them to the rest, with a bunch of parsley; and set them on a very gentle stove fire to stew. When they are quite done, and the liquor is rich and high tasted, take out all the meat, and put in some grated bread; boil up once, stirring them thoroughly.

Turkey Cullis.

Roast a large turkey till it is brown; cut it in pieces; put it into a marble mortar, with some ham, parsley, chives, mushrooms, a handful of each, and a crust of bread; beat them up into a paste. Take it out, and put it into a deep stewpan, with a pint of veal broth; stir it all well together; cover it, and set it over the stove; turn it constantly, adding more veal broth. When thoroughly dissolved, pass it through a hair sieve, and keep it for use. It will give any sauce a fine flavour; but cullises are generally used for the sorts of meat of which they are made. Some of the above, for instance, would make an excellent sauce for a turkey, added to any other gravy; then put them over a slow fire to stew gently. Take the flesh of a fine fowl, already roasted, from the bones; beat it in a marble mortar; add this to the cullis in the stewpan. Stir it well together, but take great care that it does not boil; pound three dozen of sweet almonds blanched to a thin paste, in a marble mortar, with a little boiled milk; add it to the cullis, and, when the whole is dissolved, it is fit for use. This is good for all white sauces and white soups.

Cullis of Veal, or any other Meat.

Put some small pieces of veal into a stewpan, with the like quantity of ham, about a pound to a quarter of a pint of water. Stew gently with onions and different herbs, till all the juice of the meat is extracted; then boil it quicker, till it begins to stick to the dish. Take the meat and vegetables out of the pan; add a little butter and flour to the gravy; boil it till it becomes of a good colour; then add, if you like, some good broth; put the meat in again to simmer for two hours; skim it well; strain through a sieve, and keep it for use.

Dandy Sauce, for all sorts of Poultry and Game.

Put a glass of white wine into a stewpan, with half a lemon cut in slices, a little rasped bread, two spoonfuls of oil, a bunch of parsley and scallions, a handful of mushrooms, a clove of garlic, a little tarragon, one clove, three spoonfuls of rich cullis, and a thin slice of fine smoked ham. Let the whole boil together till it is of a fine rich consistency; pass it through the sieve; then give it another turn over the fire, and serve it up hot.

Devonshire Sauce.

Cut any quantity of young walnuts into small pieces; sprinkle a little salt on them; next day, pound them in a mortar and squeeze the juice through a coarse thin cloth, such as is used for cheese. To a pint of juice add a pound of anchovies, and boil them slowly till the anchovies are dissolved. Strain it; add half a pint of white wine vinegar, half an ounce of mace, half an ounce of cloves, and forty peppercorns; boil it a quarter of an hour, and, when cold, rack it off and bottle it. A quarter of a pint of vinegar put to the dregs that have been strained off, and well boiled up, makes an excellent seasoning for the cook's use in hashes, fish sauce, &c.

Sauce for Ducks.

Stew the giblets till the goodness is extracted, with a small piece of lean bacon, either dressed or not, a little sprig of lemon-thyme, some parsley, three or four sage leaves, a small onion quartered, a few peppercorns, and plenty of lemon-peel. Stew all these well together; strain and put in a large spoonful of port wine, a little cayenne pepper and butter, and flour it to thicken.

Dutch Sauce.

Put into a saucepan some vinegar and water with a piece of butter; thicken it with the yolks of two eggs; squeeze into it the juice of a lemon, and strain it through a sieve.

Dutch Sauce for Fish.

Slice a little horseradish, and put it into a quarter of a pint of water, with five or six anchovies, half a handful of white peppercorns, a small onion, half a bay-leaf, and a very little lemon peel, cut as thin as possible. Let it boil a quarter of an hour; then strain and thicken with flour and butter and the yolk of an egg. Add a little elder vinegar, and then squeeze it through a tamis. It must not boil after being strained, or it will curdle.

Dutch Sauce for Meat or Fish.

Put two or three table-spoonfuls of water, as many of vinegar, and as many of broth, into a saucepan, with a piece of butter; thicken it with the yolks of two eggs. If for fish, add four anchovies; if not, leave them out. Squeeze into it the juice of a lemon, and strain it through a sieve.

Dutch Sauce for Trout.

Put into a stewpan a tea-spoonful of floor, four of vinegar, a quarter of a pound of butter, the yolks of five eggs, and a little salt. Set it on the fire, and keep continually stirring. When thick enough, work it well that you may refine it; pass it through a sieve; season with a little cayenne pepper, and serve up.

Egg Sauce.

Take two or three eggs, or more if you like, and boil them hard; chop the whites first and then the yolks with them, and put them into melted butter.

The Exquisite.

Put a little cullis into a stewpan, with a piece of butter the size of a walnut rolled in twice as much flour, salt, and large pepper, the yolks of two eggs, three or four shalots cut small, and thicken it over the fire. This sauce, which should be very thick, is to be spread over meat or fish, which is afterwards covered with finely grated bread, and browned with a hot salamander.

Fish Sauce. No. 1.

One pound of anchovies, stripped from the salt, and rinsed in a little port wine, a quarter of an ounce of mace, twelve cloves, two races of ginger sliced, a small onion or shalot, a small sprig of thyme, and winter savory, put into a quart of port wine, and half a pint of vinegar. Stew them over a slow fire covered close; strain the liquor through a hair sieve, cover it till cold, and put it in dry bottles. By adding a pint of port wine and the wine strained that the anchovies were rinsed in you may make an inferior sort. When used, shake it up: take two spoonfuls to a quarter of pound of butter; if not thick enough add a little flour.

Fish Sauce. No. 2.

Take a pint of red wine, twelve anchovies, one onion, four cloves, a nutmeg sliced, as much beaten pepper as will lie upon a half-crown, a bit of horseradish sliced, a little thyme, and parsley, a blade of mace, a gill of vinegar, two bay-leaves. Simmer these all together until the anchovies are dissolved; then strain it off, and, when cold, bottle it up close. Shake the bottle up when you use it; take two table-spoonfuls to a quarter of a pound of butter, without flour and water, and let it boil.

Fish Sauce. No. 3.

Take chili pods, bruise them well in a marble mortar, strain off the juice. To a pint bottle of juice add a table-spoonful of brandy and a spoonful of salt. The refuse put into vinegar makes good chili vinegar. This is an excellent relishing sauce.

Fish Sauce. No. 4.

Take some gravy, an onion sliced, some anchovies washed, thyme, parsley, sliced horseradish, and seasoning; boil these together. Strain off the liquor; put into it a bit of thickening and some butter. Draw this up together, and squeeze in a lemon. You may add shrimps or oysters. If for lobster sauce, you must cut your lobster in slices, and beat the spawn in a mortar, with a bit of lobster, to colour your sauce.

Fish Sauce. No. 5.

A faggot of sweet-herbs, some onion, and anchovy, with a slice of lemon, boiled in small gravy or water; strain, and thicken it with butter and flour, adding a spoonful of soy, or more, if agreeable to your taste.

Fish Sauce. No. 6.

Take some of the liquor in which you boil the fish; add to it mace, anchovies, lemon-peel, horseradish, thyme, a little vinegar, and white wine; thicken it up with butter, as much as will serve for the fish. If it is for salmon, put in oysters, shrimps, and cockles; take away the liquor, and boil the whole in vinegar.

Fish Sauce. No. 7.

Take a quarter of a pint of vinegar, the same of white wine, a quarter of an ounce of mace, the same of cloves, pepper, and six large anchovies, a stick of horseradish, an onion, a sprig of thyme, and a bit of lemon-peel; boil all together over the fire; strain it off, and melt your butter for the sauce.

Fish Sauce. No. 8.

Take half a pint of cream and half a pint of strong broth; thicken them with flour and butter, and when it boils put in it a little anchovy and lemon-juice, and put it over your fish.

Fish Sauce. No. 9.

To every pint of walnut liquor put one pound of anchovies; boil them till quite dissolved, and strain off the liquor. To a quart of the liquor put one pint of vinegar, a quarter of an ounce of a mixture of cloves, mace, allspice, and long pepper, and a dozen shalots. Boil again till they are very tender; strain off the liquor, and bottle it for use. This is an excellent sauce.

Fish Sauce. No. 10.

Boil a bit of horseradish and anchovy in gravy with a little lemon-peel and mace; add some cream; thicken it with flour and butter. If you have no gravy, ketchup is a good substitute; but a little always put in is good.

Fish Sauce. No. 11.

Boil a piece or two of horseradish in gravy; put into it a bit of mace and lemon-peel; add a little anchovy, either before or after it has been boiled; thicken with cream, and add a spoonful of elderberry vinegar: let the acid be the last thing for fear of curdling it. If you have no gravy, ketchup and water is a good substitute.

Fish Sauce. No. 12.

Take a quarter of a pint of gravy, well boiled with a bit of onion, lemon-peel, and horseradish, four or five cloves, a blade of mace, and a spoonful of ketchup; boil it till it is reduced to four or five spoonfuls; then strain it off, and put to it four or five spoonfuls of cream; thicken it with butter, and put in a spoonful of elder vinegar or lemon-juice: anchovies are sometimes added.

Fish Sauce. No. 13.

Take two quarts of claret or port, a pint, or more, to your taste, of the best vinegar, which should be tart, one pound of anchovies unwashed, the pickle of them and all, half an ounce of mace, half a quarter of an ounce of cloves, six or eight races of ginger, a good piece of horseradish, a spoonful of cayenne pepper, half the peel of a lemon, a bunch of winter savory and thyme, and three or four onions, a piece of garlic, and one shalot. Stew all these over a slow fire for an hour; then strain the liquor through a coarse sieve, and bottle it. You may stew the ingredients over again with more wine and vinegar for present use. When you use it, it must be put into the saucepan with the butter, instead of water, and melt it together. If you keep it close stopped, it will be good many years.

Fish Sauce. No. 14.

Take twenty-four large anchovies, bones and all, ten or twelve shalots, a handful of horseradish, four blades of mace, one quart of Rhenish, or any white wine, one pint of water, one lemon cut in slices, half a pint of anchovy liquor, one pint of claret, twelve cloves, half a tea-spoonful of cayenne pepper: boil them till reduced to a quart; strain off and bottle the liquor. Two spoonfuls will be sufficient to one pound of butter.

Fish Sauce. No. 15.

A spoonful of red wine, and the same of anchovy liquor, put into melted butter.

An excellent white Fish Sauce.

An anchovy, a glass of white wine, a bit of horseradish, two or three blades of mace, an onion stuck with cloves, a piece of lemon-peel, two eggs, a quarter of a pint of good broth, two spoonfuls of cream, a large piece of butter, with some flour mixed well in it; keep stirring it till it boils; add a little ketchup, and a small dessert spoonful of the juice of a lemon, and stir it the whole time to prevent curdling. Serve up hot.

Another.

Take eight spoonfuls of white wine, three of vinegar, one of soy or ketchup, three anchovies, one onion, a few sweet-herbs, a little mace, cloves, and white pepper; let it stew gently till it is reduced to six spoonfuls; then strain it off, and add half a pound of fresh butter rolled in a little flour, and six spoonfuls of cream. Let it boil after the cream and butter are added.

White Sauce, with Capers and Anchovies, for any White Fish.

Put a bit of butter, about the size of an egg, rolled in flour, into a stewpan; dilute it with a large wine glass of veal broth, two anchovies, cut fine, minced parsley, and two spoonfuls of cream. Stew it slowly, till it is of the proper consistency.

Fish Stock.

Put into a pot a scate, cut in pieces, with turnips, carrots, thyme, parsley, and onion. Cut in pieces an eel or two, and some flounders; put them into a stewpan with a piece of butter; stew them down till they go to pieces; put them to your scate; boil the whole well, and strain it off.

Forcemeat Balls, for Sauces.

To make forcemeat balls for soups, without grease, commonly called quenelles, soak the crumb of two penny rolls in milk for about half an hour; take it out, and squeeze out the milk; put the bread into a stewpan, with a little white sauce, made of veal jelly, a little butter, flour, and cream, seasoned, a spoonful of beef or mutton jelly, some parsley, shalots, and thyme, minced very fine. Stew these herbs in a little butter, to take off their rawness. Set them to reduce the panada of bread and milk, which you must keep constantly stirring with a wooden spoon, when the panada begins to get dry in the pan, which prevents its sticking; when quite firm, take it from the fire, and mix with it the yolks of two eggs. Let it cool, and use when wanted.

This panada must always be prepared beforehand, in order to have it cold, for it cannot be used warm; when cold, roll it into balls, but let them be small; pound the whole as large as possible in a mortar, for the more they are pounded the more delicate they are. Then break two eggs, and pound them likewise; season with a pinch of cayenne pepper, salt, and spices, in powder. When the whole is well mixed together, try a small bit, rolling it with a little flour, then putting it into boiling water with a little salt; if it should not be firm enough, add another egg, without beating the white. When the whole is mixed once more, rub it through a sieve, roll it into balls, and serve up hot in sauces.

White Sauce, for Fowls.

Some good veal gravy, boiled with an anchovy or onion, some lemon-peel, and a very little ketchup. Put in it the yolk of hard egg to thicken it, and add what cream you think proper.

Another.

Take a pint of milk, the yolks of two eggs, well beaten, a spoonful of mushroom pickle, a little salt, nutmeg, a small piece of butter, rolled in flour; stir all together till thick. Pour it over the fowls, and garnish with lemon or parsley.

White Sauce, for boiled Fowls.

Have ready a sauce, made of one pint of veal jelly, half a quarter of a pound of butter, two small onions, and a bunch of parsley; then put three table-spoonfuls of flour, half a pint of boiling hot cream, the yolks of three eggs, a pinch of cayenne pepper, and the same of salt; boil all up together, till of a tolerable thickness; keep it hot, and take care that it does not curdle. Make ready some slices of truffles, about thirty-four, the size and thickness of a shilling, boil them in a little meat jelly; strain them, and add the truffles to the sauce previously made. When ready to serve, pour the sauce and truffles over whatever meat they are destined for.

Sauce, for roasted Fowls of all kinds, or roasted Mutton.

Cut some large onions into square pieces; cut some fat bacon in the same manner, and a slice of lean ham; put them in a stewpan; shake them round constantly, to prevent their burning. When they are of a fine brown colour, put in some good cullis, more or less, according to the quantity you want to make. Let them stew very gently, till the onions are tender; then put in two tea-spoonfuls of mustard, and one table-spoonful of vinegar. Serve it hot.

A very good general Sauce.

Take some mint, balm, basil, thyme, parsley, and sage; pick them from the stalks, cut them very fine, slice two large onions very thin; then put all the ingredients into a marble mortar, and beat them till they are quite mixed; add some cayenne pepper and salt; beat all these well together, and mix them by degrees in some good cullis, till it is of the thickness of cream. Put them in a stewpan, boil them up; strain the gravy from the herbs, pressing it from them very hard with the back of a spoon; add to the gravy half a glass of wine, half a spoonful of salad oil, the squeeze of a lemon, and a pinch of sugar. This sauce is excellent for most dishes.

Genoese Sauce for stewed Fish.

This sauce is made by stewing fish. Make marinade of carrots, parsley roots, onions, mushrooms, a bay-leaf, some thyme, a blade of mace, a few cloves, and some spices: fry the whole white in butter; pour in a pint of white wine, or less, according to the quantity of sauce required; put in the fish, and let it stew thoroughly to make the sauce. Then take a little browned flour and butter, and mix it with the reserved liquor; add three or four spoonfuls of gravy from veal jelly; let these stew very gently on the corner of the stove; skim off the grease; put in a little salt and cayenne pepper, and add two spoonfuls of the essence of anchovy and a quarter of a pound of butter kneaded with flour. Squeeze in the juice of a whole lemon, and cover the stewed fish with this sauce, which ought to be made thick and mellow.

German Sauce.

Put the same quantity of meat jelly and fresh made broth into a stewpan, with a little parsley parboiled and chopped, the livers of two roasted or boiled fowls, an anchovy, and some capers, the whole shred very fine, a bit of butter about the size of an egg, half a clove of garlic, salt, and a little cayenne pepper. Thicken it over the fire.

Exceedingly good with poultry, pigeons, &c.

Beef Gravy.

Cut in pieces some lean beef, according to the quantity of gravy you may want; put it into a stewpan, with an onion or two, sliced, and a little carrot; cover it close, set it over a gentle fire, and pour off the gravy as it draws from it. Then let the meat brown; keep turning it to prevent its burning, pour over some boiling water, and add a few cloves, peppercorns, a bit of lemon, and a bunch of sweet-herbs. Gently simmer it, and strain it with the gravy that was drawn from the meat, some salt, and a spoonful of ketchup.

Beef Gravy, to keep for use.

Cover a piece of six or eight pounds with water; boil it for twenty minutes or half an hour: then take out the meat, beat it thoroughly, and cut it in pieces, to let out the gravy. Put it again into the water, with a bunch of sweet-herbs, an onion stuck with cloves, a little salt, and some whole pepper. Let it stew, but not boil, till the meat is quite consumed; pass it through a sieve, and let it stand in a cool place. It will keep for a week, if the weather is not very hot. If you want to use this for a hash of brown meat, put a little butter in your frying-pan, shake in a little flour as it boils, and add a glass of claret: if for a white sauce to fowls or veal, melt the butter in the gravy, with a glass of white wine, two spoonfuls of cream, and the yolks of four or six eggs, according to the quantity of sauce required.

Brown Gravy.

Put a piece of butter, about the size of a hen's egg, into a saucepan; when it is melted, shake in a little flour, and let it brown; then by degrees stir in the following ingredients: half a pint of small beer, the same quantity of water, an onion, a piece of lemon-peel cut small, three cloves, a blade of mace, some whole pepper, a spoonful of mushroom-pickle, the same quantity of ketchup, and an anchovy. Let the whole boil together a quarter of an hour; strain it off, and it will be a good sauce.

Another.

Take the glaze that remains at the bottom of the pot after you have stewed any thing a la braise, provided it be not tainted game; skim it, and strain it through a sieve; then put in a bit of butter about the size of a walnut, mixed with flour; thicken it over the fire, and add the juice of a lemon, and a little salt and cayenne pepper.

Green Sauce for Green Geese, or Ducklings.

Half a pint of the juice of sorrel, with a little grated nutmeg, some bread crumb, and a little white wine; boil it a quarter of an hour, and sweeten with sugar, adding scalded gooseberries and a piece of butter.

Another.

Pound a handful of spinach and another of sorrel together in a mortar; squeeze and put them into a saucepan; warm, but do not let it boil.

Ham Sauce.

When your ham is almost done, let the meat be picked clean from the bone, and mash it well; put it into a saucepan with three spoonfuls of gravy; set it over a slow fire, stirring it all the while, otherwise it will stick to the bottom. When it has been on for some time, add a small bundle of sweet-herbs, pepper, and half a pint of beef gravy; cover it up; stew it over a gentle fire, and when quite done strain off the gravy.

This is very good for veal.

Sauce for Hare or Venison.

In a little port wine and water melt some currant jelly, or send in the jelly only; or simmer port wine and sugar for twenty or thirty minutes.

Harvey's Sauce.

Three table-spoonfuls of walnut ketchup, two of essence of anchovies, one tea-spoonful of soy, and one of cayenne pepper. Mix these together; put them, with a clove of garlic, into a pint bottle, and fill it up with white wine vinegar.

Sauce for Hashes or Fish, and good with any thing and every thing.

Take two or more spoonfuls of good cullis, according to the quantity you intend to make, a glass of white wine, a shalot, a small onion, a few mushrooms, truffles, morels, and a bunch of sweet-herbs, with a little grated lemon-peel, a slice of ham, and the yolk of an egg. Thicken it with a bit of butter rolled in flour, and let it stew till the ingredients are quite soft.

Sauce for White Hashes or Chickens.

A pint of new milk, the yolk of two eggs, well beaten, two ounces of butter, well mixed with flour; mix it all together in a saucepan, and, when it boils, add two spoonfuls of mushroom ketchup; it must be stirred all the time, or it will not do. If used for cold veal or lamb, the meat must be cut as thin as possible, the sauce made first to boil, and then the meat put into it, till it is hot enough for table.

Horseradish Sauce.

A tea-spoonful of mustard, one table-spoonful of vinegar, three of thick cream, and a little salt; grate as much horseradish into it as will make it as thick as onion sauce. A little shalot may be added.

Italian Sauce.

Put into a stewpan two spoonfuls of sweet oil, a handful of mushrooms cut small, a bunch of parsley, scallions, and half a laurel-leaf, two cloves, and a clove of garlic; turn the whole a few times over the fire, and shake in a little flour. Moisten it with a glass of white wine and twice as much good cullis; let it boil half an hour; skim away the fat, allowing it to cool a little for that purpose; set it on again, and serve it; it will be found to eat well with any white meat.

Ketchup.

Put a pint of the best white wine vinegar into a wide-mouthed quart bottle; add twelve cloves of shalots, peeled and bruised; take a quarter of a pint of the strongest red wine and boil it a little; wash and bone about a dozen anchovies, let them dissolve in the wine, and, when cold, put them into the vinegar bottle, stopping it close with a cork, and shaking it well. Into the same quantity of wine put a spoonful of pepper bruised, a few races of split ginger, half a spoonful of cloves bruised, and a few blades of large mace, and boil them till the strength of the spice is extracted. When the liquor is almost cold, cut in slices two large nutmegs, and when quite cold put into it some lemon-peel. Put that into the bottle, and scrape thin a large, sound horseradish root, and put that also into the bottle; stop it down close; shake it well together every day for a fortnight, and you may then use it.

Lemon Sauce.

Pare a lemon, and cut it in slices; pick out the seeds and chop them small: then boil the lemon and bruise it. Mix these in a little gravy; and add it to some melted butter, with a little lemon-peel chopped fine.

Liver Sauce for boiled Fowls.

Boil the liver just enough to spread; add a little essence of anchovy and grated lemon-peel, the yolk of a hard egg, and the juice of a lemon: mix it well together, and stir it into some butter.

Lobster Sauce. No. 1.

Pull the lobster to pieces with a fork; do not chop it; bruise the body and the spawn with the back of a spoon; break the shell; boil it in a little water to give it a colour; strain it off. Melt some butter in it very smooth, with a little horseradish, and a little cayenne pepper; mix the body of the lobster well with the butter; then add the meat, and give it a boil, with a spoonful of ketchup and a spoonful of gravy.

Lobster Sauce. No. 2.

Put the red spawn of a hen lobster in a mortar; add half an ounce of butter; pound it smooth, and run it through a hair sieve with the back of a spoon. Cut the meat of the lobster into small pieces, and add as much melted butter to the spawn as will suffice; stir it till thoroughly mixed; then put to it the meat of the lobster, and warm it on the fire; but do not let it boil.

Lobster Sauce. No. 3.

Take the spawn of one large lobster, and bruise it well in a mortar: take a sufficient quantity of strong veal gravy, the yolk of an egg, and a little cream, and thicken with flour and butter.

The Marchioness's Sauce.

Put as much bread rasped very fine as you can take at two handfuls into a stewpan, with a bit of butter of the size of a walnut, a kitchen-spoonful of sweet oil, a shalot cut small, salt and large pepper, with a sufficient quantity of lemon-juice to lighten the whole. Stir it over the fire till it thickens. This sauce may be served with all sorts of meat that require a sharp relishing sauce.

Meat Jelly for Sauces.

Every sort of dish requires good sauce, and for every sauce it is absolutely necessary to have a good meat jelly. The following may be depended upon as being excellent: a shin of beef, about eight pounds, rather more than less; a knuckle of veal, about nine pounds; a neck of mutton, about nine pounds; two fowls; four calves' feet: carefully cut off all fat whatever, and stew over a stove as slowly as possible, till the juice is entirely extracted. This will produce about seven quarts of jelly. No pepper, salt, or herbs of any kind. These should be added in using the jelly, whether for soups, broths, or sauces; but the pure jelly is the thing to have as the foundation for every species of cookery.

Another.

Three shanks, or two pounds, of mutton in two quarts of water; stew down to a pint and a half, with a carrot, and an onion.

A Mixed Sauce.

Take parsley, scallions, mushrooms, and half a clove of garlic, the whole shred fine; turn it a few times over the fire with butter; shake in a little flour, and moisten it with good broth: when the sauce is consumed to half the original quantity, add two pickled gherkins cut small, and the yolks of three eggs beaten up with some more broth; a little salt and cayenne will complete the sauce.

Mushroom Ketchup. No. 1.

Take a bushel of the large flaps of mushrooms, gathered dry, and bruise them with your hands. Put some of them into an earthen pan; throw some salt over them; then put in more mushrooms, then more salt, till you have done. Add half an ounce of beaten mace and cloves, and the same quantity of allspice; and let them stand five or six days, stirring them every day. Tie a paper over and bake for four hours in a slow oven; strain out the liquor through a cloth, and let it stand to settle. Pour it off clear from the sediment: to every gallon of liquor put a quart of red wine; if not salt enough, add a little more salt, with a race of ginger cut small, and half an ounce of cloves and mace, and boil till reduced nearly one third. Strain it through a sieve into a pan; next day pour it from the settlings, and bottle it for use.

Mushroom Ketchup. No. 2.

Mash your mushrooms with a great deal of salt; let them stand two days; strain them, and boil the liquor once or twice, observing to scum it well. Then put in black pepper and allspice, a good deal of each, and boil them together. Bottle the liquor, and put five or six cloves into each bottle.

Mushroom Ketchup. No. 3.

Pick the mushrooms clean, but by no means wash them; put them into an earthen pipkin with salt, cover them close with a coarse paste, and put them in the oven for seven hours or thereabout. Squeeze them a little, and pour off the liquor, which must be put upon fresh mushrooms, and bake these as long as the first. Then pour off the liquor, after pressing, and boil it well with salt sufficient to keep. Boil it half away till it appears clammy. When cold, bottle it up.

Mushroom Ketchup. No. 4.

Into a quart of red wine put some flaps of mushrooms, half a pound of anchovies, some thyme, two onions sliced, parsley, cloves, and mace. Let them stew gently on the fire; then strain off the liquor, a spoonful of which, with a little gravy, butter, and lemon, will make excellent fish sauce, and be always ready.

Mushroom Sauce.

Mix a little flour with a good piece of butter; boil it up in some cream, shaking the saucepan; then throw in some mushrooms with a little salt and nutmeg: boil this up; or, if you like it better, put the mushrooms in butter melted with a little veal gravy, some salt, and grated nutmeg.

Sauce for roasted Mutton.

Wash an anchovy clean; put to it a glass of red wine, some gravy, a shalot cut small, and a little lemon-juice. Stew these together; strain them, and mix the liquor with the gravy that runs from the mutton.

Onion Sauce.

Let the onions be peeled; boil them in milk and water, and put a turnip into the pot; change the water twice: pulp them through a colander, or chop them as you please; then put them into a saucepan, with butter, cream, a little flour, and some pepper and salt.

Brown Onion Sauce.

Peel and slice the onions, to which put an equal quantity of cucumber or celery, with an ounce of butter, and set them on a slow fire; turn the onions till they are highly browned; stir in half an ounce of flour; add a little broth, pepper, and salt; boil it up for a few minutes; add a spoonful of claret or port, and some mushroom ketchup. You may sharpen it with a little lemon-juice. Rub through a tamis.

Oyster Sauce. No. 1.

Take two score of oysters, put them, with their own liquor, a few peppercorns, and a blade of mace, into a saucepan, and let them simmer a little over the fire, just to plump them; then with a fork shake each in the liquor so as to take off all the grit; strain the liquor, add to it a little good gravy and two anchovies, and thicken it with flour and butter, nearly as thick as custard.

Oyster Sauce. No. 2.

Wash the oysters from their liquor; strain it, and put that and the oysters into a little boiled gravy and just scald them: add a piece of butter mixed with flour, cream, and ketchup. Shake all up; let it boil, but not much, lest the oysters grow hard and shrink; but be very careful they are enough done, as nothing is more disagreeable than the oysters tasting raw.

Pepper-pot.

A good stock made with beef bones or mutton, one small carrot, one onion, three turnips, two heads of celery, a little thyme and sweet-herbs; season to your taste; boil these, and put them through a tamis; then add a little flour and butter; make up some flour and water in little balls, and boil them in the pepper-pot.

Sauce for Pike, or any other fresh-water Fish.

Take half a pint of good beef broth, three table-spoonfuls of cream, one onion sliced fine, a middling sized stick of horseradish scraped, seven or eight peppercorns, three or four cloves, two anchovies; boil well in a piece of butter as big as a walnut well rolled in flour.

Pike should be boiled with the scales on.

Sauce Piquante.

Pound a table-spoonful of capers and one pound of minced parsley as fine as possible, add the yolks of three hard eggs; rub them together with a table-spoonful of mustard. Bone six anchovies, pound them, and rub them through a hair sieve; mix with these two spoonfuls of oil, one of vinegar, one of shalot, and a few grains of cayenne pepper. Rub all together in a mortar till thoroughly incorporated; then stir them into half a pound of good gravy, or melted butter, and pass the whole through a sieve.

Sauce Piquante, to serve hot.

Put into a stewpan a bit of butter, with two onions sliced, a carrot, a parsnip, a little thyme, laurel, basil, two cloves, two shalots, a clove of garlic, parsley, and scallions; turn the whole over the fire till it is well coloured; then shake in some flour, and moisten it with some broth, a spoonful of white wine vinegar, and a squeeze of a lemon, and strain it through a sieve, adding a little cayenne and salt. It is good with every thing.

Another.

Simmer a gill of white wine with as much broth, and, when it is consumed to half, put in a shalot, a little garlic, and some salad herbs shred very fine; let it boil, and then add a bit of butter of the size of a walnut, mixed with flour, salt, and whole pepper, thickening the whole over the fire.

Sauce Piquante, to serve cold.

Shred very fine all sorts of garden-herbs, thyme, sage, parsley, chervil, half a clove of garlic, and two shalots; dilute the whole with a small tea-spoonful of mustard, salad oil, a little vinegar, the squeeze of a lemon; add a little salt and cayenne. You may add an anchovy: this is excellent with cold partridge or game, or any hot or cold veal.

Poivrade Sauce.

Boil half a pint of the best vinegar, half a pint of water, two large onions, half a handful of horseradish, and a little pounded white pepper, some salt and shalot, all together a quarter of an hour. If you would have it clear, strain and bottle it: if you chuse, add a little gravy when you use it.

Poor Man's Sauce.

A handful of parsley leaves picked from the stalks, shred fine, and a little salt strewed over; shred six young green onions, put them to the parsley, with three table-spoonfuls of oil, and five of vinegar, some ground black pepper, and salt. Pickled French beans or gherkins, cut fine, may be added, or a little grated horseradish.

Quin's Fish Sauce.

A pint of old mushroom ketchup, a pint of old walnut pickle, six anchovies finely pounded, six cloves of garlic, three pounded, three not, and half a tea-spoonful of cayenne pepper.

Ragout Sauce.

One ounce of salt; half an ounce of mustard; a quarter of an ounce of allspice; black pepper ground, and lemon-peel grated, half an ounce each; of ginger and nutmeg grated, a quarter of an ounce each; cayenne pepper two drachms. Pound all these, and pass them through a sieve, infused in a quart of vinegar or wine, and bottle them for use.

Spice in ragout is indispensable to give it a flavour, but not a predominating one.

Sauce de Ravigotte.

Pick some parsley, sage, mint, thyme, basil, and balm, from the stalks, and cut them fine; slice two large onions very thin: put all these into a mortar, beat them thoroughly, and add pepper and salt, some rocambole, and two blades of mace cut fine. Beat these well, and mix them by degrees with gravy till of the thickness of butter; put them into a stewpan, and boil them up. Strain the gravy from the herbs; add to it a glass of wine and a spoonful of oil; beat these together, and pour it into a sauce-boat.

Sauce Ravigotte a la Bourgeoise.

Tie some parsley, sage, mint, thyme, and basil, in a bunch; put them into a saucepan of boiling water, and let them boil about a minute; take them out, squeeze the water from them, chop them very fine, and add a clove of garlic and two large onions minced very fine. Put the whole into a stewpan, with half a pint of broth, some pepper, and salt; boil it up, and add a spoonful of vinegar.

Relishing Sauce.

Put a wine glass of good stock jelly, made into broth, into a stewpan, half a spoonful of the best white wine vinegar, a little salt, a few whole peppercorns, and a bit of butter, the size of a walnut, mixed up with a little flour in balls, some tarragon, chervil, pimpernel, thyme, and shalot, with garden cresses; boil these herbs in water, having cut them very small; put them into the sauce, and thicken it to a thin creamy consistency over the fire. This sauce is good with any thing, fish, flesh, or fowl.

Sauce a-la-Remoulade. No. 1.

Take two large spoonfuls of capers cut fine, as much parsley, two anchovies, washed and boned, two cloves of garlic, and a little shalot; cut them separately, and then mix them together; put a little rich gravy into a stewpan, with two spoonfuls of oil, one of mustard, and the juice of a large lemon. Make it quite hot, and put in your other ingredients, with salt, pepper, and the leaves of a few sweet-herbs, picked from their stalks. Stir it well together, and let it be four minutes over a brisk fire.

Sauce a-la-Remoulade. No. 2.

Put into a stewpan a shalot, parsley, scallions, a little bit of garlic, two anchovies, some capers, the whole shred very fine. Dilute it with a little mustard, oil, and vinegar, and two table-spoonfuls of good cullis.

Sauce a-la-Remoulade. No. 3.—For cold Chicken, or Lobster Salad.

Two yolks of eggs boiled hard must be bruised very fine, with a tea-spoonful of cold water; add a tea-spoonful of mustard, and two table-spoonfuls of salad oil. When these are well mixed, add a tea-spoonful of chopped parsley, one clove of shalot, and a little tarragon; these must be chopped very fine, and well mixed; then add three table-spoonfuls of vinegar and one of cream. The chicken or lobster should be cut in small thick pieces (not sliced) and placed, with small quarters of lettuces and hard eggs quartered, alternately, so as to fill the dish in a varied form. The sauce is then poured over it.

Rice Sauce.

Steep a quarter of a pound of rice in a pint of milk, with onion, pepper, &c. When the rice is boiled quite tender, take out the spice, rub it through a sieve, and add to it a little milk or cream. This is a very delicate white sauce.

Richmond Sauce, for boiled Chicken.

Half a pint of cream, the liver of the chicken, a little parsley, an anchovy, some caper liquor, the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs, a little pepper, salt, nutmeg, and juice of lemon, with a piece of butter, about the size of a walnut, to thicken it. Send it up hot, with the chicken.

Sauce for any kind of roasted Meat.

While the mutton, beef, hare, or turkey, is roasting, put a plate under it, with a little good broth, three spoonfuls of red wine, a slice of onion, a little grated cheese, an anchovy, washed and minced, and a bit of butter; let the meat drop into it. When it is taken up, put the sauce into a pan that has been rubbed with onion; give it a boil up; strain it through a sieve, and serve it up under your roast, or in a boat.

Sauce Robert.

Melt an ounce of butter, and put to it half an ounce of onion, mixed fine; turn it with a wooden spoon till it takes a light brown colour; stir into it a table-spoonful of mushroom ketchup, and the same quantity of port wine. Add half a pint of broth, a quarter of a tea-spoonful of pepper, and the same of salt; give them a boil; add a tea-spoonful of mustard, the juice of half a lemon, and one or two tea-spoonfuls of vinegar or tarragon.

Another.

Cut a few large onions and some fat bacon into square pieces; put these together into a saucepan over a fire, and shake them well to prevent their burning. When brown, put in some good veal gravy, with a little pepper and salt; let them stew gently till the onions are tender; then add a little salt, vinegar, and mustard, and serve up.

Sauce for Salad.

The yolk of one egg, one tea-spoonful of mustard, one tea-spoonful of tarragon vinegar, three table-spoonfuls of oil, one table-spoonful of common vinegar, chives, according to taste.

Shalot Sauce, for boiled Mutton.

Mince four shalots fine, put them into a stewpan, with about half a pint of the liquor in which the mutton is boiled; put in a table-spoonful of vinegar, a quarter of a tea-spoonful of pepper, a little salt, a bit of butter, of the size of a walnut, rolled in flour; shake them together, and boil.

Spanish Sauce.

Put a cullis (that is always the stock or meat jelly,) in good quantity into a stewpan, with a glass of white wine, the same quantity of fresh made broth, a bunch of parsley, and shalots, one clove of garlic, half a laurel leaf, parsley, scallions, onions, any other root you please for the sake of flavour, such as celery or carrots. Boil it two hours over a slow fire, take the fat off, and strain it through a sieve; and then add salt, large pepper, and the least sprinkle of sugar.

This is very good with beef, mutton, and many sorts of game, venison and hare in particular; for which substitute a glass of red wine instead of white.

Sauce for Steaks.

A glass of small beer, two anchovies, a little thyme, parsley, an onion, some savory, nutmeg, and lemon-peel; cut all these together, and, when the steaks are ready, pour the fat out of the pan, and put in the small beer, with the other ingredients and a piece of butter rolled in flour: let it simmer, and strain it over the steaks.

Sultana Sauce.

Put a pint of cullis into a stewpan with a glass of white wine, two slices of peeled lemons, two cloves, a clove of garlic, half a laurel-leaf, parsley, scallions, onions, and turnip. Boil it an hour and a half over a slow fire, reducing it to a creamy consistency; strain it very carefully through a sieve, and then add a little salt, the yolk of an egg boiled hard and chopped, and a little boiled parsley shred fine.

This sauce is very good with poultry.

Tomata Ketchup.

Take a quart of tomata pulp and juice, three ounces of salt, one ounce of garlic pounded, half an ounce of powdered ginger, and a quarter of an ounce of cloves; add two ounces of anchovies or a wine-glassful of the essence, as sold in the shops. Boil all in a tin saucepan half an hour; strain it through a fine hair sieve. To the strained liquor add a quarter of a pint of vinegar, half a pint of white wine, half a quarter of an ounce of mace, which is to be pounded, and a tea-spoonful of cayenne pepper. Let the whole simmer together over a gentle fire twenty minutes; then strain it through fine lawn or muslin. When cold bottle it up, and be careful to keep it close corked. It is fit for use immediately.

The best way to obtain the pulp and juice free from the skin and seeds is to rub it through a hair sieve.

Tomata Sauce. No. 1.

Roast the tomatas before the fire till they are very tender; save all the liquor that runs from them while roasting; then with a spoon gently scoop out the pulp from the skins; avoid touching them with your fingers: add to the pulp a small quantity of shred ginger, and a few young onions cut very small. Salt it well, and mix the whole together with vinegar, or the best common wine. Put it into pint bottles, as it keeps best with only a bladder tied over.

This is to mix with all other sauces in the small cruet for fish.

Tomata Sauce. No. 2.

Take twelve or fifteen tomatas, ripe and red; cut them in half, and squeeze out all the water and seeds; add capsicums, and two or three table-spoonfuls of beef gravy; set them on a slow fire or stove, for an hour, till melted; rub them through a tamis into a clean stewpan, with a little white pepper and salt; then simmer for a few minutes. The French cooks add a little tarragon vinegar, or a shalot.

Tomata Sauce. No. 3.

When the fruit is ripe, bake it tender, skin, and rub the pulp through a sieve. To every pound of pulp add a quart of chili vinegar, one ounce of garlic, one of shalots, both sliced, half an ounce of salt, a little cayenne pepper, and the juice of three lemons. Boil all together for twenty minutes.

Savoury Jelly for a Turkey.

Spread some slices of veal and ham in the bottom of a stewpan, with a carrot and turnip, and two or three onions. Stew upon a slow fire till the liquor is of as deep a brown as you wish. Add pepper, mace, a very little isinglass, and salt to your taste. Boil ten minutes; strain through a French strainer; skim off all the fat; put in the whites of three eggs, and pass all through a strainer till it is quite clear.

Sauce for Turkey or Chicken.

Boil a spoonful of the best mace very tender, and also the liver of the turkey, but not too much, which would make it hard; pound the mace with a few drops of the liquor to a very fine pulp; then pound the liver, and put about half of it to the mace, with pepper, salt, and the yolk of an egg, boiled hard, and then dissolved; to this add by degrees the liquor that drains from the turkey, or some other good gravy. Put these liquors to the pulp, and boil them some time; then take half a pint of oysters and boil them but a little, and lastly, put in white wine, and butter wrapped in a little flour. Let it boil but a little, lest the wine make the oysters hard; and just at last scald four spoonfuls of good cream, and add, with a little lemon-juice, or pickled mushrooms will do better.

Sauce for boiled Turkey or Fowl.

Take an anchovy, boil it in a quarter of a pint of water; put to it a blade of mace and some peppercorns; strain it off; then put to it two spoonfuls of cream, with butter and flour.

Venison Sauce.

Take vinegar, water, and claret, of each a glassful, an onion stuck with cloves, salt, anchovies, pepper and cloves, of each a spoonful; boil all these together, and strain through a sieve.

Sweet Venison Sauce.

Take a small stick of cinnamon, and boil it in half a pint of claret; then add as much finely grated bread-crumbs as will make a thick pap; and, after it has boiled thoroughly, sweeten it with the powder of the best sugar.

Walnut Ketchup. No. 1.

Take walnuts when they are fit to pickle, beat them in a mortar, press out the juice through a piece of cloth, let it stand one night, then pour the liquor from the sediment, and to every pint put one pound of anchovies; let them boil together till the anchovies are dissolved; then skim, and to every pint of liquor add an eighth of an ounce of mace, the same of cloves and Jamaica pepper, half a pint of common vinegar, half a pound of shalots, with a few heads of garlic, and a little cayenne. Boil all together till the shalots are tender, and when cold bottle up for use.

A spoonful of this ketchup put into good melted butter makes an excellent fish-sauce; it is equally fine in gravy for ducks or beef-steaks.

Walnut Ketchup. No. 2.

Take half a bushel of green walnuts, before the shell is formed, and grind them in a crab-mill, or beat them in a marble mortar. Squeeze out the juice, through a coarse cloth, wringing the cloth well to get out all the juice, and to every gallon put a quart of wine, a quarter of a pound of anchovies, the same quantity of bay salt, one ounce of allspice, half an ounce of cloves, two ounces of long pepper, half an ounce of mace, a little ginger, and horseradish, cut in slices. Boil all together till reduced to half the quantity; pour it into a pan, when cold, and bottle it. Cork it tight, and it will be fit for use in three months.

If you have any pickle left in the jar after the walnuts are used, put to every gallon two heads of garlic, a quart of red wine, and of cloves, mace, long, black, and Jamaica pepper, one ounce each; boil them all together till reduced to half the quantity; pour the liquor into a pan; bottle it the next day for use, and cork it tight.

Walnut Ketchup. No. 3.

Pound one hundred walnuts very fine, put them in a glazed pan with a quart of vinegar; stir them daily for ten days; squeeze them very dry through a coarse cloth. Boil the liquor, and skim it as long as any thing will rise; then add spice, ginger, anchovies instead of salt, and boil it up for use.

Walnut Ketchup. No. 4.

Take one hundred walnuts, picked in dry weather, and bruise them well in a mortar. Squeeze out the juice; add a large handful of salt; boil and skim it well; then put into the juice an equal quantity of white wine vinegar, or the vinegar in which pickled walnuts have been steeped, a little red wine, anchovies unwashed, four or five cloves of garlic, as many blades of mace, two dozen cloves, and a little whole pepper. Boil it six or seven minutes, and when cold bottle it. If higher spiced the better.

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