July 31st.—Rained hard all the morning, and flying showers all day. Halted at Sobee. During the night one of the town's-people attempted to steal one of the soldier's pieces, some of which were standing against a tree close to the tent. Lieutenant Martyn was sleeping under the tree; and hearing somebody moving the muskets, he no sooner observed that it was a Negro, than he snatched one of the muskets and fired at the thief as he was running off with one of the muskets. Whether the ball touched him or not we could not learn; but the thief dropped the musket, and we found it with the pouch and bayonet in the morning.
August 1st.—Early this morning purchased an ass for a pistol, a baft, and a Mandingo cloth. We set out at seven o'clock. Immediately on the East of the town came to another stream flowing towards the S.S.W. It was so deep, that the whole of the bundles had to be carried over on men's heads. During this, being surrounded by thieves on all sides, Isaaco unfortunately struck two of the soldiers; which action had nearly cost him his life, one of the soldiers attempting to stab him with his bayonet, when Mr. Anderson prevented him; and as I reproved Isaaco for his conduct in the sharpest manner, he went off in a pet with his people, leaving us to find our way across the river in the best manner we could. I hired four people to carry over the loads; and stood myself as sentry over the thieves. In this manner the whole of the baggage was carried over with much less loss than we had sustained at any other river. The asses were swam over, and the whole only cost one string of No. 5; but I had to pay fifty stones to the Dooty's son for asses going on the corn. As soon as all was over we loaded the asses and set forwards. At sunset we reached Balanding. We had only time to pitch our tent, when the rain came on; indeed we had no time for cooking our victuals, for though all the soldiers cooked, yet the rain came on before our kettle was ready; and Messrs. Anderson, Scott, Martyn, and myself, all slept without having tasted any thing during the day.
August 2d.—Rainy. Halted at Balanding.
August 3d.—Sun rose E. 3 deg.S. Departed from Balanding, and halted at Balandoo, a walled village about four miles to the East by South. Bought two sheep for one barraloolo.
August 4th.—Departed from Balandoo. About a mile to the East saw the hill of Sobee bearing N.W. by compass. About this place Lawrence Cahill, one of the soldiers, who had complained of sickness for some days, fell behind; and I hired a person to drive his ass, telling him to come on at his leisure. At eleven o'clock crossed a stream running S.E. which gave us great trouble, the banks being very steep and slippery. Crossed the same stream again at half past twelve, running E. by N. In the course of this day's march four of the soldiers were unable to attend to their asses. Mr. Scott, being very sick, rode my horse; and I drove one of the asses. So very much weakened were the men, that when their loads fell off, they could not lift them on again. I assisted in loading thirteen asses in the course of the march. We reached Koolihori at three o'clock. This town is partly walled; but the greater part of the huts are without the walls. As soon as the tents were pitched, the rain commenced, and continued all night. We had not time to cook, and the rain prevented the watch fire from burning; owing to which one of our asses was killed by the wolves. It was only sixteen feet distant from a bush under which one of the men was sleeping.
August 5th.—Morning hazy. Halted, resolving to travel at two o'clock, and sleep in the woods, the Ba Woolli being too far to reach in one march. Bought some ripe maize of this year's growth.
deg. ' " Obser. mer. alt. Sun— 172 45 0 ————- 86 22 0-1/2 0 16 0 ————- 86 38 0-1/2 ————- 3 22 0 17 3 0 ————- Latitude— 13 41 0
The whole route from Bangassi is marked with ruined towns and villages; some of them are rebuilt, but by far the greater number are still in ruins. We saw scarcely any cattle on the route, and the avidity of the people of Koolihori for animal food, or perhaps their own peculiar taste, made them eat what the wolves had left of our ass. The wolves had eat only the bowels and heart, &c. so that the people had the four quarters and head. The day having clouded up for rain, resolved to halt here for the night. In the course of the afternoon Lawrence Cahill came up; but William Hall, who had gone into a ruined hut near the road, and who did not appear to be very sick, did not arrive. Suspected that he might be killed by the wolves in the hut during the night. At sun-set had all the asses properly tied near the tents; and watched myself with the sentries all night, as the wolves kept constantly howling round us.
Departure from Koolihori—Ganifarra—Scarcity of provisions—Distressing situation of the Author from deaths and sickness of the party—Escapes from three lions—Intricate route to Koomikoomi—Dombila—Visit from Karfa Taura—View of the Niger—Reduced state of the party—Bambakoo— Losses from wolves—Bosradoo; embark on the Niger; incidents in the voyage to Marraboo—Isaaco sent to Sego with presents for Mansong— Message from Mansong—Course to Koolikorro—Deena—Yamina—Samee— Return of Isaaco; account of his interview with Mansong—Messengers sent by Mansong, and enquiries respecting the Author's journey—Quit Samee—Excessive heat—Reach Sansanding—Account of that city and its trade—Death of Mr. Anderson—Preparations for continuing the voyage eastward—Information collected respecting various districts.
August 6th.—Having hired two more ass drivers at one bar and their victuals per day, we left Koolihori early in the morning, and travelled with considerable dispatch till three o'clock; at which time we reached Ganifarra, a small beggarly village. In the course of this march L. Cakill and J. Bird, two of the soldiers, and William Cox, one of the seamen, fell behind, and laid down. As soon as the front of the coffle had reached Ganifarra, it came on a very heavy rain. Being in the rear I was completely drenched; and two of the asses carrying four trunks, in which were the gun stocks, pistols, looking glasses, &c. fell down in a stream of water near the town, and all the contents were completely wet. I could purchase nothing here, not so much as a fowl. Served out a short allowance of rice, being very short of that article.
August 7th.—During the night, some person had stolen one of our best asses; and as the load must be left if we could not recover it, Isaaco's people having traced the foot marks to a considerable distance, agreed to go in search of it. Isaaco gave them the strictest orders, if they came up to the thief in the woods to shoot him; and, if not, to follow him to a town and demand the ass from the Dooty; if he refused to give it up, to return as soon as possible.
Spent the day in drying such things as were wet; cleaned and greased with Shea butter all the ornamented pistols, ten pair. Dried the looking glasses, which were quite spoiled. In the afternoon sent two of the natives away with goods to a neighbouring town to purchase rice and corn. At sun-set Bird came up, but had seen nothing of Cox nor Cahill.
August 8th.—People not yet returned. Opened the trunk which contained the double barrelled gun stocks; cleaned and greased them. About noon people returned with the rice and corn, but not quite sufficient for one day. Nearly at the same time Isaaco's people came up with the ass; they had traced his foot-marks past Koolihori, and found him at Balandoo. Did not see the thief, but learned his name; which Isaaco promised to write to his friend at Bangassi, to inform Serinummo of him. In the afternoon agreed with the Dooty for thirty five bars to carry every thing over. Rained heavily all the evening.
August 9th.—Michael May, a soldier, having died during the night, buried him at day break. Had all the loads taken to the crossing place by eight o'clock. The Ba Woolli is nearly of the same size as the one we formerly crossed of that name; it appeared to be exceedingly deep, and flowed at the rate of four or five miles per hour. There is a very good canoe here, which can carry over four ass loads at once. As it threatened rain, sent over three men with one of the tents, and pitched it on the East side about half a mile from the river; the ground near the bank being marshy. Hired people to carry down the bundles, and put them into the canoe; and others to receive them on the other side, and carry them up the bank; so that the soldiers had nothing to move, being all weak and sickly.
By one o'clock all the baggage was over; but we found some difficulty in transporting the asses; the rapidity of the stream swept the canoe and the first six past the landing place; and they went so far down the river, that I really thought the asses must be drowned; which would have been an irreparable loss in our situation. However, by the exertions of the Negroes, who swam in with ropes to the canoe, the asses were landed on the other side; where they stood by the water's edge until the Negroes with their corn hoes made a path for them up the steep bank. To prevent such an accident, we took the ropes from several of our loads, and fastened them together, so as to reach across the river; with this we hauled over the loaded canoe, and the Negroes paddled it back when empty. In this manner all the asses and horses were swam over without any loss.
When the bundles were all carried up to the tent, we found that we had not more rice than was barely sufficient for the present day; and as no more could be purchased, we had no alternative, but to march early in the morning for Bambarra; the distance by all accounts would not exceed fourteen or fifteen miles.
August 10th.—William Ashton declared that he was unable to travel; but as there was no place to leave him at, I advised him to make an exertion and come on, though slowly, till he should reach a place where he could have food. At eight o'clock set forwards; and travelled very expeditiously without halting till four in the afternoon, at which time the front of the coffle reached Dababoo, a village of Bambarra. Being in the rear, I found many of the men very much fatigued with the length of the journey and the heat of the day. At half past four I arrived with the ass I drove at a stream flowing to the Westwards.
Here I found many of the soldiers sitting, and Mr. Anderson lying under a bush, apparently dying. Took him on my back, and carried him across the stream, which came up to my middle. Carried over the load of the ass which I drove, got over the ass, Mr. Anderson's horse, &c. Found myself much fatigued, having crossed the stream sixteen times. Left here four soldiers with their asses, being unable to carry over their loads. Having loaded my ass and put Mr. Anderson on his horse, we went on to the village; but was sorry to find that no rice could be had, and I was only able to buy one solitary fowl.
August 11th.—Bought a small bullock of the Moorish breed for one barraloolo; and having purchased some corn, had it cleaned and dressed for the people instead of rice. This morning hired Isaaco's people to go back, and bring up the loads of the soldiers who had halted by the side of the stream. In the course of the day all the loads arrived; but was sorry to find that in the course of the last two marches we had lost four men, viz. Cox, Cahill, Bird, and Ashton. Mr. Anderson still in a very dangerous way, being unable to walk or sit upright. Mr. Scott much recovered. I found that I must here leave one load, one of the horses being quite finished. Left the seine nets in charge of the Dooty, till I should send for them.
August 12th.—Rained all the morning. About eleven o'clock, the sky being clear, loaded the asses. None of the Europeans being able to lift a load, Isaaco made the Negroes load the whole. Saddled Mr. Anderson's horse; and having put a sick soldier on mine, took Mr. Anderson's horse by the bridle, that he might have no trouble but sitting upright on the saddle. We had not gone far before I found one of the asses with a load of gunpowder, the driver (Dickinson) being unable to proceed (I never heard of him afterwards); and shortly after the sick man dismounted from my horse, and laid down by a small pool of water, refusing to rise. Drove the ass and horse on before me. Passed a number of sick. At half past twelve o'clock Mr. Anderson declared he could ride no farther. Took him down and laid him in the shade of a bush, and sat down beside him. At half past two o'clock he made another attempt to proceed; but had not rode above an hundred yards before I had to take him down from the saddle, and lay him again in the shade. I now gave up all thoughts of being able to carry him forwards till the cool of the evening; and having turned the horses and ass to feed, I sat down to watch the pulsations of my dying friend. At four o'clock four of the sick came up; three of them agreed to take charge of the ass with the gunpowder; and I put a fourth, who had a sore leg, on my horse, telling him if he saw Mr. Scott on the road to give him the horse.
At half past five o'clock, there being a fine breeze from the South West; Mr. Anderson agreed to make another attempt, and having again placed him on the saddle, I led the horse on pretty smartly in hopes of reaching Koomikoomi before dark. We had not proceeded above a mile, before we heard on our left a noise very much like the barking of a large mastiff, but ending in a hiss like the fuf [Footnote: Thus is Mr. Park's MS] of a cat. I thought it must be some large monkey; and was observing to Mr. Anderson "what a bouncing fellow that must be," when we heard another bark nearer to us, and presently a third still nearer, accompanied with a growl. I now suspected that some wild animal meant to attack us, but could not conjecture of what species it was likely to be. We had not proceeded an hundred yards farther, when coming to an opening in the bushes, I was not a little surprised to see three lions coming towards us. They were not so red as the lion I formerly saw in Barnbarra, [Footnote: Park's Travels, p. 208] but of a dusky colour, like the colour of an ass. They were very large, and came bounding over the long grass, not one after another, but all abreast of each other. I was afraid, if I allowed them to come too near us, and my piece should miss fire, that we should be all devoured by them. I therefore let go the bridle, and walked forwards to meet them. As soon as they were within a long shot of me, I fired at the centre one. I do not think I hit him; but they all stopt, looked at each other, and then bounded away a few paces, when one of them stopt, and looked back at me. I was too busy in loading my piece to observe their motions as they went away, and was very happy to see the last of them march slowly off amongst the bushes. We had not proceeded above half a mile farther, when we heard another bark and growl close to us amongst the bushes. This was doubtless one of the lions before seen, and I was afraid they would follow us till dark, when they would have too many opportunities of springing on us unawares. I therefore got Mr. Anderson's call, and made as loud a whistling and noise as possible. We heard no more of them.
Just at dark we descended into a valley where was a small stream of water; but the ascent on the opposite side was through a species of broken ground, which I have never seen any where but in Africa. It is of the following nature. A stratum of stiff yellow clay fourteen or twenty feet thick, (which, unless when it rains, is as hard as rock) is washed by the annual rains into fissures of a depth equal to the thickness of the stratum. There is no vegetation on these places, except on the summit or original level. Amongst these horrid gullies I unfortunately lost sight of the footmarks of the asses which had gone before; and finding no way to get out, led the horse up a very steep place in order to gain the original level, hoping there to find the foot path. But unluckily the ground was all broken as far as I could see; and after travelling some little way, we came to a gulley which we could not cross; and finding no possibility of moving without the danger of being killed by falling into some of these ravines, or over some precipice, I thought it advisable to halt till the morning. On this rugged summit we fell in with Jonas Watkins, one of the sick; and with his assistance I lighted a fire. Wrapped Mr. Anderson in his cloak, and laid him down beside it. Watched all night to keep the fire burning, and prevent our being surprised by the lions, which we knew were at no great distance. About two o'clock in the morning two more of the sick joined us. Mr. Anderson slept well during the night, and as soon as day dawned,
August 13th,—having found the footmarks of the asses, and having with difficulty even in day light traced our way through this labyrinth, we found Mr. Scott and three more of the sick. They too had lost their way, and had slept about half a mile to the East of us. We reached Koomikoomi at ten o'clock. This is an unwalled village, but surrounded with extensive corn fields.
August 13th.—Halted; rested at Koomikoomi
August 14th.—Jonas Watkins died this morning; buried him. Halted here to day to see which way Mr. Anderson's fever was likely to terminate; and in the mean time sent two loaded asses forward to Doombila, the asses to return in the evening and carry loads to-morrow morning.
deg. ' " Obser. Mer. Alt. —— —— 177 7 0 0 32 0 —————— 177 39 0 —————— 88 49 0-1/2 ——————- Z D. —— 1 11 0 D. 14 8 0 ——————- Latitude —— 12 57 0 [*] ——————-
[Footnote *: Mr. Park took a wrong day's declination, i.e. the 15th instead of the 14th. It should be,
deg. ' " ZD. —— —— 1 11 0 Dec. —— —— 14 27 29 ———————- Latitude —— —— 13 16 29 ———————- ]
It is a common observation of the Negroes, that when the Indian corn is in blossom the rain stops for eleven days. The stopping of the rain evidently depends on the sun approaching the zenith of the place; the sun by this day's observation being only seventy-one miles North of us: and it is a wonderful institution of providence, that at this time the maize here is all in full blossom; and on passing through the fields, one is like to be blinded with the pollen of the male flowers.
August 15th.—Having slung a cloak like a hammock under a straight stick, had Mr. Anderson put into it, and carried on two men's heads: two more following to relieve them. Mr. Scott complained this morning of sickness and head ach. Made one of the soldiers saddle Mr. Anderson's horse for him; and having seen him mount, and given him his canteen with water, I rode forwards to look after four Negroes whom I had hired to carry loads on their heads; but being strangers, I was apprehensive they might run away with them. Found every thing going on well; and we travelled with such expedition, that we reached Doombila in four hours and a half, though the distance cannot be less than sixteen or eighteen miles, nearly South. It rained hard all the afternoon, and it was not till dark that all the sick soldiers came up. Only three of the soldiers were able to drive their asses to day.
When I entered the town I was happy to meet Karfa Taura, [Footnote: Park's Travels, p. 253.] the worthy Negro mentioned in my former travels; he heard a report at Boori (where he now resides) that a coffle of white people were passing through Fooladoo for Bambarra; and that they were conducted by a person of the name of Park, who spoke Mandingo. He heard this report in the evening; and in the morning he left his house, determined if possible to meet me at Bambakoo, a distance of six days travel. He came to Bambakoo with three of his slaves to assist me in going forward to Sego, but when he found I had not come up, he came forwards to meet me. He instantly recognised me, and you may judge of the pleasure I felt on seeing my old benefactor.
At four o'clock, as Mr. Scott had not come up, and the people in the rear had not seen him lately, I sent one of Isaaco's people back on my horse as far as the next village, suspecting that he might have halted there when the rain came on. The man returned after dark, having been nearly at Koomikoomi without seeing or hearing any thing of Mr. Scott. We all concluded that he had returned to Koomikoomi.
August 17th—Halted at Doombila in order to dry the baggage, and in hopes of Mr. Scott coming up. Told the four Negroes, who carried Mr. Anderson, and who returned to Koomikoomi this morning, to make every possible enquiry concerning Mr. Scott; and if he was able to ride, I would pay them handsomely for coming with him. If he had returned to Koomikoomi, I desired them to assure the Dooty that I would pay for every expence he might incur, and pay for a guide to conduct him to Marraboo. Received from the Dooty of Doombila a small bullock and a sheep. Paid him a barraloolo, five bars of amber, and fifty gun flints.
August 18th.—Hearing no account of Mr. Scott, concluded he was still at Koomikoomi, but unable to travel. At seven o'clock left Doombila, and as the asses were now very weak, it was not long before I had to dismount and put a load on my horse. Only one of the soldiers able to drive an ass. Road very bad; did not reach Toniba till sun set, being a distance of eighteen or twenty miles S.E. by S. Mr. Anderson's bearers halted with him at a village on the road, where there was some good beer. As soon as we had pitched the tent, it began to rain, and rained all night; the soldiers run all into the village. I passed a very disagreeable night, having to keep our asses from eating the people's corn, which caused me to keep walking about almost the whole night.
In case it should escape my memory, I take this opportunity of observing, that the standard law of Africa runs thus: If an ass should break a single stem of corn, the proprietor of the corn has a right to seize the ass; and if the owner of the ass will not satisfy him for the damage he thinks he has sustained, he can retain the ass. He cannot sell or work him, but he can kill him; and as the Bambarrans esteem ass-flesh as a great luxury, this part of the law is often put in force.
August 19th.—Mr. Anderson's bearers having brought him forward early in the morning, we immediately loaded the asses, and departed from Toniba (Sergeant McKeal appears to be slightly delirious). We kept ascending the mountains to the South of Toniba till three o'clock, at which time having gained the summit of the ridge which separates the Niger from the remote branches of the Senegal, I went on a little before; and coming to the brow of the hill, I once more saw the Niger rolling its immense stream along the plain!
After the fatiguing march which we had experienced, the sight of this river was no doubt pleasant, as it promised an end to, or to be at least an alleviation of our toils. But when I reflected that three-fourths of the soldiers had died on their march, and that in addition to our weakly state we had no carpenters to build the boats, in which we proposed to prosecute our discoveries; the prospect appeared somewhat gloomy. It however afforded me peculiar pleasure, when I reflected that in conducting a party of Europeans, with immense baggage, through an extent of more than five hundred miles, I had always been able to preserve the most friendly terms with the natives. In fact, this journey plainly demonstrates, 1st. that with common prudence any quantity of merchandize may be transported from the Gambia to the Niger, without danger of being robbed by the natives: 2dly, that if this journey be performed in the dry season, one may calculate on losing not more than three or at most four men out of fifty.
But to return to the Niger. The river was much swelled by the rains, but did not appear to overflow its banks. It certainly is larger even here than either the Senegal or the Gambia. We descended with difficulty down the steep side of the hill towards Bambakoo, which place we reached at half past six o'clock, and pitched our tents under a tree near the town. Of thirty-four soldiers and four carpenters, who left the Gambia, only six soldiers and one carpenter reached the Niger.
During the night the wolves carried away two large cloth bundles from the tent door to a considerable distance; where they eat off the skins with which they were covered, and left them.
August 20th—Received a bullock from the Dooty as a present. It was in the afternoon, and we fastened it to the tree close to the tent, where all the asses were tied. As soon as it was dark the wolves tore its bowels out, though within ten yards of the tent door where we were all sitting. The wolves here are the largest and most ferocious we have yet seen.
August 21st.—Dried a bundle of beads, the strings of which were all rotten with the rain. Opened a leather bag which contained about thirty pounds of gunpowder for present use. Found it all wet and damaged. Spread it out in the sun; resolved to make something of it. Spoke for a canoe to carry down the baggage to Marraboo, the river being navigable over the rapids at this season. In the course of our march from Toniba to Bambakoo, we lost Sergeant McKeil, Purvey, and Samuel Hill.
August 22nd.—Early in the morning had all the bundles put on the asses, and carried to the place of embarkation, which is a village called Bossradoo, about a mile and a half East of Bambakoo. It rained hard all the forenoon. The canoes could not carry any of the soldiers, or any person except two to look after the goods. I resolved to go down with Mr. Anderson, leaving Mr. Martyn to come down with the men by land. They rode on the asses.
We embarked at ten minutes past three o'clock. The current, which is nearly five knots per hour, set us along without the trouble of rowing any more than was necessary to keep the canoe in the proper course. The river is full an English mile over, and at the rapids it is spread out to nearly twice that breadth. The rapids seem to be formed by the river passing through a ridge of hills in a South Easterly direction: they are very numerous, and correspond with the jetting angles of the hills. There are three principal ones, where the water breaks with considerable noise in the middle of the river; but the canoe men easily avoided them by paddling down one of the branches near the shore. Even in this manner the velocity was such as to make me sigh.
We passed two of the principal rapids, and three smaller ones, in the course of the afternoon. We saw on one of the islands, in the middle of the river, a large elephant; it was of a red clay colour with black legs. I was very unwell of the dysentery; otherwise I would have had a shot at him, for he was quite near us. We saw three hippopotami close to another of these islands. The canoe men were afraid they might follow us and overset the canoes. The report of a musket will in all cases frighten them away. They blow up the water exactly like a whale. As we were gliding along shore, one of the canoe men speared a fine turtle, of the same species as the one I formerly saw, and made a drawing of in Gambia. At sun set we rowed to the shore, landed on some flat rocks, and set about cooking the turtle and rice for our supper; but before this aldermanic repast was half dressed, the rain came on us, and continued with great violence all night.
August 23d.—At day break embarked again, very wet and sleepy. Passed the third rapid, and arrived at Marraboo at nine o'clock. Our guide soon found a large passage hut in which to deposit our baggage, for one stone of small amber per load. We carried the whole of it up in a few minutes. In the evening Mr. Martyn arrived, and all the people, except two, who came up next day.
August 24th.—Received from the Dooty a small black bullock in a present, which our guide would not allow us to kill, it being of a jet black colour. The Dooty's name is Sokee; and so superstitious was he, that all the time we remained at Marraboo he kept himself in his hut, conceiving that if he saw a white man, he would never prosper after.
August 25th—Paid Isaaco goods to the full value of two prime slaves, according to agreement. I likewise gave him several articles; and I told him, that when the palaver was adjusted at Sego, he should then have all the asses and horses for his trouble.
August 26th.—Took out such things as I meant to give to Mansong, viz.
A handsome silver plated tureen. *Two double barrelled guns, silver mounted. Two pair of pistols mounted in the same manner. A sabre with Morocco scabbard. Thirty-two yards scarlet broad cloth. Twelve ditto blue. Twelve ditto yellow. Twelve ditto light green. *Half a load of gunpowder, or two kegs and a half.
To Mansong's eldest son Da.
*A double barrelled gun, silver mounted. A pair of pistols, ditto. A sabre, ditto.
I wished to put a stop to the malicious reports of the Moors and Mahomedans at Sego as soon as possible. I therefore resolved to send Isaaco forward to Sego with all the articles beforementioned, except those marked thus [Symbol: *], which I desired him to say to Modibinne would be given as soon as I heard accounts that Mansong would befriend us. This Modibinne is Mansong's prime minister; he is a Mahomedan, but not intolerant in his principles. Isaaco accordingly departed on the 28th with his wife and all his goods. Ever since my arrival at Marraboo I had been subject to attacks of the dysentery; and as I found that my strength was failing very fast, I resolved to charge myself with mercury. I accordingly took calomel till it affected my mouth to such a degree, that I could not speak or sleep for six days. The salivation put an immediate stop to the dysentery, which had proved fatal to so many of the soldiers. On the 2d of September, I observed the
deg. ' " Mer. alt. of the Sun— 169 54 0 ————- 84 57 0 0 16 0 ————- 85 13 0 ————- 4 47 0 8 1 0 ————- Marraboo Latitude— 12 48 0
As soon as I recovered, I set about exchanging some amber and coral for cowries, which are the current money of Bambarra.
Cowries. Coral No. 4 each stone 60 Amber No. 5 60 Blue agates per string 100
With these three articles I bought about twenty thousand cowries. It is curious that in counting the cowries, they call eighty a hundred; whilst in all other things they calculate by the common hundred. Sixty is called a Manding hundred.
On the 6th Thomas Dyer (a private) died of the fever. I had to pay one thousand shells to Dooty Sokee, before he would allow me to bury him; alleging that if the ground was not bought where he was buried, it would never grow good corn after.
There is no wood proper for boat building in this neighbourhood; the best wood is near Kankaree, on a large navigable branch of the Niger; and almost all the Bambarra canoes come from thence; many of them are mahogany.
The travellers from Sego brought us every day some unfavourable news or other. At one time it was reported, and believed all over Marraboo, that Mansong had killed Isaaco with his own hand, and would do the same with all the whites who should come into Bambarra. Our fears were at length dispelled by the arrival of Bookari, Mansong's singing man, on the 8th, with six canoes. He told us he came by Mansong's orders to convey us and our baggage to Sego. That Mansong thought highly of the presents which Isaaco had brought, and wished us to be brought to Sego before he received them from Isaaco. We accordingly put our baggage in order; but it was not till the 12th that the singing man and his Somonies (canoe people) could be prevailed on to leave the Dooty Sokee's good beef, and beer. We embarked, and left Marraboo at ten minutes past three o'clock.
Time. Course. Objects. Bearing. Distance.
3.10 E. 1/2 N. The North extreme E. of the South hills. Little hump on E.S.E. South hills. Cubic hill on North E. by N. Distant 12 side. or 14 miles.
0 25 E. by N. 0 30 E. N. E. 0 45 E. 1/2 S. 4 0 E. 0 45 E. by N. 1/2 W. 5 0 N. E. Cubic hill. N. Distant 1/4 of 0 10 Halted for the a mile. night at Koolikorro
September 13th.—Bookari sent four of the Somonies over to a town on the opposite side of the river, to put in requisition a canoe for carrying part of our baggage. The people refused to give the canoe, and sent the Somonies back without it. Bookari immediately went with all the Somonies (38); and having cut the owner of the canoe across the forehead with his sword, and broke his brother's head with a canoe paddle, he seized one of his sons, and brought him away as a slave along with the canoe. He however set the boy at liberty, his father paying two thousand shells for his release.
We left Koolikorro at thirty-five minutes past eleven. I will not trouble your Lordship with transcribing the courses and compass bearings from this to Sansanding. The latitude of the places will give a sufficient idea of the course of the river; and I hope to give a tolerable correct chart of all its turnings and widings, when I return to Great Britain.
deg. ' " Observed mer. alt. Sun.— 80 45 0 0 16 0 ———— 81 1 0 ———— ZD.— 8 59 0 N D.— 3 53 0 ———— Koolikorro Latitude— 12 52 0 N ————
The horizon was an oblique view across the river. Distance of the land seven miles; height of the eye sixteen inches above the surface of the water.
We travelled very pleasantly all day; in fact nothing can be more beautiful than the views of this immense river; sometimes as smooth as a mirror, at other times ruffled with a gentle breeze, but at all times sweeping us along at the rate of six or seven miles per hour. We halted for the night at Deena, a Somoni village on the south side. Had a tornado in the night, which wetted our baggage much. Most of us slept in the canoes to prevent theft.
September 14th.—Departed from Deena early in the morning, and arrived at Yamina at forty-five minutes past four o'clock. Halted here the 15th, in order to purchase cowries.
deg. ' " Observ. alt. Sun— 79 63 0 0 16 0 ———- 79 52 0 ———- 10 8 0 3 7 0 ———- Yamina Latitude— 13 15 0
On the 16th left Yamina, and in the evening reached Samee, where we landed our baggage; and Bookari went forward to Sego to inform Mansong of our arrival.
September 17th.— deg. ' " Obser. mer. alt. Sun— 78 47 0 0 16 0 ———- 79 3 0 ———- 10 57 0 2 20 0 ———- Samee Latitude— 13 17 0 ———-
September 18th.—No accounts from Sego.
September 19th.—About two o'clock in the morning, Isaaco arrived in a canoe from Sego, with all the articles I had sent to Mansong. Mansong had never yet seen any of them; and when he heard that I was arrived at Samee, he desired Modibinne to inform Isaaco that he had best take the articles up to Samee; and he would send a person to receive them from my own hand. Isaaco informed me that Mansong, at all the interviews he had with him, uniformly declared that he would allow us to pass; but whenever Isaaco mentioned us particularly, or related any incident that had happened on the journey, Mansong immediately began to make squares and triangles in the sand before him with his finger, and continued to do so, so long as Isaaco spoke about us. Isaaco said, that he thought Mansong was rather afraid of us; particularly as he never once expressed a wish to see us, but rather the contrary.
September 22d.—In the evening, Modibinne and four more of Mansong's friends arrived in a canoe. They sent for me, and Modibinne told me, that they were come by Mansong's orders to hear, from my own mouth, what had brought me into Bambarra. He said I might think on it during the night, and they would visit me in the morning; he said Mansong had sent me a bullock, which he shewed me: it was very fat, and milk white.
September 23d.—As soon as we had breakfasted, Modibinne and the four grandees came to visit us. When they had seated themselves, and the usual compliments passed, Modibinne desired me to acquaint them with the motives which had induced me to come into their country. I spoke to them in the Bambarra language as follows. "I am the white man who nine years ago came into Bambarra. I then came to Sego, and requested Mansong's permission to pass to the Eastwards; he not only permitted me to pass, but presented me with five thousand cowries to purchase provisions on the road; [Footnote: Park's Travels, p. 199.] for you all know that the Moors had robbed me of my goods. This generous conduct of Mansong towards me, has made his name much respected in the land of the white people. The King of that country has sent me again into Bambarra; and if Mansong is inclined to protect me, and you who are here sitting, wish to befriend me, I will inform you of the real object of my coming into your country."
(Here Modibinne desired me to speak on, as they were all my friends), "You all know that the white people are a trading people; and that all the articles of value, which the Moors and the people of Jinnie bring to Sego, are made by us. If you speak of a good gun, who made it? the white people. If you speak of a good pistol or sword, or piece of scarlet or baft, or beads or gunpowder, who made them? the white people. We sell them to the Moors; the Moors bring them to Tombuctoo, where they sell them at a higher rate. The people of Tombuctoo sell them to the people of Jinnie at a still higher price; and the people of Jinnie sell them to you. Now the King of the white people wishes to find out a way by which we may bring our own merchandize to you, and sell every thing at a much cheaper rate than you now have them. For this purpose, if Mansong will permit me to pass, I propose sailing down the Joliba to the place where it mixes with the salt water; and if I find no rocks or danger in the way, the white men's small vessels will come up and trade at Sego, if Mansong wishes it. What I have now spoken, I hope and trust you will not mention to any person, except Mansong and his son; for if the Moors should hear of it, I shall certainly be murdered before I reach the salt water."
Modibinne answered, "We have heard what you have spoken. Your journey is a good one, and may God prosper you in it; Mansong will protect you. We will carry your words to Mansong this afternoon; and tomorrow we will bring you his answer." I made Isaaco shew them the different things, which I had allotted for Mansong and his son. They were delighted with the tureen, the double-barrelled guns, and in fact every thing was far superior to any thing of the kind they had ever before seen.
When I had laid out every thing for Mansong and his son, I then made each of the grandees, and Modibinne, a present of scarlet cloth. Modibinne now said that they had seen what I laid out for Mansong and his son, and that the present was great, and worthy of Mansong; but, added he, Mansong has heard so many reports concerning your baggage, that he wishes us to examine it. "Such of the bundles as are covered with skin, we will not open; you will tell us what is in them, and that will be sufficient." I told them that I had nothing but what was necessary for purchasing provisions; and that it would please me much if they could dispense with opening the bundles. They however persisted; and I ordered the bundles to be brought out, taking care, with the assistance of the soldiers, to secrete all the good amber and coral.
When all the loads were inspected, I asked Modibinne what he thought of my baggage? If he had seen any more silver tureens, or double barrelled guns? He said he had seen nothing that was bad, and nothing but what was necessary for purchasing provisions; that he would report the same to Mansong. They accordingly went away to Sego; but without taking Mansong's present, till they had heard his answer.
September 24th.—Seed and Barber (soldiers) died during the night; one of the fever, the other of the dysentery. Paid the Somonies twenty stones of amber for burying them.
September 25th.—Modibinne and the same people returned with Mansong's answer, a literal translation of which I give as follows. "Mansong says he will protect you; that a road is open for you every where, as far as his hand (power) extends. If you wish to go to the East, no man shall harm you from Sego till you pass Tombuctoo. If you wish to go to the West, you may travel through Fooladoo and Manding, through Kasson and Bondou; the name of Mansong's stranger will be a sufficient protection for you. If you wish to build your boats at Samee or Sego, at Sansanding or Jinnie, name the town, and Mansong will convey you thither." He concluded by observing, that Mansong wished me to sell him four of the blunderbusses, three swords, a fiddle (violin) which belonged to Mr. Scott, and some Birmingham bead necklaces, which pleased above every thing; that he had sent us a bullock, and his son another, with a fine sheep. I told Modibinne that Mansong's friendship was of more value to me than the articles he had mentioned, and that I would be happy if Mansong would accept them from me as a farther proof of my esteem.
I made choice of Sansanding for fitting out our canoe, because Mansong had never said he wished to see me, and because I could live quieter and freer from begging than at Sego. I therefore sent down the bullocks by land to Sansanding.
September 26th. We departed from Samee. The canoes were not covered with mats; and there being no wind, the sun became insufferably hot. I felt myself affected with a violent head-ach, which encreased to such a degree as to make me almost delirious. I never felt so hot a day; there was sensible heat sufficient to have roasted a sirloin; but the thermometer was in a bundle in the other canoe, so that I could not ascertain the actual heat. We passed down a small stream to the north of Sego Korro, and halted opposite to Segosee Korro, near the sand hills, where I formerly waited for a passage. We waited here about an hour for Isaaco, who had gone to Segosee Korro to inform Mansong of our passing. When Isaaco returned, he made a sort of shade over our canoe with four sticks and a couple of cloaks; and in the evening I found myself more collected and less feverish. At sun-set we rowed towards the north bank, where there are some flat rocks, on which passengers by water often sleep. We found the place occupied by a number of people. I counted between thirty and forty fires; we therefore passed on a little to the Eastwards, and slept on a sand bank covered with verdure.
September 27th.—At day-break we again proceeded, and in stretching over to gain the middle of the river, we passed a Somoni fishing village on an island; the huts occupied the whole of the dry ground, and it appeared, even when close to it, like a floating village. We reached Sansanding at ten o'clock. Such crowds of people came to the shore to see us, that we could not land our baggage till the people were beaten away with sticks, by Koontie Mamadie's orders, on whose premises we were accommodated with a large hut for sitting in, having another hut opening into it, in which we deposited our baggage.
October 2d.—Marshall and W. Garland (privates) died; one of the fever, the other of the dysentery. During the night the wolves carried away Garland, the door of the hut where he died being left open. Buried Marshall on the morning following, in a corn field near the church.
October 4th.—Mansong sent down two broken gunlocks, and a large pewter plate with a hole in the bottom of it, for me to repair; and it was with much difficulty that I could persuade the messenger that none of us knew any thing about such occupations.
October 6th.—Da, Mansong's eldest son, sent one canoe as a present, and requested me to sell him a bunderbuss, and three swords, with some blue and yellow broad cloth. Sent him three swords, and ten spans of yellow cloth; received in return six thousand cowries.
Sansanding contains, according to Koontie Mamadie's account, eleven thousand inhabitants. It has no public buildings, except the mosques, two of which, though built of mud, are by no means inelegant. The market place is a large square, and the different articles of merchandize are exposed for sale on stalls covered with mats, to shade them from the sun. The market is crowded with people from morning to night: some of the stalls contain nothing but beads; others indigo in balls; others wood-ashes in balls; others Houssa and Jinnie cloth. I observed one stall with nothing but antimony in small bits; another with sulphur, and a third with copper and silver rings and bracelets. In the houses fronting the square is sold, scarlet, amber, silks from Morocco, and tobacco, which looks like Levant tobacco, and comes by way of Tombuctoo. Adjoining this is the salt market, part of which occupies one corner of the square. A slab of salt is sold commonly for eight thousand cowries; a large butcher's stall, or shade, is in the centre of the square, and as good and fat meat sold every day as any in England. The beer market is at a little distance, under two large trees; and there are often exposed for sale from eighty to one hundred calabashes of beer, each containing about two gallons. Near the beer market is the place where red and yellow leather is sold.
Besides these market-places, there is a very large space, which is appropriated for the great market every Tuesday. On this day astonishing crowds of people come from the country to purchase articles in wholesale, and retail them in the different villages, &c. There are commonly from sixteen to twenty large fat Moorish bullocks killed on the market morning.
October 8th.—As Mansong had delayed much longer in sending the canoes he promised, than I expected, I thought it best to be provided with a sufficient quantity of shells to purchase two; particularly when I reflected that the river would subside in the course of a few days, having sunk this morning about four inches by the shore. I therefore opened shop in great style, and exhibited a choice assortment of European articles to be sold in wholesale or retail. I had of course a great run, which I suppose drew on me the envy of my brother merchants; for the Jinnie people, the Moors, and the merchants here joined with those of the same description at Sego, and (in presence of Modibinne, from whose mouth I had it) offered to give Mansong a quantity of merchandize of greater value than all the presents I had made him, if he would seize our baggage, and either kill us, or send us back again out of Bambarra. They alleged, that my object was to kill Mansong and his sons by means of charms, that the white people might come and seize on the country. Mansong, much to his honour, rejected the proposal, though it was seconded by two-thirds of the people of Sego, and almost all Sansanding.
From the 8th to the 16th nothing of consequence occurred, I found my shop every day more and more crowded with customers; and such was my run of business, that I was sometimes forced to employ three tellers at once to count my cash. I turned one market day twenty-five thousand seven hundred and fifty-six pieces of money (cowries.)
The second day after my arrival at Marraboo, as no accounts whatever had arrived concerning Mr. Scott, I sent a messenger to Koomikoomi, desiring him to bring Mr. Scott, or some account of him. He returned in four days, and told us that Mr. Scott was dead, and that the natives had stolen the pistols out of the holsters; but he had brought the horse to Bambakoo.
When Modibinne enquired of Isaaco what sort of a return of presents would be most agreeable to me, Isaaco (being instructed before) said he believed two large canoes, and Modibinne assured me, that the canoes would be sent down to Sansanding immediately on our arrival there.
In order to give a just idea of the trade and profits on different articles sold at Sansanding, I have annexed a list of European and African articles, with their respective values in cowries, the great medium of exchange and the general currency of Bambarra.
Value in Cowries.
A musket —— —— —— 6 to 7000
A cutlass —— —— —— 1500 to 2000
A flint —— —— —— —— 40
Gunpowder, one bottle —— —— 3000
Amber No. 1. —— —— —— —— 1000
Ditto No. 2. —— —— —— —— 800
Ditto No. 3. —— —— —— —— 400
Amber No. 4. —— —— —— —— 160
Ditto No. 5. —— —— —— —— 80
Ditto No. 6. —— —— —— —— 60
Coral No. 4. each stone —— —— 60
Black points, per bead —— —— 20
Red garnets, per string —— —— 40
White ditto, per string —— —— 40
Blue agates, per string —— —— 100
Round rock coral, per bead —— 5
Long ditto, per bead —— —— 5
Short arrangoes, per bead —— 40
Gold beads, per bead —— —— 10
An Indian baft —— —— 20,000
A barraloolo, or five-bar piece 8,000
Scarlet cloth 10 spans —— 20,000
If sold to the Karankeas in retail 30,000
Light yellow cloth nearly the same as scarlet;
blue not so high
Paper per sheet —— —— 40
A dollar —— —— from 6 to 12,000
Or from 1L. 5s. to 2L. 10s
A minkalli of gold (12s. 6d. sterling) —— 3000
Four minkallies are equal to L3. 3s. Value in Cowries.
Ivory, the very largest teeth, each —— 10,000
The medium size —— —— —— —— —— 7,000
The smaller —— —— —— —— —— —— 3 or 4000
Indigo leaves beat and dried in lumps larger
than ones fist, each —— —— —— —— —— 40
A prime slave, (male) —— —— —— —— 40,000
A ditto, (female) —— —— —— from 80 to 100,000
A girl —— —— —— —— —— —— —— 40,000
A horse from two to ten prime male slaves
A cow (fat) —— —— —— —— —— —— 15,000
An ass —— —— —— —— —— —— —— 17,000
A sheep —— —— —— —— —— —— 3 to 5,000
A fowl —— —— —— —— —— —— 250 to 300
As much excellent fat beef as will be sufficient
for seven men one day —— —— —— —— 620
As much good beer as the same number can
drink in one day —— —— —— —— —— 300
October 16th.—Modibinne and Jower arrived, and told me that they had brought a canoe from Mansong. I went to see it, and objected to one half of it, which was quite rotten. They sent up to Sego for another half; but when it arrived, it would not fit the one already sent. I was therefore forced to send Isaaco again to Sego; and as Mansong had requested me by Modibinne to sell him any spare arms I might have, I sent two blunderbusses, two fowling pieces, two pair of pistols, and five unserviceable muskets; requesting in return that Mansong would either send a proper canoe, or permit me to purchase one that I might proceed on my journey. Isaaco returned on the 20th with a large canoe; but half of it was very much decayed and patched, I therefore set about joining the best half to the half formerly sent; and with the assistance of Abraham Bolton (private) took out all the rotten pieces; and repaired all the holes, and sewed places; and with eighteen days hard labour, changed the Bambarra canoe into His Majesty's schooner Joliba; the length forty feet, breadth six feet; being flat bottomed, draws only one foot water when loaded.
October 28th.—At a quarter past five o'clock in the morning my dear friend Mr. Alexander Anderson died after a sickness of four months. I feel much inclined to speak of his merits; but as his worth was known only to a few friends, I will rather cherish his memory in silence, and imitate his cool and steady conduct, than weary my friends with a panegyric in which they cannot be supposed to join. I shall only observe that no event which took place during the journey, ever threw the smallest gloom over my mind, till I laid Mr. Anderson in the grave. I then felt myself, as if left a second time lonely and friendless amidst the wilds of Africa.
November 14th.—The schooner is now nearly ready for our departure; I only wait for Isaaco's return from Sego, that I may give him this paper in charge.
November 15th.—Isaaco returned; and told us that Mansong was anxious that I should depart as soon as possible, before the Moors to the East had intimation of my coming. Bought bullock hides to form an awning to secure us from the spears and arrows of the Surka or Soorka and Mahinga who inhabit the North bank of the river betwixt Jinnie and Tombuctoo.
November 16.—All ready and we sail to-morrow morning, or evening. I will therefore conclude this long epistle with some miscellaneous information.
Variation of the compass.
West of the Faleme river —— —— 14 11 West.
At Badoo, near Sibikillin —— —— 14 56
Near the Bafing —— —— —— 16 30
At Marraboo on the Niger —— —— 16 36
At Yamina —— —— —— —— —— 17 11
At Sansanding —— —— —— —— 17 40
In case any one should be inclined to doubt the accuracy of the latitudes taken by the back observation with Troughton's pocket sextant; I think it proper to mention that I have observed at Sansanding alternately with the horizon of the river, and the back observation in water and the artificial horizon; and never found them to vary more than four minutes, but generally much nearer.
A fac-simile sketch of the course of the Niger, made by an old Somonie, who had been seven times at Tombuctoo, and is now going the eighth.
Ba Nimma rises in the Kong mountains South of Marraboo; it passes one day's journey South of Sego; and having received a branch from Miniana, empties itself into the lake Dibbie. It is not quite half so large as the Niger. I have not the least doubt of the truth of this, having heard it from so many people. We shall not see Jinnie in going to Tombuctoo.
Route from Sego to Miniana.
From Sego in one day,
Deena, across the Ba Nimma in canoes, and halt on the south side; thence in one day, Dahmaroo, Sijirri, Neaguana, Mullo Soo, Billi Soo; In all seven days.
The inhabitants of Miniana eat their enemies, and strangers, if they die in the country. They eat the flesh of horses; but such is their veneration for the cow that she is never killed; when she dies, they eat the flesh. Miniana is hilly; all the grains are cultivated the same as in Bambarra.
Route from Sego to Badoo. From Sego in one day. Koogoo, N. goi, [Footnote: Thus written in Park's MS.] Jeenna, Doo-Wassoo. Choyna, Guandoo on the banks of the Badingfing, a small river from Miniana. Cheraboo, Baboo, Blendoo, Koolokoo, Kay-a, Wangeera, Jibbi, Nemansana, Kooli, Chemosoo, N. jeera, Chekora, Koonteela, Doomba, Chongi, Teng: gera, a great Juli town; a Juli is called in Baedoo, Kirko Bimba; Teeleemagee, Soomasoo, Koorinsoo, Jondoo; Juli town, Sala, N. Kannoo, Juli town.
The whole of the foregoing places are in Bambarra.
Totti, a town in Baedoo. Baedoo, the capital.
The Julis are people who understand the language of Baedoo and Miniana, and are employed as interpreters and brokers by the salt merchants. One month's travel South of Baedoo through the kingdom of Gotto, will bring the traveller to the country of the Christians, who have their houses on the banks of the Ba Sea feena; this water they represent as being imcomparably larger than the lake Dibbie, and that the water sometimes flows one way, sometimes another. There are no Shea trees in Kong or Gotto, and very few in Baedoo.
Sierra Leone, 10th December, 1811._
"With reference to my letter of the 8th of March 1810, communicating having engaged a person to go in search, and ascertain the fate of the late Mr. Mungo Park; I have the honour to communicate to Your Lordship, that this person returned to Senegal on the 1st of September; but I am concerned to state that his information confirms the various reports of Mr. Park's death.
"I have enclosed a copy of the Journal of the person whom I sent, which was kept in Arabic, and has been translated into English by a person resident in Senegal.
"Isaaco has been paid the promised reward, which I hope will be approved by your Lordship.
"I have the honour to be,
"Your Lordship's most obedient
To the Right Honourable The Earl of Liverpool.
I, Isaaco, left Senegal on Sunday, the 22d day of the moon Tabasky; [Footnote: Seventh of January, 1810.] in the afternoon we came to an anchor at the foot of the bar. We passed the bar next morning, and had like to have lost ourselves; we got on board the George. Weighed anchor in the night of the 23d, from the roads, and anchored at Goree the 24th at about 4 P.M. [Footnote: These times of the day are not very exact, being regulated by the Mahometan times of prayer.] On my arrival there, I found some of my effects had been stolen; I signified to the commandant of Goree my intention to postpone my voyage, until my stolen goods were found. The commandant sent me back on board the George, and ordered the vessel to return to Senegal, that I might make there my complaint to Governor Maxwell. We were nine days at sea with heavy weather, and could not fetch; we were obliged to return to Goree on the tenth day.
The commandant next day (Friday) after my arrival, sent a courier to Senegal to the Governor, with the account of my goods being stolen; and on the Friday following the courier brought me my effects. [Footnote: These goods had been stolen in the lighter outside of the bar.] The same day in the afternoon, I left Goree in the George, and arrived in Gambia, the night after at Yoummy. We left Yoummy on the Sunday following, and arrived on Monday at Jilifrey. We left Jilifrey the same day; passed Tancrowaly, in the night, and on Tuesday came opposite a forest. Passed this spot, and came to anchor at Baling. From Baling came to an anchor opposite a forest at four P.M. We got under weigh in the night and came to in the morning. Departed after breakfast, and came to at noon. Departed immediately after, and came to after sunset. Passed Caour in the night, and came to anchor at four A.M. (Thursday). Weighed in the evening and came to Yanimmarou at noon. We left Yanimmarou in the morning of Friday, and came to Mongha. Left the Mongha the same day at sunset, and came to Mariancounda late in the evening, and Robert Ainsley being there, I landed and presented to him the Governor's letter; making in all eight days from Goree to my arrival at Mariancounda.
Robert Ainsley kept me five days with him. He gave me, by the Governor's desire, one horse, one ass, and twenty bars of beads. I left Robert Ainsley on Wednesday morning, and went to the village of the king of Cataba to pay my respects. I had previously sent the same day, my baggage and people, to Giammalocoto. On my arrival before Cataba, I gave him one musket, and one string of amber No. 4. which he distributed to his attendants. In the evening of the same day, I took leave of the king, and arrived at Giammalocoto, after sunset, where I met my people and effects. I left Giammalocoto, on Friday morning, and slept at Tandacounda. I departed next morning (Saturday) and slept at Guenda. On Sunday crossed a rivulet and slept under a tamarind tree close to the village of Sandougoumanna. I sent to Sallatigua-koura, king of that country, five bars of tobacco (ten heads). I went and slept at Woullimanna. I gave to Mansancoije, the chief, two bars of scarlet cloth and two bars of tobacco, and to his son, one bar of scarlet cloth. I also gave to my landlord three bars of tobacco. Departed next day early; stopped at Carropa at noon, and went to Coussage, where we slept. I there found my family, who had been driven away by the Bambarra army. I staid at Coussage two days and gave Maitafodey, chief of the village, three bottles of powder. [Footnote: One bottle of powder passes for five bars.] We left Coussage in the evening, with all my family; arrived at Montogou in the morning, where my family resided before the Bambarra army entered this country. I here found my mother. I staid at Montogou about one month and a half, or forty-six days.
Having disposed of such of my property as I could not carry with me, I left Montogou at about nine A.M. with my family and people, stopped at Moundoundon, having crossed three rivulets; slept there. Mamadou, the chief, killed me a sheep: I gave him one bottle of powder. We departed in the morning, stopped at Couchiar at noon, under a bark-tree, where we passed the rest of the day. We filled our leather bags with water and departed about four P.M. We travelled all night and came to Saabie at three A.M. This village is inhabited by Marabous (priests). We stayed there two days. I found there a relation of one of my wives. I gave him one bottle of powder and three pagnes (a piece of cloth the natives make use of in their dresses). We left Saabie in the morning, stopped at noon at Joumajaoury, and arrived at Tallimangoly. I there met a relation who killed a sheep. I gave him three grains of amber. We slept there. Next morning we departed, and arrived at midnight at Baniscrilla, where I found the King of Bondou with the Bambarra army. I went to pay my respects to him, and gave him ten bottles of powder, thirteen grains of amber No. 1, two grains of coral No. 1, and one handsome tin box. To his first valet one pagne, worth one piece of baft; to his goldsmith four pagnes; to the Chief of the village two bottles of powder. (Ten bars.) Slept there two nights; departed early, so did the army on their way to Gambia. We stopped at noon at Cambaya, being very hungry: we departed in the evening; and slept on the road. At about eight A.M. on the next day, we passed Gnary and Sangnongagy; received at this last village some peas without stopping. We stopped at noon at Dougay. Next morning early we departed, and stopped at noon at Daacada; in the evening we stopped and slept at Bougoldanda. Next day we stopped at noon at Saamcolo. Some singers of the village paid me a visit; I gave them a few trinkets. I had here a grand palaver (dispute) about one of my dogs, who had, as was said, bit a man; with great difficulty I prevented the animal from being killed.
Departed next day early; arrived at noon at Soumbourdaga, and slept there. Next morning at nine A.M. arrived at Debbou; my friend Saloumou gave me two sheep; I gave him two bottles of powder. Saloumou told me he would keep me company to Sego if I pleased; I readily agreed, and gave him ten pagnes to give to his wife to support her until his return. Next morning, Saloumou being ready, we departed from Debbou: we crossed the Faleme, and stopped on the other side at a village also called Debbou. I bought there two sheep and some corn; we staid there three days, and had our corn converted into kouskous. We departed from Debbou early on Monday, the first day of Raky Gamon, [Footnote: May 4, 1810.] and arrived at noon at the village of Diggichoucoumee, the residence of the King of Bondou: we stayed there four days and killed two sheep. I gave to Almami Sega two bottles of powder; bought one sheep. Departed early and went to Sabcouria, where we slept; it is the last village of Bondou to the northward.
Left Sabcouria early, and passed Gouloumbo: we slept on the road. Next morning at nine A. M. we stopt at Dramana, in sight of Saint Joseph, the Fort of Galam; we staid there five days. I was forced to stay there so long, on account of a palaver I had with the family of one of my wives, who opposed her going on the voyage with me: I was divorced, and she had to give me what she had received at our marriage, which is the law among us Mahomedans. I received one bullock and four sheep. I gave the Chief Euchoumana fourteen bars in amber and powder; to the people one bottle and a half of powder, and two bars of amber; to the Chief of Galam two bottles of powder and twenty flints.
We departed early; crossed Choligota [Footnote: The Ch must be pronounced through the throat.] and Taningcholee, two rivulets, and arrived at noon at Moussala; slept there. We were well treated by the Chief. I gave him two flints and thirty loads of powder. Departed very early, and arrived at Tambouncana on the Senegal River. I there saw a Moor who had a very fine mare, which I bought with the goods which were returned to me in my palaver at Dramana. The King of Bambarra built there a large fort. We departed, and arrived at noon at Samicouta; we then went to Guichalel, where we slept at the house of Amady face, Chief of the village. We stopt there the next day, owing to one of my slaves running away, whom I got back again. Early in the morning we crossed the Senegal River at Settoucoule, on the Moors' side. I bought one sheep; slept there, and was well treated.
Departed early; stopt at nine A.M. at Coulou, and slept there; we found there only the women, the men had followed the Bambarra army. Departed early, crossed Cholibinne and arrived at Challimancounna, where I staid two days. Ourigiague, the Chief, received me well, and killed a bullock. I gave him one bottle of powder. We departed long before day-break, crossed Fallaou, stopt at day-break at the Lake of Douro to take water; we went on, and arrived at nine A.M. at Medina. I was obliged to stay there twelve days, to wait the return of one of my fellow travellers; not hearing any thing of him, I sent a man after him, because I had lent him my mare and a musket. The man brought me back my mare and musket. I was there well treated by the Chief and village people, who gave me five sheep. I gave them in return one bottle of powder, and one and a half bars. I bought a sheep. This completed the three moons from my departure from Montogou.
We departed early, and crossed Kirgout, a river full of hippopotami and alligators. At noon arrived at Cougnacary, formerly the metropolis of the kingdom of Casso, but now occupied by Bambarras. Received one sheep, and gave one bottle of powder and five flints. We slept there, and next day early went round and crossed the river Kirgout again. At nine A.M. passed Maretoumane; farther on, passed a large rock called Tap-pa. Arrived at noon at Camatingue, after crossing five rivers; we staid there two days; received a bullock and a sheep from the Seracoolies residing in Casso. I gave to Nare-Moussa, the Chief, half a bottle of powder, and ten grains of amber. One of my slaves was there redeemed, and I received another in exchange. I met there the King of Bambarra's messenger; I gave him half a bottle of powder. We departed early, crossed Garry between two rocks; arrived at noon at Lambatara; slept there. We were all the way surrounded by mountains and rocks. We started early, after taking water for our provisions, and had to ascend high mountains. About noon we arrived at the top of one of them; a part of my people went forward. When on the very top of the hill, they were surrounded and attacked by such a quantity of bees, that my people and beasts of burden were scattered; [Footnote: The bees in those parts of the country are very numerous, especially on the tops of the mountains. A similar accident from the attack of bees is mentioned by Park in his Journal, p. 37. See also Vol. I. p. 331.] when they were a little appeased, we went after our beasts, who had thrown away every thing they had on their backs. I found one of my asses dead, being stifled by the bees getting into its nostrils, and one of my men almost dead by their stings. I had to give him something to bring him to life, and that with a great deal of pains. We slept at the foot of that mountain, under a monkey-bread tree.
Departed early; at nine A.M. we met on the road one of the King of Bambarra's messengers, who was sent after me; we stopped and sat under a tree together; he told me he was sent by his master, to let me know if he met me at Cougnacary, he was ordered to procure me plenty of provisions, and keep me there to rest myself; but as he had met me on the road, and a long way past Cougnacary, he would lead me to the first village, would get me some provisions, and that I might stay there to rest myself; to which I agreed. We passed Goundouguede and arrived at four P.M. at Jyggiting Yalla; on my arrival I told the messenger my intention of sending somebody to the King, to let him know of my being in his dominions, and near him. I then sent Saloumon my friend to Giocha, where the King resided. I told him on his arrival at Giocha, to go to Sabila, the chief of all the King's slaves, and a confident of his, to give him thirteen grains of amber No. 1, one pair of scissars, one snuff-box, and one looking-glass; and tell him I sent him those things as a present, and let him know of my arrival. After this man's departure, I sent another messenger, and desired him to go to Giocha, to endeavour to see my old friend Allasana-Bociara, one of the King of Sego's messengers, who were sent as ambassadors, and tell him that I send him this grain of amber, and that piece [Footnote: One round half dollar.] of silver, as a mark of my being near him, and not to leave Giocha before he saw me. I had learnt his arrival there by a caravan of slaves I met on the road.
After I had sent these two messengers unknown to one another, the King's messenger came in the evening, and told me he was going away, but should give orders to the first village he should come to, to receive me well and give me provisions and all assistance; and that I should wait there for further orders. I then slept there: in the course of the night, the Chief of the village where I was ordered to go and stop for further orders, sent a messenger to his son here, where I was, desiring him to stop me here. Next morning his son came to me, and said it was useless for me to go any farther; that his father had sent to him and desired he would furnish me with whatever I wanted and keep me here. I told him, if I staid where I was, I should die with all my family, of hunger and thirst; and that I would go on where I was ordered, unless I was stopped by force. I immediately got every thing ready and departed.
At noon, we arrived at Maribougou, where I was ordered to stop. Foula Massa, the Chief, sent me to his brother to take up lodgings. When I came to his brother's house I was refused lodgings; I then went under a large monkey-bread tree and made halt there. The Chief came and told me to stay here; I said I could not, as water was very scarce, and my company very numerous. He immediately gave orders that no one in the village should draw water, so that I might not want, and that I should have no excuse. I took that opportunity to give drink to all my people and cattle, and filled my skins. Being ready to depart from thence, the two men I had sent to Giocha from Jyggiting Yalla, arrived; one told me he had seen Sabila, and delivered my message and present to him; that Sabila said, he perceived I wanted to be his friend, to which he had no objection; the other messenger told me, that the King of Sego's ambassador said I might be assured he would not leave Giocha before he saw me, according to my desire.
I had in my caravan a merchant I met at Dramana; he came from Senegal, and had some friends in this village, who sent to tell him to take away his goods from mine and put them aside, as I was in great danger of being plundered, and his goods would be lost to him if found amongst mine; to which he objected; which gave me a proof of his good intentions, and of his friendship to me. I was then convinced something unpleasant was planning against me. I therefore forced this merchant to take away his goods from mine; as it would be unjust he should suffer on my account. I then placed myself and people against the tree, well armed. I had two double-barrelled guns and a musket in good order, and well loaded; and waited for what should happen.
While I was in this state of defence, a messenger from the King came to me, the same man I had met first, who told me, that as I was complaining of want of water, he would conduct me to another village. We accordingly departed, and arrived at Wassaba; when there, the messenger shewed me a house where I was to take up my lodging, and have my things in safety. He then wanted to separate my people from me and scatter them in the village, so as to have a better chance to plunder me; to which I strongly objected. I went with my people, baggage, &c. into the middle of the yard of the house appointed for my lodging, and staid there.
The Chief of the village came to me, and desired I should give him my people to go and fetch me a bullock: the King's messenger took him aside and spoke a little while to him: he came again and told me he could not give me now the bullock, as his cattle were too far off among the King's herd. When the messenger saw me settle in the yard, and disposed to spend the evening there, he left me and went away.
When I was sure of his departure, I sent another man to Giocha, and ordered him to go to Madiguijou Marabou, who would introduce him to Sabila; and when there, to give Sabila seven grains of amber, and tell him to go and let the King know, that wherever I went, I met some of his people who stopped me from one place to another; and my intention was positively to go to him, and to beg Sabila to obtain my request. My courier came back the next day, and told me that Sabila said, the King, his master's pleasure was, that I should stay where I was, and come to see him (the King) on the next day, with which I complied.
Next day the King sent a messenger to me with orders to lead me to him. I left my family and baggage, taking three horsemen of my people with me and four footmen, and departed with the messenger. I had, previous to that, sent a man before me with five grains of the largest amber No. 1. with orders to wait at Giocha for me. We arrived at the back of the village at three P.M. on Tuesday; the man I had sent before me, was there waiting for me; he told me softly that where I was going we were betrayed; and not to let the King know of my going to Sego, as our lives depended upon it. I told him, that he well knew, I was sent by the Governor of Senegal to Sego; and to Sego I must go, unless I was prevented by death or force. I then entered the village and went straight to the King's door, followed by his messenger, I there alighted; the messenger made me wait at the door, and went in to take the King's orders. He came back immediately and told me the King was sleeping; the guard took possession of my people and me, and lodged us in the guard-room with them. It was then about sunset, and not a single soul of my friends and acquaintances or relations came to see me. I then began to think seriously what was to be done. A griot [Footnote: Ballad singer and dancer.] woman was the only person who came to comfort me in my distress.
This woman on leaving me went immediately to the ambassadors of Sego (which I afterwards learnt), and said to them, "Oh me, oh me, my back is broke." [Footnote: An expression of sorrow among the cassonkes.] The ambassadors asked her the reason; she said, "Because Isaaco our friend is here, and they are going to kill him." Sabila being a very powerful man, and not hearing from him, I sent my boy to Madiguijou; and begged he would introduce the boy to Sabila, and when there, to give him the five grains of amber. Not being well guarded, I sent another man to my landlord where I always resided when I passed in this village, with my compliments, and my surprise at not seeing him since my arrival. He sent me word that he was happy to hear of my being so near him and in good health, and that nobody had given him any notice of my arrival: which last words I attributed to his being afraid to meddle with me while in the King's hands. I sent in the night the merchant who was advised to draw his goods from mine at Maribougou, to the Sego ambassadors; and informed them of my being here.
Seeing the guards' carelessness, I went (still in the night) to my landlord, who had still some influence near the king, and gave him one of my wives necklaces, nine grains of amber, and seven grains of coral. From thence I went to Madiguijou, and told him I was sent on a mission to the King of Sego, with some papers; in order to facilitate me on my voyage in search of a white man gone in the interior of this country long ago. I went from there to Sabila and told him the same thing. Afterwards I went back to the guard-house, and laid myself down to sleep; while the guards were amusing themselves in dancing, singing, and drinking. My slumber being disturbed by my uneasy mind, I awoke and found all the guards gone.
I went to take the air, and returned again to sleep, but could not. I heard the feet of several horsemen in the street, going, I presumed, to Sabila's house. Early in the morning I sent another message to the ambassadors, to let them know how critically I was situated; that I heard they were going away to Sego without me; and my uneasiness at not hearing a word from them. They sent to ask me why I did not follow this time the same road I had followed on my other voyage. I sent back the man to let them know as the two kingdoms were at peace, I thought it secure and safe to travel through this part; that Mungo Park had promised King Mansong a present; and Mungo Park not returning, the Governor of Senegal had entrusted this same present to me for Mansong, and that I was now the bearer of it. However, since they were determined to go without me, they might do so, and whether I should be released or die; they should hear it soon enough at Sego. They sent to Tiguing-Coroba [Footnote: Vulgarly Tiguing-coro.] (the King) a message saying; We have heard that Isaaco our friend is at Giocha, bearer of a present to Dacha (King of Sego) which Mr. Park had promised to Mansong (Dacha's father); that Mr. Park not returning in time to his country, his friends had appointed Isaaco to be the bearer of that present, which is with him now, and is destined for Sego, to the King our master. In case Isaaco wishes to go back, we beg you will not let him do so; but if he wishes to go on, on his mission to Sego, we also beg and hope you will give him all assistance, and some trusty persons to conduct him to Sego. [Footnote: This equivocal invitation was given to the King, who well knew that the King of Sego was more powerful than him; and if he should injure Isaaco in any manner, he would be driven from his dominions.]
Then came Massatan Wague, a Marabou, who told me what I have above related, and how I had been arrested with an intention to destroy me, and take what I had; that Sibila had been the means of my escaping such danger, and had saved my life; to which story I gave little credit, knowing well the reason why they shewed me such mercy; but I thanked God alone for my preservation. Massatan Wague advised me to give the King's only son something. I went to that prince, and gave him half a piece of white baft, and two grains of amber No. 1. I went back to the guard-house, where I passed the following night.
Next morning my landlord went to the King to beg (as every thing was settled and appeared favourable on my side) that he might take me to his lodging; to which the King consented. He immediately came and took me away to his house with my people. I went with my land-lord (Tong-Manchong) and my people to the King: on arriving, after the usual salutations, I presented him with a fine tin box. The King addressed Sabila, and said with a nod, "Here is the business." Sabila said, "This man is our old friend, and is a good man." My landlord said the same. The King turned to me and said, "No; here is your box and keep it; what else you have brought in my country I shall keep; you may return to the place you first started from, and travel on your mission by the same road you travelled first, with the white men; but your goods, and every thing else you have with you, I shall keep. I know what you have is destined to the King of Sego." I said, "I might, it is true, have traveiled by other roads, and you would never have heard of me; but in my way, I heard you lived in peace and friendship with the King of Sego; I therefore thought I might with security travel through your country." He stopped me, saying, "What I have said to you is enough."
I left the house with part of his slaves. I went to my lodging, and immediately completed the amount of sixty bars in powder, amber, &c. I took the horse Robert Ainsley had bought for me, three ducks, and the tin box he refused. I gathered all these things, and went with my landlord and offered them as presents to the King, which he accepted: in his presence I gave Sabila one bottle of powder; to the King's singer one snuff-box. The King, on seeing these presents, (the only thing to cool his anger) told me he would lend me somebody who would conduct me straight to Sego. I said, "I could not go so soon; because if I did, whoever would see me would think I deserted from him; and I therefore thought proper to stay where I was and rest myself awhile." The King said to Sabila, "You see Isaaco appears to be a courageous man; if he had been of a weak-spirited mind, he would have run away, and left his things in my hands." I went home, and spent the rest of the day and the night.
In the morning I departed with my people to Wassaba, to fetch my family and things; I staid there two days; but being uneasy in my mind, and being afraid of something planning against me, and as I had good reason to think so by the few words I heard at different times, I went back to Giocha, presented myself to the King; and told him that before I left his dominions, I had thought proper to come and swear fidelity and friendship to him; and that whenever I should go backwards or forwards from Senegal to Sego, I should always pass through his country and see him; but that I should wish also at the same time that he would swear to protect and treat me well, and be my friend; even should he be at war with the King of Sego. He sent for Chiaman, the eldest son of the royal family, who swore the same to me in his and the King's name. I likewise swore before them what I related above. After swearing, Chiaman told me to give him a handsome gun or a coussabi (shirt) by way of cementing our oaths. I told him, I had none at present fit to present to him, but gave him my word, that if I should go back to the white men's country, on my return I would bring him one of those two objects.