The Journals of Lewis and Clark
by Meriwether Lewis et al
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[Clark, November 24, 1805] November 24th Sunday 1805 Several of the Chenn nook N. Came, one of them brought an Sea orter Skin for which we gave Some blue Beeds- This day proved to be fair and we dried our wet articles bedding &c. The hunters killed only 1 brant no Deer or any thing else

The old chief of Chinn-nook nation and Several men & women Came to our camp this evening & Smoked the pipe

Serjt J. Ordway Cross & examine S Serjt. N. Pryor do do S Sgt. P. Gass do do S Jo. Shields proceed to Sandy R

Go. Shannon Examn. Cross falls T. P. Howard do do falls P. Wiser do do S. R J. Collins do do S. R Jo Fields do do up Al. Willard do do up R Willard do do up J. Potts do do falls R. Frasure do do up Wm. Bratten do do up R. Fields do do falls J. B. Thompson do do up J. Colter do do up H. Hall do do S. R. Labeech do do S R Peter Crusatte do do S R J. B. Depage do do up Shabono - - - S. Guterich do do falls W. Werner do do up Go. Gibson do do up Jos. Whitehouse do do up Geo Drewyer Examn other side falls McNeal do do up York " " lookout

falls Sandy River lookout up 6 10 12

Janey in favour of a place where there is plenty of Potas.

Cp L Proceed on to morrow & examine The other side if good hunting to winter there, as Salt is an objt. if not to proceed on to Sandy it is probable that a vestle will come in this winter, & that by proceeding on at any distance would not inhance our journey in passing the Rockey mountains, &c.

W C. In favour of proceding on without delay to the opposit Shore & there examine, and find out both the disposition of the Indians, & probibilaty of precureing Subsistance, and also enquire if the Tradeing vestles will arrive before the time we Should depart in the Spring, and if the Traders, Comonly arive in a Seasonable time, and we Can Subsist without a depends. on our Stores of goods, to Continue as the Climent would be more favourable on the Sea Coast for our naked men than higher up the Countrey where the Climate must be more Severe- The advantage of the arival of a vestle from whome we Can precure goods will be more than an over ballance, for the bad liveing we Shall have in liveing on Pore deer & Elk we may get in this neighbourhood. If we Cannot subsist on the above terms to proceed on, and make Station Camps, to neighbourhood of the Frendly village near the long narrows & delay untill we Can proceed up the river. Salt water I view as an evil in as much as it is not helthy- I am also of opinion that one two or three weeks Exemination on the opposide if the propects are any wise favourable, would not be too long

Variation of the Compass is 16 East

[Clark, November 24, 1805] Sunday November 24th 1805. A fair morning Sent out 6 hunters, and we proceeded to make the following observations a Chief and Several men of the Chin nook nation Came to Smoke with us this evening one of the men brought a Small Sea otter Skin for which we gave Some blue beads- this day proved fair which gave us an oppertunity of drying our wet articles, bedding &c. &c. nothing killed to day except one Brant. the variation of the Compass is 16 East.

being now determined to go into Winter quarters as Soon as possible, as a convenient Situation to precure the Wild animals of the forest which must be our dependance for Subsisting this Winter, we have every reason to believe that the nativs have not provisions Suffient for our Consumption, and if they had, their price's are So high that it would take ten times as much to purchase their roots & Dried fish as we have in our possesion, encluding our Small remains of merchindz and Clothes &c. This Certinly enduces every individual of the party to make diligient enquiries of the nativs the part of the Countrey in which the wild Animals are most plenty. They generaly agree that the most Elk is on the opposit Shore, and that the greatest numbers of Deer is up the river at Some distance above

The Elk being an animal much larger than Deer, easier to kiled better meat (in the winter when pore) and Skins better for the Clothes of our party; added to-, a convenient Situation to the Sea coast where we Could make Salt, and a probibility of vessels Comeing into the mouth of Columbia ("which the Indians inform us would return to trade with them in 3 months") from whome we might precure a fresh Supply of Indian trinkets to purchase provisions on our return home; together with the Solicitations of every individual, except one of our party induced us Conclude to Cross the river and examine the opposit Side, and if a Sufficent quantity of Elk could probebly be precured to fix on a Situation as convenient to the Elk & Sea Coast as we Could find- added to the above advantagies in being near the Sea Coast one most Strikeing one occurs to me i e, the Climate which must be from every appearance much milder than that above the 1st range of Mountains, The Indians are Slightly Clothed and give an account of but little Snow, and the weather which we have experiened Since we arrived in the neighbourhood of the Sea Coast has been verry warm, and maney of the fiew days past disagreeably So. if this Should be the Case it will most Certainly be the best Situation of our naked party dressed as they are altogether in leather.

[Clark, November 25, 1805] November 25th Munday 1805 a fine day Several Indians Come up from below, we loaded and Set out up the river, and proceeded on to the Shallow Bay, landed to dine, The Swells too high to cross the river, agreeabley to our wish which is to examine if game Can be precured Sufficent for us to winter on that Side, after dinner which was on Drid pounded fish we proceeded on up on the North Side to near the place of our Encampment of the 7th Instant and encamped after night The evening cloudy wind of to day Generally from the E S. E, Saw from near of last Campment Mount Ranier bearing _

[Clark, November 25, 1805] Monday 25th November 1805 The Wind being high rendered it impossible for us to Cross the river from our Camp, we deturmind to proceed on up where it was narrow, we Set out early accompanied by 7 Chit Sops for a fiew miles, they left us and Crossed the river through emence high waves; we Dined in the Shallow Bay on Dried pounded fish, after which we proceeded on near the North Side of the Columbia, and encamp a little after night near our Encampment of the 7th instant near a rock at Some distance in the river. evening Cloudy the Winds of to day is generally E. S. E which was a verry favourable point for us as the highlands kept it from us Mt. St. Hilians Can be Seen from the mouth of this river.

[Clark, November 26, 1805] November 26th Tuesday 1805 Cloudy and Some rain this morning at daylight wind blew from the E N. E, we Set out and proceeded on up on the North Side of this great river to a rock in the river from thence we Crossed to the lower point of an _ Island passed between 2 Islands to the main Shore, and proceeded down the South Side, passed 2 Inlets & halted below the 2d at a Indian village of 9 large houses- those Indians live on an emenence behind a Island or a Channel of the river not more than 300 yds wide, they live on fish & Elk and Wapto roots, of which we bought a few at a high price they Call them Selves Cat-tar-bets description

We proceeded on about 8 miles and Encamped in a deep bend to the South, we had not been Encamped long ere 3 Indians Came in a Canoe to trade the Wapto roots- we had rain all the day all wet and disagreeable a bad place to Camp all around this great bend is high land thickly timbered brushey & almost impossible to penetrate we Saw on an Island below the village a place of deposit for the dead in Canoes

Great numbers of Swan Geese Brant Ducks & Gulls in this great bend which is Crouded with low Islands covered with weeds grass &c. and overflowed every flood tide The people of the last village is-_ they ask emence prices for what they have to Sel Blue Beeds is their great trade they are fond of Clothes or blankits of Blue red or brown We are now decending to see if a favourable place should offer on the So Side to winter &c.

from a high Point opsd. a high Isd down the South Side is S. 30 W 6 mis to a point of low land opsd. upr. pt of Isd. passed lowr. pt. 1st Isd. marshey. at the upr. pt. Of 2 low Isd. opsd. each other at 4 miles

[Clark, November 26, 1805] Tuesday 26th November 1805 Cloudy and Some rain this morning from 6 oClock. wind from the E. N. E, we Set out out early and crossed a Short distance above the rock out in the river, & between Some low marshey Islands to the South Side of the Columbia at a low bottom about 3 miles below Point Samuel and proceeded near the South Side leaveing the Seal Islands to our right and a marshey bottom to the left 5 Miles to the Calt-har-mar Village of 9 large wood houses on a handsom elivated Situation near the foot of a Spur of the high land behind a large low Island Seperated from the Southerly Shore by a Chanel of about 200 yards Wide, This nation appear to differ verry little either in language, Customs dress or appearance from the Chin nooks & War-ci a cum live principally on fish and pappato they have also other roots, and Some Elk meat.

We purchased Some green fish, & wap pa to for which we gave Imoderate pricie's. after dining on the fresh fish which we purchased, we proceeded on through a Deep bend to the South and encamped under a high hill, where we found much difficuelty in precureing wood to burn, as it was raining hard, as it had been the greater part of the day. Soon after we encamped 3 Indians of the last town Came in a Canoe with wappato roots to Sell to us Some of which we purchased with fish hooksfrom the Village quite around this bend to the West the land is high and thickly timbered with pine balsom &c. a Short distance below the Calt har mer Village on the Island which is Opposit I observed Several Canoes Scaffold in which Contained their dead, as I did not examine this mode of deposing the dead, must refer it to a discription hereafter.

[Clark, November 27, 1805] November 27th Wednesday 1805 Some rain all the last night & this morning at day light 3 Canoes and 11 men Came down with roots meat, Skins &c. to Sill, they asked Such high prices we were unable to purchase any thing, and as we were about Setting out, discovered that one of those Indians had Stole an ax, we Serched and found it under the roabe of one man whome we Shamed verry much

we proceeded on, around Point William th Swells became high and rained so hard we Concluded to halt and dry our Selves, Soon after our landing the wind rose from the East and blew hard accompanied with rain, this rain obliged us to unload & draw up our Canoes, one of which was Split to feet before we got her out of the river, this place the Peninsoley is about 50 yards and 3 miles around this point of Land. water Salt below not Salt above.

[Clark, November 27, 1805] Wednesday 27th November 1805 Rained all the last night and this morning it Continues moderatelyat day light 3 Canoes and 11 Indians Came from the Village with roots mats, Skins &c. to Sell, they asked Such high prices that we were unable to purchase any thing of them, as we were about to Set out missed one of our axes which was found under an Indians roab I shamed this fellow verry much and told them they should not proceed with us- we proceded on between maney Small Islands passing a Small river of yds wide which the Indians Call and around a verry remarkable point which projects about 11/2 Miles directly towards the Shallow bay the isthmus which joins it to the main land is not exceding 50 yards and about 4 Miles around. we call this Point William

below this point the waves became So high we were Compelled to land unload and traw up the Canoes, here we formed a Camp on the neck of Land which joins Point William to the main at an old indian hut. The rain Continued hard all day we are all Wet and disagreeable. one Canoe Split before we Got her out of the Water 2 feet- The water at our Camp Salt that above the isthmus fresh and fine

[Clark, November 28, 1805] November 28th Thursday 1805 Wind Shifted about to the S. W. and blew hard accompanied with hard rain all last night, we are all wet bedding and Stores, haveing nothing to keep our Selves or Stores dry, our Lodge nearly worn out, and the pieces of Sales & tents So full of holes & rotten that they will not keep any thing dry, we Sent out the most of the men to drive the point for deer, they Scattered through the point; Some Stood on the pensolu, we Could find no deer, Several hunters attempted to penetrate the thick woods to the main South Side without Suckcess, the Swan & gees wild and Cannot be approached, and wind to high to go either back or forward, and we have nothing to eate but a little Pounded fish which we purchasd. at the Great falls, This is our present Situation,! truly disagreeable. aded to this the robes of our Selves and men are all rotten from being Continually wet, and we Cannot precure others, or blankets in their places. about 12 oClock the wind Shifted about to the N. W and blew with great violence for the remainder of the day at maney times it blew for 15 or 20 minits with Such violence that I expected every moment to See trees taken up by the roots, Some were blown down. Those Squals were Suckceeded by rain, ! O how Tremendious is the day. This dredfull wind and rain Continued with intervales of fair weather, the greater part of the evening and night.

[Clark, November 28, 1805] Thursday 28th November 1805 Wind Shifted about to the S. W. and blew hard accompanied with hard rain. rained all the last night we are all wet our bedding and Stores are also wet, we haveing nothing which is Sufficient to keep ourselves bedding or Stores dry Several men in the point hunting deer without Suckcess, the Swan and brant which are abundant Cannot be approached Sufficently near to be killed, and the wind and waves too high to proceed on to the place we expect to find Elk, & we have nothing to eate except pounded fish which we brought from the Great falls, this is our present Situation; truly disagreeable. about 12 oClock the wind Shifted around to the N W. and blew with Such violence that I expected every moment to See trees taken up by the roots, maney were blown down. This wind and rain Continued with Short intervales all the latter part of the night. O! how disagreeable is our Situation dureing this dreadfull weather.

[Lewis, November 29, 1805] November 29th 1805. the wind being so high the party were unable to proceed with the perogues. I determined therefore to proceed down the river on it's E. side in surch of an eligible place for our winters residence and accordingly set out early this morning in the small canoe accompanyed by 5 men. drewyer R. Fields, Shannon, Colter & labiesh. proceeded along the coast.

send out the hunters they killed 4 deer 2 brant a goos and seven ducks, it rained upon us by showers all day. left three of these deer and took with us one encamped at an old Indian hunting lodge which afforded us a tolerable shelter from the rain, which continued by intervales throughout the night.

[Clark, November 29, 1805] November 29th Friday 1805 Blew hard and rained the greater part of the last night and this morning, Capt Lewis and 5 men Set out in our Small Indian canoe (which is made in the Indian fashion Calculated ride the waves) down the South Side of the river to the place the Indians informed us by Signs that numbers of Elk were to be found near the river- The Swells and waves being too high for us to proceed down in our large Canoes, in Safty

I Sent out two hunters to hunt deer, & one to hunt fowl, all the others employed in drying their leather and prepareing it for use, as but fiew of them have many other Clothes to boste of at this time, we are Smoked verry much in this Camp The Shore on the Side next the Sea is Covered with butifull pebble of various Colours- our diat at this time and for Severall days past is the dried pounded fish we purchased at the falls boiled in a little Salt water

[Clark, November 29, 1805] Friday 29th of November 1805 The wind and rain Continued all the last night, this morning much more moderate. the waves Still high and rain Continues. Capt Lewis and 5 hunters Set out in our Indian Canoe (which is Calculated to ride wave) dow to the place we expected to find Elk from the Inds. information, they pointed to a Small Bay which is yet below us- I Sent out 2 men to hunt Deer which I expected might be on the open hill Sides below, another to hunt fowl in the deep bend above the point, all the others engaged drying their leather before the fire, and prepareing it for usethey haveing but fiew other Species of Clothing to ware at this time

The winds are from Such points that we cannot form our Camp So as to provent the Smoke which is emencely disagreeable, and painfull to the eyes- The Shore below the point at our Camp is formed of butifull pebble of various colours. I observe but fiew birds of the Small kind, great numbers of wild fowls of Various kinds, the large Buzzard with white wings, grey and bald eagle's, large red tailed Hawks, ravens & Crows in abundance, the blue Magpie, a Small brown bird which frequents logs & about the roots of trees- Snakes, Lizards, Small bugs, worms, Spiders, flyes & insects of different kinds are to be Seen in abundance at this time.

[Lewis, November 30, 1805] November 30th 1805. cloudy morning set out before sun rise and continued our rout up the bey

Sent out three men to examin the country to the S. & W. they returned after about 2 hours and informed me that the wood was so thick and obstructed by marrasses & lakes that they were unable to proceed to the ocean which could not be at any considerable distance fom the apparent sound of the waves breaking on the Coast. we now returned and asscended the inlet which we had last passd no fresh appearance of Elk or deer in our rout so far. asscend the inlet as we intended about 1 m. found it became much smaller and that it did not keep it's direction to the high land which boar S. 10 W. but inclined West. therefore returned to the large arm of the bay which we passed this morning. here we expect to meet with the Clat-sop Indians, who have tantilized us with there being much game in their neighbourhood. this information in fact was the cause of my present resurch, for where there is most game is for us the most eliguble winter station.- continued our rout up the large arm of the bay about 6 miles and encamped on the Stard. side on the highland. the water was quite sweet. therefore concluded that it must be supplyed from a large crick. at our camp it is 120 yds. wide, tho it gets narrower above. it rained but little on us today tho it was cloudy generally.- Wind from N. E.- saw a great abundance of fowls, brant, large geese, white brant sandhill Cranes, common blue crains, cormarants, haulks, ravens, crows, gulls and a great variety of ducks, the canvas back, duckinmallard, black and white diver, brown duck- &c &c

[Clark, November 30, 1805] November 30th Saturday 1805 Some rain and hail with intervales of fair weather for 1 and 2 hours dureing the night and untill 9 oClock this morning at which time it Cleared up fair and the Sun Shown, I Send 5 men in a Canoe in the Deep bend above the Peninsulear to hunt fowles, & 2 men in the thick woods to hunt Elk had all our wet articles dried & the men all employed dressing their Skins, I observe but few birds in this Countrey of the Small kindsgreat numbers of wild fowl, The large Buzzard with white under their wings Grey & Bald eagle large red tailed hawk, ravins, Crows, & a small brown bird which is found about logs &c. but fiew small hawks or other smaller birds to be seen at this time Snakes, Lizzards, Snales bugs worms Spiders, flies & insects of different kinds are to be Seen in plenty at this time. The Squar, gave me a piece of Bread to day made of Some flower She had Cearfully kept for her child, and had unfortunately got wet The hunters killed only 3 hawks, saw 3 Elk but Could not git a Shot at them, The fowlers, killed 3 black ducks, with white Sharp bills, a brown Spot in their foward, Some white under the tail, which Short, and a fiew of the tips of the wing feathers white, Their toes are long Seperated and flaped, no Craw, keep in emence large flocks in the Shallow waters & feed on Grass &c.- Several men Complaining of being unwell to day- a Broock comes in to the bend above the 1st point above, and a river falls in the next nitch above this river is Small,- I observe rose bushes Pine, a kind of ash a Species of Beech and a Species of Maple, in addition to the pine Lorrel and under groth Common to the woods in this Lower Countrey the hills are not high & Slope to the river

[Clark, November 30, 1805] Saturday 30th of November 1805 Some rain and hail with intervales of fair weather for the Space of one or two hours at a time dureing the night untill 9 oClock this morning, at which time it Cleared away and the Sun Shewn for _ hours, Several men out hunting I Send 5 men in the bend above to hunt fowl &c. in a Canoe, employ all the others in drying our wet articles by the fire Several men Complain of a looseness and gripeing which I contribute to the diet, pounded fish mixed with Salt water, I derect that in future that the party mix the pounded fish with fresh water- The Squar gave me a piece of bread made of flour which She had reserved for her child and carefully Kept untill this time, which has unfortunately got wet, and a little Sour- this bread I eate with great Satisfaction, it being the only mouthfull I had tasted for Several months past. my hunters killed three Hawks, which we found fat and delicious, they Saw 3 Elk but Could not get a Shot at them. The fowlers killed 3 black Ducks with Sharp White beeks keep in large flocks & feed on Grass, they have no Craw and their toes are Seperate, Common in the U. States

The Chinnooks Cath ldh mah & others in this neighbourhood bury their dead in their Canoes. for this purpose 4 pieces of Split timber are Set erect on end, and sunk a fiew feet in the ground, each brace having their flat Sides opposit to each other and Sufficiently far assunder to admit the width of the Canoe in which the dead are to be deposited; through each of those perpindicular posts, at the hight of 6 feet a mortice is Cut, through which two bars of wood are incerted; on those Cross bars a Small Canoe is placed, in which the body is laid after beaing Carefully roled in a robe of Some dressed Skins; a paddle is also deposited with them; a larger Canoe is now reversed, overlaying and imbracing the Small one, and resting with its gunnals on the Cross bars; one or more large mats of flags or rushes are then rold. around the Canoe and the whole Securely lashed with a long Cord usially made of the bark of the arbar vita or white Cedar. on the Cross bars which Support the Canoes is frequently hung or laid various articles of Clothing Culinary utensils &c. we cannot understand them Sufficiently to make any enquiries relitive to their religious opinions, from their depositing Various articles with their dead, beleve in a State of future ixistance.

I walked on the point and observed rose bushes different Species of pine, a Spcies of ash, alder, a Species of wild Crab Loral and Several Species of under Broth Common to this lower part of the Columbia river- The hills on this Coast rise high and are thickly covered with lofty pine maney of which are 10 & 12 feet through and more than 200 feet high. hills have a Steep assent.

[Lewis, December 1, 1805] December 1st 1805 Cloudy morning wind from the S. E. sent out the men to hunt and examin the country, they soon returned all except Drewyer and informed me that the wood was so thick it was almost impenetrable and that there was but little appearance of game; they had seen the track of one deer only and a few small grey squirrels. these suirrels are about the size of the red squirrel of the lakes and eastern Atlantic States, their bellies are of a redish yellow, or tanners ooze colour the tale flat and as long as the body eyes black and moderately large back and sides of a greyish brown the brier with a brown bark and three laves which put forth at the extremety of the twigs like the leaves of the blackbury brier, tho is a kind of shrub and rises sometimes to the hight of 10 feet the green brier yet in leaf; the ash with a remarkable large leaf; the large black alder. the large elder with skey blue buries. the broad leave shrub which grows something like the quill wood but has no joints, the leaf broad and deeply indented the bark peals hangs on the stem and is of a yelowish brown colour. the seven bark is also found here as is the common low cramburry-there is a wild crab apple which the natives eat this growth differs but little in appearance from that of the wild crab of the Atlantic States. but the fruit consists of little oval hurries which grow in clusters at the extremities of the twigs like the black haws. the fruit is of a brown colour, oval form and about double as large as the black haw; the rind is smoth and tough somewhat hard; the seed is like that of the wild crab and nearly as large; the pulp is soft of a pale yellow coulour; and when the fruit has been touched by the frost is not unpleasant, being an agreeable assed. the tree which bears a red burry in clusters of a round form and size of a red haw. the leaf like that of the small magnolia, and brark smoth and of a brickdust red coulour it appears to be of the evergreen kind.- half after one oclock Drewyer not yet arrived. heard him shoot 5 times just above us and am in hopes he has fallen in with a gang of elk.

[Clark, December 1, 1805] December 1st Sunday 1805 Cloudy windey morning wind from the East, Sent out 2 hunters in the woods, I intended to take 5 men in a Canoe and hunt the marshey Islands above, found the wind too high & returned to partake of the dried fish, The day Some what Cooler than usial, but Scercely perceveable. began to rain at Sun Set and Continued half the night. my hunters returned without any thing Saw 2 gang of Elk a disagreeable Situation, men all employed in mending their leather Clothes, Socks &c. and Dressing Some Leather. The Sea which is imedeately in front roars like a repeeted roling thunder and have rored in that way ever Since our arrival in its borders which is now 24 Days Since we arrived in Sight of the Great Western Ocian, I cant Say Pasific as Since I have Seen it, it has been the reverse. Elegant Canoes

[Clark, December 1, 1805] Sunday December 1st 1805 A cloudy windey morning wind from the East, dispatched two hunters, I deturmined to take a Canoe & a fiew men and hunt the marshey Islands above Point William, the Wind rose So high that I could not proceed, and returned to partake the dried fish, which is our Standing friend, began to rain hard at Sun Set and Continud. my hunters returned without any thing haveing Seen 2 parcels of elk men all employed to day in mending their leather Clothes, Shoes &c. and Dressing leather.

The emence Seas and waves which breake on the rocks & Coasts to the S W. & N W roars like an emence fall at a distance, and this roaring has continued ever Since our arrival in the neighbourhood of the Sea Coast which has been 24 days Since we arrived in Sight of the Great Western; (for I cannot Say Pacific) Ocian as I have not Seen one pacific day Since my arrival in its vicinity, and its waters are forming and petially perpetually breake with emenc waves on the Sands and rockey Coasts, tempestous and horiable. I have no account of Capt. Lewis Since he left me.

[Clark, December 2, 1805] December 2nd Monday 1805 Cloudy and Some little rain this morning I despatched 3 men to hunt and 2 and my Servent in a Canoe to a Creek above to try & Catch Some fish- I am verry unwell the drid fish which is my only diet does not agree with me and Several of the men Complain of a lax, and weakness- I expect Capt. Lewis will return to day with the hunters and let us know if Elk or deer Can be found Sufficent for us to winter on, If he does not come I Shall move from this place, to one of better prospects for game &c. Joseph Fields came home with the marrow bones of an Elk which he had killed 6 miles distant, I sent out 6 men in a canoe for the meat, the evening being late they did not return this night, which proved fair moon Shineing night- This is the first Elk we have killed on this Side the rockey mounts a great deal of Elk Sign in the neighbourhood

[Clark, December 2, 1805] Monday 2nd December 1805 Cloudy with Some rain this morning I Send out three men to hunt & 2 & my man york in a Canoe up the Ke-ke-mar-que Creek in Serch of fish and fowl- I feel verry unwell, and have entirely lost my appetite for the Dried pounded fish which is in fact the cause of my disorder at present- The men are generally Complaining of a lax and gripeing- In the evening Joseph Field came in with the Marrow bones of a elk which he killed at 6 miles distant, this welcome news to us. I dispatched Six men in a empty Canoe with Jo. mediately for the elk which he Said was about 3 miles from the water this is the first Elk which has been killd. on this Side of the rockey mountains- Jo Fields givs me an account of a great deel of Elk Sign & Says he Saw 2 Gangs of those Animals in his rout, but it rained So hard that he could not Shoot them- The party up the Creek returned without any thing and informs me they could not See any fish in the Creek to kill and the fowls were too wild to be killed, this must

[Clark, December 3, 1805] December 3rd Tuesday 1805 a fair windey morning wind from the East, the men Sent after an Elk yesterday returnd. with an Elk which revived the Sperits of my men verry much, I am unwell and cannot Eate, the flesh O! how disagreeable my Situation, a plenty of meat and incaple of eateing any- an Indian Canoe Came down with 8 Indians in it from the upper village, I gave a fish hook for a fiew Wap-e-to roots, which I eate in a little Elk Supe, The Indians proceeded on down. wind Confines to blow, and Serjt. Pryor & Gibson who went to hunt yesterday has not returnd. as yet I marked my name & the day of the month and year on a large Pine tree on this Peninsella & by land Capt William Clark December 3rd 1805. By Land. U States in 1804 & 1805"- The Squar Broke the two Shank bones of the Elk after the marrow was taken out, boiled them & extracted a Pint of Greese or tallow from them- Serjt. Pryor & Gibson returned after night and informed me they had been lost the greater part of the time they were out, and had killed 6 Elk which they left lying haveing taken out their interals. Some rain this afternoon

[Clark, December 3, 1805] Tuesday 3d December 1805 a fair windey morning wind from the East the men returned with the Elk which revived the Spirits of my party verry much I am Still unwell and Can't eate even the flesh of the Elk. an Indian Canoe of 8 Indians Came too, those Inds. are on their way down to the Chit Sops with Wap pa to to barter with that nation, I purchasd. a fiew of those roots for which I gave Small fish hooks, those roots I eate with a little Elks Soupe which I found gave me great relief I found the roots both nurishing and as a check to my disorder. The Indians proceeded on down through emence high waves maney times their Canoe was entirely out of Sight before they were 1/2 a mile distance. Serjt. Pryor & Gibson who went hunting yesterday has not returned untill after night, they informed me that they had killed 6 Elk at a great distance which they left lying, haveing taken out their interals that they had been lost and in their ramble saw a great deel of Elk Sign. after eateing the marrow out of two Shank bones of an Elk, the Squar choped the bones fine boiled them and extracted a pint of Grease, which is Superior to the tallow of the animal. Some rain this evening I marked my name on a large pine tree imediately on the isthmus William Clark December 3rd 1805. By Land from the U. States in 1804 & 1805.

[Clark, December 4, 1805] December 4th Wednesday 180151 Some little rain all the last night and this morning after day the rain increased and Continued

I despatched Serjt. Pryer & 6 men to the Elk which he had killed yesterday, with directions to Save the meet and take loads to the River below in the next great bend- a Spring tide which rose 2 feet higher than Common flud tides, and high water at 11 oClock to day- wind from the S. E in the after noon hard wind from South- rained all day, moderately the Swells too high for me to proceed down, as I intended, I feel my self Something better and have an appetite to eate Something

[Clark, December 4, 1805] Wednesday 4th December 1805 Some rain all the last night, this morning it increased with the wind from the S. E. I Set out Sergiant Pryor and 6 men to the Elk he had killed with directions to Carry the meat to a bay which he informed me was below and as he believed at no great distance from the Elk, and I Should proceed on to that bay as Soon as the wind would lay a little and the tide went out in the evening- the Smoke is exceedingly disagreeable and painfull to my eyes, my appetite has returned and I feel much better of my late complaint- a Spring tide to day rose 2 feet higher than Common flood tides and high water at 11 oClock- Hard wind from the South this evening, rained moderately all day and the waves too high for me to proceed in Safty to the bay as I intended, in Some part of which I expected would be convenient for us to make winter quarters, the reports of seven huntes agreeing that elke were in great abundance about the Bay below. no account of Capt. Lewis. I fear Some accident has taken place in his craft or party

[Clark, December 5, 1805] December 5th Thursday 1805 Som hard Showers of rain last night, this morn Cloudy and drisley rain, in the bay above the Showers appear harder. High water to day at 12 oClock this tide is 2 Ins. higher than that of yesterday all our Stores again wet by the hard Showers of last night Capt Lewis's long delay below has been the cause of no little uneasiness on my part for him, a 1000 conjectures has crouded into my mind respecting his probable Situation & Safty— rained hard. Capt Lewis returned haveing found a good Situation and Elk Suffient to winter on, his party killed 6 Elk & 5 Deer in their absence in Serch of a Situation and game

Rain continued all the after pt. of the day accompanied with hard wind from the S W. which provents our moveing from this Camp.

[Clark, December 5, 1805] Thursday 5th of December 1805 Some hard Showers of rain last night, this morning Cloudy and drisley at Some little distant above the isthmus the rain is much harder. high water to day at 12 this tide is 2 inches higher than that of yesterday. all our Stores and bedding are again wet by the hard rain of last night. Capt. Lewis's long delay below, has been the Sorce of no little uneasness on my part of his probable Situation and Safty, the repeeted rains and hard winds which blows from the S, W. renders it impossible for me to move with loaded Canoes along an unknown Coast we are all wet & disagreeable; the party much better of indispositions-. Capt. Lewis returned with 3 men in the Canoe and informs me that he thinks that a Sufficient number of Elk may be prcured Convenient to a Situation on a Small river which falls into a Small bay a Short distance below, that his party had Killed 6 Elk & 5 Deer in his rout, two men of his party left behind to Secure the Elk this was verry Satisfactory information to all the party. we accordingly deturmined to proceed on to the Situation which Capt. Lewis had Viewed as Soon as the wind and weather Should permit and Comence building huts &c.

[Clark, December 6, 1805] December 6th Friday 1805 Wind blew hard all the last night, and a moderate rain, the waves verry high, This morning the wind which is Still from the S W increased and rained Continued all day, at Dusk wind Shifted to the North and it Cleared up and became fare, High water to day at 12 oClock & 13 Inches higher than yesterday. we were obliged to move our Camp out of the Water on high grown all wet.

[Clark, December 6, 1805] Friday 6th of December 1805 The wind blew hard all the last night with a moderate rain, the waves verry high, the wind increased & from the S. W. and the rain Continued all day, about Dark the wind Shifted to the North cleared away and became fair weather.

The high tide of today is 13 inches higher than yesterday, and obliged us to move our Camp which was in a low Situation, on higher ground Smoke exceedingly disagreeable.

[Clark, December 7, 1805] December 7th Saturday 1805 Some rain from 10 to 12 last night this morning fair, we Set out at 8 oClock down to the place Capt Lewis pitched on for winter quarters, when he was down proceeded on against the tide at the point No. 2 we met our men Sent down after meet

To point Adams is West

To pt. Disapointment N 75 W

They informed me that they found the Elk after being lost in the woods for one Day and part of another, the most of the meat was Spoiled, they distance was So great and uncertain and the way bad, they brought only the Skins, york was left behind by Some accident which detained us Some time eer he Came up after passing round the pt. No. 2 in verry high swells, we Stopd & Dined in the commencement of a bay, after which proceeded on around the bay to S E. & assended a Creek 8 miles to a high pt. & Camped haveing passed arm makeing up to our left into the countrey

Mt. St. Helens is the mountain we mistook for Mt. Reeaneer

receved 2 Small Brooks on the East, extencive marshes at this place of Encampment We propose to build & pass the winter, The situation is in the Center of as we conceve a hunting Countrey- This day is fair except about 12 oClock at which time Some rain and a hard wind imedeately after we passed the point from the N. E which Continued for a about 2 hours and Cleared up. no meat

[Clark, December 7, 1805] Saturday 7th of December 1805 Some rain from 10 to 12 last night, this morning fair, have every thing put on board the Canoes and Set out to the place Capt Lewis had viewed and thought well Situated for winter quarters- we proceeded on against the tide to a point about _ miles here we met Sergt Pryor and his party returning to the Camp we had left without any meat, the waves verry verry high, as much as our Canoes Could bear rendered it impossible to land for the party, we proceeded on around the point into the bay and landed to take brackfast on 2 Deer which had been killed & hung up, one of which we found the other had been taken off by some wild animal probably Panthors or the Wildcat of this Countrey here all the party of Serjt Pryors joined us except my man york, who had Stoped to rite his load and missed his way, Sergt Pryor informed us that he had found the Elk, which was much further from the bay than he expected, that they missed the way for one day and a half, & when he found the Elk they were mostly Spoiled, and they only brought the Skins of 4 of the Elk after brackfast I delayed about half an hour before York Came up, and then proceeded around this Bay which I have taken the liberty of calling Meriwethers Bay the Cristian name of Capt. Lewis who no doubt was the 1st white man who ever Surveyed this Bay, we assended a river which falls in on the South Side of this Bay 3 miles to the first point of high land on the West Side, the place Capt. Lewis had viewed and formed in a thick groth of pine about 200 yards from the river, this situation is on a rise about 30 feet higher than the high tides leavel and thickly Covered with lofty pine. this is certainly the most eligable Situation for our purposes of any in its neighbourhood.

Meriwethers Bay is about 4 miles across deep & receves 2 rivers the Kil how-d-nah-kle and the Ne tul and Several Small Creeks- we had a hard wind from the N. E. and Some rain about 12 oClock to day which lasted 2 hours and Cleared away. From the Point above Meriwethers Bay

to Point Adams is West

to point Disapointment is N. 75 W

[Clark, December 8, 1805] December 8th Sunday 1805 a Cloudy morning, I took 5 men and Set out to the Sea to find the nearest place & make a way, to prevent our men getting lost and find a place to make Salt, Steered S 62 W at 2 miles passed the head of a Brook running to the right, the lands good roleing much falling timber, lofty Pine of the Spruce kind, & Some fur, passed over a high hill & to a Creek which we kept down 11/2 miles and left it to our right, Saw fish in this Creek & Elk & Bear tracks on it, passed over a ridge to a low marshey bottom which we Crossed thro water & thick brush for 1/2 a mile to the Comencement of a Prarie which wavers, Covered with grass & Sackay Commis, at 1/2 Crossed a marsh 200 yds wide, boggey and arrived at a Creek which runs to the right. Saw a gange of Elk on the opposit Side below, rafted the Creek, with much dificulty & followed the Elk thro, emence bogs, & over 4 Small Knobs in the bogs about 4 miles to the South & Killed an Elk, and formed a Camp, Covered our Selves with the Elk Skins. the left of us Bogs & a lake or pond those bogs Shake, much Cramberry growing amongst the moss. Some rain this evening we made a harty Supper of the Elk & hung up the balsa

[Clark, December 8, 1805] Sunday December 8th 1805 Fort Clatsop We haveing fixed on this Situation as the one best Calculated for our Winter quarters I deturmin'd to go as direct a Course as I could to the Sea Coast which we Could here roar and appeared to be at no great distance from us, my principal object is to look out a place to make Salt, blaze the road or rout that they men out hunting might find the direction to the fort if they Should get lost in cloudy weather-and See the probibillity of game in that direction, for the Support of the Men, we Shall Send to make Salt, I took with me five men and Set out on a Course S 60 W proceeded on a dividing ridge through lofty piney land much falling timber. passed the heads of 2 brooks one of them had wide bottoms which was over flown & we waded to our knees crossed 2 Slashes and arrived at a Creek in a open ridgey prarie covered with Sackacomma this Creek we were obliged to raft, which is about 60 yards over and runs in a direction to Point adams, we discovered a large gange of Elk in the open lands, and we prosued them through verry bad Slashes and Small ponds about 3 miles, Killed one and camped on a Spot Scercely large enough to lie Clear of the Water. it is almost incredeable to assurt the bogs which those animals Can pass through, I prosue'd this gang of Elk through bogs which the wate of a man would Shake for 1/2 an Acre, and maney places I Sunk into the mud and water up to my hips without finding any bottom on the trale of those Elk. Those bogs are Covered with a kind of moss among which I observe an ebundance of Cramberries. in those Slashes Small Knobs are promisquisly Scattered about which are Steep and thickly Covered with pine Common to the Countrey & Lorel. we made a Camp of the Elk Skin to keep off the rain which Continued to fall, the Small Knob on which we Camped did not afford a Sufficiency of dry wood for our fire, we collected what dry wood we Could and what Sticks we Could Cut down with the Tomahawks, which made us a tolerable fire.

[Clark, December 9, 1805] December 9th Monday 1805 rained all the last night we are all wet, Send 2 men in pursute of the Elk & with the other 3 I Set out with a view to find the Ocian in our first direction, which Can be at no great Distance, I crossed 3 Slashes by wadeing to my knees & was prevented proceeding by the 4th which was a pond of 200 yds. we. I went around, and was Stoped by a 5th which apd. to be a rung Stream to the right. I then returned to the raft and recrossd. & proceeded down the Stream I first Struck about 2 miles & met 3 Indians, who informed me they lived on the See cost at a Short distance, I de-termd. to accompany them to their vilg. & we Set out, crossed the Stream, and 2 of the Indians took the Canoe over the wavering open rich plains for 1/2 a mile and we Crossed the same stream which run to the left, we then left the canoe and proceeded to the Same Stream which runs to the right and empties its Self into the See here I found their vilg. 4 Lodges on the west bank of this little river which is here 70 yards wide, Crossed in a Canoe & was invited to a lodge by a young Chief was treated great Politeness, we had new mats to Set on, and himself and wife produced for us to eate, fish, Lickorish, & black roots, on neet Small mats, and Cramberries & Sackacomey berris, in bowls made of horn, Supe made of a kind of bread made of berries common to this Countrey which they gave me in a neet wooden trencher, with a Cockle Shell to eate it with It began to rain and with a tremendious storm from the S. W. which lasted untill 10 oClock P M- when I was disposd to go to Sleep 2 neet mats was produced & I lay on them but the flees were So troublesom that I Slept but little Those people has 2 plays which they are fond of one is with a Been which they pass from one hand into the other, and the oponent guess on this game the resquist nubr of the white Beeds which is the principal property- they other game is with round Pieces of wood much the Shape of the _ Backgammon which they role thro between 2 pins.

[Clark, December 9, 1805] Monday 9th December 1805 rained all the last night we are all wet, I directed 2 hunters Drewyer & Shannon to go in pursute of the Elk, with the other 3 men I determined to proceed on to the Ocian, & Set out on a Westerley direction Crossed 3 Slashes and arived at a Creek which I could not Cross as it was deep and no wood to make a raft, I proceeded down this Creek a Short distance and found that I was in a fork of the Creek, I then returned to raft on which we had Crossed the day. crossed and kept down about one mile and met 3 Indians loaded with fresh Salmon which they had Giged in the Creek I crossed yesterday in the hills, those indians made Signs that they had a town on the Seacoast at no great distance, and envited me to go to their town which envitation I axcepted and accompand. them, they had a Canoe hid in the Creek which I had just before rafted which I had not observed, we crossed in this little Canoe just large enough to carry 3 men an their loads after Crossing 2 of the Indians took the Canoe on theire Sholders and Carried it across to the other Creek about 1/4 of a mile, we Crossed the 2d Creek and proceeded on to the mouth of the Creek which makes a great bend above the mouth of this Creek or to the S. is 3 houses and about 12 families of the Clat Sop Nation, we cross to those houses, which were built on the S. exposur of the hill, Sunk into the ground about 4 feet the walls roof & gable ends are of Split pine boards, the dotes Small with a ladder to decend to the iner part of the house, the fires are 2 in the middle of the house their beads ar all around raised about 21/2 feet from the bottom flore all covered with mats and under those beads was Stored their bags baskets and useless mats, those people treated me with extrodeanary friendship, one man attached himself to me as Soon as I entered the hut, Spred down new mats for me to Set on, gave me fish berries rutes &c. on Small neet platteers of rushes to eate which was repeated, all the Men of the other houses Came and Smoked with me Those people appeared much neeter in their diat than Indians are Comonly, and frequently wash theer faces and hands- in the eveng an old woman presented a bowl made of a light Coloured horn a kind of Surup made of Dried berries which is common to this Countrey which the natives Call Shele wele this Surup I though was pleasent, they Gave me Cockle Shells to eate a kind of Seuip made of bread of the Shele well berries mixed with roots in which they presented in neet trenchers made of wood. a flock of Brant lit in the Creek which was 70 yds wide I took up my Small rifle and Shot one which astonished those people verry much, they plunged into the Creek and brought the brant on Shorein the evening it began to rain and Continud accompanied with a Violent wind from the S. W. untill 10 oClock P.M. those people have a Singular game which they are verry fond of and is performed with Something about the Size of a large been which they pass from, one hand into the other with great dexterity dureing which time they Sing, and ocasionally, hold out their hands for those who Chuse to risque their property to guess which hand the been is in-; the individual who has the been is a banker & opposed to all in the room. on this game they risque their beeds & other parts of their most valuable effects- this amusement has occupied about 3 hours of this evening, Several of the lodge in which I am in have lost all the beeds which they had about them- they have one other game which a man attempted to Show me, I do not properly understand it, they make use of maney peces about the Shape and size of Backgammon Pices which they role through between two pins Stuck up at certain distancies &.- when I was Disposed to go to Sleep the man who had been most attentive named Cus-ka-lah producd 2 new mats and Spred them near the fire, and derected his wife to go to his bead which was the Signal for all to retire which they did emediately. I had not been long on my mats before I was attacked most violently by the flees and they kept up a close Siege dureing the night

[Clark, December 10, 1805] December 10th 1805 Tusday A Cloudey rainy morning those people was Some what astonished, at three Shot I made with my little riffle to day, a gangu of Brant Set in the little river, I Killd. 2 of them as they Set, and on my return Saw a Duck which I took the head off of, the men plunged into the water like Spaniards Dogs after those fowls, after eateing a brackfast which was Similar to my Suppar, I attempted to purchase Some fiew roots which I offered red beeds for, they would give Scercely any thing for Beeds of that Colour, I then offered Small fish hooks which they were fond of and gave me Some roots for them, I then Set out on my return by the Same road I had went out accompd. by my young Chief by name Cus-ca-lar who Crossed me over the 3 Creek, and returned I proceeded on to my Camp thro a heavy Cold rain, Saw no game- at the Sea Cost near those Indins I found various kinds of Shells, a kind of Bay opsd. those people with a high pt. about 4 miles below, out from which at Some dists I Saw large rocks, as the day was Cloudy I could not See distinctly- found Capt Lewis with all hands felling trees, to build with, rained nearly all day, in my absence they men had bt. in the 6 Elk which was Killed Some days past 4 men complaining of being unwell from various causes

[Clark, December 10, 1805] Tuesday 10th December 1805 a Cloudy rainey morning verry early I rose and walked on the Shore of the Sea coast and picked up Several Curious Shells. I Saw Indians walking up and down the beech which I did not at first understand the Cause of, one man came to where I was and told me that he was in Serch of fish which is frequently thrown up on Shore and left by the tide, and told me the "Sturgion was verry good" and that the water when it retired left fish which they eate this was Conclusive evedance to me that this Small band depended in Some Measure for their winters Subsistance on the fish which is thrown on Shore and left by the tide- after amuseing my Self for about an hour on the edge of the rageing Seas I returned to the houses, one of the Indians pointed to a flock of Brant Sitting in the creek at Short distance below and requested me to Shute one, I walked down with my Small rifle and killed two at about 40 yds distance, on my return to the houses two Small ducks Set at about 30 Steps from me the Indians pointed at the ducks they were near together, I Shot at the ducks and accidently Shot the head of one off, this Duck and brant was Carried to the house and every man Came around examined the Duck looked at the gun the Size of the ball which was 100 to the pound and Said in their own language Clouch Musket, wake, com ma-tax Musket which is, a good Musket do not under Stand this kind of Musket &c. I entered the Same house I Slept in, they imediately Set before me their best roots, fish and Surup-, I attempted to purchase a Small Sea otter Skin for read beeds which I had in my pockets, they would not trade for those beeds not priseing any other Colour than Blue or White, I purchased a little of the berry bread and a fiew of their roots for which I gave Small fish hooks, which they appeared fond of- I then Set out on my return by the Same rout I had Come out accompanied by Cus-ka lah and his brother as far as the 3d Creek, for the purpose of Setting me across, from which place they returned, and I proceeded on through a heavy rain to the Camp at our intended fort, Saw a bears track & the tracks of 2 Elk in the thick woods- found Capt Lewis with all the men out Cutting down trees for our huts &c. in my absence the Men brought in the Six Elk which was killed Several days ago-. 4 men Complaining of violent Coalds. three Indians in a Canoe Came up from the Clat Sop Village yesterday and returned to day. The Sea Coast is about 7 miles distant Nearly West about 5 miles of the distance through a thick wood with reveens hills and Swamps the land, rich black moald 2 miles in a open wavering Sandy prarie, ridge runing parrelal to the river, Covered with Green Grass.

[Clark, December 11, 1805] December 11th Wednesday rained all last night moderately, we are all employed putting up the huts, rained at intervales all day moderately employed in putting up Cabins for our winter quarters, one man with Turners, one with a Strained Knee, one Sick with Disentary & Serjt. Pryor unwell from haveing his Sholder out of place

[Clark, December 11, 1805] Wednesday 11th December 1805 rained all the last night moderately we are all employed putting up huts or Cabins for our winters quarters. Sergeant Pryor unwell from a dislocation of his Sholder, Gibson with the disentary, Jo. Fields with biles on his legs, & Werner with a Strained Knee. The rained Continued moderately all day.

[Clark, December 12, 1805] December 12th Thursday 1805 Some moderate Showers last night and this morning all hands who are well employed in building Cabins, despatched 2 men to get board timber, The flees so bad last night that, I made but a broken nights rest we can't get them out of our robes & Skins, which we are obliged to make use of for bedding Some rain to day at Intervales- all at work, in the evening 2 Canoe of Indians Came from the 2 villages of Clotsop below, & brought Wapitoo roots a black root they call Si-ni-tor and a Small Sea orter Skin all of which we purchased for a fiew fishing hooks & Some Snake Indian Tobacco. Those Indians appeare well disposed, I made a Chief of one & gave him a Small medel, his name is Conyear we treated those people well- they are tite Deelers, value Blu & white beeds verry highly, and Sell their roots also highly as they purchase them from the Indians abov for a high price

[Clark, December 12, 1805] Thursday 12th December 1805 All hands that are well employ'd in Cutting logs and raising our winter Cabins, detached two men to Split boards- Some rain at intervales all last night and to day- The flees were So troublesom last night that I made but a broken nights rest, we find great dificuelty in getting those trouble insects out of our robes and blankets- in the evening two Canoes of Chit Sops Visit us they brought with them Wap pa to, a black Sweet root they Call Sha-na toe qua, and a Small Sea Otter Skin, all of which we purchased for a fiew fishing hooks and a Small Sack of Indian tobacco which was given by the Snake Inds.

Those Indians appear well disposed we gave a Medal to the principal Chief named Con-ny-au or Com mo-wol and treated those with him with as much attention as we could- I can readily discover that they are Close deelers, & Stickle for a verry little, never close a bargin except they think they have the advantage Value Blue beeds highly, white they also prise but no other Colour do they Value in the least- the Wap pa to they Sell high, this root the purchase at a high price from the nativs above.

[Clark, December 13, 1805] December 13th Friday 1805 The Indians left us to day after brackfast, haveing Sold us 2 of the robes of a Small animal for which I intend makeing a Capot, and Sold Capt Lewis 2 Loucirvia Skins for the Same purpose. Drewyer & Shannon returned from hunting havg. killed 18 Elk and butchered all except 2 which they Could not get as night provented ther finding them & they Spoild.

3 Indians in a Canoe Came and offered us for Sale Sinutor roots, fish & 2 Sea otter Skins for Sale none of which we Could purchase. Some rain last night and this day at Several times, light Showers. we Continue building our houses of the Streightest & logs, Sent out 2 men to Split timber to Covet the Cabins, and I am glad to find the timber Splits butifully, and of any width

[Clark, December 13, 1805] Friday 13th December 1805 The Clatsops leave us to day after a brackfast on Elk which they appeared to be very fond of before they left us they Sold me two robes of the Skins of a Small animal about the Size of a Cat, and to Captain Lewis 2 Cat or Loucirva Skins for the purpose of makeing a Coat. Drewyer & Shannon returned from hunting, haveing killed 18 Elk & left them boochered in the woods near the right fork of the river about 6 miles above this place- in the evining 3 Indians came in a Canoe, and offered to us for Sale roots & 2 Sea otter Skins, neither of which we Could purchase this evening. Some Showers of rain last night, and to day Several verry hard Showers- we Continue to put up the Streight butifull balsom pine on our houses-and we are much pleased to find that the timber Splits most butifully and to the width of 2 feet or more.

[Clark, December 14, 1805] December 14th Saturday 1805 a cloudy day & rained moderately all day we finish the log works of our building, the Indians leave us to day after Selling a Small Sea otter Skin and a roabe, Send 4 men to Stay at the Elk which is out in the woods &c.

[Clark, December 14, 1805] Saturday 14th December 1805 The Day Cloudy and rained moderately all day we finish the log work of our building, the Indians leave us to day after Selling a Small Sea otter Skin and a roab, dispatch 4 men to the Elk out in the woods with derections to delay untill the party goes up tomorrow. all employd in finishing a house to put meat into. all our last Supply of Elk has Spoiled in the repeeted rains which has been fallen ever Since our arrival at this place, and for a long time before, Scerce one man in Camp Can host of being one day dry Since we landed at this point, the Sick getting better, my man York Sick with Cholick & gripeing

[Clark, December 15, 1805] December 15th Sunday 1805 I Set out with 16 men in 3 Canoes for the Elk proced up the 1st right hand fork 4 miles & pack the meat from the woods to the Cano from 4 mile to 3 miles distance all hands pack not one man exempted from this labour I also pack my Self Some of this meat, and Cook for those out in packing Some rain in the evening Cloudy all day, the last load of meat all the party got out of the road or Direction and did not get to the Canoe untill after night, 5 did not join to night

[Clark, December 15, 1805] Sunday the 15th December 1805. I Set out early with 16 men and 3 Canoes for the Elk, proceed up the River three miles and thence up a large Creek from the right about 3 miles the hite of the tide water drew up the Canoes and all hands went out in three different parties and brought in to the Canoe each Man a quarter of Elk, I Sent them out for a Second load and had Some of the first Cooked against their return, after eateing a harty diner dispatched the party for a third and last load, about half the men missed their way and did not get to the Canoes untill after Dark, and Serjt. Ordway Colter, Colins Whitehouse & McNeal Staid out all night without fire and in the rain- Cloudy all day Some rain in the evening.

[Clark, December 16, 1805] December 16th Monday 1805 rained all the last night we Covered our Selves as well as we Could with Elk Skins, & Set up the greater part of the night, all wet I lay in the water verry Cold, the 5 men who Stayed out all night joined me this morning Cold & wet, Ordway Colter Collens, Jo Whitehouse J McNeal, I had the two Canoes loaded with the 11 Elk which was brought to the Canoes, despatched 12 men to meet me below with 2 Elk, The rain Contines, with Tremendious gusts of wind, which is Tremds. I proceeded on and took in the 2 Elk which was brought to the Creek, & Send back 7 men to Carrey to the Canoe & take down to Camp 3 Elk which was left in the woods, and I proceeded on to Camp thro the Same Chanel I had assd. The winds violent Trees falling in every derection, whorl winds, with gusts of rain Hail & Thunder, this kind of weather lasted all day, Certainly one of the worst days that ever was! I found 3 Indeans with Capt Lewis in camp they had brought fish to Sell, we had a house Covered with Punchen & our meat hung up. Several men Complaining of hurting themselves Carry meet, &c.

[Clark, December 16, 1805] Monday 16th December 1805 I as also the party with me experiencd a most dreadfull night rain and wet without any Couvering, indeed we Set up the greater part of the Night, when we lay down the water Soon Came under us and obliged us to rise. the five men who Stayed out all night joind me this morning wet and Cold, haveing Stayed out without fire or Shelter and the rain poreing down upon them all night their appearance was truly distressingthey had left all their loads near the place they Spent the night- I dispatched 12 men for 2 Elk which was reather below on the opposit Side of the Creak, with directions to meet me at the 2d bend in the Creek below, had all the meat which had been brought in yesterday put into 2 Canoes and proceeded down to the 2d bend where I met the 12 men with the 2 Elk, dispatchd 6 men with one of those who Staid out last night for the meet left in the woods & the remainder an elk at Some distance and proceeded on my Self with 3 Canoes to the fort. wind violent from the S E

trees falling, rain and hail, we with Some risque proceeded on thro the high waves in the river, a tempestious disagreeable day.

I found 3 indians at our Camp, they brought fish to Sell which were pore & not fit for use, had the meet house coverd and the meat all hung up, Several men complain of haveing hurt themselves heavy loads of meat.

[Clark, December 17, 1805] December 17th Tuesday 1805 rained Some last night and this morning, all hands at work about the huts Chinking them, The 7 men left to bring in the Elk left in the woods Come with 2 the 3rd they Could not find, as it was that left by the party that got lost night before last

The after part of the Day fair & Cool, fore part of the Day rain hailed & blew hard, The mountain which lies S. E of this is covered with Snow to day we fleece all the meat and hang it up over a Small Smoke The trees are hard to Split for Punchens to Cover our houses &c.

[Clark, December 17, 1805] Tuesday 17th of December 1805 Some rain last night and a continuation of it this morning. all the men at work about the houses, Some Chinking, Dobbing Cutting out dores &c. &c. The 7 men left to bring in the Elk arrived and informed that they Could not find the meat that the party who Stayed out all night had left- the forepart of this day rained hailed and blew hard, the after part is fair and Cool- a Mountain which is S. _ E. about 10 miles distant has got Snow on its top which is ruged and uneavin

Cause a Small fire & Smoke to be made under the meat which is hung up in Small peaces. The trees which our men have fallen latterly Split verry badly into boards. The most of our Stores are wet. our Leather Lodge has become So rotten that the Smallest thing tares it into holes and it is now Scrcely Sufficent to keep off the rain off a Spot Sufficiently large for our bead.

[Clark, December 18, 1805] December 18th Wednesday 1805 rained and Snowed alturnitely all the last night and the gusts of Snow and hail continue untill 12 oClock, Cold and a dreadfull day wind hard and unsettled, we continue at work at our huts, the men being but thinly dressed, and no Shoes causes us to doe but little- at 12 the Snow & hail Seased & the after part of the day was Cloudy with Some rain.

[Clark, December 18, 1805] Wednesday 18th December 1805 rained and Snowed alternetly all the last night, and Spurts of Snow and Hail Continued untill 12 oClock, which has chilled the air which is Cool and disagreeable, the wind hard & unsettled- The men being thinly Dressed and mockersons without Socks is the reason that but little can be done at the Houses to day- at 12 the Hail & Snow Seased, and rain Suckceeded for the latter part of the day

[Lewis, December 18, 1805] Fort Clatsop, December 18th 1805. This day one of the men shot a bird of the Corvus genus, which was feeding on some fragments of meat near the camp. this bird is about the size of the kingbird or bee martin, and not unlike that bird in form. the beak is 3/4 of an inch long, wide at the base, of a convex, and cultrated figure, beset with some small black hairs near it's base. the chaps are of nearly equal lengths tho the upper exceeds the under one a little, and has a small nich in the upper chap near the extremity perceptable only by close examineation. the colour of the beak is black. the eye is large and prominent, the puple black, and iris of a dark yellowish brown. the legs and feet are black and imbricated. has four toes on each foot armed with long sharp tallons; the hinder toe is nearly as long as the middle toe in front and longer than the two remaining toes. the tale is composed of twelve fathers the longest of which are five inches, being six in number placed in the center. the remaining six are placed 3 on either side and graduly deminish to four inches which is the shortest and outer feathers. the tail is half the length of the bird, the whole length from the extremity of the beak to the extremity of the tale being 10 Inches. the head from it's joining the nect forward as far as the eyes nearly to the base of the beak and on each side as low as the center of the eye is black. arround the base of the beak the throat jaws, neck, brest and belley are of a pale bluish white. the wings back and tale are of a bluish black with a small shade of brown. this bird is common to this piny country are also found in the rockey mountains on the waters of the columbia river or woody side of those mountains, appear to frequent the highest sumits of those mountains as far as they are covered with timber. their note is que, quit-it, que-hoo; and tah, tah, &- there is another bird of reather larger size which I saw on the woddy parts of the rockey mountains and on the waters of the Missouri, this bird I could never kill tho I made several attempts, the predominate colour is a dark blue the tale is long and they are not crested; I believe them to be of the corvus genus also. their note is char, char, char-ar, char; the large blue crested corvus of the Columbia river is also

[Lewis, December 19, 1805] Discription of the blue Crested corvus bird common to the woody and western side of the Rockey mountains, and all the woody country from thence to the Pacific Ocean It's beak is black convex, cultrated, wide at its base where it is beset with hairs, and is 11 inches from the opening of the chaps to their extremity, and from the joining of the head to the extremity of the upper chap 1 1/8 Inches, the upper exceeds the under chap a little; the nostrils are small round unconnected and placed near the base of the beak where they lye concealed by the hairs or hairy feathers which cover the base of the upper chap. the eye reather large and full but not prominent and of a deep bluefish black, there being no difference in the colour of the puple and the iris. the crest is very full the feathers from 1 to 11/2 Inches long and occupye the whole crown of the head. the head neck, the whole of the body including the coverts of the wings, the upper disk of the tail and wings are of a fine gossey bright indigo blue Colour the under disk of the tail and wings are of a dark brown nearly black. the leg and first joint of the tye are 41/4 In. long, the legs and feet are black and the front covered with 6 scales the hinder part smothe, the toes are also imbrecated, four in number long and armed with long sharp black tallons. the upper disk of the first four or five feathers of the wing next to the boddy, are marked with small transverse stripes of black as are also the upper side of the two center feathers of the tail; the tail is five inches long & is composed of twelve feathers of equal length. the tail 1 & 1/2 as long as the boddy. the whole length from the point of the beak to extremity of the tail 1 Foot 1 Inch; from the tip of one to the tip of the other wing 1 Foot 51/2 Inches. the Conta. the size & the whole Contour of this bird resembles very much the blue jay or jaybird as they are called in the U States. like them also they seldom rest in one place long but are in constant motion hoping from spra to spray. what has been said is more immediately applicable to the male, the colours of the female are somewhat different in her the head crest neck half the back downwards and the converts of the wings are of a dark brown, but sometimes there is a little touch of the Indigo on the short feathers on the head at the base of the upper chap. this bird feeds on flesh when they can procure it, also on bugs flies and buries. I do not know whether they distroy little birds but their tallons indicate their capacity to do so if nature, has directed it. their note is loud and frequently repeated cha' -a cha' -a' &c.- also twat twat twat, very quick

[Clark, December 19, 1805] December 19th Thursday 1805 Some rain with intervales of fair weather last night, The morning Clear and wind from S W. I despatched Sjt. Pryer with 8 men in 2 Canoes across the bay for the boads of an Indian house which is abandoned, the other part of the men continue to doe a little at the huts, the after part of the day Cloudy with hail & rain, Sgt. Pryer and party returned with 2 Canoe loads of Boards, two Indians Came & Stayed but a Short time

[Clark, December 19, 1805] Thursday 19th December 1805 Some rain with intervales of fair weather last night, this morning Clear & the wind from the S, W. we dispatched Sjt. Pryor with 8 men in 2 Canoes across Meriwethers Bay for the boards of an old Indian house which is vacant, the residue of the men at work at their huts- the after part of the Day Cloudy with Hail and rain, Serjt. Pryor & party returned in the evening with a load of old boards which was found to be verry indifferent

2 Indians Cam and Stayed a Short time to day

[Clark, December 20, 1805] December 20th Friday 1805 Some rain and hail last night and this morning it rained hard untill 10 oClock, men all employd Carrying Punchens and Covering Cabins 4 of which we had Covered, & Set Some to Dobing- the after part of the day Cloudy and Some Showers of rain. 3 Indians came with Lickorish Sackacomie berries & mats to Sell, for which they asked Such high prices that we did not purchase any of them,- Those people ask double & tribble the value of everry thing they have to Sell, and never take less than the full value of any thing, they prise only Blue & white heeds, files fish hooks and Tobacco- Tobacco and Blue beeds principally

[Clark, December 20, 1805] Friday 20th of December 1805 Some rain and hail last night and the rained Continued untill 10 oClock a,m, Men all employd in Carrying punchens or boards & Covering the houses, 4 of which were Covered to day, the after part of the day Cloudy with Several Showers of rain- 3 Indians arrive in a Canoe. they brought with them mats, roots & Sackacome berries to Sell for which they asked Such high prices that we did not purchase any of them. Those people ask generally double and tribble the value of what they have to Sell, and never take less than the real value of the article in Such things as is calculated to do them Service. Such as Blue & white heeds, with which they trade with the nativs above; files which they make use of to Sharpen their tools, fish hooks of different Sises and tobacco- Tobacco and blue beeds they do prefur to every thing.

[Clark, December 21, 1805] December 21st Saturday 1805 rain as usial last night and all day to day moderately. we Continued at the Cabins dobbing & Shinking of them, fall Several trees which would not Split into punchins- the Indians were detected in Stealing a Spoon & a Bone, and left us, our Sackey Commy out Send 2 men to gather Some at the ocian, Saw Elk Sign

[Clark, December 21, 1805] Saturday 21st December 1805 rained as useal all the last night, and contd. moderately all day to day without any intermition, men employd at the houses. one of the indians was detected Stealing a horn Spoon, and leave the Camp. dispatched two men to the open lands near the Ocian for Sackacome, which we make use of to mix with our tobacco to Smoke which has an agreeable flavour.

[Clark, December 22, 1805] December 22nd Sunday 1805 rained all the last night & to day without much intermition we finish dobbig 4 huts which is all we have Covered, the Punchin floor & Bunks finished Drewyer go out to trap- Sjt. J. Ordway, Gibson & my Servent Sick Several with Biles on them & bruses of different kinds, much of our meat Spoiled.

[Clark, December 22, 1805] Sunday 22nd December 1805 rained Continued all the last night and to day without much intermition, men employd doeing what they can at the houses. Drewyer Set out up the Creek to Set his traps for beaver, Sergt. ordway, Gibson & my Servent Sick, Several men Complain of biles and bruses of differant kinds.

We discover that part of our last Supply of meat is Spoiling from the womph of the weather not withstanding a constant Smoke kept under it day and night.

[Clark, December 23, 1805] December 23rd Monday 1805 rained without intermition all last night, and this day much Thunder in the morning and evening with rain and Some hail to day, we are all employd about our huts have ours Covered and Dobed & we move into it, 2 Canoes of Indians Came up to day. I purchased 3 mats verry neetly made, 2 bags made with Flags verry neetly made, those the Clotsops Carry ther fish in. also a Panthor Skin and Some Lickorish roots, for which I gave a worn out file, 6 fish hooks & Some Pounded fish which to us was Spoiled, but those people were fond of- in the evining those people left us I also gave a String of wompom to a Chief, and Sent a Small pice of Simimon to a Sick Indian in the Town who had attached himself to me

[Clark, December 23, 1805] Monday 23rd December 1805 Rained without intermition all the last night and to day with Thunder and Hail the fore and after part of this day Capt Lewis and my Self move into our hut to day unfinished- two Canoes with Indians of the Clat Sop nation Came up to day. I purchased 3 mats and bags all neetly made of flags and rushes, those bags are nearly Square of different size's open on one Side, I also purchased a panthor Skin 71/2 feet long including the tail, all of which I gave 6 Small fish hooks, a Small worn out file & Some pounded fish which we Could not use as it was So long wet that it was Soft and molded, the Indians of this neighbourhood prize the pound'd fish verry highly, I have not observed this method of Secureing fish on any other part of the Columbian waters then that about the Great falls. I gave a 2d Chief a String of wampom, and Sent a little pounded fish to Cus-ca-lah who was Sick in the village & could not come to See us.

[Clark, December 24, 1805] December 24th Tuesday-5 Some hard rain at different times last night, and moderately this morning without intermition all hands employed in Carrying Punchens & finishing Covering the huts, and the greater part of the men move into them a hard rain in the evening.

Cuscalar the young Clot Sop Chief Came with a young brother and 2 young Squar, they gave or laid before Capt Lewis and my Self a mat and each a large Parsel of roots, Some time after he demanded 2 files for his Present we returned the present as we had no files to Speare which displeased them a little they then offered a woman to each which we also declined axcpting which also displeased them. Jo Fields finish for Capt Lewis and my Self each a wide Slab hued to write on, I gave a handkerchief &c

[Clark, December 24, 1805] Tuesday 24th December 1805 hard rain at Different times last night and all this day without intermition. men all employd in finishing their huts and moveing into them.

Cuscalah the Indian who had treated me So politely when I was at the Clatsops village, come up in a Canoe with his young brother & 2 Squars he laid before Capt Lewis and my Self each a mat and a parcel of roots Some time in the evening two files was demanded for the presents of mats and roots, as we had no files to part with, we each returned the present which we had received, which displeased Cuscalah a little. he then offered a woman to each of us which we also declined axcepting of, which displeased the whole party verry much- the female part appeared to be highly disgusted at our refuseing to axcept of their favours &c.

our Store of Meat entirely Spoiled, we are obliged to make use of it as we have nothing else except a little pounded fish, the remains of what we purchased near the great falls of the Columbia, and which we have ever found to be a convenient resort, and a portable method of curing fish

[Clark, December 25, 1805] December 25th Christmas 1805 Wednesday Some rain at different times last night and Showers of hail with intervales of fair Starr light, This morning at day we were Saluted by all our party under our winders, a Shout and a Song- after brackfast we divided our tobacco which amounted to 2 Carrots, one half we gave to the party who used Tobacco those who did not we gave a Handkerchief as a present, The day proved Showery all day, the Inds. left us this eveningall our party moved into their huts. we dried Some of our wet goods. I rcved a present of a Fleeshe Hoserey vest draws & Socks of Capt Lewis, pr. Mockerson of Whitehouse, a Small Indian basket of Guterich, & 2 Doz weasels tales of the Squar of Shabono, & Some black roots of the Indians G. D. Saw a Snake passing across the parth

Our Diner to day Consisted of pore Elk boiled, Spilt fish & Some roots, a bad Christmass diner worm Day

[Clark, December 25, 1805] Christmas Wednesday 25th December 1805 at day light this morning we were awoke by the discharge of the fire arm of all our party & a Selute, Shoute and a Song which the whole party joined in under our windows, after which they retired to their rooms were Chearfull all the morning- after brackfast we divided our Tobacco which amounted to 12 carrots one half of which we gave to the men of the party who used tobacco, and to those who doe not use it we make a present of a handkerchief, The Indians leave us in the evening all the party Snugly fixed in their huts- I recved a presnt of Capt L. of a fleece hosrie Shirt Draws and Socks-, a pr. mockersons of Whitehouse a Small Indian basket of Gutherich, two Dozen white weazils tails of the Indian woman, & Some black root of the Indians before their departure- Drewyer informs me that he Saw a Snake pass across the parth to day. The day proved Showerey wet and disagreeable.

we would have Spent this day the nativity of Christ in feasting, had we any thing either to raise our Sperits or even gratify our appetites, our Diner concisted of pore Elk, So much Spoiled that we eate it thro mear necessity, Some Spoiled pounded fish and a fiew roots.

[Clark, December 26, 1805] December 26th Thursday 1805 rained and blew hard last night Some hard Thunder, The rain continued as usial all day and wind blew hard from the S. E, Joseph Fields finish a Table & 2 Seats for us. we dry our wet articles and have the blankets fleed, The flees are So troublesom that I have Slept but little for 2 nights past and we have regularly to kill them out of our blankets every day for Several past- maney of the men have ther Powder wet by the horns being repeetdly wet, hut Smoke verry bad.

[Clark, December 26, 1805] Thursday 26th December 1805 rained and blew with great Violence S E all the last night, Some hard Claps of Thunder, the rain as usial Continued all day- we dry our wet articles before the fire, and have our blankets fleed, great numbers were Caught out of the blankets, those trouble insects are So abundant that we have to have them killd. out of our blankets every day or get no Sleep at night- The powder in maney of the mens horns are wet from their being so long exposed to the rain &c.

[Clark, December 27, 1805] December 27th Friday 1805. rained last night as usial and the greater part of this day, the men Complete Chimneys & Bunks to day, in the evening a Chief and 4 men Come of the Clotsop nation, Chief Co-ma wool we Sent out R. Fields & Collins to hunt and order Drewyer, Shannon & Labiach to Set out early to morrow to hunt,- Jo Fields, Bratten, & Gibson to make Salt at Point Addams,- Willard & Wiser, to assist them in carrying the Kitties &c to the Ocian, and all the others to finish the Pickets and gates. worm weather I Saw a Musquetor which I Showed Capt. Lewis- Those Indians gave is, a black root they Call Shan-na-tah que a kind of Licquerish which they rost in embers and Call Cul ho-mo, a black berry the Size of a Cherry & Dried which they call Shel-well,- all of which they prise highly and make use of as food to live on, for which Capt Lewis gave the chief a Cap of Sheep Skin and I his Son, ear bobs, Piece of riben, a pice of brass, and 2 Small fishing hooks, of which they were much pleased Those roots & berres, are greatfull to our Stomcks as we have nothing to eate but Pore Elk meet, nearly Spoiled; & this accident of Spoiled meet, is owing to wormth & the repeeted rains, which cause the meet to tante before we Can get it from the woods Musquetors troublesorn

[Clark, December 27, 1805] Friday 27th December 1805 rained last night as usial and the greater part of this day. In the evening Co-mo wool the Chief and 4 men of the Clat Sop nation they presented us a root which resembles the licquirish in Size and taste, which they roste like a potato which they Call Cul ho-mo, also a black root which is cured in a kill like the pash-a-co above; this root has a Sweet taste and the natives are verry fond of it- they Call this root Shaw-na-tah-que. also a dried berry about the size of a Chery which they Call Shele well all those roots those Indians value highly and give them verry Spearingly. in return for the above roots Capt Lewis gave the Chief a Small piece of Sheap Skin to Ware on his head, I gave his Son a par of ear bobs and a pece of ribon, and a Small piece of brass for which they were much pleased.

Those roots and berries are timely and extreamly greatfull to our Stomachs, as we have nothing to eate but Spoiled Elk meat, I Showed Capt L. 2 Musquetors to day, or an insect So much the Size Shape and appearance of a Musquetor that we Could observe no kind of differance.

[Clark, December 28, 1805] December 28th Saturday 1805 rained as usial, a great part of the last night, and this morning rained and the wind blew hard from the S. E. Sent out the hunters and Salt makers, & employd the baleanc of the men Carrying the Pickets &c. &c. hunters Sent out yesterday returned, haveing killed one deer near the Sea cost, my boy york verry unwell from violent Colds & Strains Carrying in meet and lifting logs on the huts to build them, This day is worm, and rained all day moderately without intermition.

[Clark, December 28, 1805] Saturday the 28th December 1805 rained as usial the greater part of the last night and a continuation this morning accompanied with wind from the S East Derected Drewyer, Shannon, Labeash, Reuben Field, and Collins to hunt; Jos. Fields, Bratten, Gibson to proceed to the Ocean at Some Convenient place form a Camp and Commence makeing Salt with 5 of the largest Kittles, and Willard and Wiser to assist them in Carrying the Kittles to the Sea Coastall the other men to be employed about putting up pickets & makeing the gates of the fort. my man Y. verry unwell from a violent Coald and Strain by Carrying meet from the woods and lifting the heavy logs on the works &c. rained all Day without intermition. the Weather verry worm.

[Clark, December 29, 1805] December 29th Sunday 1805 rained last night as usial, this morning Cloudy without rain a hard wind from the S. E. The Inds. left us this morning and returned to their village, after begging for maney things which they did not secure as we Could not Spare them I gave the Chief Canio a Razor, Sent out 3 men across the river to hunt, all others employd putting up pickets Pete Crusat Sick with a violent Cold My Servent better- we are told by the Indians that a whale has foundered on the Coast to the N. W and their nations is collecting fat of him, the wind is too high for us to See it, Capt Lewis is been in readiness 2 days to go and Collect Some of the whale oyle the wind has proved too high as yet for him to Set out in Safty In the evening a young Chief 4 men and 2 womin of the War-ci-a-cum tribe came in a large canoe with Wapto roots, Dressed Elk Skins &c. to Sell, the Chief made me a present of about a half a bushel of those roots- we gave him a medal of a Small Size and a piece of red ribin to tie around the top of his Hat which was made with a double Cone, the diameter of the upper about 3 Inches the lower a about 1 foot

We purchased about 11/2 bushels of those roots for which we gave Some few red beeds, Small pices of brass wire and old Check- those roots proved greatfull to us as we are now liveing on Spoiled Elk which is extreamly disagreeable to the Smel. as well as the taste, I can plainly discover that a considerable exchange of property is Continually Carried on between the Tribes and villages of those people they all dress litely ware nothing below the waste, a pice of fur abt. around the body, and a Short robe which Composes the total of their dress, except a few Split hats, and heeds around ther necks wrists and anckles, and a few in their ears. They are small and not handsom generally Speaking women perticularly.

The Chin nook womin are lude and Carry on Sport publickly the Clotsop and others appear deffidend, and reserved The flees are So noumerous in this Countrey and difficult to get Cleare of that the Indians have difft. houses & villages to which they remove frequently to get rid of them, and not withstanding all their precautions, they never Step into our hut without leaveing Sworms of those troublesom insects. Indeed I Scercely get to Sleep half the night Clear of the torments of those flees, with the precaution of haveing my blankets Serched and the flees killed every day- The 1 s of those insects we Saw on the Collumbia River was at the 1 s Great falls- I have the Satisfaction to Say that we had but little rain in the Course of this day, not as much as would wet a person. but hard wind and Cloudy all day.

[Clark, December 29, 1805] Sunday 29th December 1805 rained all the last night a usial, this morning Cloudy without rain, a hard wind from the S. E I gave the Cheif a razor, and himself and party left us after begging us for maney articles none of which they recvied as we Could not Spare the articles they were most in want of. Peter Crusat

Sick with a violent Cold, my man Y. better. all hands employed about the Pickets & gates of the fort. we were informed day before yesterday that a whale had foundered on the coast to the S. W. near the Kil a mox N. and that the greater part of the Clat Sops were gorn for the oile & blubber, the wind proves too high for us to proceed by water to See this monster, Capt Lewis has been in readiness Since we first heard of the whale to go and see it and collect Some of its Oil, the wind has proved too high as yet for him to proceed- this evining a young Chief 4 Men and 2 womin of the War ci a cum Nation arrived, and offered for Sale Dressed Elk Skins and Wap pa to, the Chief made us a preasent of about 1/2 a bushel of those roots. and we purchased about 11/2 bushels of those roots for which we gave Some fiew red beeds Small peaces of brass wire & old Check those roots proved a greatfull addition to our Spoiled Elk, which has become verry disagreeable both to the taste & Smell we gave this Chief a Medal of a Small Size and a piece of red riben to tie around the top of his hat which was of a Singular Construction Those people will not Sell all their Wap pa to to us they inform us that they are on their way to trade with the Chit Sops. The nations above Carry on a verry Considerable interchange of property with those in this neighbourhood. they pass altogether by water, they have no roads or pathes through the Countrey which we have observed, except across portages from one Creek to another, all go litely dressed ware nothing below the waste in the Coaldest of weather, a piece of fur around their bodies and a Short roabe Composes the Sum total of their dress, except a few hats, and heeds about their necks arms and legs Small badly made and homely generally. The flees are So noumerous and hard to get rid of; that the Indians have different houses which they resort to occasionally, not withstanding all their precautions they never Step into our house without leaveing Sworms of those tormenting insects; and they torment us in Such a manner as to deprive us of half the nights Sleep frequently- the first of those insects which we saw on the Columbian waters was at the Canoe portage at the great falls. Hard winds & Cloudy all day but verry little rain to day.

[Clark, December 30, 1805] December 30th Monday 1805 Hard wind and Some rain last night, this morning fair and the Sun Shown for a Short time 4 Indians Came from the upper Villages they offered us roots which we did not Chuse to axcept of, as their expectations for those presents of a fiew roots is 3 or 4 times their real worth, those Indians with those of yesterday Continued all day. Drewyer & party of hunters returned and informed they had killed 4 Elk, a party of 6 men was imediately Sent for the meet, they returned at Dusk, with the 4 Elk, of which we had a Sumptious Supper of Elk Tongues & marrow bones which was truly gratifying.

The fort was Completed this evening and at Sun Set we let The Indians know that, our Custom will be to Shut the gates at Sun Set, at which time, they must all go out of the fort those people who are verry foward and disegreeable, left the huts with reluctiance- This day proved the best we have had Since at this place, only 3 Showers of rain to day, Cloudy nearly all day, in the evening the wind luled and the fore part of the night fair and clear. I Saw flies & different kinds of insects in motion to day Snakes are yet to be seen, and Snales without Cover is Common and large, fowls of every kind Common to this quarter abound in the Creek & Bay near us

[Clark, December 30, 1805] Monday 30th December 1805 Hard wind and Some rain last night. this morning the Sun Shown for a Short time- four Indians came down from the War cia cum Village, they offered us roots which we did not think proper to accept of as in return they expect 3 or 4 times as much as the roots as we Could purchase the Roots for, and are never Satisfied with what they receive, those 4 Indians & these that Came yesterday Stayed all day. Drewyer returned and informed that he had killed 4 Elk at no great distance off, a party of 6 men was imediately dispatched for the meat, and returned at Dusk with the 4 Elk- we had a Sumptious Supper of Elks tongues & marrow bones which was truly gratifying- our fortification is Completed this evening-and at Sun Set we let the nativs know that our Custom will be in future, to Shut the gates at Sun Set at which time all Indians must go out of the fort and not return into it untill next morning after Sunrise at which time the gates will be opened, those of the War ci a cum Nation who are very foward left the houses with reluctianc this day proved to be the fairest and best which we have had since our arrival at this place, only three Showers dureing this whole day, wind the fore part of the day.

[Clark, December 31, 1805] December 31st Tuesday 1805 A Cloudy night & Some rain, this day proved Cloudy and Some Showers of rain to day all the Indians Continued at their Camp near us, 2 others Canoes Came one from the War-ci-a-cum Village, with three Indians, and the other from higher up the river of the Skil-lute nation with three men and a Squar; Those people brought with them Some Wapto roots, mats made of flags, & rushes, dried fish and Some fiew Shene-tock-we (or black) roots & Dressed Elk Skins, all of which they asked enormous prices for, particularly the Dressed Elk Skins; I purchased of those people Some Wapto roots, two mats and a Small pouch of Tobacco of their own manufactory- for which I gave large fish hooks, which they were verry fond, those Indians are much more reserved and better behaved to day than yesterday- the Sight of our Sentinal who walks on his post, has made this reform in those people who but yesterday was verry impertenant and disagreeable to all- This evening they all Cleared out before the time to Shut the gates, without being derected to doe So- I derected Sinks to be dug and a Sentinal Box which was accomplished one of those Indeans brought a Musquet to be repared, which only wanted a Screw flattened, for which he gave me a Peck of Wapto roots, I gave him a flint and a pice of Sheep Skin of which he was pleased

[Clark, December 31, 1805] Tuesday 31st December 1805 last night was Cloudy and Some rain, this day prove Cloudy and Showerry all day, all the Indians Continue at their Camp near us, two other Canoes arrived, one from the War ci a cum Village with 3 indians and the other of 3 men & a Squar from higher up the river and are of the Skil-lute nation, those people brought with them Some Wappato roots, mats made of flags and rushes dried fish, and a fiew Shaw-na tah-que and Dressed Elk Skins, all of which they asked enormous prices for, perticularly the dressed Elk Skins, I purchased of those people Some Wap pa to two mats and about 3 pipes of their tobacco in a neet little bag made of rushes- This tobacco was much like what we had Seen before with the So So ne or Snake indians, for those articles I gave a large fishing hook and Several other Small articles, the fishinghooks they were verry fond of. Those Skit lutes are much better behaved than the War ci a cum indeed we found a great alteration in the Conduct of them all this morning, the Sight of our Sentinal on his post at the gate, together with our deturmined proseedure of putting all out at Sun Set has made this reform in those War ci a corns who is foward impertinant an thieveish.

The nativs all leave us the fort this evening before Sun Set without being told or desired to do So- we had Sinks dug & a Sentinal box made- a Skit lute brought a gun which he requested me to have repared, it only wanted a Screw flattened So as to Catch, I put a flint into his gun & he presented me in return a peck of Wappato for payment, I gave him piece of a Sheap Skin and a Small piece of blue Cloth to Cover his lock for which he was much pleased and gave me in return Some roots &c.

I Saw flies and different kinds of insects in motion to day- Snakes are yet to be Seen and Snales without Covers is Common and verry large water fowls of various kinds are in great numbers in the rivers and Creeks and the sides of Meriwethers Bay near us but excessively wild- the fore part of this night fair and Clear

With the party of Clat Sops who visited us last was a man of much lighter Coloured than the nativs are generaly, he was freckled with long duskey red hair, about 25 years of age, and must Certainly be half white at least, this man appeared to understand more of the English language than the others of his party, but did not Speak a word of English, he possessed all the habits of the indians

[Lewis, January 1, 1806] Fort Clatsop 1806. January 1st Tuesday. This morning I was awoke at an early hour by the discharge of a volley of small arms, which were fired by our party in front of our quarters to usher in the new year; this was the only mark of rispect which we had it in our power to pay this celebrated day. our repast of this day tho better than that of Christmass, consisted principally in the anticipation of the 1st day of January 1807, when in the bosom of our friends we hope to participate in the mirth and hilarity of the day, and when with the zest given by the recollection of the present, we shall completely, both mentally and corporally, enjoy the repast which the hand of civilization has prepared for us. at present we were content with eating our boiled Elk and wappetoe, and solacing our thirst with our only beverage pure water. two of our hunters who set out this morning reterned in the evening having killed two bucks elk; they presented Capt. Clark and myself each a marrow-bone and tonge, on which we suped. visited today by a few of the Clotsops who brought some roots and burries for the purpose of trading with us. we were uneasy with rispect to two of our men, Willard and Wiser, who were dispatched on the 28th ulto. with the saltmakers, and were directed to return immediately; their not having returned induces us to believe it probable that they have missed their way.- our fourtification being now completed we issued an order for the more exact and uniform dicipline and government of the garrison. (see orderly book 1st January 1806).-

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