"During the year , the Information Division [of CED] distributed 42 pamphlets having a total circulation of 545,585; issued 37 press releases and texts of statements; arranged 4 press conferences, 10 radio and television appearances, 12 speeches for Trustees, 3 magazine articles and the publication of 3 books.... In assessing the year, we are reminded again of the great debt we owe the nation's editors. Their regard for the objectivity and non-partisanship of CED's work is reflected in the exceptional attention they give to what CED has to say. The [CED] statement, 'Toward a Realistic Farm Policy,' for example not only received extended news treatment but was the subject of 362 editorials. The circulation represented in the editorials alone totaled 19,336,299."
Mr. Cowles was modest. He gave only a hint of the total extent to which the mass-communication media have become a controlled propaganda network for the Council on Foreign Relations and its inter-connecting agencies.
I doubt that anyone really knows the full extent. My research reveals a few of the CFR members who have (or have had) controlling, or extremely influential, positions in the publishing and broadcasting industries. My list of CFR members in this field is far from complete; and I have not tried to compile a list of the thousands of people who are not members of the CFR, but who are members of CED, FPA, or of some other CFR affiliate—and who also control important channels of public communications.
Hence, the following list—of Council on Foreign Relations members whom I know to be influential in the communications industries—is intended to be indicative, rather than comprehensive and informative:
Herbert Agar (former Editor, Louisville Courier-Journal)
Hanson W. Baldwin (Military Affairs Editor, New York Times)
Joseph Barnes (Editor-in-Chief, Simon & Schuster, Publishers)
Elliott V. Bell (Chairman of Executive Committee, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.; Publisher and Editor of Business Week)
John Mason Brown (Editor, Saturday Review of Literature, drama critic, author)
Cass Canfield (Chairman of the Editorial Board of Harper & Brothers, Publishers)
Marquis Childs (author, syndicated columnist)
Norman Cousins (Editor-in-Chief, Saturday Review of Literature)
Gardner Cowles, quoted above from the 1957 CED Annual Report, and John Cowles (They occupy controlling offices in Cowles Magazine Company, which owns such publications as Look, Minneapolis Star and Tribune, and Des Moines Register and Tribune, and which also owns a broadcasting company.)
Mark Ethridge (Publisher, Louisville Courier-Journal, Louisville Times)
George Gallup (public opinion analyst, Gallup Poll; President, National Municipal League)
Philip Graham (Publisher, Washington Post and Times Herald)
Allen Grover (Vice President of Time, Inc.)
Joseph C. Harsch (of The Christian Science Monitor)
August Heckscher (Editor, New York Herald Tribune)
Palmer Hoyt (Publisher, Denver Post)
David Lawrence (President and Editor-in-Chief, U. S. News and World Report)
Hal Lehrman (Editor, New York Post)
Irving Levine (NBC news official and commentator)
Walter Lippmann (author, syndicated columnist)
Henry R. Luce (Publisher, Time, Life, Fortune, Sports Illustrated)
Malcolm Muir (Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief, Newsweek)
William S. Paley (Chairman of the Board, Columbia Broadcasting System)
Ogden Reid (former Chairman of the Board, New York Herald Tribune)
Whitelaw Reid (former Editor-in-Chief, New York Herald Tribune)
James B. Reston (Editorial writer, New York Times)
Elmo Roper (public opinion analyst, Roper Poll)
David Sarnoff (Chairman of the Board, Radio Corporation of America—NBC, RCA Victor, etc.)
Harry Scherman (founder and Chairman of the Board, Book-of-the-Month Club)
William L. Shirer (author, news commentator)
Paul C. Smith (President and Editor-in-Chief, Crowell-Collier Publishing Company)
Leland Stone (head of News Reporting for Radio Free Europe, Chicago Daily News foreign correspondent)
Robert Kenneth Straus (former research director for F. D. Roosevelt's Council of Economic Advisers; owner and publisher of the San Fernando, California, Sun; largest stockholder and member of Board of Orange Coast Publishing Company, which publishes the Daily Globe-Herald of Costa Mesa, the Pilot and other small newspapers in California; member of group which owns and publishes American Heritage and Horizon magazines; Treasurer and Director of Industrial Publishing Company of Cleveland, which publishes trade magazines)
Arthur Hayes Sulzberger (Chairman of the Board, New York Times)
C. L. Sulzberger (Editorial writer, New York Times)
I do not mean to imply that all of these people are controlled by the Council on Foreign Relations, or that they uniformly support the total program of international socialism which the Council wants. The Council does not own its members: it merely has varying degrees of influence on each.
For example, former President Herbert Hoover, a member of the Council, has fought eloquently against many basic policies which the Council supports. Spruille Braden is another.
Mr. Braden formerly held several important ambassadorial posts and at one time was Assistant Secretary of State in charge of American Republic Affairs. In recent years, Mr. Braden has given leadership to many patriotic organizations and efforts, such as For America and The John Birch Society; and, in testimony before various committees of Congress, he has given much valuable information about communist influences in the State Department.
Mr. Braden joined the Council on Foreign Relations in the late 1920's or early 30's, when membership in the Council was a fashionable badge of respectability, helpful to the careers of young men in the foreign service, in the same way that membership in expensive country clubs and similar organizations is considered helpful to the careers of young business executives.
Men who know Braden well say that he stayed in the Council after he came to realize its responsibility for the policies of disaster which our nation has followed in the postwar era—hoping to exert some pro-American influence inside the Council.
It apparently was a frustrated hope. There is a story in well-informed New York circles about the last time the Council on Foreign Relations ever called on Spruille Braden to participate in an important activity. Braden was asked to preside over a Council on Foreign Relations meeting when the featured speaker was Herbert Matthews (member of the New York Times editorial board) whose support of communist Castro in Cuba is notorious. It is said that the anti-communist viewpoint which Braden tried to inject into this meeting will rather well guarantee against his ever being asked to officiate at another CFR affair.
Generally, however, the degree of influence which the CFR exerts upon its own members is very high indeed.
* * * * *
Apart from an occasional article or editorial which criticizes some aspect of, or some leader in, the socialist revolution in America; and despite much rhetoric in praise of "free enterprise" and "the American way," such publications as Time, Life, Fortune, New York Times, New York Post, Louisville Courier-Journal, Washington Post and Times Herald, Saturday Review of Literature, the Denver Post, The Christian Science Monitor and Look (I name only those, in the list above, which I, personally, have read a great deal.) have not one time in the past 15 years spoken editorially against any fundamentally important aspect of the over-all governmental policies which are dragging this nation into socialism and world government—at least, not to my knowledge.
On the contrary, these publications heartily support those policies, criticizing them, if at all, only about some detail—or for being too timid, small and slow!
In contrast, David Lawrence, of U. S. News & World Report, publishes fine, objective news-reporting, often featuring articles which factually expose the costly fallacies of governmental policy. This is especially true of U. S. News & World Report in connection with domestic issues. On matters of foreign policy, David Lawrence often goes down the line for the internationalist policy—being convinced (as all internationalists seem to be) that this is the only policy possible for America in the "shrunken world" of the twentieth century.
An intelligent man like David Lawrence—who must see the endless and unbroken chain of disasters which the internationalist foreign policy has brought to America; and who is thoroughly familiar with the proven record of marvelous success which our traditional policy of benign neutrality and no-permanent-involvement enjoyed: how can he still feel that we are nonetheless inescapably bound to follow the policy of disaster? I wish I knew.
Members of Congress are not unaware of the far-reaching power of the tax-exempt private organization—the CFR; but the power of the Council is somewhat indicated by the fact that no committee of Congress has yet been powerful enough to investigate it or the foundations with which it has interlocking connections and from which it receives its support.
On August 1, 1951, Congressman E. E. Cox (Democrat, Georgia) introduced a resolution in the House asking for a Committee to conduct a thorough investigation of tax-exempt foundations. Congressman Cox said that some of the great foundations,
"had operated in the field of social reform and international relations (and) many have brought down on themselves harsh and just condemnation."
He named the Rockefeller Foundation,
"whose funds have been used to finance individuals and organizations whose business it has been to get communism into the private and public schools of the country, to talk down America and to play up Russia."
He cited the Guggenheim Foundation, whose money,
"was used to spread radicalism throughout the country to an extent not excelled by any other foundation."
He listed the Carnegie Corporation, The Rosenwald Fund, and other foundations, saying:
"There are disquieting evidences that at least a few of the foundations have permitted themselves to be infiltrated by men and women who are disloyal to our American way of life. They should be investigated and exposed to the pitiless light of publicity, and appropriate legislation should be framed to correct the present situation."
Congressman Cox's resolution, proposing an investigation of foundations, died in Committee.
* * * * *
On March 10, 1952, Cox introduced the same resolution again. Because he had mentioned foundation support for Langston Hughes, a Negro communist, Congressman Cox was accused of racial prejudice. Because he had criticized the Rosenwald Fund for making grants to known communists, he was called anti-semitic. But the Cox resolution was adopted in 1952; and the Cox committee to investigate tax-exempt foundations was set up.
Congressman Cox died before the end of the year; and the final report of his committee (filed January 1, 1953) was a pathetic whitewash of the whole subject.
A Republican-controlled Congress (the 83rd) came into existence in January, 1953.
* * * * *
On April 23, 1953, the late Congressman Carroll Reece, (Republican, Tennessee) introduced a resolution proposing a committee to carry on the "unfinished business" of the defunct Cox Committee. The new committee to investigate tax-exempt foundations (popularly known as the Reece Committee) was approved by Congress on July 27, 1953. It went out of existence on January 3, 1955, having proven, mainly, that the mammoth tax-exempt foundations have such power in the White House, in Congress, and in the press that they are quite beyond the reach of a mere committee of the Congress of the United States.
If you want to read this whole incredible (and rather terrifying) story, I suggest Foundations, a book written by Rene A. Wormser who was general counsel to the Reece Committee. His book was published in 1958 by The Devin-Adair Company.
In the final report on Tax-Exempt Foundations, which the late Congressman Reece made for his ill-fated Special Committee (Report published December 16, 1954, by the Government Printing Office), Mr. Reece said:
"Miss Casey's report (Hearings pp. 877, et seq.) shows clearly the interlock between The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and some of its associated organizations, such as the Council on Foreign Relations and other foundations, with the State Department. Indeed, these foundations and organizations would not dream of denying this interlock. They proudly note it in reports. They have undertaken vital research projects for the Department; virtually created minor departments or groups within the Department for it; supplied advisors and executives from their ranks; fed a constant stream of personnel into the State Department trained by themselves or under programs which they have financed; and have had much to do with the formulation of foreign policy both in principle and detail.
"They have, to a marked degree, acted as direct agents of the State Department. And they have engaged actively, and with the expenditure of enormous sums, in propagandizing ('educating'?) public opinion in support of the policies which they have helped to formulate....
"What we see here is a number of large foundations, primarily The Rockefeller Foundation, The Carnegie Corporation of New York, and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, using their enormous public funds to finance a one-sided approach to foreign policy and to promote it actively, among the public by propaganda, and in the Government through infiltration. The power to do this comes out of the power of the vast funds employed."
Mr. Reece listed The Council on Foreign Relations, The Institute of International Education, The Foreign Policy Association, and The Institute of Pacific Relations, as among the interlocking organizations which are "agencies of these foundations," and pointed out that research and propaganda which does not support the "globalism" (or internationalism) to which all of these agencies are dedicated, receive little support from the tax-exempt foundations.
I disagree with Mr. Reece here, only in the placing of emphasis. As I see it, the foundations (which do finance the vast, complex, and powerful interlock of organizations devoted to a socialist one-world system) have, nonetheless, become the "agencies" of the principal organization which they finance—the Council on Foreign Relations.
* * * * *
The Reece Committee investigation threw some revealing light on the historical blackout which the Council on Foreign Relations has ordered and conducted.
Men who run the Council do not want the policies and measures of Franklin D. Roosevelt to undergo the critical analysis and objective study which exposed the policies of Woodrow Wilson after World War I. The Council has decided that the official propaganda of World War II must be perpetuated as history and the public protected from learning the truth. Hence, the Council sponsors historical works which give the socialist-internationalist version of historical events prior to and during World War II, while ignoring, or debunking, revisionist studies which attempt to tell the truth.
Here is how all of this is put in the 1946 Annual Report of the Rockefeller Foundation:
"The Committee on Studies of the Council on Foreign Relations is concerned that the debunking journalistic campaign following World War I should not be repeated and believes that the American public deserves a clear competent statement of our basic aims and activities during the second World War."
In 1946, the Rockefeller Foundation allotted $139,000 to the cost of a two-volume history of World War II, written by William L. Langer, a member of the CFR, and S. Everett Gleason. The generous grant was supplemented by a gift of $10,000 from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. The Langer-Gleason work was published by Harper and Brothers for the Council on Foreign Relations: Volume I in 1952 under the title, The Challenge To Isolationism, 1937-1940; Volume II in 1953, under the title, The Undeclared War.
The CFR's stated purpose in bringing out this work was to head off the revisionist historians like Charles Callan Tansill, Harry Elmer Barnes, Frederic R. Sanborn, George Morgenstern, Frances Neilson. The truth, however, is not easy to suppress. Though written by and for the CFR, to perpetuate that organization's version of history, the Langer-Gleason volumes contain a wealth of information which helps to prove the basic thesis of this present volume.
* * * * *
One thing that the ill-fated Reece Committee found out in 1953-55, when trying to investigate the foundations, is that the tax-exempt organizations are set up, not for the purpose of doing some good in our society, but for the purpose of avoiding the income tax.
Rene A. Wormser, in Foundation says:
"The chief motivation in the creation of foundations has long ceased to be pure philanthropy—it is now predominantly tax avoidance.... The increasing tax burden on income and estates has greatly accelerated a trend toward creation of foundations as instruments for the retention of control over capital assets that would otherwise be lost....
"The creation of a new foundation very often serves the purpose of contributing to a favorable public opinion for the person or corporation that endows it...."
The tax-exempt organizations have a vested interest in the oppressive, inequitable, and wasteful federal-income-tax system. Tax experts have devised, for example, a complicated scheme by which a wealthy man can actually save money by giving to tax-exempt organizations.
In short, many of the great philanthropies which buy fame and respectability for wealthy individuals, or corporations, are tax-avoidance schemes which, every year, add billions to the billions of private capital which is thus sterilized. These accumulations of tax-exempt billions place a heavier burden on taxpayers. Removing billions from taxation, the tax-exempt organizations thus obviously make taxpayers pay more in order to produce all that government demands.
* * * * *
The big tax-exempt organizations use their tax-exempt billions to buy prestige and power for themselves, and to bludgeon some critics into silence. For example, the Ford Foundation established the Fund for the Republic with a 15 million dollar grant in 1952—at a time when public awareness of the communist danger was seeping into the thinking of enough Americans to create a powerful anti-communist movement in this country.
By late 1955, the Fund's activities (publicly granting awards to fifth-amendment communists and so on) had become so blatant that public indignation was rising significantly. Just at the right time, the Ford Foundation announced a gift of 500 million dollars to the colleges of America.
Newspapers—also beholden in many ways to the big foundations—which will not publish news about the foundations' anti-American activities, give banner headlines to the lavish benefactions for purposes universally believed to be good.
Where will you find a college administration that will not defend the Ford Foundation against all critics—if the college has just received, or is in line to receive, a million-dollar gift from the Foundation?
How far must you search to find college professors or school teachers who will not defend the Foundation which gives 25 million dollars at one time, to raise the salaries of professors or school teachers?
Where will you find a plain John Doe citizen who is not favorably impressed that the hospitals and colleges in his community have received a multi-million dollar gift from a big foundation?
Every significant movement to destroy the American way of life has been directed and financed, in whole or in part, by tax-exempt organizations, which are entrenched in public opinion as benefactors of our society.
Worst of all: this tremendous power and prestige are in the hands of what Rene Wormser calls a special elite—a group of eggheads like Robert Hutchins (or worse) who neither understand nor respect the profit-motivated economic principles and the great political ideal of individual-freedom-under-limited-government which made our nation great.
Overlapping of personnel clearly shows a tight interlock between the Council on Foreign Relations and the big foundations.
The following information, concerning assets and officers of foundations, all comes from The Foundation Directory, prepared by The Foundation Library Center and published by the Russell Sage Foundation, New York City, 1960.
FORD FOUNDATION: Assets totaling $3,316,000,000.00 (3 billion, 316 million) on September 30, 1959. The Trustees of the Ford Foundation are: Eugene R. Black (CFR); James B. Black; James F. Brownlee; John Cowles (CFR); Donald K. David (CFR); Mark F. Ethridge (CFR); Benson Ford; Henry Ford II; H. Rowan Gaither, Jr. (CFR); Laurence M. Gould (CFR); Henry T. Heald (CFR); Roy E. Larsen; John J. McCloy (CFR); Julius A. Stratton (CFR); Charles E. Wyzanski, Jr. (CFR).
Note that of the 15 members of the Board of Trustees, 10 are members of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR).
FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, Santa Barbara, California, a subsidiary of Ford, had assets totaling $6,667,022.00 on September 30, 1957. Officers and directors: Robert Hutchins; Paul G. Hoffman (CFR); Elmo Roper (CFR); George N. Shuster (CFR); Harry S. Ashmore; Bruce Catton; Charles W. Cole (CFR); Arthur J. Goldberg; William H. Joyce, Jr.; Meyer Kestnbaum (CFR); Msgr. Francis Lally; Herbert H. Lehman (CFR); M. Albert Linton; J. Howard Marshall; Jubal R. Parten; Alicia Patterson; Mrs. Eleanor B. Stevenson; Henry P. Van Dusen (CFR).
Note that 7 of the 18 are CFR members.
ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION, 111 West 50th Street, New York 20, New York, had assets totaling $647,694,858.00 on December 31, 1958. Officers and Trustees: John D. Rockefeller 3rd (CFR); Dean Rusk (CFR); Barry Bingham; Chester Bowles (CFR); Lloyd D. Brace; Richard Bradfield (CFR); Detlev W. Bronk (CFR); Ralph J. Bunche (CFR); John S. Dickey (CFR); Lewis W. Douglas (CFR); Lee A. DuBridge; Wallace K. Harrison; Arthur A. Houghton, Jr. (CFR); John R. Kimberly (CFR); Robert F. Loeb; Robert A. Lovett (CFR); Benjamin M. McKelway; Henry Allen Moe; Henry P. Van Dusen (CFR); W. Barry Wood, Jr.
Of the 20, 12 are CFR members.
ROCKEFELLER BROTHERS FUND, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, New York, had assets totaling $53,174,210.00 on December 31, 1958. Officers and Trustees: Laurence S. Rockefeller; David Rockefeller (CFR); Detlev W. Bronk (CFR); Wallace K. Harrison; Abby Rockefeller Mauze; Abby M. O'Neill; John D. Rockefeller 3rd (CFR); Nelson A. Rockefeller (CFR); Winthrop Rockefeller.
Of the 9, 4 are CFR members.
CARNEGIE CORPORATION OF NEW YORK, 589 Fifth Avenue, New York 17, New York, had assets totaling $261,244,471.00 on September 30, 1959. Officers and Trustees: John W. Gardner (CFR); Morris Hadley; James A. Perkins (CFR); Robert F. Bacher; Caryl P. Haskins (CFR); C. D. Jackson (CFR); Devereux C. Josephs (CFR); Nicholas Kelley (CFR); Malcolm A. MacIntyre (CFR); Margaret Carnegie Miller; Frederick Osborn (CFR); Gwilym A. Price; Elihu Root, Jr. (CFR); Frederick Sheffield; Charles Spofford (CFR); Charles Allen Thomas.
Of the 16, 10 are CFR members.
CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACE, United Nations Plaza & 46th Street, New York 17, New York, had a net worth of $22,577,134.00 on June 30, 1958. Officers and Trustees: Joseph E. Johnson (CFR); Whitney North Seymour (CFR); O. Frederick Nolde; Lawrence S. Finkelstein (CFR); Arthur K. Watson (CFR); James M. Nicely (CFR); Dillon Anderson (CFR); Charles E. Beard; Robert Blum (CFR); Harvey H. Bundy (CFR); David L. Cole; Frederick S. Dunn (CFR); Arthur J. Goldberg; Ernest A. Gross (CFR); Philip C. Jessup (CFR); Milton Katz (CFR); Grayson L. Kirk (CFR); Mrs. Clare Boothe Luce; Charles A. Meyer (CFR); Otto L. Nelson, Jr.; Ellmore C. Patterson (CFR); Howard C. Petersen (CFR); Howard P. Robertson; David Rockefeller (CFR); W. J. Schieffelin, Jr.; George N. Shuster (CFR).
Of the 26, 18 are CFR members.
CARNEGIE FOUNDATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF TEACHING, had assets totaling $20,043,859.00 on June 30, 1959. Officers and Trustees: Carter Davidson (CFR); John W. Gardner (CFR); James A. Perkins (CFR); William F. Houston; Harvie Branscomb; Arthur H. Dean (CFR); Robert F. Goheen (CFR); Laurence M. Gould (CFR); A. Whitney Griswold (CFR); Rufus C. Harris; Frederick L. Hovde (CFR); Clark Kerr; Lawrence A. Kimpton; Grayson L. Kirk (CFR); Thomas S. Lamont (CFR); Robert A. Lovett (CFR); Howard F. Lowry; N. A. M. MacKenzie; Katharine E. McBride; Millicent C. McIntosh; John S. Millis (CFR); Franklin D. Murphy (CFR); Nathan M. Pusey (CFR); Herman B. Wells (CFR); Logan Wilson; O. Meredith Wilson.
Of the 26, 15 are CFR members.
CARNEGIE INSTITUTE OF WASHINGTON, 1530 "P" Street, N.W., Washington 5, D. C., had assets totaling $80,838,528.00 on June 30, 1958. Officers and Trustees: Caryl P. Haskins (CFR); Walter S. Gifford (CFR); Barklie McKee Henry; Robert Woods Bliss (CFR); James F. Bell; General Omar N. Bradley; Vannevar Bush; Crawford H. Greenewalt; Alfred L. Loomis (CFR); Robert A. Lovett (CFR); Keith S. McHugh; Margaret Carnegie Miller; Henry S. Morgan (CFR); Seeley G. Mudd; William I. Myers; Henning W. Prentis, Jr.; Elihu Root, Jr. (CFR); Henry R. Shepley; Charles P. Taft; Juan Terry Trippe (CFR); James N. White; Robert E. Wilson.
Of the 22, 8 are CFR members.
ALFRED P. SLOAN FOUNDATION, 630 Fifth Avenue, New York 20, New York, had assets totaling $175,533,110.00 on December 31, 1958. Officers and Trustees: Albert Bradley (CFR); Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. (CFR); Raymond P. Sloan; Arnold J. Zurcher (CFR); Frank W. Abrams; Henry C. Alexander (CFR); Walter S. Carpenter, Jr. (CFR); General Lucius D. Clay (CFR); John L. Collyer (CFR); Lewis W. Douglas (CFR); Frank A. Howard; Devereux C. Josephs (CFR); Mervin J. Kelly (CFR); James R. Killian, Jr. (CFR); Laurence S. Rockefeller; George Whitney (CFR).
Of the 16, 12 are CFR members.
THE COMMONWEALTH FUND OF NEW YORK, 5500 Maspeth Avenue, New York 78, New York, had assets totaling $119,904,614.00 on June 30, 1959. Officers and Trustees: Malcolm P. Aldrich; John A. Gifford; Leo D. Welch (CFR); George P. Berry; Roger M. Blough (CFR); Harry P. Davison (CFR); Harold B. Hoskins; J. Quigg Newton (CFR); William E. Stevenson (CFR); Henry C. Taylor.
Of the 10, 6 are CFR members.
TWENTIETH CENTURY FUND, INC., 41 East 70th Street, New York 3, New York, had assets totaling $17,522,441.00 on December 31, 1958. Officers and Trustees: Adolf A. Berle, Jr. (CFR); Francis Biddle (CFR); August Heckscher (CFR); Hans Christian Sonne (CFR); Morris B. Abram; Arthur F. Burns (CFR); Erwin D. Canham (CFR); Evans Clark (CFR); Benjamin V. Cohen (CFR); Wallace K. Harrison (CFR); David E. Lilienthal (CFR); Robert S. Lynd; James G. McDonald (CFR); J. Robert Oppenheimer (CFR); Edmund Orgill; James H. Rowe, Jr.; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (CFR); Herman W. Steinkraus; Charles P. Taft; W. W. Waymack.
Of the 20, 13 are CFR members.
WHY? WHAT CAN WE DO?
Claiming to believe in the high destiny of America as a world-leader, our invisible government urges timid policies of appeasement and surrender which make America a world whipping-boy rather than a world leader. Claiming to believe in the dignity and worth of the human individual, the modern liberals who run our invisible government urge an ever-growing welfare-state which is destroying individualism—which has already so weakened the American sense of personal responsibility that crime rates have increased 98 percent in our land during the past ten years.
Why? Why do prominent Americans support programs which are so harmful? It is a difficult question to answer.
* * * * *
Somewhere at the top of the pyramid in the invisible government are a few sinister people who know exactly what they are doing: they want America to become part of a worldwide socialist dictatorship, under the control of the Kremlin.
* * * * *
Some may actually dislike communists, but feel that one-world socialism is desirable and inevitable. They are working with a sense of urgency for a "benign" world socialist dictatorship to forestall the Kremlin from imposing its brand of world dictatorship by force.
* * * * *
Some leaders in the invisible government are brilliant and power-hungry men who feel that the masses are unable to govern themselves and who want to set up a great dictatorship which will give them power to arrange things for the masses.
The leadership of the invisible government doubtless rests in the hands of a sinister or power-hungry few; but its real strength is in the thousands of Americans who have been drawn into the web for other reasons. Many, if not most, of these are status-seekers.
* * * * *
When you are a rising junior executive, or a man of any age looking for good business and social connections, it seems good to go to a luncheon where you can sit at the head table and call leaders of the community by their first names. Most of the propaganda agencies affiliated with the Council on Foreign Relations provide such opportunities for members.
A businessman enjoys coming home from a black-tie affair in New York or Washington where he and a few other "chosen" men have been given a "confidential, off-the-record briefing" by some high governmental official. The Council on Foreign Relations provides such experiences for officials of companies which contribute money to the CFR.
This status-seeking is a way of life for thousands of American businessmen. Some of them would not give it up even if they knew their activities were supporting the socialist revolution, although at heart they are opposed to socialism. Most of them, however, would withdraw from the Foreign Policy Association, and the World Affairs Councils, and the Committee for Economic Development, and the American Association for the UN, and the National Conference of Christians and Jews, and the Advertising Council, and similar organizations, if they were educated to an understanding of what their membership in such organizations really means.
The job of every American who knows and cares is to make sure that all of the people in the invisible government network know exactly what they are doing.
* * * * *
But beyond that, what can we do? What can we Americans do about the Council on Foreign Relations and its countless tentacles of power and money and influence and propaganda which are wrapped around all the levers of political power in Washington; which reach into the schools and churches and respected civic organizations of America; which control major media of communications; which are insinuated into controlling positions in the big unions; and which even have a grip on the prestige and money of major American corporations?
It is often suggested that investigation by the FBI might be the answer.
For example, after the March-April Term (1960) Grand Jury in Fulton County, Georgia, condemned Foreign Policy Association literature as "insidious and subversive" and the American Legion Post published The Truth About The Foreign Policy Association to document the Grand Jury's findings (see Chapter V), supporters of the Foreign Policy Association denounced the legionnaires, saying, in effect, that if there were a need to investigate the FPA, the investigation should be done in proper, legal manner by trained FBI professionals and not by "vigilantes" and "amateurs" and "bigoted ignoramuses" on some committee of an American Legion Post.
This is an effective propaganda technique. It gives many the idea that the organization under criticism has nothing to hide and is willing to have all its activities thoroughly investigated, if the investigation is conducted properly and decently.
* * * * *
But the fact is that the FBI has no jurisdiction to investigate the kind of activities engaged in by the Foreign Policy Association and its related and affiliated organizations. The Foreign Policy Association is not a communist organization. If it were, it could be handled easily. The Attorney General and the committees of Congress could simply post it as a communist organization. Then, it would receive support only from people who are conscious instruments of the communist conspiracy; and there are not, relatively, very many of those in the United States.
The FPA's Councils on World Affairs are supported by patriotic community leaders. Yet, these Councils have done more than all communists have ever managed to do, in brainwashing the American people with propaganda for governmental intervention in the economic affairs of the people, and for endless permanent entanglement in the affairs of foreign nations—thus preparing this nation for submergence in a one-world socialist system, which is the objective of communism.
* * * * *
Inasmuch as the invisible government is composed of organizations which enjoy the special privilege of federal tax-exemption (a privilege seldom given to organizations advocating return to traditional American policies) it is often suggested that public pressures might persuade the Treasury Department to withdraw the tax-exempt privilege from these organizations.
How could the Treasury Department ever be persuaded to take action against the Council on Foreign Relations, when the Council controls the Department? Douglas Dillon, Secretary of the Treasury, is a member of the CFR.
It is impractical to think of getting Treasury Department action against the CFR. Moreover, such a solution to the problem could be dangerous.
A governmental agency which has limitless power to withdraw special tax-privileges must also have limitless power to grant special privileges. The Treasury Department could destroy all of the organizations composing the invisible government interlock by the simple action of withdrawing the tax-exempt privilege, thus drying up major sources of revenue. But the Treasury Department could then create another Frankenstein monster by giving tax-exemption to other organizations.
It is often suggested that some congressional committee investigate the Council on Foreign Relations and the network of organizations interlocked with it.
Yet, as we have seen, two different committees of Congress—one Democrat-controlled and one Republican-controlled—have tried to investigate the big tax-exempt foundations which are interlocked with, and controlled by, and provide the primary source of revenue for, the Council on Foreign Relations and its affiliates.
Both committees were gutted with ridicule and vicious denunciation, not just by the official communist party press, but by internationalists in the Congress, by spokesmen for the executive branch of government, and by big respected publishing and broadcasting firms which are a part of the controlled propaganda network of the Council on Foreign Relations.
* * * * *
The invisible government is not, however, beyond the reach of the whole Congress, if the Congress has the spur and support of an informed public.
Our only hope lies in the Congress which is responsive to public will, when that will is fully and insistently expressed.
Every time I suggest that aroused citizens write their Congressmen and Senators, I get complaints from people who say they have been writing for years and that it does no good.
Yet, remember the Connally Reservation issue in January, 1960. The Humphrey Resolution (to repeal the Connally Reservation and thus permit the World Court to assume unlimited jurisdiction over American affairs) was before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. The Chairman of this Committee was J. William Fulbright (Democrat, Arkansas) a Rhodes-scholar internationalist, determined to repeal the Connally Reservation. Leaders in Congress and in the Administration were determined to repeal the Connally Reservation, and so was the invisible government of the United States—which means that the vast thought-controlling machine of the CFR (radio and television networks; major newspapers and magazines; and an imposing array of civic, church, professional, and "educational" organizations) had been in high gear for many months, saturating the public with "world-peace-through-world-law" propaganda intended to shame and scare the public into accepting repeal of the Connally Reservation.
But word got out, and the American public positively Stunned Congress with protests. Fulbright let the resolution die in committee.
The expression of public will was massive and explosive in connection with the Connally Reservation, whereas in connection with many other equally important issues, the public seems indifferent. The reason is that the Connally Reservation is a simple issue. It is easy for a voter to write or wire his elected representatives saying, "Let's keep the Connally Reservation"; or, "If you vote for repeal of the Connally Reservation, I'll vote against you."
What kind of wire or letter can a voter send his elected representatives concerning the bigger and more important issue which I have labeled "Invisible Government"?
The ultimate solution lies in many sweeping and profound changes in the policies of government, which cannot be effected until a great many more Americans have learned a great deal more about the American constitutional system than they know now.
* * * * *
But there is certain action which the people could demand of Congress immediately; and every Congressman and Senator who refuses to support such action could be voted out of office the next time he stands for re-election.
1. We should demand that Congress amend the Internal Revenue Code in such a way that no agency of the executive branch of government will have the power to grant federal tax-exemption. The Constitution gives the power of taxation only to the Congress. Hence, only Congress should have the power to grant exemption from taxation.
Instead of permitting the Internal Revenue Service of the Treasury Department to decide whether a foundation or any other organization shall have federal tax-exemption, Congress should exercise this power, fully publicizing and frequently reviewing all grants of tax-exemption.
2. In addition to demanding that Congress take the power of granting and withholding federal tax-exemption away from the executive agencies, voters should demand that the House of Representatives form a special committee to investigate the Council on Foreign Relations and its associated foundations and other organizations.
The investigation should be conducted for the same purpose that the great McCarran investigation of the Institute of Pacific Relations was conducted—that is, to identify the people and organizations involved and to provide an authentic record, of the invisible government's aims and programs, and personnel, for the public to see and study. Such an investigation, if properly conducted, would thoroughly discredit the invisible government in the eyes of the American people.
* * * * *
There is, however, only one sure and final way to stop this great and growing evil—and that is to cut it out as if it were cancerous, which it is. The only way to cut it out is to eliminate the income-tax system which spawned it.
The federal income-tax system suckles the forces which are destroying our free and independent republic. Abolish the system, and the sucklings will die of starvation.
That is the ultimate remedy, but before we can compel Congress to provide this remedy, we must have an educated electorate. The problem of educating the public is great—not because of the inability of the people to understand, but because of the difficulty of reaching them with the freedom story.
If the federal government, during the 1962 fiscal year, had not collected one penny in tax on personal incomes, the government would still have had more tax revenue from other sources than the total of what Harry Truman collected in his most extravagant peacetime spending year. Every American, who knows that, can readily understand the possibility and the necessity of repealing the federal tax on personal incomes. But how many Americans know those simple facts? The job of everyone who knows and cares is to get such facts to others.
* * * * *
Even if we did take action to divest the Council on Foreign Relations and its powerful interlock of control over our government; and even if we did reverse the policies which are now dragging us into a one-world socialist dictatorship—what would we do about some of the dangerous messes which our policies already have us involved in? What, for example, could we do about Cuba? About Berlin?
In some ways, the policies of our invisible government have taken us beyond the point of no return. Consider the problem of Cuba. Armed intervention in the affairs of another nation violates the principles of the traditional American policy of benign neutrality, to which I think our nation should return. Yet, our intervention in Cuban affairs (on the side of communism) has produced such a dangerous condition that we should now intervene with armed might in the interest of our own survival.
* * * * *
For sixteen years, we have seen the disastrous fallacy of trying to handle the foreign affairs of our great nation through international agencies. This leaves us without a policy of our own, and makes it impossible for us to take any action in our own interest or against the interests of communism, because communists have more actual votes, and infinitely more influence, in all the international agencies than we have. At the same time, our enemies, the communist nations, set and follow their own policies, contemptuously ignoring the international agencies which hamstring America and bleed American taxpayers for subsidies to our mortal enemies.
America must do two things soon if she expects to survive as a free and independent nation:
(1) We must withdraw from membership in all international, governmental, or quasi-governmental, organizations—including, specifically, the World Court, the United Nations, and all UN specialized agencies. (2) We must act vigorously, unilaterally, and quickly, to protect vital American security interests in the Western Hemisphere—particularly in Cuba.
We have already passed the time when we can act in Cuba easily and at no risk; but if we have any sane, manly concern for protecting the vital security of the American nation and the lives and property of United States citizens, we had better do the only thing left for us to do: send overwhelming American military force to take Cuba over quickly, and keep it under American military occupation, as beneficently as possible, until the Cuban people can hold free elections to select their own government.
The other nations of the world would scream; but they would, nonetheless, respect us. Such action in our own interests is the only thing that will restore our "prestige" in the world—and restore American military security in the Western Hemisphere.
* * * * *
What should we do about Berlin?
The Berlin problem must be solved soon, because it is too effectively serving the purpose for which it was created in the first place: to justify whatever programs the various governments involved want to pursue.
It sometimes looks as if the Kremlin and Washington officialdom are working hand-in-glove to deceive the people of both nations, turning the Berlin "crisis" on and off to cover up failures and to provide excuses for more adventures.
Berlin will cause a world war only when the United States is willing to go to war with the Soviet Union to free Berlin from the trap it is in. If we won't defend our own vital interests against the aggressive and arrogant actions of communists 90 miles from our shores, what would prompt us to cross the ocean and defend Germans from communists?
The cold fact of the matter is that we should not defend Berlin. This is a job for Germans, not Americans.
The Germans are an able and prosperous people. They are capable of fighting their own war, if war is necessary to protect them from communism.
It is inaccurate to refer to the eastern part of Germany as "communist Germany." That part of Germany is under communist enslavement; but the Germans who live there probably hate communists more than any other people on earth do.
The uprisings of 1953, and the endless stream of refugees fleeing from the communist zone in Germany, are proof enough that the communists could not hold East Germany without the presence of Soviet troops.
There is enough hunger and poverty and hatred of communism in eastern Germany to justify the conclusion that even Khrushchev knows he has a bear by the tail there. If we would do our part, Khrushchev would either turn loose and run; or the bear would pull loose and destroy Khrushchev.
What part should we play? We should do exactly what the President and the State Department assure the world they will not do: we should present the Soviets with a fait accompli, and an ultimatum.
We should call an immediate conference with the governments of France, England, and West Germany to explain that America has devoted 16 years and many billions of dollars to rehabilitating and defending western Europe; that Europe is now in many ways more soundly prosperous than we are; that the 180 million Americans can no longer be expected to ruin their own economy and neglect the defense of their own homeland for the purpose of assisting and defending the 225 million people of Western Europe; and that, therefore, we are through.
We have no need, at home, for all of the vast stores of military equipment which we now have in Europe for the defense of Europe. What we do not need for the defense of our homeland, we should offer as a gift to West Germany, since we produced the material in the first place for the purpose of resisting communism, and since the West Germans are the only people in Western Europe who apparently want to resist it.
We should give the West Germans (and the other western powers) six months to train whatever manpower they want for manning their own defenses. At the end of that time, we should pull out and devote ourselves to defending America.
With or without the consent of France and England, we should sign a peace treaty with the government of Western Germany, recognizing it as the lawful government of all Germany and imposing no restrictions on the sovereignty of Germany—that is, leaving Germany free to arm as it pleases.
Immediately following the signing of this treaty, we should announce to the world that, when we pull out of Europe at the end of six months, we expect the Soviets to pull out of Germany entirely. If, within one week after we effect our withdrawal, the Soviets are not out—or if they later come back in, against the wishes of the German nation—we should break off diplomatic relations with all communist countries; deny all representatives of all communist nations access to United Nations headquarters which are on United States soil; and exert maximum pressures throughout the world to isolate all communist countries, economically and diplomatically, from all non-communist countries.
That is an American plan, which would solve the German "problem" in the interests of peace and freedom.
* * * * *
Many Americans, who see what the solution to our grave problems ought to be, have lost hope that we will ever achieve such solution, because, in the end, the solution rests with the people.
It is the people who must compel their elected representatives to make a thorough investigation of the Council on Foreign Relations and its interlock.
It is the people who must compel Congress to deny administrative Agencies of government the unconstitutional power of granting tax-exemption.
It is the people who must compel Congress to submit a constitutional amendment calling for repeal of the income tax amendment.
It is the people who must compel Washington officialdom to do what is right and best for America in foreign affairs, especially in Cuba and Berlin.
Many Americans are in despair because they feel that the people will never do these things. These pessimists seem to share the late Harry Hopkins' conviction that the American people are too dumb to think.
I do not believe it. I subscribe to the marvelous doctrine of Thomas Jefferson, who said:
"I know no safe depository of the ultimate powers of society but the people themselves; and if we think them not enlightened enough to exercise their control with a wholesome discretion, the remedy is not to take it from them, but to inform their discretion by education."
COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS MEMBERSHIP ROSTER
This roster of membership is from the 1960-61 Annual Report of the CFR.
Frank Altschul 1984- Hamilton Fish Armstrong 1928- Elliott V. Bell 1953- Isaiah Bowman 1921-1950 William A. M. Burden 1945- Archibald Cary Coolidge 1921-1928 Paul D. Cravath 1921-1940 John W. Davis 1921-1955 Norman H. Davis 1921-1944 Arthur H. Dean 1955- Harold W. Dodds 1935-1943 Lewis W. Douglas 1940- Stephen P. Duggan 1921-1950 Allen W. Dulles 1927- Thomas K. Finletter 1944- John H. Finley 1921-1929 William C. Foster 1959- Leon Fraser 1936-1945 Edwin F. Gay 1921-1945 W. Averell Harrman 1950-1955 Caryl P. Haskins 1961- David F. Houston 1921-1927 Charles P. Howland 1929-1931 Clarence E. Hunter 1942-1953 Philip C. Jessup 1934-1942 Joseph E. Johnson 1950- Devereux C. Josephs 1951-1958 Otto H. Kahn 1921-1934 Grayson L. Kirk 1950- R. C. Leffingwell 1927-1960 Walter Lippman 1932-1937 Walter H. Mallory 1945, 1951- George O. May 1927-1953 John J. McCloy 1953- Wesley C. Mitchell 1927-1934 Frank L. Polk 1921-1943 Philip D. Reed 1945- Winfield W. Riefler 1945-1950 David Rockefeller 1949- Whitney H. Shepardson 1921- William R. Shepherd 1921-1927 Charles M. Spofford 1955- Adlai E. Stevenson 1958- Myron C. Taylor 1943-1959 Paul M. Warburg 1921-1932 Edward Warner 1940-1945 George W. Wickersham 1921-1936 John H. Williams 1937- Clarence M. Woolley 1932-1935 Henry M. Wriston 1943- Owen D. Young 1927-1940
Albrecht-Carrie, Rene Aldrich, Winthrop W. Alexander, Archibald S. Alexander, Henry C. Alexander, Robert J. Allan, F. Aley Allen, Charles E. Allen, Philip E. Alley, James B. Allport, Alexander W. Alpern, Alan N. Altschul, Arthur G. Altschul, Frank Ames, Amyas Ammidon, Hoyt Anderson, Arthur M. Anderson, Harold F. Anderson, Robert B. Angell, James W. Armour, Norman Armstrong, Hamilton Fish Ascoli, Max Aubrey, Henry G. Ault, Bromwell
Backer, George Baker, Edgar R. Baldwin, Hanson W. Bancroft, Harding F. Barber, Charles F. Barber, Joseph Barker, Robert R. Barkin, Solomon Barnes, Joseph Barnett, A. Doak Barnett, Frank R. Barrett, Edward W. Bastedo, Philip Baumer, William H. Baxter, James P., 3rd Beal, Gerald F. Beckhart, Benjamin H. Bedard, Pierre Beebe, Frederick S. Bell, Elliott V. Bennett, John C. Benton, William B. Beplat, Tristan E. Berle, Adolf A., Jr. Bessie, Simon Michael Bevis, Herman W. Bidwell, Percy W. Bienstock, Abraham L. Bingham, Jonathan B. Black, Peter Blair, Floyd G. Blake, Robert O. Blough, Roger M. Blough, Roy Blum, John A. Boardman, Arthur G., Jr. Bogdan, Norbert A. Bolte, Charles G. Bonsal, Dudley B. Boorman, Howard L. Boyd, Hugh N. Braden, Spruille Bradford, Amory H. Bramstedt, W. F. Braxton, Carter M. Breck, Henry C. Brinckeroff, Charles M. Brittenham, Raymond L. Bronk, Detlev W. Brown, Courtney C. Brown, Francis Brown, John Mason Brown, Walter L. Brownell, George A. Brownell, Lincoln C. Bruce, James Brzezinski, Zbigniew Bullock, Hugh Bunche, Ralph J. Bunker, Arthur H. Bunker, Ellsworth Bunnell, C. Sterling Burden, William A. M. Burgess, Carter L. Burkhardt, Frederick Burns, Arthur F. Bush, Donald F. Butler, William F. Buttenwieser, Benjamin J.
Cain, Charles, Jr. Calder, Alexander, Jr. Calhoun, Alexander D. Campbell, H. Donald Campbell, John C. Canfield, Cass Carey, Andrew G. Carpenter, George W. Carroll, Mitchell B. Carson, Ralph M. Case, James H., Jr. Case, John C. Cattier, Jean Chadbourne, William M. Champion, George Chase, W. Howard Cheney, Ward Childs, Thomas W. Christie, Lansdell K. Chubb, Percy, 2nd Church, Edgar M. Clapp, Gordon R. Clark, Brig. Gen. Edwin N. Clark, James F. Clay, Gen. Lucius D. Clinchy, Everett R. Coffin, Edmund Cohen, Jerome B. Collado, Emilio G. Collings, L. V. Collingwood, Charles P. Colwell, Kent G. Conant, James B. Conant, Melvin Cook, Howard A. Coombs, Charles A. Cooper, Franklin S. Cordier, Andrew W. Cousins, Norman Cowan, L. Gray Cowles, Gardner Cox, Charles R. Creel, Dana S. Cummings, Robert L., Jr. Cusick, Peter
Dallin, Alexander Danner, Arthur V. Darrell, Norris Daum, Earl C. Davenport, John Davis, Norman P. Davison, W. Phillips Dean, Arthur H. Debevoise, Eli Whitney De Lima, Oscar A. De Vegh, Imrie De Vries, Henry P. Dewey, Thomas E. D'Harnoncourt, Rene Diebold, William, Jr. Dillon, Clarence Dilworth, J. Richardson Dodge, Cleveland E. Donner, Frederick G. Donovan, Hedley Dorr, Goldthwaite H. Dorwin, Oscar John Douglas, Lewis W. Douglas, Percy L. Dryfoos, Orvil E. Dubinsky, David DuBois, J. Delafield Durdin, Tillman
Eagle, Vernon A. Eaton, Fredrick M. Eberstadt, Ferdinand Edelman, Albert I. Eder, Phanor J. Eichelberger, Clark M. Elliott, L. W. Emmet, Christopher Engel, Irving M. Ernst, Albert E. Erpf, Armand G. Evans, Roger F. Eveleth, George S., Jr. Ewing, Sherman Ewing, William, Jr. Exter, John
Fahs, Charles B. Field, William Osgood, Jr. Fischer, John S. Fisher, Henry J. Fleck, G. Peter Fleischmann, Manly Florinsky, Michael T. Ford, Nevil Forkner, Claude E. Forrestal, Michael V. Fosdick, Raymond B. Fox, Joseph C. Fox, William T. R. Foye, Arthur B. Franklin, George S., Jr. Franklin, John M. Freedman, Emanuel R. French, John Freudenthal, David M. Friele, Berent Friendly, Henry J. Fry, Varian Fuerbringer, Otto Fuller, C. Dale Fuller, Robert G.
Galantiere, Lewis Gallatin, James P. Gamble, Sidney D. Gant, George F. Gardner, John W. Garretson, Albert H. Garrison, Lloyd K. Gaston, George A. Gates, Samuel E. Gates, Thomas S. Gay, Edward R. Geneen, Harold S. Gevers, Max E. Gibney, Frank B. Gideonse, Harry D. Gifford, Walter S. Gillespie, S. Hazard, Jr. Gilpatric, Chadbourne Golden, William T. Goldsmith, Arthur Goldstone, Harmon H. Goodrich, Leland M. Gordon, Albert H. Goss, James H. Grace, J. P., Jr. Graff, Robert D. Gray, William Latimer Gray, William Steele Grazier, Joseph A. Griffith, Thomas Grimm, Peter Grondahl, Teg C. Gross, Ernest A. Grover, Allen Guggenheim, Harry F. Gunther, John Gurfein, Murray I.
Haight, George W. Hall, Perry E. Hamilton, Thomas J. Hamlin, Chauncey J. Hammond, Capt. Paul Hance, William A. Hanes, John W., Jr. Harrar, J. G. Harriman, E. Roland Hasler, Frederick E. Hauge, Gabriel Hayes, Alfred Hazard, John N. Heald, Henry T. Heckscher, August Heineman, Dannie N. Henderson, William Herod, W. Rogers Herring, Pendleton Herzog, Paul M. Hess, Jerome S. Hill, Forrest F. Hill, James T. Jr. Hill, John A. Hills, Robert C. Hirschman, Albert O. Hochschild, Harold K. Hochschild, Walter Hoglund, Elis S. Hoguet, Robert L., Jr. Hohenberg, John Holland, Henry F. Holland, Kenneth Holman, Eugene Holst, Willem Holt, L. Emmett, Jr. Homer, Sidney, Jr. Hoopes, Townsend Hoover, Lyman Horn, Garfield H. Horton, Philip Hottelet, Richard C. Houghton, Arthur A., Jr. Houston, Frank K. Howard, John B. Howe, John Hughes, Emmet John Hughes, John Chambers Humphreys, H. E., Jr. Hupper, Roscoe H. Hurewitz, J. C. Hyde, Henry B. Hyde, James N.
Ide, John J. Inglis, John B. Irwin, John N., 2nd Iselin, O'Donnell
Jackson, C. D. Jackson, William E. James, George F. Jaretzki, Alfred, Jr. Jay, Nelson Dean Jessup, Alpheus W. Jessup, John K. Johnson, Edward F. Johnson, Howard C. Johnson, Joseph E. Jones, David J. Jones, W. Alton Josephs, Devereux C. Joubert, Richard Cheney
Kaminer, Peter H. Kane, R. Keith Kappel, Frederick E. Keezer, Dexter Merriam Keiser, David M. Kelley, Nicholas Kenney, F. Donald Kern, Harry F. Kettaneh, Francis A. Keyser, Paul V., Jr. Kiaer, Herman S. King, Frederic R. Kirk, Adm. Alan G. Kirk, Grayson L. Klots, Allen T. Knoke, L. Werner Knoppers, Antonie T. Knowles, John Ellis Knox, William E. Koenig, Robert P. Kohn, Hans Kraft, Joseph
Lada-Mocarski, V. La Farge, Francis W. Lamb, Horace R. Lamont, Peter T. Lamont, Thomas S. Lang, Robert E. Larmon, Sigurd S. LaRoche, Chester J. Laukhuff, Perry LeBaron, Eugene Lee, Elliott H. Lehman, Herbert H. Lehman, Orin Lehman, Robert Lehrman, Hal Leich, John F. Leonard, James G. Leroy, Norbert G. Leslie, John C. Levy, Walter J. Lewis, Roger Lewisohn, Frank Lieberman, Henry R. Lightner, M. C. Lilienthal, David E. Lindquist, Warren T. Lissitzyn, Oliver J. Lockwood, John E. Lockwood, Mancie deF., 3rd Lockwood, William A. Lodge, Henry Cabot Loeb, John L. Logan, Sheridan A. Loomis, Alfred L. Loos, Rev. A. William Loucks, Harold H. Lounsbury, Robert H. Lubin, Isador Luce, Henry R. Ludt, R. E. Luitweiler, J. C. Lunning, Just Lyford, Joseph P.
McCance, Thomas McCarthy, John G. McCloy, John J. McDaniel, Joseph M., Jr. McDonald, James G. McGraw, James H., Jr. McKeever, Porter McLean, Donald H., Jr. MacDuffie, Marshall MacEachron, David W. MacIntyre, Malcolm A. MacIver, Murdoch MacVeagh, Ewen Cameron Maffry, August Maguire, Walter N. Malin, Patrick Murphy Mallory, Walter H. Mark, Rev. Julius Markel, Lester Martino, Joseph A. Marvel, William W. Masten, John E. Mathews, Edward J. Mattison, Graham D. May, A. Wilfred May, Stacy Menke, John R. Merz, Charles Metzger, Herman A. Mickelson, Sig Midtbo, Harold Millar, D. G. Millard, Mark J. Miller, Edward G., Jr. Miller, Paul R., Jr. Miller, William J. Millis, Walter Mills, Bradford Minor, Clark H. Mitchell, Don G. Mitchell, Sidney A. Model, Leo Monaghan, Thomas E. Moore, Ben T. Moore, Edward F. Moore, George S. Moore, Maurice T. Moore, William T. Morgan, Cecil Morgan, D. P. Morgan, Henry S. Morris, Grinnell Mosely, Philip E. Muir, Malcolm Munroe, Vernon, Jr. Munyan, Winthrop R. Murdin, Forrest D. Murphy, Grayson M-P. Murphy, J. Morden
Nason, John W. Neal, Alfred C. Nebolsine, George Nicely, James M. Nichols, Thomas S. Nichols, William I. Nickerson, A. L. Nielsen, Waldemar A. Nolte, Richard H. Northrop, Johnston F. Notestein, Frank W. Noyes, Charles Phelps
Oakes, John B. O'Brien, Justin O'Connor, Roderic L. Ogden, Alfred Olds, Irving Sands Oppenheimer, Fritz E. Osborn, Earl D. Osborn, Frederick H. Osborn, William H. Osborne, Stanley de J. Ostrander, F. Taylor, Jr. Overby, Andrew N. Overton, Douglas W.
Pace, Frank, Jr. Page, Howard W. Page, John H. Page, Robert G. Pagnamenta, G. Paley, William S. Parker, Philo W. Patterson, Ellmore C. Patterson, Frederick D. Patterson, Morehead Patterson, Richard C., Jr. Payne, Frederick B. Payne, Samuel B. Payson, Charles Shipman Peardon, Thomas P. Peffer, Nathaniel Pennoyer, Paul G. Peretz, Don Perkins, James A. Perkins, Roswell B. Peters, C. Brooks Petersen, Gustav H. Petschek, Stephen R. Phillips, Christopher H. Pierce, William C. Pierson, Warren Lee Pifer, Alan Pike, H. Harvey Plimpton, Francis T. P. Poletti, Charles Polk, Judd Poor, Henry V. Potter, Robert S. Powers, Joshua B. Pratt, H. Irving, Jr. Proudfit, Arthur T.
Quigg, Philip W.
Rabi, Isidor I. Rathbone, M. J. Ray, George W., Jr. Reber, Samuel Redmond, Roland L. Reed, Philip D. Reeves, Jay B. L. Reid, Ogden Reid, Whitelaw Rheinstein, Alfred Richardson, Arthur Berry Richardson, Dorsey Richardson, John R., Jr. Riegelman, Harold Ripley, Joseph P. Roberts, George Roberts, Henry L. Robinson, Geroid T. Robinson, Leland Rex Rockefeller, David Rockefeller, John D., 3rd Rockhill, Victor E. Rodriguez, Vincent A. Rogers, Lindsay Roosevelt, George Emlen Root, Elihu, Jr. Root, Oren Roper, Elmo Rosenberg, James N. Rosenman, Samuel I. Rosenstiel, Lewis Rosenwald, William Rosinski, Herbert Ross, Emory Ross, T. J. Rouse, Robert G. Royce, Alexander B. Ruebhausen, Oscar M. Rush, Kenneth Rustow, Dankwart A.
Sachs, Alexander Sachs, Howard J. Saltzman, Charles E. Samuels, Nathaniel Sargeant, Howland H. Sargent, Noel Sarnoff, Brig. Gen. David Sawin, Melvin E. Schaffner, Joseph Halle Schapiro, J. Salwyn Scherman, Harry Schiff, John M. Schiller, A. Arthur Schilthuis, Willem C. Schmidt, Herman J. Schmoker, J. Benjamin Schwartz, Harry Schwarz, Frederick A. O. Scott, John Sedwitz, Walter J. Seligman, Eustace Seymour, Whitney North Sharp, George C. Sharp, James H. Shea, Andrew B. Sheffield, Frederick Shepard, David A. Shepard, Frank P. Shepardson, Whitney H. Shepherd, Howard C. Sherbert, Paul C. Sherman, Irving H. Shields, Murray Shields, W. Clifford Shirer, William L. Shute, Benjamin R. Siegbert, Henry Sims, Albert G. Slater, Joseph E. Slawson, John Sloan, Alfred P., Jr. Smith, Carleton Sprague Smith, David S. Smith, Hayden N. Smith, W. Mason, Jr. Smull, J. Barstow Solbert, Peter O. A. Sonne, H. Christian Soubry, E. E. Spaght, Monroe E. Spang, Kenneth M. Spencer, Percy C. Spofford, Charles M. Stackpole, Stephen H. Stebbins, James H. Stebbins, Richard P. Stern, H. Peter Stevenson, Adlai E. Stevenson, John R. Stewart, Robert McLean Stillman, Chauncey Stillman, Ralph S. Stinebower, Leroy D. Stoddard, George D. Stokes, Isaac N. P. Stone, Shepard Straka, Jerome A. Straus, Donald B. Straus, Jack I. Straus, Oscar S. Straus, Ralph I. Straus, R. Peter Strauss, Simon D. Strong, Benjamin Sulzberger, Arthur Hays Swatland, Donald C. Swingle, William S. Swope, Gerard, Jr.
Tannenbaum, Frank Tannenwald, Theodore Thomas, H. Gregory Thompson, Earle S. Thompson, Kenneth W. Tibby, John Tinker, Edward Laroque Tomlinson, Roy E. Townsend, Edward Townsend, Oliver Traphagan, J. C. Travis, Martin B., Jr. Trippe, Juan Terry Truman, David B. Tweedy, Gordon B.
Van Dusen, Rev. Henry P. von Mehren, Robert B. Voorhees, Tracy S.
Walker, Joseph, Jr. Walkowicz, T. F. Wallace, Schuyler C. Warburg, Eric M. Warburg, Frederick M. Warburg, James P. Ward, Thomas E. Warfield, Ethelbert Warren, John Edwin Wasson, Donald Wasson, R. Gordon Watson, Arthur K. Watson, Thomas J., Jr. Wauchope, Rear Adm. George Weaver, Sylvester L., Jr. Webster, Bethuel M. Welch, Leo D. Wellborn, Vice Adm. Charles, Jr. Wernimont, Kenneth Wheeler, Walter H., Jr. Whidden, Howard P. Whipple, Taggart Whipple, Brig. Gen. William White, Frank X. White, H. Lee White, Theodore H. Whitman, H. H. Whitney, John Hay Whitridge, Arnold Wight, Charles A. Wilkinson, Col. Lawrence Willcox, Westmore Williams, Langbourne M. Willits, Joseph H. Wilson, John D. Wilson, Orme Wilson, Philip D. Wingate, Henry S. Winslow, Richard S. Wood, Bryce Woodward, Donald B. Woodyatt, Philip Woolley, Knight Wright, Harry N. Wriston, Henry M. Wriston, Walter B.
Yost, Charles W. Young, John M.
Zurcher, Arnold J.
Acheson, Dean Achilles, Theodore C. Adams, Roger Agar, Herbert Akers, Anthony B. Allen, Raymond B. Allyn, S. C. Amory, Robert, Jr. Anderson, Dillon Anderson, Vice Adm. George Anderson, Roger E. Anderson, Gen. Samuel E. Armstrong, John A. Atherton, J. Ballard Attwood, William Auld, George P.
Babcock, Maj. Gen. C. Stanton Badeau, John S. Baker, George P. Ball, George W. Ballou, George T. Barghoorn, Frederick C. Barker, James M. Barnett, Robert W. Barrows, Leland Bartholomew, Dana T. Bass, Robert P., Jr. Bassow, Whitman Bateman, William H. Bates, Marston Bator, Francis M. Bayne, Edward Ashley Bechtel, S. D. Bell, Holley Mack Benda, Harry J. Bennett, Martin Toscan Bergson, Abram Berkner, L. V. Bernstein, Edward M. Betts, Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Bissell, Richard M., Jr. Black, Cyril E. Black, Col. Edwin F. Black, Eugene R. Blackie, William B. Bliss, C. I. Bliss, Robert Woods Bloomfield, Lincoln P. Blum, Robert Boeschenstein, Harold Bohlen, Charles E. Bonesteel, Maj. Gen. C. H. 3rd Boothby, Albert C. Borton, Hugh Bowie, Robert R. Bowles, Chester Braden, Thomas W. Bradfield, Richard Braisted, Paul J. Brett, George P., Jr. Brewster, Kingman, Jr. Briggs, Ellis O. Brinton, Crane Bristol, William M. Bronwell, Arthur Brophy, Gerald B. Brorby, Melvin Bross, John A. Brown, Irving Brown, Sevellon, 3rd Brown, William O. Bruce, David K. E. Brundage, Percival F. Bruton, Henry J. Bundy, Harvey H. Bundy, McGeorge Bundy, William P. Burgess, W. Randolph Byrne, James MacGregor Byrnes, Robert F. Byroade, Henry A.
Cabot, John M. Cabot, Louis W. Cabot, Thomas D. Caldwell, Robert G. Calkins, Hugh Camp, Jack L. Campbell, Kenneth H. Canfield, Franklin O. Caraway, Lt. Gen. Paul W. Carpenter, W. Samuel, 3rd Carter, William D. Cary, William L. Case, Clifford P. Case, Everett N. Chapin, Selden Chapman, John F. Cheever, Daniel S. Cherrington, Ben M. Childs, Marquis Cisler, Walker L. Clark, Ralph L. Clayton, W. L. Cleveland, Harlan Clough, Ernest T. Coffey, Joseph Irving Cohen, Benjamin V. Cole, Charles W. Collbohm, F. R. Collyer, John L. Conlon, Richard P. Conrad, Brig. Gen. Bryan Considine, Rev. John J., M. M. Coons, Arthur G. Copeland, Lammot du Pont Corson, John J. Costello, William A. Cotting, Charles E. Cowen, Myron M. Cowles, John Crane, Winthrop Murray, 3rd Creighton, Albert M. Cross, James E. Crotty, Homer D. Crowe, Philip K. Culbertson, Col. William S. Curran, Jean A., Jr. Curtis, Edward P.
Dangerfield, Royden Darlington, Charles F. David, Donald K. Davidson, Alfred E. Davidson, Carter Davies, Fred A. Davis, Nathanael V. Dean, Edgar P. Decker, William C. de Guigne, Christian, 3rd da Kiewiet, C. W. de Krafft, William Deming, Frederick L. Despres, Emile Deuel, Wallace R. Deutch, Michael J. Dewhurst, J. Frederic Dexter, Byron Dickey, John S. Dillon, C. Douglas Dodds, Harold Willis Dollard, Charles Donkin, McKay Donnell, James C., 2nd Donnelly, Maj. Gen. Harold C. Dorr, Russell H. Douglas, Donald W., Jr. Draper, William H., Jr. Drummond, Roscoe Ducas, Robert Duce, James Terry Duke, Angier Biddle Dulles, Allen W. Dunn, Frederick S.
Eckstein, Alexander Edelstein, Julius C. C. Edwards, A. R. Edwards, William H. Einaudi, Mario Einstein, Lewis Eisenhower, Dwight D. Elliott, Byron K. Elliott, Randle Elliott, William Y. Elsey, George M. Elson, Robert T. Emeny, Brooks Emerson, E. A. Emerson, Rupert Eppert, Ray R. Estabrook, Robert H. Ethridge, Mark Evans, J. K. Everton, John Scott
Fainsod, Merle Fairbank, John King Fairbanks, Douglas Farmer, Thomas L. Fay, Sidney B. Feely, Edward F. Feis, Herbert Ferguson, John H. Finkelstein, Lawrence S. Finlay, Luke W. Finletter, Thomas K. Firestone, Harvey S., Jr. Fischer, George Fisher, Edgar J. Fleischmann, Julius Fleming, Lamar, Jr. Follis, R. G. Ford, Guy Stanton Ford, Thomas K. Foster, Austin T. Foster, William C. Fowler, Henry H. Foy, Fred C. Frank, Isaiah Frank, Joseph A. Frankfurter, Felix Fredericks, J. Wayne Free, Lloyd A. Fuller, Carlton P. Furber, Holden Furniss, Edgar S., Jr.
Galbraith, J. Kenneth Gallagher, Charles F. Gannett, Lewis S. Gardiner, Arthur Z. Gardner, Richard N. Garner, Robert L. Garthoff, Raymond L. Gaud, William S. Gavin, Lt. Gen. James M. Gaylord, Bradley Geier, Frederick V. Geier, Paul E. Gerhart, Lt. Gen. John K. Giffin, Brig. Gen. Sidney F. Gilbert, Carl J. Gilbert, H. N. Gilchrist, Huntington Gillin, John P. Gilpatric, Roswell L. Gleason, S. Everett Glennan, T. Keith Goheen, Robert F. Goldberg, Arthur J. Goodhart, Arthur L. Goodpaster, Maj. Gen. Andrew J. Goodrich, Carter Gordon, Lincoln Gornick, Alan L. Gorter, Wytze Gould, Laurence M. Graham, Philip L. Grant, James P. Grant, Maj. Gen. U. S., 3rd Gray, Gordon Green, Joseph C. Greene, A. Crawford Greene, James C. Greenewalt, Crawford H. Greenwood, Heman Griffith, William E. Griswold, A. Whitney Grove, Curtiss C. Gruenther, Gen. Alfred M. Gullion, Edmund A.
Halle, Louis J., Jr. Hamilton, Fowler Hamilton, Maj. Gen. Pierpont M. Hammonds, Oliver W. Hansell, Gen. Haywood S., Jr. Harbison, Frederick Harriman, W. Averell Harris, Irving B. Harsch, Joseph. C. Hart, Augustin S. Hartley, Robert W. Haskell, Broderick Haskins, Caryl P. Hauck, Arthur A. Haviland, H. Field, Jr. Hayes, Samuel P. Hays, Brooks Hays, John T. Heffelfinger, Totton P., 2nd Heilperin, Michael A. Heintzen, Harry L. Heinz, H. J., 2nd Henderson, Loy W. Henkin, Louis Henry, David Dodds Herter, Christian A. Hill, George Watts Hitch, Charles J. Hofer, Philip Hoffman, Michael L. Hoffman, Paul G. Holborn, Hajo Holland, William L. Holmes, Julius C. Homer, Arthur B. Hook, George V. Hoover, Calvin B. Hoover, Herbert Hoover, Herbert, Jr. Hopkins, D. Luke Hopper, Bruce C. Hornbeck, Stanley K. Hoskins, Halford L. Hoskins, Harold B. Houghton, Amory Hovde, Frederick L. Hovey, Allan, Jr. Howard, Graeme K. Howe, Walter Hoyt, Edwin C., Jr. Hoyt, Palmer Huglin, Brig. Gen. H. C. Humphrey, Hubert H. Hunsberger, Warren S. Hunt, James Ramsay, Jr. Hunter, Clarence E.
Issawi, Charles P. Iverson, Kenneth R.
Jackson, Elmore Jackson, William H. Jaffe, Sam A. Jansen, Marius B. Javits, Jacob K. Jenney, John K. Jessup, Philip C. Johnson, Herschel V. Johnson, Lester B. Johnson, Robert L. Johnston, Henry R. Johnstone, W. H. Jones, Peter T. Jordan, Col, Amos A. Jorden, William J.
Kahin, George McT. Kaiser, Philip M. Kamarck, Andrew M. Katz, Milton Katzenbach, Edward L., Jr. Kauffman, James Lee Kaufmann, William W. Kelso, A. Donald Kempner, Frederick C. Kennan, George F. Kerr, Clark Killian, James R., Jr. Kimberly, John H. King, James E., Jr. King, John A., Jr. Kinkaid, Adm. Thomas C. Kintner, Col. William R. Kissinger, Henry A. Knight, Douglas Knorr, Klaus Kohler, Foy D. Kohler, Walter J. Korbel, Josef Korol, Alexander G. Kotschnig, Walter
Labouisse, Henry R. Ladejinsky, Wolf Lamson, Roy, Jr. Landis, James M. Langer, Paul F. Langer, William L. Langsam, Walter Consuelo Lanham, Maj. Gen. Charles T. Lansdale, Gen. Edward G. Larson, Jens Frederick Lasswell, Harold D. Latourette, Kenneth S. Lattimore, Owen Lawrence, David Lawrence, W. H. Laybourne, Lawrence E. Laylin, John G. Leddy, John M. Lee, Charles Henry Leghorn, Richard S. Lemnitzer, Gen. L. L. Leslie, Donald S. Lesueur, Larry Levine, Irving R. Levy, Marion J., Jr. Lewis, Herbert Lewis, Wilmarth S. Lichtenstein, Walter Lincoln, Col. G. A. Linder, Harold F. Lindley, Ernest K. Lindsay, Franklin A. Lindsay, John V. Lindsay, Lt. Gen. Richard C. Linebarger, Paul M. A. Lingelbach, William E. Lingle, Walter L., Jr. Lippmann, Walter Litchfield, Edward H. Little, Herbert S. Little, L. K. Lockard, Derwood W. Locke, Edwin A., Jr. Lockwood, William W. Lodge, George Cabot Loomis, Robert H. Lunt, Samuel D. Lyon, E. Wilson
McCabe, Thomas B. McClintock, Robert M. McCone, John Alex McCormack, Maj. Gen. J., Jr. McCracken, Paul W. McCutcheon, John D. McDougal, Edward D., Jr. McDougal, Myres S. McFarland, Ross A. McGee, Gale W. McGhee, George C. McKay, Vernon McKittrick, Thomas H. McLaughlin, Donald H. McArthur, Douglas, 2nd MacChesney, A. Brunson, 3rd MacDonald, J. Carlisle MacVeagh, Lincoln Machold, William F. Maddox, William P. Maddux, Maj. Gen. H. R. Mallinson, Harry Mallory, George W. Manning, Bayless Marcus, Stanley Marshall, Charles B. Martin, Edwin M. Martin, William McC., Jr. Masland, John W. Mason, Edward S. Mathews, William R. Maximov, Andre May, Oliver Mayer, Ferdinand[B] L. Mayer, Gerald M. Meagher, Robert F. Meck, John F. Menke, John R. Merchant, Livingston T. Merillat, H. C. L. Merriwether, Duncan Metcalf, George R. Meyer, Charles A. Meyer, Clarence E. Meyer, Cord, Jr. Milbank, Robbins Miller, Francis P. Miller, William B. Millikan, Clark B. Millikan, Max F. Millis, John S. Minor, Harold B. Mitchell, James P. Moore, Hugh Moran, William E., Jr. Morgan, George A. Morgan, Shepard Morgenstern, Oskar Morgenthau, Hans J. Mott, John L. Mudd, Henry T. Munoz Marin, Luis Munro, Dana G. Munson, Henry Lee Murphy, Donald R. Murphy, Franklin D. Murphy, Robert Murrow, Edward R. Myers, Denys P.
Nathan, Robert R. Nelson, Fred M. Neumann, Sigmund Newman, Richard T. Newton, Quigg, Jr. Nichols, Calvin J. Niebuhr, Reinhold Nitze, Paul H. Nixon, Richard M. Nover, Barnet Noyes, W. Albert, Jr. Nuveen, John
Oakes, George W. Oelman, R. S. Oppenheimer, J. Robert Orchard, John E. Osborne, Lithgow Owen, Garry
Paffrath, Leslie Palmer, Norman D. Pantzer, Kurt F. Park, Richard L. Parker, Barrett Parsons, John C. Patterson, Gardner Paul, Norman S. Pelzer, Karl J. Penfield, James K. Perera, Guido R. Perkins, Courtland D. Perkins, Milo Petersen, Howard C. Phillips, William Phleger, Herman Piquet, Howard S. Poque, L. Welch Polk, William R. Pool, Ithiel deSola Power, Thomas F., Jr. Prance, P. F. A. Preston, Jerome Price, Don K. Pritchard, Ross J. Prizer, John B. Prochnow, Herbert V. Pulling, Edward S. Pusey, Nathan M. Pye, Lucien W.
Radway, Laurence I. Ravenholt, Albert Reinhardt, G. Frederick Reischauer, Edwin O. Reitzel, William Rennie, Wesley F. Reston, James B. Rich, John H., Jr. Richardson, David B. Ridgway, Gen. Matthew B. Riefler, Winfield W. Ries, Hans A. Riley, Edward C. Ripley, S. Dillon, 2nd. Rivkin, Arnold Robinson, Donald H. Rockefeller, Nelson A. Rogers, James Grafton Romualdi, Serafino Roosa, Robert V. Roosevelt, Kermit Roosevelt, Nicholas Rosengarten, Adolph G., Jr. Ross, Michael Rostow, Eugene V. Rostow, Walt W. Rusk, Dean Russell, Donald S. Ryan, John T., Jr.
Salomon, Irving Satterthwaite, Joseph C. Sawyer, John E. Schaetzel, J. Robert Schelling, T. C. Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. Schmidt, Adolph W. Schneider, Hubert A. Schorr, Daniel L. Schuyler, Gen. C. V. R. Schwab, William B. Schwebel, Stephen M. Scott, William Ryland Seymour, Charles Seymour, Forrest W. Sharp, Walter R. Sharpe, Henry D., Jr. Shaw, G. Howland Shearer, Warren W. Sheean, Vincent Shishkin, Boris Shulman, Marshall D. Shuster, George Simons, Hans Simpson, John L. Slocum, John J. Smith, Everett R. Smith, Gerard G. Smith, H. Alexander Smith, Adm. Harold Page Smith, Robert W. Smithies, Arthur Smyth, Henry DeW. Snyder, Richard C. Sontag, Raymond James Soth, Lauren K. Southard, Frank A., Jr. Spaatz, Gen. Carl Speers, Rev. Theodore C. Spencer, John H. Spiegel, Harold R. Sprague, Mansfield D. Sprague, Robert C. Sproul, Robert G. Sprout, Harold Staley, Eugene Stanton, Edwin F. Stason, E. Blythe Stasson, Harold E. Stein, Eric Stein, Harold Stephens, Claude O. Sterling, J. E. Wallace Stevenson, William E. Stewart, Col. George Stewart, Robert Burgess Stilwell, Col. Richard G. Stone, Donald C. Stowe, Leland Straton, Julius A. Straus, Robert Kenneth Strauss, Lewis L. Strausz-Hupe, Robert Strayer, Joseph R. Struble, Adm. A. D. Sulzberger, C. L. Sunderland, Thomas E. Surrey, Walter Sterling Sweetser, Arthur Swensrud, Sidney A. Swihart, James W. Symington, W. Stuart
Talbot, Phillips Tanham, George K. Tapp, Jesse W. Taylor, George E. Taylor, Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor, Wayne Chatfield Teller, Edward Templeton, Richard H. Tennyson, Leonard B. Thayer, Charles W. Thayer, Robert H. Thornburg, Max W. Thorp, Willard L. Trager, Frank N. Triffin, Robert Trowbridge, Alexander B. Truscott, Gen. Lucian K., Jr. Tuck, William Hallam
Ulmer, Alfred C., Jr. Upgren, Arthur R.
Valentine, Alan Van Cleve, Thomas C. Van Slyck, DeForest Van Stirum, John Vernon, Raymond Viner, Jacob
Wadsworth, James J. Wait, Richard Wallich, Henry C. Walmsley, Walter N. Wanger, Walter Ward, Rear Adm. Chester Warren, Shields Washburn, Abbott Watkins, Ralph J. Weeks, Edward Wells, Herman B. Westmoreland, Maj. Gen. W. C. Westphal, Albert C. F. Wheeler, Oliver P. Whitaker, Arthur P. White, Gilbert F. White, John Campbell Whiteford, William K. Wiesner, Jerome B. Wilbur, Brayton Wilbur, C. Martin Wilcox, Francis O. Wilcox, Robert B. Wild, Payson S., Jr. Wilde, Frazar B. Wilds, Walter W. Williams, John H. Wilmerding, Lucius, Jr. Wilson, Carroll L. Wilson, Howard E. Wilson, O. Meredith Wimpfheimer, Jacques Winton, David J. Wisner, Frank G. Wohl, Elmer P. Wohlstetter, Albert Wolfers, Arnold Wood, Harleston R. Wriggins, W. Howard Wright, Adm. Jerauld Wright, Quincy Wright, Theodore P. Wyzanski, Charles E., Jr.
Yntema, Theodore O. Young, Kenneth T. Young, T. Cuyler
Zellerbach, J. D.
ATLANTIC UNION COMMITTEE MEMBERSHIP ROSTER
This membership list was published by the Atlantic Union Committee in December, 1960. "CFR" in parentheses after a name is an editorial indication that the person is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. No other biographical information is given for CFR members. The biographical information, on the AUC members who are not also CFR members, was taken from Who's Who and/or the American Dictionary of Biography.
Abbott, Mrs. George
Achilles, Paul S., Chairman of the Board, Psychological Corporation; Board member, Eastman-Kodak Company
Adams, James D., Partner, McCutchen, Doyle, Brown & Enersen, Lawyers, San Francisco
Adams, Hon. Paul L., Attorney General, State of Michigan
Agar, Herbert (CFR)
Agnew, Albert C.
Aiken, Hon. Paul C., former Assistant Postmaster General of the U. S.
Alexander, Mrs. Sadie T. M.
Allen, H. Julian, General Manager, Paris Office, Morgan Guaranty Trust Company
Allen, Dr. Max P.
Alvord, Ellsworth C., Member, law firm of Alvord & Alvord, Washington, D. C.; Board member, General Dynamics Corp., Smith-Corona, Inc.
Amen, John Harlan, Associate Trial Counsel, Nurnburg War Criminals Trials; Member, Amen, Weisman & Butler, New York City
Anderson, Eugene N., Professor of History, University of Southern California at Los Angeles
Anderson, Mrs. Eugene
Anderson, Eugenie Former Ambassador to Denmark
Anderson, Maj. Gen. Frederick L. Trustee, Rand Corp.
Anderson Dr. Paul R., President, Chatham College, Pittsburgh
Anderson, Victor E., Former Governor of Nebraska
Andrews, Mark Edwin, President, Second M. E. Andrews, Ltd., Houston
Andrews, Dr. Stanley, Executive Director, Kellogg Foundation
Apperson John W.
Armour, Norman (CFR)
Armstrong, George S., President, George S. Armstrong & Co., New York City, Trustee, Committee for Economic Development
Armstrong, O. K., Member, Editorial Staff Reader's Digest, Former Congressman; Founder, Department of Journalism, University of Florida
Arnold, Remmie L.
Arnold, Thurman, Former U. S. Assistant Attorney General
Arzt, Dr. Max, President, Jewish Theological Seminary
Atherton, Warren H., Past National Commander, American Legion
Aurner, Dr. Robert R., President, Aurner & Associates, Carmel, California
Bache, Harold L., Sr., Senior Partner, Bache & Co., New York City
Bacon, Mrs. Robert Low, Chairman, Administration Liaison Committee, National Federation of Republican Women
Bagwell, Dr. Paul D., Past President, U. S. Junior Chamber of Commerce
Baker, Dr. Benjamin M., Jr.
Baker, Mrs. Frank C.
Baker, Rev. Richard, Bishop, Episcopal Diocese of North Carolina; Member, General Board, National Council of Churches
Balduf, Dr. Emery W.
Baldwin, Henry P., Vice President, Water Power & Paper Co., Wisconsin; Member, National Board, National Conference of Christians and Jews, Chairman, Brotherhood Week, 1956
Baldwin, Howard C., Chairman of the Board of Standard Federal Savings & Loan Association, Detroit; Vice President and Trustee, The Kresge Foundation, Member, Board of Publications, Methodist Church
Baldwin, Hon. Raymond E., Former U. S. Senator and Governor of Connecticut
Ball, George (CFR)
Ball, Hon, Joseph H., Former U. S. Senator from Minnesota
Banning, Mrs. Margaret
Barclay, Dr. Thomas Swain, Professor of Political Science, Stanford University, Member, National Municipal League; Member, American Delegation to Negotiate the Peace, 1919
Barinowski, R. E.
Barnes, Julius H. (CFR)
Barrows, Mrs. Ira
Bartlett, Lynn M., Superintendent of Public Schools, State of Michigan; Former President, National Education Assn.
Barzun, Jacques, Dean of Faculty and Provost, Columbia. University; Author, Historian, Musicologist
Batcheller, Hiland G., Chairman of the Board, Allegheny-Ludlum Steel Corp.
Bates, Dr. Rosalind Goodrich, Past President, International Federation of Women Lawyers
Battle, Laurie C., Former Congresswoman from Alabama
Baukhage, H. R., Consulting Editor, Army Times Publishing Company; Radio Commentator
Bayne, The Rt. Rev. Stephen F., Jr., Executive Officer, Anglican Communion
Beaton, Harold D.
Becker, Herman D.
Becker, Ralph E., Past Chairman, Young Republican National Federation
Beckett, Mrs. R. Capel
Beeley, Dr. Arthur L. Dean Emeritus, School of Social Work, University of Utah; Official, National Association for Mental Health
Bell, Edgar D.
Bell, Robert C., Jr.
Belsheim, Dr. Edmund O., Dean, College of Law, University of Nebraska
Benedict, Harry E. (CFR)
Bennet, Augustus W.
Bennett, Admiral Andrew C.
Benson, Dr. Oscar A., President, Augustana Lutheran Church
Bertholf, Dr. Lloyd M., President, Illinois Wesleyan University
Bidgood, Dr. Lee
Bingham, Alfred M.
Birkhead, Kenneth M.
Bishop, Robert J.
Bixler, J. Seelye, President, Colby College, Maine; Former Dean, Harvard Divinity School
Blackwelder, Dr. Eliot, Professor Emeritus of Geology, Stanford University
Blair, Paxton, Solicitor General, State of New York
Blanchard, Rt. Rev. Roger W.
Blanshard, Dr. Brand, Professor of Philosophy, Yale University
Blewett, Edward Y., President, Westbrook Junior College, Maine; Former Dean of Liberal Arts, University of New Hampshire
Bliss, Robert Woods (CFR)
Boas, Dr. George, Professor of Philosophy, John Hopkins University
Boekel, William A.
Boggs, Dr. Marion A., Moderator, Presbyterian Church, U.S.
Bohn, William E.
Bonds, Dr. Alfred B., Jr., President, Baldwin-Wallace College, Ohio
Borsody, Dr. Stephen
Bowles, Mrs. Istvan
Bowles, Chester (CFR)
Boyd, Brig. Gen. Ralph G.
Bradley, Rev. Preston, Founder and Pastor, People's Unitarian Church, Chicago
Braendel, Helmuth G.
Brand, Hon. James T., Associate Justice, Oregon Supreme Court
Brandt, Dr. Karl, Director, Food Research Institute, Stanford University
Brannan, Charles F., Former U. S. Secretary of Agriculture
Branscomb, Dr. Harvie, Chancellor, Vanderbilt University
Braucher, Robert, Professor of Law, Harvard University
Breckinridge, John B.
Brees, Orlo M.
Briefs, Dr. Goetz A., Professor of Labor Economics, Georgetown University
Briscoe, John D.
Bronk, Dr. Detlev W. (CFR)
Brooklings, Mrs. Robert S., Philanthropist
Brown, John Nicholas, Former Under Secretary of Navy for Air
Brown, Julius A.
Brown, Mary Agnes, Member, U. S. Board of Veterans Appeals
Brown, Prentiss M., Former U. S. Senator from Michigan
Brown, Thomas Cook, Editor Emeritus, Buffalo Courier-Express; Member, Foreign Policy Association; Member Advisory Board, Buffalo Council on World Affairs
Brundage, Hon. Percival F. (CFR)
Bryson, Dr. Lyman (CFR)
Bullis, Harry A. (CFR)
Bunker, Arthur H. (CFR)
Bunker, Hon. Ellsworth (CFR)
Bunting, Dr. J. Whitney, Professor of Finance, New York University; Research Consultant, General Electric Company; Former President, Oglethorpe University
Burch, Lucius E., Jr.
Burling, Edward B., Partner, Covington & Burling, Lawyers, Washington, D. C.
Burnett, Leo, Chairman of the Board, Leo Burnett Company; Director, Advertising Council, Chicago Better Business Bureau; Trustee, American Heritage Foundation
Burns, Dr. Arthur F. (CFR)
Burns, James MacGregor, Professor of Political Science, Williams College
Burt, Katharine Newlin
Burwell, W. Russell, Vice Chairman Of the Board, Clevite Corp.; Past President, Cleveland Council on World Affairs
Cabot, Henry B. (CFR)
Cahn, Mrs. Moise S.
Caldwell, Dr. Frank H., President, Louisville Presbyterian Seminary
Caldwell, Dr. Harmon W., Chancellor, University System of Georgia
Caldwell, Dr. John T., Chancellor, North Carolina State College
Canaday, Ward M., President and Chairman of the Board, The Overland Corp.
Canfield, Cass (CFR)
Cantril, Dr. Hadley, Chairman, Institute for International Social Research, Princeton
Capra, Frank, Motion Picture Producer
Carlton, Doyle E., Former Governor of Florida
Carmichael, Dr. Oliver C. (CFR)
Carrington, Paul, Partner, Carrington, Johnson & Stephens, Lawyers, Dallas; Past President, Dallas Council on World Affairs; National Councilor, Boy Scouts of America; Trustee Southwest Legal Foundation, S.M.U.
Carter, Edward W., President, Broadway-Hale Stores, Inc., Los Angeles; Trustee, Committee for Economic Development; Member, Board of Regents, University of California
Carter, Hodding, Pulitzer Prize Editor, Greenville, Mississippi
Carter, John L.
Casey, Dr. Ralph D., Director Emeritus, School of Journalism, University of Minnesota
Catton, Bruce, Editor, American Heritage Magazine; Pulitzer Prize for History, 1954
Chadwick, Stephen F., Past National Commander, American Legion
Chandler, Walter C., Former Congressman from Tennessee; Former Mayor of Memphis
Chenery, William L.
Chipps, Roy B.
Cisler, Walker L. (CFR)
Clagett, J. R.
Claypool, Mrs. J. Gordon
Clayton, William L. (CFR)
Clingman, Rt. Rev. Charles
Clothier, Dr. Robert C.
Clough, Dr. Shepard B., Director, Casa Italiana, Columbia University
Code, Dr. Charles F., Professor of Physiology, University of Minnesota; Consultant, Mayo Clinic
Coe, Dr. Albert Buckner, Official, National Council of Churches; Delegate to 1st and 2nd World Council of Churches
Coffee, John M.
Cohen, Harry, Retired Surgeon; Former Editor, American Jewish Cyclopedia; Editor-in-Chief, American Jews: Their Lives and Achievements