The Journals of Lewis and Clark
by Meriwether Lewis et al
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The nativs of the waters of the Columbia appear helthy, Some have turners on different parts of their bodies, and Sore and weak Eyes are common, maney have lost their Sight entirely great numbers with one eye out and frequently the other verry weak; This misfortune I must again asscribe to the water &c. They have bad teeth, which is not common with indians, maney have worn their teeth down and Some quite into their gums, this I cannot Satisfactorily account for it, do ascribe it in some measure to their method of eateing, their food, roots pertiularly, which they make use of as they are taken out of the earth frequently nearly covered with Sand, I have not Seen any of their long roots offered for Sale clear of Sand. They are rether below the Common Size high cheeks womin Small and homely, and have Swelled legs and thighs, and their knees remarkably large which I ascribe to the method in which they Sit on their hams-go nearly necked wareing only a piece of leather tied about their breast which falls down nearly as low as the waste, a Small roabe about 3 feet Square, and a piece of leather tied about their breach, They have all flat heads in this quarter They are tirty in the extream, both in their person and cooking, ware their hare loose hanging in every direction. They asc high prices for what they Sell and Say that the white people below give great prices for every thing &c.

The noses are all pierced and when they are dressed they have a long tapered piece of white shell or wampum put through the nose, Those Shells are about 2 inches in length. I observed in maney of the villeages which I have passed, the heads of the female children in the press for the purpose of compressing their heads in their infancy into a certain form, between two boards

[Clark, November 2, 1805] Novr. 2d Saturday 1805 Meridian altitude 59 45' 45" made a portage of about 11/2 miles with half of the Baggage, and run the rapid with the Canoes without much damage, one Struck a rock & Split a little, and 3 others took in Some water 7 Squars Came over the portage loaded with Dried fish & Beargrass, Soon after 4 men Came down in a Canoe after takeing brackfast, & after taking a meridian altitude we Set out Passed 2 bad rapids one at 2 & the other at 4 mile below the Isd on Lard. and upper end of Strawberry Island on the Stard. Side from the Creek end of last Course

We Labiech killed 14 Geese & a Brant, Collins one Jos. Fields & R 3 those gees are much Smaller than Common, and have white under their rumps & around the tale, The tide rises here a fiew 9 Inches, I cannot assertain the prosise hite it rises at the last rapid or at this placeof Camp.

The Indians we left at the portage passed us this evening one other Canoe Come up

[Clark, November 2, 1805] November 2nd Saturday 1805 Examined the rapid below us more pertcelarly the danger appearing too great to Hazzard our Canoes loaded, dispatched all the men who could not Swim with loads to the end of the portage below, I also walked to the end of the portage with the carriers where I delayed untill everry articles was brought over and canoes arrived Safe. here we brackfast and took a Meridn. altitude 5945'45" about the time we were Setting out 7 Squars came over loaded with Dried fish, and bear grass neetly bundled up, Soon after 4 Indian men came down over the rapid in a large canoe. passed a rapid at 2 miles & 1 at 4 miles opposit the lower point of a high Island on the Lard Side, and a little below 4 Houses on the Stard. Bank, a Small Creek on the Lard Side opposit Straw berry Island, which heads below the last rapid, opposit the lower point of this Island passed three Islands covered with tall timber opposit the Beatin rock Those Islands are nearest the Starboard Side, imediately below on the Stard. Side passed a village of nine houses, which is Situated between 2 Small Creeks, and are of the Same construction of those above; here the river widens to near a mile, and the bottoms are more extensive and thickly timbered, as also the high mountains on each Side, with Pine, Spruce pine, Cotton wood, a Species of ash, and alder. at 17 miles passed a rock near the middle of the river, about 100 feet high and 80 feet Diamuter, proceed on down a Smoth gentle Stream of about 2 miles wide, in which the tide has its effect as high as the Beaten rock or the Last rapids at Strawberry Island,- Saw great numbers of waterfowl of Different kinds, Such as Swan, Geese, white & grey brants, ducks of various kinds, Guls, & Pleaver. Labeach killed 14 brantjoseph Fields 3 & Collins one. we encamped under a high projecting rock on the Lard. Side, here the mountains leave the river on each Side, which from the great Shute to this place is high and rugid; thickly Covered with timber principalley of the Pine Species. The bottoms below appear extensive and thickly Covered with wood. river here about 21/2 miles wide. Seven Indians in a Canoe on their way down to trade with the nativs below, encamp with us, those we left at the portage passed us this evening and proceeded on down The ebb tide rose here about 9 Inches, the flood tide must rise here much higher- we made 29 miles to day from the Great Shute-

[Clark, November 3, 1805] November 3rd Sunday 1805 The fog So thick this morning we did not think it prudent to Set out untill 10 oClock we Set out and proceeded on verry well, accompanied by our Indian friends- This morning Labich killed 3 Geese flying Collins killed a Duck- The water rose Inches last night the effects of tide. The Countrey has a handsom appearance in advance no mountains extensive bottoms- the water Shallow for a great distance from Shore-. The fog continued thick untill 12 oClock, we Coasted, and halted at the mouth of a large river on the Lard Side, This river throws out emence quanty of Sand and is verry Shallow, th narrowest part 200 yards wide bold Current, much resembling the river Plat, Several Islands about 1 mile up and has a Sand bar of 3 miles in extent imedeately in its mouth, discharging it waters by 2 mouths, and Crowding its Corse Sands So as to throw the Columbian waters on its Nothern banks, & confdg it to 1/2 ms. in width Passed a Small Prarie on the Stard. Side above, a large Creek opposit qk Sand River on the Stard. Side, extensive bottoms and low hilley Countrey on each Side (good wintering Place) a high peaked mountain Suppose to be Mt. Hood is on the Lard Side S. 85 E. 40 miles distant from the mouth of quick Sand river.-

[Clark, November 3, 1805] November 3rd Sunday 1805 The Fog So thick this morning that we could not See a man 50 Steps off, this fog detained us untill 10 oClock at which time we Set out, accompanied by our Indian friends who are from a village near the great falls, previous to our Setting out Collins killed a large Buck, and Labiech killed 3 Geese flying. I walked on the Sand beech Lard. Side, opposit the canoes as they passed allong. The under groth rushes, vines &c. in the bottoms too thick to pass through, at 3 miles I arrived at the enterance of a river which appeared to Scatter over a Sand bar, the bottom of which I could See quite across and did not appear to be 4 Inches deep in any part; I attempted to wade this Stream and to my astonishment found the bottom a quick Sand, and impassable- I called to the Canoes to put to Shore, I got into the Canoe and landed below the mouth, & Capt Lewis and my Self walked up this river about 11/2 miles to examine this river which we found to be a verry Considerable Stream Dischargeing its waters through 2 Chanels which forms an Island of about 3 miles in length on the river and 11/2 miles wide, composed of Corse Sand which is thrown out of this quick Sand river Compressing the waters of the Columbia and throwing the whole Current of its waters against its Northern banks, within a Chanel of 1/2 a mile wide, Several Small Islands 1 mile up this river, This Stream has much the appearance of the River Plait; roleing its quick Sands into the bottoms with great velocity after which it is divided into 2 Chanels by a large Sand bar before mentioned, the narrowest part of this River is 120 yards-on the Opposit Side of the Columbia a falls in above this Creek on the Same Side is a Small prarie. extensive low country on each Side thickly timbered.

The Quick Sand river appears to pass through the low countrey at the foot of those high range of mountains in a Southerly direction,- The large Creeks which fall into the Columbia on the Stard. Side rise in the Same range of mountains to the N. N. E. and pass through Some ridgey land- A Mountain which we Suppose to be Mt. Hood is S. 85 E about 47 miles distant from the mouth of quick sand river This mtn. is Covered with Snow and in the range of mountains which we have passed through and is of a Conical form but rugid- after takeing dinner at the mouth of this river we proceeded on passed the head of a Island near the lard Side back of which on the Same Side and near the head a large Creek falls in, and nearly opposit & 3 miles below the upper mouth of quick Sand river is the lower mouth, This Island is 31/2 miles long, has rocks at the upper point, Some timber on the borders of this Island in the middle open and ponney. Some rugid rocks in the middle of the Stream opposit this Island. proceeded in to Center of a large Island in the middle of the river which we call Dimond Isld. from its appearance, here we met 15 Indn men in 2 canoes from below, they informed us they Saw 3 vestles below &c. &c. we landed on the North Side of this Dimond Island and Encamped, Capt. L walked out with his gun on the Island, Sent out hunters & fowlers- below quick Sand River the Countrey is low rich and thickly timbered on each Side of the river, the Islands open & Some ponds river wide and emence numbers of fowls flying in every direction Such as Swan, geese, Brants, Cranes, Stalks, white guls, comerants & plevers &c. also great numbers of Sea Otter in the river- a Canoe arrived from the village below the last rapid with a man his wife and 3 children, and a woman whome had been taken prisoner from the Snake Inds. on Clarks River I Sent the Interpreters wife who is a So So ne or Snake Indian of the Missouri, to Speake to this Squar, they Could not understand each other Sufficiently to Converse. This familey and the Inds. we met from below continued with us Capt Lewis borrowed a Small Canoe of those Indians & 4 men took her across to a Small lake in the Isld. Cap L. and 3 men Set out after night in this Canoe in Serch of the Swans, Brants Ducks &c. &c. which appeared in great numbers in the Lake, he Killed a Swan and Several Ducks which made our number of fowls this evening 3 Swan, 8 brant and 5 Ducks, on which we made a Sumptious Supper. We gave the Indian-who lent the Canoe a brant, and Some meat to the others. one of those Indians, the man from the village near the lower Rapids has a gun with a brass barrel & Cock of which he prises highly- note the mountain we Saw from near the forks proves to be Mount Hood

[Clark, November 4, 1805] Novr. 4th Monday 1805 A Cloudy Cool morning, wind West, we Set out at 1/2 past 8 oClock having dispatched 4 men in the Small canoe to hunt

(Those people men & women heads are flat)

We landed at a village 200 men of Flatheads of 25 houses 50 canoes built of Straw, we were treated verry kindly by them, they gave us round root near the Size of a hens egg roasted which they call Wap-to to eate

I walked out on the Stard. Side found the country fine, an open Prarie for 1 mile back of which the wood land comence riseing back, the timber on the edge of the Prarie is white oke, back is Spruce pine & other Species of Pine mixed Some under groth of a wild crab & a Specis of wood I'm not acquainted, a Specis of maple & Cotton wood grow near this river, Some low bushes

Indians continue to be with us, Several Canoes Continue with us, The Indians at the last village have more Cloth and uriopian trinkets than above I Saw Some Guns, a Sword, maney Powder flasks, Salers jackets, overalls, hats & Shirts, Copper and Brass trinkets with few Beeds only. dureing the time I was at Dinner the Indians Stold my tomahawk which I made use of to Smoke I Serched but Could not find it, a Pond on the Stard Side, off from the river. Raspberries and _ are also in the bottoms- met a large and Small canoe with 12 men from below the men were dressed with a variety of articles of European manufactory the large Canoe had emeges on the bow & Stern handsomly Carved in wood & painted with the figur of a Bear in front & man in a Stern. Saw white geese with black wings- Saw a Small Crab-apple with all the taste & flavor of the Common- Those Indians were all armed with Pistols or bows and arrows ready Sprung war axes &c.

Mount Hellen bears N. 25 E about 80 miles, this is the mountain we Saw near the foks of this river. it is emensely high and covered with Snow, riseing in a kind of Cone perhaps the highest pinecal from the common leavel in america passed a village of 4 hs. on the Stard Side at 2 mils, one at 3 mls.

One deer 2 Ducks & Brant killed

[Clark, November 4, 1805] November 4th Monday 1805 A cloudy cool morning wind from the West we Set out at 1/2 past 8 oClock, one man Shannon Set out early to walk on the Island to kill Something, he joined us at the lower point with a Buck. This Island is 6 miles long and near 3 miles wide thinly timbered (Tide rose last night 18 inches perpndicular at Camp) near the lower point of this dimond Island is The head of a large Island Seperated from a Small one by a narrow chanel, and both Situated nearest the Lard Side, those Islands as also the bottoms are thickly Covered with Pine &c. river wide, Country low on both Sides; on the Main Lard Shore a Short distance below the last Island we landed at a village of 25 Houses; 24 of those houses were thached with Straw, and covered with bark, the other House is built of boards in the form of those above, except that it is above ground and about 50 feet in length and covered with broad Split boards This village contains about 200 men of the Skil-loot nation I counted 52 canoes on the bank in front of this village maney of them verry large and raised in bow. we recognised the man who over took us last night, he invited us to a lodge in which he had Some part and gave us a roundish roots about the Size of a Small Irish potato which they roasted in the embers until they became Soft, This root they call Wap-pa-to which the Bulb of the Chinese cultivate in great quantities called the Sa-git ti folia or common arrow head-. it has an agreeable taste and answers verry well in place of bread. we purchased about 4 bushels of this root and divided it to our party, at 7 miles below this village passed the upper point of a large Island nearest the Lard Side, a Small Prarie in which there is a pond opposit on the Stard. here I landed and walked on Shore, about 3 miles a fine open Prarie for about 1 mile, back of which the countrey rises gradually and wood land comencies Such as white oake, pine of different kinds, wild crabs with the taste and flavour of the common crab and Several Species of undergroth of which I am not acquainted, a few Cottonwood trees & the Ash of this countrey grow Scattered on the river bank, Saw Some Elk and Deer Sign and Joined Capt. Lewis at a place he had landed with the party for Diner. Soon after Several Canoes of Indians from the village above came down dressed for the purpose as I Supposed of Paying us a friendly visit, they had Scarlet & blue blankets Salors jackets, overalls, Shirts and Hats independant of their Usial dress; the most of them had either war axes Spears or Bows Sprung with quivers of arrows, Muskets or pistols, and tin flasks to hold their powder; Those fellows we found assumeing and disagreeable, however we Smoked with them and treated them with every attention & friendship.

dureing the time we were at dinner those fellows Stold my pipe Tomahawk which They were Smoking with, I imediately Serched every man and the canoes, but Could find nothing of my Tomahawk, while Serching for the Tomahawk one of those Scoundals Stole a Cappoe of one of our interpreters, which was found Stufed under the root of a treer, near the place they Sat, we became much displeased with those fellows, which they discovered and moved off on their return home to their village, except 2 canoes which had passed on down- we proceeded on met a large & a Small Canoe from below, with 12 men the large Canoe was ornimented with Images carved in wood the figures of a Bear in front & a man in Stern, Painted & fixed verry netely on the of the Canoe, rising to near the hight of a man two Indians verry finely Dressed & with hats on was in this canoe passed the lower point of the Island which is nine miles in length haveing passed 2 Islands on the Stard Side of this large Island, three Small Islands at its lower point. the Indians make Signs that a village is Situated back of those Islands on the Lard. Side and I believe that a Chanel is Still on the Lrd, Side as a Canoe passed in between the Small Islands, and made Signs that way, probably to traffick with Some of the nativs liveing on another Chanel, at 3 miles lower, and 12 Leagues below quick Sand river passed a village of four large houses on The Lard. Side, near which we had a full view of Mt. Helien which is perhaps the highest pinical in America from their base it bears N. 25 E about 90 miles- This is the mountain I Saw from the Muscle Shell rapid on the 19th of October last Covered with Snow, it rises Something in the form of a Sugar lofe- about a mile lower passed a Single house on the Lard. Side, and one on the Stard. Side, passed a village on each Side and Camped near a house on the Stard. Side we proceeded on untill one hour after dark with a view to get clear of the nativs who was constantly about us, and troublesom, finding that we could not get Shut of those people for one night, we landed and Encamped on the Stard. Side Soon after 2 canoes Came to us loaded with Indians, we purchased a fiew roots of them.

This evening we Saw vines much resembling the raspberry which is verry thick in the bottoms. A range of high hills at about 5 miles on the Lard Side which runs S. E. & N W. Covered with tall timber the bottoms below in this range of hills and the river is rich and leavel, Saw White geese with a part of their wings black. The river here is 11/2 miles wide, and current jentle. opposit to our camp on a Small Sandy Island the brant & geese make Such a noise that it will be impossible for me to Sleap. we made 29 miles to day Killed a Deer and Several brant and ducks. I Saw a Brarow tamed at the 1st village to day The Indians which we have passd to day of the Scil-loot nation in their language from those near & about the long narrows of the Che-luc-it-te-quar or E-chee-lute, their dress differ but little, except they have more of the articles precured from the white traders, they all have flatened heads both men and women, live principally on fish and Wap pa toe roots, they also kill Some fiew Elk and Deer, dureing the Short time I remained in their village they brought in three Deer which they had killed with their Bow & arrows. They are thievishly inclined as we have experienced.

[Clark, November 5, 1805] Novr. 5th Tuesday 1805 a Cloudy morning Som rain the after part of last night & this morning. I could not Sleep for the noise kept by the Swans, Geese, white & black brant, Ducks &c. on a opposit base, & Sand hill Crane, they were emensely numerous and their noise horrid. We Set out at Sun rise & our hunters killed 10 Brant 4 of which were white with black wings 2 Ducks, and a Swan which were divided, we Came too and Encamped on the Lard. Side under a high ridgey land, the high land come to the river on each Side. the river about 11/2 mile wide. those high lands rise gradually from the river & bottoms- we are all wet Cold and disagreeable, rain Continues & encreases. I killed a Pheasent which is very fat- my feet and legs cold. I saw 17 Snakes to day on a Island, but little appearance of Frost at this place.

[Clark, November 5, 1805] November 5th Tuesday 1805 Rained all the after part of last night, rain continues this morning, I slept but verry little last night for the noise Kept dureing the whole of the night by the Swans, Geese, white & Grey Brant Ducks &c. on a Small Sand Island close under the Lard. Side; they were emensely noumerous, and their noise horid- we Set out early here the river is not more than 3/4 of a mile in width, passed a Small Prarie on the Stard. Side passed 2 houses about 1/2 a mile from each other on the Lard. Side a Canoe came from the upper house, with 3 men in it mearly to view us, passed an Isld. Covered with tall trees & green briers Seperated from the Stard. Shore by a narrow Chanel at 9 miles I observed on the Chanel which passes on the Stard Side of this Island a Short distance above its lower point is Situated a large village, the front of which occupies nearly 1/4 of a mile fronting the Chanel, and closely Connected, I counted 14 houses in front here the river widens to about 11/2 miles. Seven canoes of Indians came out from this large village to view and trade with us, they appeared orderly and well disposed, they accompanied us a fiew miles and returned back. about 111/2 miles below this village on the Lard Side behind a rockey Sharp point, we passed a Chanel 1/4 of a mile wide, which I take to be the one the Indian Canoe entered yesterday from the lower point of Immage Canoe Island a Some low clifts of rocks below this Chanel, a large Island Close under the Stard Side opposit, and 2 Small Islands, below, here we met 2 canoes from below,- below those Islands a range of high hills form the Stard. Bank of the river, the Shore bold and rockey, Covered with a thick groth of Pine an extensive low Island, Seperated from the Lard side by a narrow Chanel, on this Island we Stoped to Dine I walked out found it open & covered with grass interspersed with Small ponds, in which was great numbr. of foul, the remains of an old village on the lower part of this Island, I saw Several deer our hunters killed on this Island a Swan, 4 white 6 Grey brant & 2 Ducks all of them were divided, below the lower point of this Island a range of high hills) which runs S. E. forms the Lard. bank of the river the Shores bold and rockey & hills Covered with pine, The high hills leave the river on the Stard. Side a high bottom between the hill & river. We met 4 Canoes of Indians from below, in which there is 26 Indians, one of those Canoes is large, and ornimented with Images on the bow & Stern. That in the Bow the likeness of a Bear, and in Stern the picture of a man- we landed on the Lard. Side & camped a little below the mouth of a creek on the Stard. Side a little below the mouth of which is an Old Village which is now abandaned-; here the river is about one and a half miles wide, and deep, The high Hills which run in a N W. & S E. derection form both banks of the river the Shore boald and rockey, the hills rise gradually & are Covered with a thick groth of pine &c. The valley which is from above the mouth of Quick Sand River to this place may be computed at 60 miles wide on a Derect line, & extends a great Distanc to the right & left rich thickly Covered with tall timber, with a fiew Small Praries bordering on the river and on the Islands; Some fiew Standing Ponds & Several Small Streams of running water on either Side of the river; This is certainly a fertill and a handsom valley, at this time Crouded with Indians. The day proved Cloudy with rain the greater part of it, we are all wet cold and disagreeable- I Saw but little appearance of frost in this valley which we call Wap-pa-loo Columbia from that root or plants growing Spontaneously in this valley only In my walk of to Day I saw 17 Striped Snakes I killed a grouse which was verry fat, and larger than Common. This is the first night which we have been entirely clear of Indians Since our arrival on the waters of the Columbia River. We made 32 miles to day by estimation-

[Clark, November 6, 1805] November 6th Wednesday a cold wet morning. rain Contd. untill _ oClock we Set out early & proceeded on the Corse of last night &c.

[Clark, November 6, 1805] November 6th Wednesday 1805 A cool wet raney morning we Set out early at 4 miles pass 2 Lodges of Indians in a Small bottom on the Lard Side I believe those Indians to be travelers. opposit is the head of a long narrow Island close under the Starboard Side, back of this Island two Creeks fall in about 6 miles apart, and appear to head in the high hilley countrey to the N. E. opposit this long Island is 2 others one Small and about the middle of the river. the other larger and nearly opposit its lower point, and opposit a high clift of Black rocks on the Lard. Side at 14 miles: here the Indians of the 2 Lodges we passed to day came in their canoes with Sundery articles to Sell, we purchased of them Wap-pa-too roots, Salmon trout, and I purchased 2 beaver Skins for which I gave 5 Small fish hooks. here the hills leave the river on the Lard. Side, a butifull open and extensive bottom in which there is an old Village, one also on the Stard. Side a little above both of which are abandened by all their inhabitents except Two Small dogs nearly Starved, and an unreasonable portion of flees- The Hills and mountains are covered with Sever kinds of Pine-Arber Vitea or white Cedar, red Loril, alder and Several Species of under groth, the bottoms have common rushes, nettles, & grass the Slashey parts have Bull rushes & flags- Some willow on the waters edge, passed an Island 3 miles long and one mile wide, close under the Stard. Side below the long narrow Island below which the Stard Hills are verry from the river bank and Continues high and rugid on that Side all day, we over took two Canoes of Indians going down to trade one of the Indians Spoke a fiew words of english and Said that the principal man who traded with them was Mr. Haley, and that he had a woman in his Canoe who Mr. Haley was fond of &c. he Showed us a Bow of Iron and Several other things which he Said Mr. Haley gave him. we came too to Dine on the long narrow Island found the woods So thick with under groth that the hunters could not get any distance into the Isld. the red wood, and Green bryors interwoven, and mixed with pine, alder, a Specis of Beech, ash &c. we killed nothing to day The Indians leave us in the evening, river about one mile wide hills high and Steep on the Std. no place for Several Miles suffcently large and leavil for our camp we at length Landed at a place which by moveing the Stones we made a place Sufficently large for the party to lie leavil on the Smaller Stones Clear of the Tide Cloudy with rain all day we are all wet and disagreeable, had large fires made on the Stone and dried our bedding and Kill the flees, which collected in our blankets at every old village we encamped near I had like to have forgotten a verry remarkable Knob riseing from the edge of the water to about 80 feet high, and about 200 paces around at its Base and Situated on the long narrow Island above and nearly opposit to the 2 Lodges we passed to day, it is Some distance from the high land & in a low part of the Island

[Clark, November 7, 1805] November 7th Thursday 1805 a Cloudy fogey morning, a little rain. Set out at 8 oClock proceeded on

The womens peticoat is about 15 Inches long made of arber vita or the white Cedar bark wove to a String and hanging down in tossles and tied So as to cover from their hips as low as the peticoat will reach and only Covers them when Standing, as in any other position the Tosels Seperate. Those people Sold us otter Skins for fish hooks of which they wer fond

We delayed 11/2 hour & Set out the tide being up in & the river So Cut with Islands we got an Indian to pilot us into the main chanel one of our Canoes Seperated from us this morning in the fog- great numbers of water fowls of every descriptn. common to this river

[Clark, November 7, 1805] November 7th Thursday 1805 A cloudy foggey morning Some rain. we Set out early proceeded under the Stard Shore under a high rugid hills with Steep assent the Shore boalt and rockey, the fog So thick we could not See across the river, two Canos of Indians met and returned with us to their village which is Situated on the Stard Side behind a cluster of Marshey Islands, on a narrow chanl. of the river through which we passed to the Village of 4 Houses, they gave us to eate Some fish, and Sold us, fish, Wap pa to roots three dogs and 2 otter Skins for which we gave fish hooks principally of which they were verry fond.

Those people call themselves War-ci-a-cum and Speake a language different from the nativs above with whome they trade for the Wapato roots of which they make great use of as food. their houses differently built, raised entirely above ground eaves about 5 feet from the ground Supported and covered in the same way of those above, dotes about the Same size but in the Side of the house in one Corner, one fire place and that near the opposit end; around which they have their beads raised about 4 feet from the fore which is of earth, under their beads they Store away baskets of dried fish Berries & wappato, over the fire they hang the flesh as they take them and which they do not make immediate use. Their Canoes are of the Same form of those above. The Dress of the men differ verry little from those above, The womin altogether different, their robes are Smaller only Covering their Sholders & falling down to near the hip- and Sometimes when it is Cold a piec of fur curiously plated and connected So as to meet around the body from the arms to the hips The garment which occupies the waist and thence as low as the knee before and mid leg behind, cannot properly be called a petticoat, in the common acception of the word; it is a Tissue formed of white Cedar bark bruised or broken into Small Straps, which are interwoven in their center by means of Several cords of the Same materials which Serves as well for a girdle as to hold in place the Straps of bark which forms the tissue, and which Strans, Confined in the middle, hang with their ends pendulous from the waiste, the whole being of Suffcent thickness when the female Stands erect to conceal those parts useally covered from familiar view, but when she stoops or places herself in any other attitudes this battery of Venus is not altogether impervious to the penetrating eye of the amorite. This tissue is Sometims formed of little Strings of the Silk grass twisted and knoted at their ends &c. Those Indians are low and ill Shaped all flat heads

after delaying at this village one hour and a half we Set out piloted by an Indian dressed in a Salors dress, to the main Chanel of the river, the tide being in we Should have found much dificuelty in passing into the main Chanel from behind those islands, without a pilot, a large marshey Island near the middle of the river near which Several Canoes Came allong Side with Skins, roots fish &c. to Sell, and had a temporey residence on this Island, here we See great numbers of water fowls about those marshey Islands; here the high mountanious Countrey approaches the river on the Lard Side, a high mountn. to the S W. about 20 miles, the high mountans. Countrey Continue on the Stard Side, about 14 miles below the last village and 18 miles of this day we landed at a village of the Same nation. This village is at the foot of the high hills on the Stard Side back OF 2 Small Islands it contains 7 indifferent houses built in the Same form of those above, here we purchased a Dog Some fish, wappato roots and I purchased 2 beaver Skins for the purpose of makeing me a roab, as the robe I have is rotten and good for nothing. opposit to this Village the high mountaneous Countrey leave the river on the Lard Side below which the river widens into a kind of Bay & is Crouded with low Islands Subject to be Covered by the tides- we proceeded on about 12 miles below the Village under a high mountaneous Countrey on the Stard. Side. Shore boald and rockey and Encamped under a high hill on the Stard. Side opposit to a rock Situated half a mile from the Shore, about 50 feet high and 20 feet Diamieter, we with dificuelty found a place Clear of the tide and Sufficiently large to lie on and the only place we could get was on round Stones on which we lay our mats rain Continud. moderately all day & Two Indians accompanied us from the last village, they we detected in Stealing a knife and returned, our Small Canoe which got Seperated in the fog this morning joined us this evening from a large Island Situated nearest the Lard Side below the high hills on that Side, the river being too wide to See either the form Shape or Size of the Islands on the Lard Side.

Great joy in camp we are in View of the Ocian, this great Pacific Octean which we been So long anxious to See. and the roreing or noise made by the waves brakeing on the rockey Shores (as I Suppose) may be heard distictly

we made 34 miles to day as Computed

[Clark, November 8, 1805] Novr. 8th Friday 1805 a cloudy morning Some rain and wind we Changed our Clothes and Set out at 9 oClock proceeded on Close under the Stard. Side

R. Fields Killed a goose & 2 Canvis back Ducks in this bay after Dinner we took the advantage of the returning tide & proceeded on to the 2d point, at which place we found the Swells too high to proceed we landed and drew our canoes up So as to let the tide leave them. The three Indians after Selling us 4 fish for which we gave Seven Small fishing hooks, and a piece of red Cloth. Some fine rain at intervales all this day. the Swells Continued high all the evening & we are Compelled to form an Encampment on a Point Scercely room Sufficent for us all to lie Clear of the tide water. hills high & with a Steep assent, river wide & at this place too Salt to be used for Drink. we are all wet and disagreeable, as we have been Continually for Severl. days past, we are at a loss & cannot find out if any Settlement is near the mouth of this river.

The Swells were So high and the Canoes roled in Such a manner as to cause Several to be verry Sick. Reuben fields, Wiser McNeal & the Squar wer of the number

[Clark, November 8, 1805] November 8th Friday 1805 A Cloudy morning Some rain, we did not Set out untill 9 oClock, haveing Changed our Clothing- proceeded on Close under the Stard. Side, the hills high with Steep assent, Shore boald and rockey Several low Islands in a Deep bend or Bay to the Lard Side, river about 5 or 7 miles wide. three Indians in a Canoe overtook us, with Salmon to Sell, passed 2 old villages on the Stard. Side and at 3 miles entered a nitch of about 6 miles wide and 5 miles deep with Several Creeks makeing into the Stard Hills, this nitch we found verry Shallow water and Call it the Shallow nitch we came too at the remains of an old village at the bottom of this nitch and dined, here we Saw great numbers of fowl, Sent out 2 men and they killed a Goose and two Canves back Ducks here we found great numbers of Hees which we treated with the greatest caution and distance; after Diner the Indians left us and we took the advantage of a returning tide and proceeded on to the Second point on the Std. here we found the Swells or waves So high that we thought it imprudent to proceed; we landed unloaded and drew up our Canoes. Some rain all day at intervales; we are all wet and disagreeable, as we have been for Several days past, and our present Situation a verry disagreeable one in as much; as we have not leavel land Sufficient for an encampment and for our baggage to lie Cleare of the tide, the High hills jutting in So Close and Steep that we cannot retreat back, and the water of the river too Salt to be used, added to this the waves are increasing to Such a hight that we cannot move from this place, in this Situation we are compelled to form our Camp between the hite of the Ebb and flood tides, and rase our baggage on logs- We are not certain as yet if the whites people who trade with those people or from whome they precure ther goods are Stationary at the mouth, or visit this quarter at Stated times for the purpose of trafick &c. I believe the latter to be the most probable conjucture- The Seas roled and tossed the Canoes in Such a manner this evening that Several of our party were Sea Sick.

[Clark, November 9, 1805] Novr. 9th Saturday 1805 The tide of last night obliged us to unload all the Canoes one of which Sunk before She was unloaded by the high waves or Swells which accompanied the returning tide, The others we unloaded, and 3 others was filled with water Soon after by the Swells or high Sees which broke against the Shore imediately where we lay, rained hard all the fore part of the day, the tide which rose untill 2 oClock P M to day brought with it Such emence Swells or waves, added to a hard wind from the South which Loosened the Drift trees which is verry thick on the Shores, and tossed them about in Such a manner, as to endanger our Canoes very much, with every exertion and the Strictest attention by the party was Scercely Suffient to defend our Canoes from being Crushed to pieces between those emensely large trees maney of them 200 feet long and 4 feet through. The tide of this day rose about _ feet & 15 Inches higher than yesterday this is owing to the wind which Sets in from the ocian, we are Compelled to move our Camp from the water, as also the loading every man as wet all the last night and this day as the rain Could make them which Contind. all day. at 4 oClock the wind Shifted about to the S. W imediately from the ocian and blew a Storm for about 2 hours, raised the tide verry high all wet & cold Labiech killed 4 Ducks very fat & R. Fields Saw Elk Sign.

not withstanding the disagreeable time of the party for Several days past they are all Chearfull and full of anxiety to See further into the ocian. the water is too Salt to Drink, we use rain water. The Salt water has acted on some of the party already as a Pergitive. rain continus.

[Clark, November 9, 1805] November 9th Saturday 1805 The tide of last night did not rise Sufficintly high to come into our camp, but the Canoes which was exposed to the mercy of the waves &c. which accompanied the returning tide, they all filled, and with great attention we Saved them untill the tide left them dry- wind Hard from the South and rained hard all the fore part of the day, at 2 oClock P M the flood tide came in accompanied with emence waves and heavy winds, floated the trees and Drift which was on the point on which we Camped and tosed them about in Such a manner as to endanger the Canoes verry much, with every exertion and the Strictest attention by every individual of the party was Scercely Sufficient to Save our Canoes from being crushed by those monsterous trees maney of them nearly 200 feet long and from 4 to 7 feet through. our camp entirely under water dureing the hight of the tide, every man as wet as water could make them all the last night and to day all day as the rain Continued all day, at 4 oClock P M the wind Shifted about to the S. W. and blew with great violence imediately from the Ocian for about two hours, notwithstanding the disagreeable Situation of our party all wet and Cold (and one which they have experienced for Several days past) they are chearfull and anxious to See further into the Ocian, The water of the river being too Salt to use we are obliged to make use of rain water- Some of the party not accustomed to Salt water has made too free a use of it on them it acts as a pergitive.

at this dismal point we must Spend another night as the wind & waves are too high to proceed.

[Clark, November 10, 1805] November 10th Sunday 1805 rained verry hard the greater part of the last night & Continus this morning, the wind has layed and the Swells are fallen. we loaded our Canoes and proceeded on, passed a Deep Bay on the Stard. Side I Call _ The wind rose from the N W. and the Swells became So high, we were Compelled to return about 2 miles to a place where we Could unld. our Canoes, which was in a Small Bay on Driftwood, on which we had also to make our fires to dry our Selves as well as we could the Shore being either a Clift of Purpendicular rocks or Steep assents to the hight of 4 or 500 feet, we continued on this drift wood untill about 3 oClock when the evening appearing favourable we loaded & Set out in hopes to turn the Point below and get into a better harber, but finding the waves & Swells continue to rage with great fury below, we got a Safe place for our Stores & a much beter one for the Canoes to lie and formed a Campment on Drift logs in the Same little Bay under a high hill at the enterence of a Small drean which we found verry convt. on account of its water, as that of the river is Brackish- The logs on which we lie is all on flote every high tide- The rain Continud all day- we are all wet, also our beding and many other articles. we are all employed untill late drying our bedding. nothing to eate but Pounded fish

[Clark, November 10, 1805] November 10th Sunday 1805 Rained verry hard the greater part of last night and continues this morning. the wind has luled and the waves are not high; we loaded our canoes and proceeded on passed Several Small and deep nitch on the Stard. Side, we proceeded on about 10 miles Saw great numbers of Sea Guls, the wind rose from the N. W. and the waves became So high that we were compelled to return about 2 miles to a place we Could unload our Canoes, which we did in a Small nitch at the mouth of a Small run on a pile of drift logs where we Continued untill low water, when the river appeared calm we loaded and Set out; but was obliged to return finding the waves too high for our Canoes to ride, we again unloaded the Canoes, and Stoed the loading on a rock above the tide water, and formed a camp on the Drift Logs which appeared to be the only Situation we could find to lie, the hills being either a perpendicular Clift, or Steep assent, riseing to about 500 feet- our Canoes we Secured as well as we could- we are all wet the rain haveing continued all day, our beding and maney other articles, employ our Selves drying our blankets- nothing to eate but dried fish pounded which we brought from the falls. we made 10 miles today

[Clark, November 11, 1805] November 11th Monday 1805 a hard rain all the last night we again get wet the rain continue at intervals all day. Wind verry high from S W and blew a Storm all day Sent out Jo. Fields & Collins to hunt. at 12 oClock at a time the wind was verry high and waves tremendeous five Indians Came down in a Canoe loaded with fish of Salmon Spes. Called Red Charr, we purchased of those Indians 13 of these fish, for which we gave, fishing hooks & some trifling things, we had Seen those Indians at a village behind Some marshey Islands a few days ago. they are on their way to trade those fish with white people which they make Signs live below round a point, those people are badly Clad, one is dressd. in an old Salors Jacket & Trouses, the others Elk Skin robes. we are truly unfortunate to be Compelled to lie 4 days nearly in the Same place at a time that our day are precious to us, The Wind Shifted to _ the Indians left us and Crossed the river which is about 5 miles wide through the highest Sees I ever Saw a Small vestle ride, their Canoe is Small, maney times they were out of Sight before the were 2 miles off Certain it is they are the best canoe navigators I ever Saw The tide was 3 hours later to day than yesterday and rose much higher, the trees we camped on was all on flote for about 2 hours from 3 untill 5 oClock P M, the great quantities of rain which has fallen losenes the Stones on the Side of the hill & the Small ones fall on us, our Situation is truly a disagreeable one our Canoes in one place at the mercy of the waves our baggage in another and our Selves & party Scattered on drift trees of emense Sizes, & are on what dry land they can find in the Crevices of the rocks & hill Sides

[Clark, November 11, 1805] November 11th Monday 1805 A hard rain all the last night, dureing the last tide the logs on which we lay was all on float Sent out Jo Fields to hunt, he Soon returned and informed us that the hills was So high & Steep, & thick with undergroth and fallen Timber that he could not get out any distance; about 12 oClock 5 Indians came down in a canoe, the wind verry high from the S. W. with most tremendious waves brakeing with great violence against the Shores, rain falling in torrents, we are all wet as usial and our Situation is truly a disagreeable one; the great quantites of rain which has loosened the Stones on the hill Sides, and the Small Stones fall down upon us, our canoes at one place at the mercy of the waves, our baggage in another and our Selves and party Scattered on floating logs and Such dry Spots as can be found on the hill Sides, and Crivices of the rocks. we purchased of the Indians 13 red chary which we found to be an excellent fish we have Seen those Indians above and are of a nation who reside above and on the opposit Side who call themselves Call-har-ma they are badly clad & illy made, Small and Speak a language much resembling the last nation, one of those men had on a Salors Jacket and Pantiloons and made Signs that he got those Clothes from the white people who lived below the point &c. those people left us and Crossed the river (which is about 5 miles wide at this place) through the highest waves I ever Saw a Small vestles ride. Those Indians are Certainly the best Canoe navigaters I ever Saw. rained all (lay

[Clark, November 12, 1805] November 12th Tuesday 1805 a tremendious thunder Storm abt. 3 oClock this morning accompanied by wind from the S W. and Hail, this Storm of hard Clap's thunder Lighting and hail untill about 6 oClock at intervals it then became light for a Short time when the heavens became darkined by a black Cloud from the S, W, & a hard rain Suckceeded which lasted untill 12 oClock with a hard wind which raised the Seas tremendiously high braking with great force and fury against the rocks & trees on which we lie, as our Situation became Seriously dangerous, we took the advantage of a low tide & moved our Camp around a point a Short distance to a Small wet bottom at the mouth of a Small Creek, which we had not observed when we first Came to this Cove, from its being very thick and obscured by drift trees & thick bushes, Send out men to hunt they found the woods So thick with Pine & timber and under Broth that they could not get through, Saw Some Elk tracks, I walked up this creek & killed 2 Salmon trout, the men killd. 13 of the Salmon Species, The Pine of fur Specs, or Spruc Pine grow here to an emense Size & hight maney of them 7 & 8 feet through and upwards of 200 feet high. It would be distressing to a feeling person to See our Situation at this time all wet and cold with our bedding &c. also wet, in a Cove Scercely large nough to Contain us, our Baggage in a Small holler about 1/2 a mile from us, and Canoes at the mercy of the waves & drift wood, we have Scured them as well as it is possible by Sinking and wateing them down with Stones to prevent the emence waves dashing them to pices against the rocks- one got loose last night & was left on a rock by the tide Some distance below without recving much damage. fortunately for us our Men are helthy. It was clear at 12 for a Short time. I observed the Mountains on the opposit Side was covered with Snowour party has been wet for 8 days and is truly disagreeable, their robes & leather Clothes are rotten from being Continually wet, and they are not in a Situation to get others, and we are not in a Situation to restore them- I observe great numbers of Sea guls, flying in every derection- Three men Gibson Bratten & Willard attempted to decend in a Canoe built in the Indian fashion and abt. the Size of the one the Indians visited us in yesterday, they Could not proceed, as the waves tossed them about at will, they returned after proceeding about 1 mile- we got our Selves tolerable Comfortable by drying our Selves & bedding Cought 3 salmon this evining in a Small branch above about 1 mile

[Clark, November 12, 1805] November 12th Tuesday 1805 A Tremendious wind from the S. W. about 3 oClock this morning with Lightineng and hard claps of Thunder, and Hail which Continued untill 6 oClock a.m. when it became light for a Short time, then the heavens became Sudenly darkened by a black Cloud from the S. W. and rained with great violence untill 12 oClock, the waves tremendious brakeing with great fury against the rocks and trees on which we were encamped. our Situation is dangerous. we took the advantage of a low tide and moved our camp around a point to a Small wet bottom at the mouth of a Brook, which we had not observed when we Came to this cove; from it being verry thick and obscured by drift trees and thick bushes It would be distressing to See our Situation, all wet and Colde our bedding also wet, (and the robes of the party which Compose half the bedding is rotten and we are not in a Situation to supply their places) in a wet bottom Scercely large enough to contain us, our baggage half a mile from us and Canoes at the mercy of the waves, altho Secured as well as possible, Sunk with emence parcels of Stone to wate them down to prevent their dashing to pieces against the rocks; one got loose last night and was left on a rock a Short distance below, without rciving more daminage than a Split in her bottom- Fortunately for us our men are healthy. 3 men Gibson Bratten & Willard attempted to go aroud the point below in our Indian Canoe, much Such a canoe as the Indians visited us in yesterday, they proceeded to the point from which they were oblige to return, the waves tossing them about at will I walked up the branch and giged 3 Salmon trout. the party killed 13 Salmon to day in a branch about 2 miles above. rain Continued

[Clark, November 13, 1805] November 13th Wednesday 1805 Some intervales of fair weather last night, rain and wind Continue this morning, as we are in a Cove & the Mountains verry high & Pine Spruce verry high & thick Cannot deturmine the procise course of the winds. I walked to the top of the first part of the mountain with much fatigue as the distance was about 3 miles thro intolerable thickets of Small Pine, arrow wood a groth much resembling arrow wood with briers, growing to 10 & 15 feet high interlocking with each other & Furn, aded to this difficulty the hill was So Steep that I was obliged to drawing my Self up in many places by the bowers, the Countrey Continues thick and hilley as far back a I could See. Some Elk Sign, rained all day moderately. I am wet &c. &c. The Hail which fell 2 night past is yet to be Seen on the mountain on which I was to day. I Saw a Small red Berry which grows on a Stem of about 6 or 8 Inches from the Ground, in bunches and in great quantity on the Mountains, the taste insiped. I saw a number of verry large Spruce Pine one of which I measured 14 feet around and verry tall. My principal objects in assdg. this mountain was to view the river below, the weather being So Cloudey & thick that I could not See any distance down, discovered the wind high from the N. W. and waves high at a Short distance below our Encampment, (Squar displeased with me for not sin &c &c. Wap-lo a excellent root which is rosted and tastes like a potato I Cut my hand despatched 3 men in a Indian canoe (which is calculated to ride high Swells) down to examine if they can find the Bay at the mouth & good barbers below for us to proceed in Safty. The fides at every Hud come in with great Swells & Breake against the rocks & Drift trees with great fury- the rain Continue all the evening nothing to eate but Pounded fish which we have as a reserve See Store, and what Pore fish we can kill up the branch on which we are encamped our canoe and the three men did not return this evening- if we were to have cold weather to accompany the rain which we have had for this 6 or 8 days passed we must eneviatilbly Suffer verry much as Clothes are Scerce with us.

[Clark, November 13, 1805] November 13th Wednesday 1805 Some intervales of fair weather last night, rain continue this morning. I walked up the Brook & assended the first Spur of the mountain with much fatigue, the distance about 3 miles, through an intolerable thickets of Small pine, a groth much resembling arrow wood on the Stem of which there is thorns; this groth about 12 or 15 feet high inter lockd into each other and Scattered over the high fern & fallen timber, added to this the hills were So Steep that I was compelled to draw my Self up by the assistance of those bushes- The Timber on those hills are of the pine Species large and tall maney of them more than 200 feet high & from 8 to 10 feet through at the Stump those hills & as far back as I could See, I Saw Some Elk Sign, on the Spur of the mountain tho not fresh. I killed a Salmon trout on my return. The Hail which fell 2 nights past is yet to be Seen on the mountains; I Saw in my ramble to day a red berry resembling Solomons Seal berry which the nativs call Sol-me and use it to eate. my principal object in assending this mountain was to view the countrey below, the rain continuing and weather proved So Cloudy that I could not See any distance on my return we dispatched 3 men Colter, Willard and Shannon in the Indian canoe to get around the point if possible and examine the river, and the Bay below for a god barber for our Canoes to lie in Safty &c. The tide at every floot tide Came with great swells brakeing against the rocks & Drift trees with great fury The rain Continue all day. nothing to eate but pounded fish which we Keep as a reserve and use in Situations of this kind.

[Clark, November 14, 1805] Novr. 14th Thursday 1805 Rained last night without intermission and this morning the wind blew hard from the _ We Could not move, one Canoe was broken last night against the rocks, by the waves dashing her against them in high tide about 10 oClock 5 Indians Come up in a Canoe thro emence waves & Swells, they landed and informed us they Saw the 3 men we Sent down yesterday, at Some distance below Soon after those people Came Colter one of the 3 men returned and informed us that he had proceeded with his Canoe as far as they Could, for the waves and Could find no white people, or Bay, he Saw a good Canoe barber & 2 Camps of Indians at no great distance below and that those with us had taken his gig & knife &c. which he forcably took from them & they left us, after our treating them well. The rain Continue all day all wet as usial, killed only 2 fish to day for the whole Party, at 3 oClock Capt. Lewis Drewyer Jo. & R. Fields & Frasure Set out down on the Shore to examine if any white men were below within our reach, they took a empty Canoe & 5 men to Set them around the Point on a Gravelley Beech which Colter informed was at no great distance below. The Canoe returned at dusk half full of water, from the waves which dashed over in passing the point Capt Lewis is object is also to find a Small Bay as laid down by Vancouver just out of the mouth of the Columbia River. rained as usial all the evening, all wet and disagreeable Situated

[Clark, November 14, 1805] November 14th Thursday 1805 rained all the last night without intermition, and this morning. wind blows verry hard but our Situation is Such that we Cannot tell from what point it comes- one of our Canoes is much broken by the waves dashing it against the rocks- 5 Indians Came up in a Canoe, thro the waves, which is verry high and role with great fury- They made Signs to us that they Saw the 3 men we Sent down yesterday. only 3 of those Indians landed, the other 2 which was women played off in the waves, which induced me to Suspect that they had taken Something from our men below, at this time one of the men Colter returnd by land and informed us that those Indians had taken his Gigg & basket, I called to the Squars to land and give back the gigg, which they would not doe untill a man run with a gun, as if he intended to Shute them when they landed, and Colter got his gig & basket I then ordered those fellows off, and they verry readily Cleared out they are of the War-ci-a-cum N. Colter informed us that "it was but a Short distance from where we lay around the point to a butifull Sand beech, which continud for a long ways, that he had found a good harber in the mouth of a creek near 2 Indian Lodgesthat he had proceeded in the Canoe as far as he could for the waves, the other two men Willard & Shannon had proceeded on down"

Capt Lewis concluded to proceed on by land & find if possible the white people the Indians Say is below and examine if a Bay is Situated near the mouth of this river as laid down by Vancouver in which we expect, if there is white traders to find them &c. at 3 oClock he Set out with 4 men Drewyer Jos. & Reu. Fields & R. Frasure, in one of our large canoes and 5 men to Set them around the point on the Sand beech. this canoe returned nearly filled with water at Dark which it receved by the waves dashing into it on its return, haveing landed Capt. Lewis & his party Safe on the Sand beech. The rain Continues all day all wet. The rain &c. which has continued without a longer intermition than 2 hours at a time for ten days past has distroyd. the robes and rotted nearly one half of the fiew Clothes the party has, perticularley the leather Clothes,- fortunately for us we have no very Cold weather as yet and if we have Cold weather before we Can kill & Dress Skins for Clothing the bulk of the party will Suffer verry much.

[Clark, November 15, 1805] November 15th Friday 1805 Rained all the last night at intervales of Sometimes of 2 hours, This morning it became Calm & fair, I prepared to Set out at which time the wind sprung up from the S. E. and blew down the River & in a fiew minits raised Such Swells and waves brakeing on the Rocks at the point as to render it unsafe to proceed. I went to the point in an empty canoe and found it would be dangerous to proceed even in an empty Canoe The Sun Shown untill 1 oClock p.m.which gave an oppertunity for us to dry Some of our bedding, & examine our baggage, the greater Part of which I found wet Some of our Pounded fish Spoiled I had all the arms put in order & amunition examined.

The rainey weather Continued without a longer intermition than 2 hours at a time from the 5th in the morng. untill the 16th is eleven days rain, and the most disagreeable time I have experienced Confined on a tempiest Coast wet, where I can neither get out to hunt, return to a better Situation, or proceed on: in this Situation have we been for Six days past.- fortunately the wind lay about 3 oClock we loaded I in great haste and Set out passed the blustering Point below which is a Sand beech, with a Small marshey bottom for 3 miles on the Stard. Side, on which is a large village of 36 houses deserted by the Inds. & in full possession of the flees, a Small Creek fall in at this village, which waters the Country for a few miles back; Shannon & 5 Indians met me here, Shannon informed me he met Capt. Lewis Some distance below & he took willard with him & Sent him to meet me, the Inds with him wer rogues, they had the night before Stold both his and Willards guns from under their heads, Capt. Lewis & party arrived at the Camp of those Indians at So Timely a period that the Inds. were allarmed & delivered up the guns &c. The tide meeting of me and the emence Swells from the main Ocean (imedeately in front of us) raised to Such a hite that I concluded to form a Camp on the highest Spot I could find in the marshey bottom, and proceed no further by water as the Coaste becomes verry dangerous for Crafts of the Size of our Canoes-and as the Ocian is imedeately in front and gives us an extensive view of it from Cape disapointment to Point addams, my Situation is in the upper part of Haley Bay S. 86 W. miles Course five to Cape Disapt. and S. 35 W. Course miles from point Addams

The River here at its mouth from Point addams to the enterance of Haley Bay above is _ Miles or thereabouts, a large Isd. the lower point of which is immediately in the mouth above

4 Indians in a Canoe Came down with papto roots to Sell, for which they asked, blankets or robes, both of which we could not Spare I informed those Indians all of which understood Some English that if they Stole our guns &c the men would Certainly Shute them, I treated them with great distance, & the Sentinal which was over our Baggage allarmed them verry much, they all Promised not to take any thing, and if any thing was taken by the Squars & bad boys to return them &c. the waves became very high Evening fare & pleasent, our men all Comfortable in the Camps they have made of the boards they found at the Town above

[Clark, November 15, 1805] November 15th Friday 1805 Rained all the last night, this morning it became Calm and fair, I preposed Setting out, and ordered the Canoes Repared and loaded; before we could load our canoes the wind Sudenly Sprung up from the S. E and blew with Such violence, that we could not proceed in Safty with the loading. I proceeded to the point in an empty Canoe, and found that the waves dashed against the rocks with Such violence that I thought it unsave to Set out with the loaded Canoes- The Sun Shown untill 1 oClock P M which afford us time to Dry our bedding and examine the baggage which I found nearly all wet, Some of our pounded fish Spoiled in the wet; I examined the amunition and Caused all the arms to be put in order.

About 3 oClock the wind luled, and the river became calm, I had the canoes loaded in great haste and Set Out, from this dismal nitich where we have been confined for 6 days passed, without the possibility of proceeding on, returning to a better Situation, or get out to hunt, Scerce of Provisions, and torents of rain poreing on us all the time- proceeded on passed the blustering point below which I found a butifull Sand beech thro which runs a Small below the mouth of this Stream is a village of 36 houses uninhabited by anything except flees, here I met G. Shannon and 5 Indians. Shannon informed me that he met Capn. Lewis at an Indian Hut about 10 miles below who had Sent him back to meet me, he also told me the Indians were thievish, as the night before they had Stolen both his and Willards rifles from under their heads, that they Set out on their return and had not proceeded far up the beech before they met Capt Lewis, whose arival was at a timely moment and alarmed the Indians So that they instantly produced the Guns- I told those Indians who accompanied Shannon that they Should not Come near us, and if any one of their nation Stold anything from us, I would have him Shot, which they understoot verry well. as the tide was Comeing in and the Seas became verry high imediately from the Ocian (imediately faceing us) I landed and formed a camp on the highest Spot I could find between the hight of the tides, and the Slashers in a Small bottom this I could plainly See would be the extent of our journey by water, as the waves were too high at any Stage for our Canoes to proceed any further down. in full view of the Ocian from Point Adams to Cape Disapointment, I could not See any Island in the mouth of this river as laid down by Vancouver. The Bay which he laies down in the mouth is imediately below me. This Bay we call Haleys bay from a favourate Trader with the Indians which they Say comes into this Bay and trades with them Course to Point adams is S. 35W. about 8 miles To Cape Disapointment is S. 86W. about 14 miles 4 Indians of the War-ki a cum nation Came down with pap-pa-too to Sell &c. The Indians who accompanied Shannon from the village below Speake a Different language from those above, and reside to the north of this place The Call themselves Chin nooks, I told those people that they had attempted to Steal 2 guns &c. that if any one of their nation stole any thing that the Sentinl. whome they Saw near our baggage with his gun would most certainly Shute them, they all promised not to tuch a thing, and if any of their womin or bad boys took any thing to return it imediately and Chastise them for it. I treated those people with great distance. our men all Comfortable in their Camps which they have made of boards from the old Village above. we made 3 miles to day.

[Clark, November 16, 1805] November 16th Satturday 1805 a fine morning cool the latter part of the night, I had all our articles of every discription examined, and found much wet, had all put out & dried, The 5 Indians Theves left me. I took a meridean altd. with Sextt. 50 36 15 the Shakeing emige below- I Sent out Several hunters Some to kill fowl others to hunt deer or Elk. The Sea is fomeing and looks truly dismal to day, from the wind which blew to day from the S. W. an Indian Canoe passed down to day, loaded with roots &c. three Indians Came up from below I gave them Smoke but allowed then no kind of Priveleges what ever, they camped with the 4 which Came down yesterday, near us, The evening provd. Cloudy & I could make no lunar observations. one man Sick with a violent Cold, Caught by lying in his wet Clothes, Several nights Course from Stormey point to Cape Disapointment is _ Miles, passd a Small Creek and an old village at 2 miles on the Stard Side a Small Creek at 1 mile we Encamped just above a Point in a Deep bay to the Stard. Side into which falls 2 Small rivers Std. Grat many Indians liveing on the Bay & those two rivers, the the Countrey on the Stard. Side high broken & thickly timbered, that on the Lard. at Some distance from Point Adms high and mountains on a Pinecal of a which is Snow at this time- near the Point is Low bottom land

our hunters and fowlers killd 2 Deer 1 Crane & 2 ducks, my Servt. York killed 2 Geese & 8 white, black and Speckle Brants, The White Brant, with part of their wings black is much the largest, the black brant is verry Small, a little larger than a large Duck- the deer pore but large

[Clark, November 16, 1805] November 16th Saturday 1805 Cool the latter part of the last night this morning Clear and butifull; I had all our articles of every discription examined and put out to Dry. The 5 Chin nooks left us I took a meridenal altitude with the Sextn. 50 36' 15 which gave for Lattitude 46 19' 11 1/10" North. I Sent out Several hunters and fowlers in pursute Elk, Deer, or fowls of any kind. wind hard from the S W The Waves high & look dismal indeed breaking with great fury on our beech an Indian canoe pass down to day loaded with Wap-pa-toe roots; Several Indians came up to day from below, I gave them Smoke but allowed them no kind of privilage whatever in the camp, they with the 4 which came down yesterday encamped a Short distance from us. The evening proved Cloudy and I could not take any Luner observations- One man Sick with a violent cold, Caught by laying in his wet leather Clothes for maney nights past.

The Countrey on the Stard Side above Haley Bay is high broken and thickley timbered on the Lard Side from Point Adams the Contrey appears low for 15 or 20 miles back to the mountains, a pinical of which now is Covered with Snow or hail, as the opposit is too far distant to be distinguished well, I Shall not attempt to describe any thing on that Side at present. our hunters and fowlers killed 2 Deer 1 Crain & 2 Ducks, and my man York killed 2 geese and 8 Brant, 3 of them white with a part of their wings black and much larger than the Grey brant which is a Sise larger than a Duck.

[Clark, November 17, 1805] November 17th Sunday 1805 a fair cool windey morning wind from the East. every tide which rises 8 feet 6 Inches at this place, comes in with high Swells which brake on the Sand Shore with great fury.

I Sent out 6 men to kill deer & fowls this morning at half past 1 oClock Capt. Lewis and his Party returned haveing around passd. Point Disapointment and Some distance on the main Ocian to the N W. Several Indians followed him & Soon after a canoe with wapto roots, & Lickorish boiled, which they gave as presents, in return for which we gave more than the worth to Satisfy,them a bad practice to receive a present of Indians, as they are never Satisfied in return. our hunters killed 3 Deer & th fowler 2 Ducks & q brant I Surveyed a little on the corse & made Some observns. The Chief of the nation below us Came up to See us the name of the nation is Chin-nook and is noumerous live principally on fish roots a fiew Elk and fowls. they are well armed with good Fusees. I directed all the men who wished to See more of the Ocean to Get ready to Set out with me on tomorrow day light. the following men expressed a wish to accompany me i'e Seri. Nat Pryor Serjt. J. Ordway, Jo. Fields R. Fields, Jo. Shannon, Jo Colter, William Bratten, Peter Wiser, Shabono & my Servant York. all others being well Contented with what part of the Ocean & its curiosities which Could be Seen from the vicinity of our Camp.

[Clark, November 17, 1805] November 17th Sunday 1805 A fair cool morning wind from the East. The tide rises at this place 8 feet 6 inches and comes in with great waves brakeing on the Sand beech on which we lay with great fury Six hunters out this morning in serch of Deer & fowl.

At half past 1 oClock Capt Lewis returned haveing travesed Haleys Bay to Cape Disapointment and the Sea Coast to the North for Some distance. Several Chinnook Indians followed (,apt L- and a Canoe came up with roots mats &c. to Sell. those Chinnooks made us a present of a rute boiled much resembling the common liquorice in taste and Size; in return for this root we gave more than double the value to Satisfy their craveing dispostn. It is a bad practice to receive a present from those Indians as they are never Satisfied for what they reive in return if ten time the value of the articles they gave. This Chin nook Nation is about 400 Souls inhabid the Countrey on the Small rivrs which run into the bay below us and on the Ponds to the N W of us, live principally on fish and roots, they are well armed with fusees and Sometimes kill Elk Deer and fowl. our hunters killed to day 3 Deer, 4 brant and 2 Ducks, and inform me they Saw Some Elk Sign. I directed all the men who wished to See more of the main Ocian to prepare themselves to Set out with me early on tomorrow morning. The principal Chief of the Chinnooks & his familey came up to See us this evening-

[Clark, November 18, 1805] Novr. 18th Monday 1805 a little Cloudy this morning I set out at day light with 10 men & my Sevent, Shabono, Sergt. Pryer odderway Jos. & R. Fields Shannon Colter, wiser, Lebiech & york proceeded on Down the Shore from the 1st point

At a run & Island near the Shore here the Traders ancher & trade? we passed at each point a Soft Clifts of yellow, brown & dark Soft Stones here Capt Lewis myself & Severl. of the men marked our names day of the month & by Land &c. &c. from this S. W. 3 miles to the Iner pt. of Cape Disapointmt passed a point & 2 Small nitches (Reuben Fields killed a Vulter) we found a Curious fiat fish Shaped like a turtle, with fins on each side, and a tale notched like a fish, the Internals on one Sid and tale & fins flat wise This fish Flownder has a white on one Side & lies flat to the Ground- passed from last hitch across to the ocean 1/2 a mile low land the Cape is a high Partly bald hill, founded on rock, I assencled a high Seperate bald hill Covered with long corse grass & Seperated from the hight of Country by a Slashey bottom 2 miles S. 60 W of the Cape- thence to a 2d Grassey pt is N. 50 W. 2 miles, Those hills are founded on rocks & the waves brake with great fury against them, the Coast is Sholey for Several miles of this Cape & for Some distance off to the N W a Sand bar in the mouth. Sholey Some distance out from the mouth The Coast from the Cape N W is open for a Short distance back then it becomes thick piney Countrey intersperced with ponds

Point addams is S 20 W about 20 miles the Course on that Side bears S 45 W. I cannot assertain the prosise Course of the Deep water in the mouth of the river, the Channel is but narrow. I proceeded on up above the 2d point and Encamped on the Shore above the high tide, evening Clear, for a Short time. Supd. on Brant and pounded fish men all Chearfull, express a Desire to winter near the falls this winter.

[Clark, November 18, 1805] November 18h Monday 1805 A little cloudy this morning I Set out with to men and my man York to the Ocian by land. i. e. Seijt. Ordway & Pryor, Jos. & Ru. Fields, Go. Shannon, W. Brattin,_J. Colter, P. Wiser, W. Labieche & P. Shabono one of our interpreters & York. I Set out at Day light and proceeded on a Sandy beech from Cape Disapointment to a high point of a Mountn. which we shall call Clarke's Point of View beares S. 20 W. about 40 miles, point adams is verry low and is Situated within the direction between those two high points of land, the water appears verry Shole from off the mouth of the river for a great distance, and I cannot assertain the direction of the deepest Chanel, the Indians point nearest the opposit Side. the waves appear to brake with tremendious force in every direction quite across a large Sand bar lies within the mouth nearest to point Adams which is nearly covered at high tide. I suped on brant this evening with a little pounded fish. Some rain in the after part of the night. men appear much Satisfied with their trip beholding with estonishment the high waves dashing against the rocks & this emence ocian

[Clark, November 19, 1805] November 19th Tuesday 1805 began to rain a little before day and Continued raining untill 11 oClock I proceeded on thro emencely bad thickets & hills crossing 2 points to a 3rd on which we built a fire and Cooked a Deer which Jos. Field Killd. from this point I can See into a Deep bend in the coast to the N. E. for 10 miles. after Brackfast I proceeded on N. 20 E. 5 miles to Comcement a large Sand bar at a low part ponds a little off from the Coast here the high rockey hills end and a low marshey Countrey Suckceed. I proceeded up the Course N. 10 W. 4 miles & marked my name & the Day of the Month on a pine tree, the waters which Wash this Sand beach is tinged with a deep brown Colour for Some distance out. The Course Contd. is N. 20 W. low Coast and Sand beech, Saw a Dead Sturgen 10 feet long on the Sand, & the back bone of a Whale, as I conceived raind I then returned to the Cape & dined, Some curious Deer on this Course darker large boded Shorte legs Pronged horns & the top of the tale black under part white as usial passed a nitch in the rocks below into which falls a Stream, after Dinner I Set out on my return S. E. passed over a low ridge & thro a piney countrey 21 Vs miles to the Bay, thence up the Bay to the mouth of the Chen-nook River Crossed in the Canoe we had left there & Encamped on the upper Side The Hills in the point of this bay are not high, & imedeately below this River the present yellow Bluffs above the River and up for about 2 miles the land is low Slashey and Contains much drift wood, the Countrey up this Creek is low with Copse of high land or as I may Say elevated. The Buzzard which Ruben Fields killed diameter of one feather is- 11/4 & 1 Line from the tip of one to the tip of the other wing is 9 feet 0 Inches, from the point of the Bill to the tale is 3 feet 101/4 Ins. middle Toe 51/2 Inches, Toe nale 1 Inches wing feather 2 feet 1/2 In. Tale feathers 141/4 In. Head is 61/4 Inch long including the beek

[Clark, November 19, 1805] November 19th Tuesday 1805 a Cloudy rainey day proceeded up the Coast which runs from my camp 11/4 miles west of the iner extry of the Cape N. 20 W. 5 miles through a rugged hilley countrey thickly off the Sea coast to the Comencment of an extencive Sand beech which runs N. 10 W. to point Lewis about 20 miles distance. I proceeded up this coast 4 miles and marked my name on a low pine. and returned 3 miles back (The Countrey opsd. this Sand Coast is low and Slashey,) Crossed the point 2 miles to the bay and encamped on Chinnook river- See another book for perticulars

[Clark, November 19, 1805] Tuesday November the 19th 1805 I arose early this morning from under a wet blanket caused by a Shower of rain which fell in the latter part of the last night and Sent two men on a head with directions to proceed on near the Sea Coast and Kill Something for brackfast and that I Should follow my Self in about half an hour. after drying our blankets a little I Set out with a view to proceed near the Coast the direction of which induced me to conclude that at the distance of 8 or 10 miles, the Bay was at no great distance across. I overtook the hunters at about 3 miles, they had killed a Small Deer on which we brackfast it comened raining and Continud moderately untill 11 oClock A M.

after takeing a Sumptious brackfast of venison which was rosted on Stiks exposed to the fire, I proceeded on through ruged Country of high hills and Steep hollers on a course from the Cape N 20 W. 5 miles on a Direct line to the Commencement of a Sandy Coast which extended N. 10 W. from the top of the hill above the Sand Shore to a Point of high land distant near 20 miles. this point I have taken the Liberty of Calling after my particular friend Lewis- at the commencement of this Sand beech the high lands leave the Sea coast in a Direction to Chinnook river, and does not touch the Sea Coast again below point Lewis leaveing a low pondey countrey, maney places open with small ponds in which there is great numbr. of fowl I am informed that the Chinnook Nation inhabit this low countrey and live in large wood houses on a river which passes through this bottom Parrilal to the Sea coast and falls into the Bay

I proceeded on the Sandy Coast 4 miles, and marked my name on a Small pine, the Day of the month & year, &c. and returned to the foot of the hill, from which place I intended to Strike across to The Bay, I saw a Sturgeon which had been thrown on Shore and left by the tide 10 feet in length, and Several joints of the back bone of a whale which must have foundered on this part of the Coast. after Dineing on the remains of our Small Deer I proceeded through over a land S E with Some Ponds to the bay distance about 2 miles, thence up to the mouth of Chinnook river 2 miles, crossed this little river in the Canoe we left at its mouth and Encamped on the upper Side in an open Sandy bottom- The hills next to the bay Cape disapointment to a Short distance up the Chinnook river is not verry high thickly Coverd. with different Species of pine &c. maney of which are large, I observed in maney places pine of 3 or 4 feet through growing on the bodies of large trees which had fallen down, and covered with moss and yet part Sound. The Deer of this Coast differ materially from our Common deer in a much as they are much darker deeper bodied Shorter ledged horns equally branched from the beem the top of the tail black from the rute to the end Eyes larger and do not lope but jump-.

[Clark, November 20, 1805] Novr. 20 Wednesday 1805 Some rain last night despatchd. 3 men to hunt Jo. Fields & Cotter to hunt Elk & Labich to kill some Brant for our brackfast The Morning Cleared up fare and we proceeded on by the Same rout we went out, at the River we found no Indians. made a raft & Ruben Fields Crossed and took over a Small Canoe which lay at the Indian Cabin- This Creek is at this time of high tide 300 yards wide & the marshes for Some distance up the Creek Covered with water. not an Indian to be Seen near the Creek. I proceeded on to Camp & on my way was over taken by 3 Indians one gave us Sturgeon & Wapto roots to eate I met Several parties on way all of them appeared to know me & was distant, found all well at Camp, maney Indians about one of which had on a robe made of 2 Sea Orter Skins. Capt Lewis offered him many things for his Skins with others a blanket, a coat all of which he refused we at length purchased it for a belt of Blue Beeds which the Squar had- The tide being out we walked home on the beech

[Clark, November 20, 1805] Wednesday November the 20th 1805 Some rain last night dispatched Labiech to kill Some fowl for our brackfast he returned in about 2 hours with 8 large Ducks on which we brackfast I proceeded on to the enterance of a Creek near a Cabin no person being at this cabin and 2 Canoes laying on the opposit Shore from us, I deturmined to have a raft made and Send a man over for a canoe, a Small raft was Soon made, and Reuben Fields Crossed and brought over a Canoe- This Creek which is the outlet of a number of ponds, is at this time (high tide) 300 yds wide- I proceeded on up the Beech and was overtaken by three Indians one of them gave me Some dried Sturgeon and a fiew wappato roots, I employd Those Indians to take up one of our Canoes which had been left by the first party that Came down, for which Service I gave them each a fishing hook of a large Size- on my way up I met Several parties of Chinnooks which I had not before Seen they were on their return from our Camp. all those people appeard to know my deturmonation of keeping every individual of their nation at a proper distance, as they were guarded and resurved in my presence &c. found maney of the Chin nooks with Capt. Lewis of whome there was 2 Cheifs Com com mo ly & Chil-lar-la-wil to whome we gave Medals and to one a flag. one of the Indians had on a roab made of 2 Sea Otter Skins the fur of them were more butifull than any fur I had ever Seen both Capt. Lewis & my Self endeavored to purchase the roab with different articles at length we precured it for a belt of blue beeds which the Squar-wife of our interpreter Shabono wore around her waste. in my absence the hunters had killed Several Deer and fowl of different kinds

[Clark, November 21, 1805] November 21st Thursday 1805 a Cloudy morning most of the Indians left us, The nation on the opposit Side is Small & Called Clap-soil, Their great chief name Stil-la-sha The nation liveing to the North is Called Chieltz. The chief is name Malaugh not large nation and wore his beards as informed by the Inds. In my absence the hunters Kild. 7 Deer, 4 brants & a Crane.

Great numbers of the dark brant passing Southerley, the white yet Stationary, no gees & Swan to be Seen. The wind blew hard from the S. E. which with the addition of the flood tide raised emence Swells & waves which almost entered our Encampment morng. dark & Disagreeable, a Supriseing Climent. We have not had One cold day Since we passed below the last falls or great Shute & Some time before the Climent is temperate, and the only change we have experienced is from fair weather to rainey windey weather- I made a chief & gave a medel this man is name Tow-wall and appears to have Some influence with the nation and tells me he lives at the great Shute-we gave the Squar a Coate of Blue Cloth for the belt of Blue Beeds we gave for the Sea otter Skins purchased of an Indian. at 12 oClock it began to rain, and continued moderately all day, Some wind from the S. E., waves too high for us to proceed on our homeward bound journey. Lattitude of this place is 46 19' 11 1/10" North Several Indians and Squars came this evening I beleave for the purpose of gratifying the passions of our men, Those people appear to View Sensuality as a necessary evile, and do not appear to abhore this as Crime in the unmarried females. The young women Sport openly with our men, and appear to receive the approbation of their friends & relations for So doing maney of the women are handsom.

They are all low both men and women, I saw the name of J. Bowmon marked or picked on a young Squars left arm. The women of this nation Pick their legs in different figures as an orpiment. they were their hair loose, Some trinkets in their ears, none in the nose as those above, their Dress is as follows, i,e the men, were a roabe of either the skins of _ a Small fured animal, & which is most common, or the Skins of the Sea orter, Loon, Swan, Beaver, Deer, Elk, or blankets either red, blu, or white, which roabes cover the sholders arms & body, all other parts are nakd.

The women were a Short peticoat of the iner bark of the white Ceder or Arber Vita, which hang down loose in Strings nearly as low as the knee, with a Short Robe which fall half way down the Thigh. no other part is Covered. The orniments are beeds, Blue principally, large Brass wire around their rists Som rings, and maney men have Salors Clothes, many have good fusees & Ball & Powder- The women ware a String of Something curious tied tight above the anckle, all have large Swelled legs & thighs The men Small legs & thighs and Generally badly made- They live on Elk Deer fowls, but principally fish and roots of 3 Kinds, Lickorish, Wapto &c. The women have more privalages than is Common amongst Indians- Pocks & Venerial is Common amongst them I Saw one man & one woman who appeared to be all in Scabs, & Several men with the venereal, their other Disorders and the remides for them I could not lern we divided Some ribin between the men of our party to bestow on their favourite Lasses, this plan to Save the knives & more valueable articles.

Those people gave me Sturgion Salmon & wapto roots, & we bought roots, Some mats &c. &c. for which we were obliged to give emence prices- we also purchased a kind of Cranberry which the Indians Say the geather in the low lands, off of Small either vines or bushes just abov the ground- we also purchased hats made of Grass &c. of those Indians, Some very handsom mats made of flags-Some fiew curious baskets made of a Strong weed & willow or _ Splits-, also a Sweet Soft black root, about th Sise & Shape of a Carrot, this root they Value verry highly- The Wapto root is Scerce, and highly valued by those people, this root they roste in hot ashes like a potato and the outer Skin peals off, tho this is a trouble they Seldom perform.

[Clark, November 21, 1805] Thursday November 21st 1805 a cloudy morning most of the Chinnooks leave our Camp and return home, great numbers of the dark brant passing to the South, the white Brant have not yet commenced their flight. The wind blew hard from the S. E. which with the addition of the flood tide raised verry high waves which broke with great violence against the Shore throwing water into our Camp- the fore part of this day Cloudy at 12 oClock it began to rain and Continud all day moderately, Several Indians Visit us to day of differant nations or Bands Some of the Chiltz Nation who reside on the Sea Coast near Point Lewis, Several of the Clotsops who reside on the opposit Side of the Columbia imediately opposit to us, and a Chief from the Grand rapid to whome we gave a Medal.

An old woman & wife to a Cheif of the Chinnooks came and made a Camp near ours She brought with her 6 young Squars I believe for the purpose of gratifying the passions of the men of our party and receving for those indulgiences Such Small as She (the old woman) thought proper to accept of, Those people appear to view Sensuality as a Necessary evel, and do not appear to abhor it as a Crime in the unmarried State- The young females are fond of the attention of our men and appear to meet the sincere approbation of their friends and connections, for thus obtaining their favours; the womin of the Chinnook Nation have handsom faces low and badly made with large legs & thighs which are generally Swelled from a Stopage of the circulation in the feet (which are Small) by maney Strands of Beeds or curious Strings which are drawn tight around the leg above the anckle, their legs are also picked with different figures, I Saw on the left arm of a Squar the following letters,. Bowmon, all those are Considered by the natives of this quarter as handsom deckerations, and a woman without those deckorations is Considered as among the lower Class they ware their hair lose hanging over their back and Sholders maney have blue beeds threaded & hung from different parts of their ears and about ther neck and around their wrists, their dress other wise is prosisely like that of the Nation of Wa ci a cum as already discribed. a Short roab, and tissue or kind of peticoat of the bark of Cedar which fall down in Strings as low as the knee behind and not So low before maney of the men have blankets of red blue or Spotted Cloth or the common three & 21/2 point blankets, and Salors old Clothes which they appear to prise highly, they also have robes of Sea Otter, Beaver, Elk, Deer, fox and Cat common to this countrey, which I have never Seen in the U States. They also precure a roabe from the nativs above, which is made of the Skins of a Small animal about the Size of a Cat, which is light and dureable and highly prized by those people- the greater numbers of the men of the Chinnooks have Guns and powder and Ball- The Men are low homely and badly made, Small Crooked legs large feet, and all of both Sects have flattened heads- The food of this nation is principally fish & roots the fish they precure from the river by the means of nets and gigs, and the Salmon which run up the Small branches together with what they collect drifted up on the Shores of the Sea coast near to where they live

The roots which they use are Several different kinds, the Wappato which they precure from the nativs above, a black root which they call Shaw-na tah que & the wild licquorish is the most Common, they also kill a fiew Elk Deer & fowl- maney of the Chinnooks appear to have venerious and pustelus disorders. one woman whome I saw at the beech appeared all over in Scabs and ulsers &c.

we gave to the men each a pece of ribin We purchased Cramberies Mats verry netely made of flags and rushes, Some roots, Salmon and I purchased a hat made of Splits & Strong grass, which is made in the fashion which was common in the U States two years ago also Small baskets to hold Water made of Split and Straw, for those articles we gave high prices-.

[Clark, November 22, 1805] Novr. 22nd Friday 1805 Some little rain all the last night with wind, before day the wind increased to a Storm from the S. S. E. and blew with violence throwing the water of the river with emence waves out of its banks almost over whelming us in water, O! how horriable is the day- This Storm Continued all day with equal violence accompanied with rain, Several Indians about us, nothing killed the waves & brakers flew over our Camp, one Canoe Split by the Tossing of those waves- we are all Confined to our Camp and wet. purchased some Wapto roots for which was given, brass armbans & rings of which the Squars were fond. we find the Indians easy ruled and kept in order by a Stricter indifference towards them

[Clark, November 22, 1805] Friday November 22nd 1805 a moderate rain all the last night with wind, a little before Day light the wind which was from the S S. E. blew with Such violence that we wer almost overwhelmned with water blown from the river, this Storm did not Sease at day but blew with nearly equal violence throughout the whole day accompaned with rain. O! how horriable is the day waves brakeing with great violence against the Shore throwing the Water into our Camp &c. all wet and Confind to our Shelters, Several Indian men and women Crouding about the mens Shelters to day, we purchased a fiew wappato roots for which we gave armbans, & rings to the old Squar, those roots are equal to the Irish potato, and is a tolerable Substitute for bread

The threat which I made to the men of this nation whome I first Saw, and an indifference towards them, is I am fulley Convinced the Cause of their Conducting themselves with great propriety towards ourselves & Party.

[Clark, November 23, 1805] November 23rd Saturday 1805 The Cloudy and Calm, a moderate rain the greater part of the last night, Sent out men to hunt this morning and they Killed 3 Bucks, rained at intervales all day. I marked my name the Day of the month & year on a Beech trees & (By Land) Capt Lewis Branded his and the men all marked their nams on trees about the Camp. one Indian Came up from their village on some lakes near Haleys bay. In the Evening 7 Indians of the Clatt Sopp nation, opposit Came over, they brought with them 2 Sea orter Skins, for which the asked Such high prices we were uneabled to purchase, without reduceing our Small Stock of merchindize on which we have to depend in part for a Subsistance on our return home, Kiled 4 brant & 3 Ducks to day

[Clark, November 23, 1805] Saturday November 22rd 1805. A calm Cloudy morning, a moderate rain the greater part of the last night, Capt Lewis Branded a tree with his name Date &c. I marked my name the Day & year on a Alder tree, the party all Cut the first letters of their names on different trees in the bottom. our hunters killed 3 Bucks, 4 Brant & 3 Ducks to day.

in the evening Seven indians of the Clot Sop Nation Came over in a Canoe, they brought with them 2 Sea otter Skins for which they asked blue beads &c. and Such high pricies that we were unable to purchase them without reducing our Small Stock of merchendize, on which we depended for Subcistance on our return up this river- mearly to try the Indian who had one of those Skins, I offered him my Watch, handkerchief a bunch of red beads and a dollar of the American Coin, all of which he refused and demanded "ti-a, co-mo-shack" which is Chief beads and the most common blue beads, but fiew of which we have at this time

This nation is the remains of a large nation destroyed by the Small pox or Some other which those people were not acquainted with, they Speak the Same language of the Chinnooks and resemble them in every respect except that of Stealing, which we have not Cought them at as yet.

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