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The History of Freedom
by John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton
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Provincial massacres of Huguenots, 105

Prussia, nationality shown in the opposition to Napoleon I., 281

Prynne, on study of records, 393

Pufendorf, expositor of Grotius' doctrines, 46

Purgatory, release from (see Indulgences), obtainable from the Pope, belief in, 495

Puritans in America, intolerance of, 187

Pusey, Dr., Doellinger's letters to, 395-6 in favour of Vatican Council, 493

Puygaillard, mission of, to ensure provincial massacres of Huguenots, 118 note, 119

Pythagoras, an advocate of government by aristocracy, 21

Quetelet, 589

Quicherat and other authorities on Joan of Arc, 558

Quinet, cause to which he attributes the breakdown of the French Revolution, 595

Radowitz, Doellinger's debt to, 402 potential liberality of, 414

Rambler, The, 447

Rambouillet, French Ambassador at Rome, 136

Ranke, Leopold von, calm indifference of historical deductions of, 390 estimate of Macaulay by, 391 old age of, friendship with Doellinger, 396 style of, admiration of Doellinger for, 393 cited on judgment of time, 221; on Luther's conservatism, 161; on Machiavelli's merits, 228

Rattazzi, impoverishing policy of, 509

Raumer, source of historical work of, 386

Rauscher, Cardinal, opponent of Papal infallibility, 532, 533, 535, 544

Ravignan, 400

Raymundus, Doellinger's opinion of works of, 382

Raynaud, account of Machiavelli's death, 215

Rebellion punished by death by the Church in the Middle Ages, 216-19

Reformation, the, discredited by the Peasants' War, 155 Doellinger on, 393-7 early character of, 153 effect of, on governments, 41, 42, 43

Reformers, Protestant, attitude of, to polygamy, 159, 160 common origin of their views on State policy, 150-51 intolerance of, exemplified, 184 Saxon and Swiss, reason of their political differences, 173, 177 on the treatment of heresy, 183 views of, on Church and State, 181 writings of, 150

Regicide (see also Assassination and Murder) urged by mediaeval Church to remove tyrants, 217-18

Reid, 593

Reisach, Cardinal, see Munich, Archbishop of

Religion in relation to the American government, 584-5 decay in belief of, among Greeks, 8 development of, attitude to, of Bossuet, 591 how it influences State policy, 150 principles of, non-sectarian study of, unknown in seventeenth century, 45-46 reconcilable to liberty, dispute on, 467-9 toleration in, early advocates of, 52 turned into engine of despotism after Reformation, 44 true, definition of, 197 differentiation of, from false, standards for, 449

Religions, multiplicity of, danger from, limited, 250 suppression of, due to danger from doctrine in pagan and mediaeval times, 251; only necessary when practice of, dangerous to State, 251

Religious crime, civil jurisdiction over, Beza's views, 146 disabilities, danger of, greater than multiplicity of religions, 250 in Ireland made an engine of political oppression, 253 intelligence and zeal, office of, 460 liberty, defined, 151-2 effect on, of State control, 151-3 incompatibility of, with unity frequent, 252 in Maryland, 187 and political emancipation, connection of, not accidental, 292 persecution and slavery, 64 toleration, see Toleration

Renan, Ernest, commendation by, of dishonesty in politics, 225 rank of, as writer in France, 417

Renouvier, Flint's agreement with, 594-5

Representation separability from taxation, origin of this principle in Middle Ages, 39 in America, restrictions on, 579

Representative assemblies, methods of strengthening, 97 government, earliest proclamation and enactment of, 26 not discussed in classical literature, 25, 26 origin of, in Middle Ages, 39

Republic, French (the first), its title and what it signified, 277

Republic of 1848 (France), of what school the triumph, 590

Republican views of Zwingli and Calvin, 42

Republicanism of Athens, 68 primitive, germ of Parliamentary government, 32 true, defined, 277

Republics, government by, good opinion of Louis Philippe as to, 56, 90 of Poland and Venice, contrast between, 49

Resistance, doctrine of, 54 law of, as manifested in the American Revolution, 586

Restoration, French (under Louis XVIII.), effects of, on Nationality, 282 the true, that of 1688., 580

Rettberg, 420

Retz, Cardinal de, opposed to, yet ignorant of, Machiavelli's doctrines, 218 cited on political adaptability, 219

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, an inconsistency, 170; not approved by Innocent XI., 147; remarks on, 266

Revolution, identity of, and difference from, passive obedience, 162 one of the worst enemies of civil freedom, 300 its most powerful auxiliary, present day, 276 Protestantism favourable to, 181 American— not inspired by the belief of the Pilgrim Fathers, 584-5 nothing of, in common with the French, 580 spirit of, 580, 587 supreme manifestation of the law of resistance, 586 of 1848, double debt to, of Nationality, 287 the French— abolition by, of traces of national history, 278 the (1789), causes leading up to, 85, 86, 87 change produced by, how effected, 271; consequences, 272 characteristics peculiar to, roots far back in history, 280 denounced by Burke, 219 doctrines of, adversary of the old despotic policy, 276 essential difference between it and others, 271 injured by its religious policy, 86 ethnological character of, 277, 278 nothing in it in common with the American revolution, 580 revival of a conquered race, 241 no constructive idea given rise to by it, 241 substance of its ideas, 280 theory of equality disastrous to liberty, 88 of 1688, "divine right of freeholders" established by, 54 principles of, anticipated, 179 statesmen of, represented as ancestors of modern liberty, 53

Revolutionary leaders of 1789, ideas of, contrary to idea of Nationality, 281

Revolutions, three phases of those subsequent to the Congress of Vienna, 284-5

Rhode Island, State of, rise of, 187

Richelieu, Cardinal, historical insight of, 409 method of dealing with Protestants, its effect, 116 on subjection of nation, 48 cited on historical deductions based on success, 221

Riehl, on abstract ideas and their power, 585

Rimini, 559

Rio, 432; cited on Doellinger as a theologian, 399

Ritschl, 389

Robespierre, fate of, 401 terrorism of, causes of production of, 262

Robinson cited on progressive revelation, 592

Rochelle, La, siege of, 113 note, 115, 118

Roman conquest of Europe and its consequences, 277 et seq.

Romans, as makers of history, 240 persecution of Christians by, reasons for, 196, 198

Rome, see also Church, the conflicts with, 461-91 attitude at, towards Doellinger, 410-14 and the Church at variance, 516-17 popularity of Machiavelli in, 214 statesmen of, permeation of, with Greek ideas, 16 Court of, reformation demanded by Strossmayer, 536 religious power of, as the preservation of civilised Europe, Lea's view, 568 and the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, its complicity (believed in), 128, 131; reception at, of the news of, 132, 134, 135 result of Vatican Council, scorn of opposition, 544 ties of English Catholics with, tightened by Wiseman, 438 Wiseman's Address at, criticised by The Patrie, 439; his reply and rebuttal of "covert insinuations" in The Home and Foreign Review, 439-40; reply of that publication, 440; statement of facts concerning the Address, 444 Emperors of, above legal restraint, 78, 79 pleasure of, force of law possessed by, 31 Empire of, creation of the Roman people, not by usurpation, 77, 78 better services rendered by, to cause of liberty than by the Republic, 15 seat of, transferred from Rome to Constantinople, 30 heathen, persecution by, how justified, 186 Republic of, conversion into monarchy by Julius Caesar, 15 influenced by precept and example, 13, 14 ruined by its own vices, 74

Roscher, intercourse of, with Doellinger, 403

Rosmini, 381; disciples of, 314 Doellinger's pupils sent to, 381 erudition of, 400

Rossi, De, 431; Doellinger's guide in Rome, 411 on epistles of St. Ignatius, 419 friendship with Cardinal Reisach, 501

Rouen, clergy of, desirous of Huguenot extirpation, 142 reluctance of Carouge to allow Huguenot massacre at, 119

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, cause of his power as a political writer, 84 definition of the social compact, 57 effects of his teaching on Marat, 57, 58 proclaimer of equality, 273 vindication of natural society by, 263 on true sense of country, 294

Royalism, execution of Charles I., a triumph for, 51

Royalty exalted into a religion (see also Divine Right of Kings and Passive Obedience), 47

Ruinart, credulous criticism of, 420

Ruemelin, 589; on political expediency, 222

Russia, and its adoption of Greek Church, 333-4 attitude of, to Vatican Council, 508 quarrel of, with Pius IX., 493

Russian nationality attacked by Napoleon I., 281

Saccarelli, Doellinger's tribute to, 387

"Sacerdotal Celibacy," 561; and the Droit du Seigneur, 566

Sacred College, the, attitude of, on the St. Bartholomew, 140

Salviati's eminence at, 110

Sadolet, Paul, cited, on massacre of Vaudois of Provence, 217

Sailer, 402

St. Augustine, cited, 197; in praise of Seneca, 25

St. Bartholomew, the Massacre of (see Massacre of St, Bartholomew), 44, 101; not a crime of the people, 43

St. Bernard, 434

St. Brieuc, agreement with Gratry's views, 537

St. Cyprian, intolerance a rule of life from the days of, Lea's view, 562

St. Dominic as the First Inquisitor, 553; so entitled by Sixtus V. 558 attitude of, to heretics, 428, 554 house of, at Toulouse, headquarters of the Inquisition, 552

St. Elizabeth of Hungary, strange choice by, of a confessor, 570

St. Francis of Assisi, Lea's view of, 569

St. Germains, Peace of, advantages of, to French Huguenots, 105; alarmist views on, of Salviati, 110

St. Irenaeus, language of, which might be taken as Arian, 592

St. Louis, Archbishop of, on the Immaculate Conception, 545 on Papal Infallibility, 533, 545; his protest against the doctrine, 499

St. Martin, mysticism of, 376; study of, by De Maistre, 377

St. Poelten, Bishop of (Fessler), and the proposed discussion of Papal Infallibility at Vatican Council, 500-501, 513 reform urged by, 495 Secretary of Vatican Council, 501

St. Raymond and the Inquisition, 556-7

St. Sulpice, Catechism of, Lea's deductions from, 570 opposition of, to Lamennais's Ultramontanism, 463

St. Thomas Aquinas, later exponent of Plato's Politics, 72 cited on the relation of Kings to the People, 36, 37

Sainte Beuve, C.A., cited on political fatalism, 221

Ste. Hilaire, Barthelemy, cited on Machiavelli's politics, 219

Salvianus on social virtues of pagans, 33

Salviati, despatches of, on the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 132, 133; as utilised by Acton, and his predecessors, 102 on the "spirit of a Christian," as shown by Charles IX. at the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 122 on the true reason for the Navarre marriage, 135

Samarra, the, 569

San Callisto, Doellinger's visit to, 411

San Germano, treaty of, 555

San Marino, 386

Santa Croce, Nuncio, information derived from, on the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 102; on the plans framed at Bayonne against Huguenots, 108 & note, 108-9 alleged report by, on the intended Huguenot massacre, 131-2

Sarpi, Paolo, cited on political honesty, 213

Savigny, 380; influence of, on Doellinger, 376 leading doctrines of, 594 source of historical works of, 386

Savonarola, Girolamo, 556

Savoy, motto of its abortive rising in 1834., 286 not surprised by the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 109 Duke of, and the marriage of Coligny, 110

Say, J.B., cited on political virtues, 219

Schelling, 403 estrangement of, from Doellinger, 381 mythology of, 405 cited on collective thought, 585-6

Scherer, Edmond, cited on progress, 221

Schlegel, H.W.F. von, classed as Ultramontane, 451 studied by Doellinger, 375

Schleiermacher, F.E.D., Doellinger on, 375

Schmalkald, Confession of, on excommunication, 158

Schomberg on Charles IX. and the provincial massacres, 120

Schopenhauer, metaphysics of, Doellinger's love for, 381

Schottmueller, 421, 574; conclusions of, on the trial of the Templars, 563

Schrader, Clement, reputation of, 502 on commission of preparation for Vatican Council, 500

Schwarzenberg, Cardinal, manager of German elections to Commission on Dogma, 529, 532 Cardinal, opposition of, at Vatican Council, 525-6 on Papal Infallibility, 544

Schwenkfeld, Kaspar von, his doctrines condemned by Melanchthon, 167

Science, demands of, on its students, 453 liberty of, in the Church, 461-91 liberty in, questioned through Frohschammer's excommunication, 477 power of, to act upon religion, not foreseen in 1679., 595

Science and religion, reconciliation of, 462; denied by Frohschammer, 462; accepted by Lamennais, 462-3

Science, truth essential in, 449 German, great services to intellectual liberty, 469 religious, definition of, 389

Scientific truth, certainty of essentials for understanding, 458

Sclopis, Count, on character of Machiavelli, 226

Scotland, Doellinger on Presbyterianism of, 337 triumph of Reformation in, over the State, 43

Scott, Hope, consulted by Doellinger, 395

Sega, Bishop of Piacenza and Nuncio, attitude of, to murder for the glory of God, 139

Self-government, faculty of, opposed to tradition of antiquity, 31 in a great democracy, how alone preservable, 277; that kind of, which constitutes true republicanism, 277 modern political liberty the result of, 253

Self-sacrifice, renovation of society on principles of, 58

Seneca, his elevated sentiments praised by St. Augustine, 25 religious knowledge of, 406 views of, 73

Sermoneta, 131

Servetus, Michael, 430; his condemnation approved by Melanchthon, 167; and by other Reformers, 175, 184-5; defended by Calvin, 181-2; but not politically justified, 184-5

Seward, W.H., on the rights sought by the revolting Americans, 587 praise by, of Hamilton's statesmanship, 581

Shakespeare, study of, Doellinger's motive for, 432

Sherman, General, 579

Sicily, the Inquisition in, 1224., 553-4

Sickel, 422

Sidney, Algernon, character of, 53 slight knowledge of Machiavelli's works, 218

Sieyes, 277; council suggested by, 96 doctrine of, 57

Sigismund, King of Poland, Beza's advice to, on Socinianism, 146

Sigonius, Doellinger's gratitude to, 393

Simancas, annotations of, on Campeggio's commentary, 559-60

Simpson, 432

Sixtine Chapel, Vasari's paintings in, illustrative of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 135

Sixtus V., Pope, attitude of, to the murder of the Guises, 121-2 Doellinger's estimate of, 424 St. Dominic entitled by, the First Inquisitor, 558 a strong Pope, 138

Slavery and democracy, 63

Slavery, general extinction of, in Europe in Middle Ages, 39 principle of, implicit opposition of Stoics to, 25, 26 and practice of, rejected by Essenes, 26

Slavonic races, 245 stationary national character of, 241

Smith, Adam, doctrine of, 57 known in France, 219

Smith, Goldwin, on the Catholic Church in Ireland, 259 on history, success only attribute acknowledged by, 223

Smith, Sir Thomas, on English attitude to the French, after the Huguenot massacres, 144 & note

Socialism, baneful alliance of, with democracy, 92, 93, 98 and slavery, 63

Societies, Epicurean notion that they are founded on contract for mutual protection, 18

Society and government, association and correspondence of, 265

Society of Jesus (see also Jesuits), Arragonese influence in its constitution, 557

Socinians, reason of their persecution, 169

Socinus, partial advocate of toleration, 52

Socrates, 406; on democracy, 71 death of, crowning act of guilt of Athenian government, 12 method of, essentially democratic, 71 records of, 409 view of, on laws of country as sole guide of conduct, 18

Solon, decentralisation of power advised by, to remedy social disorders, 7 doctrine of, that political power should be commensurate with public service, 8 influence of, on democracy, 66, 68 revision of laws of Athens by, 6 good results of his forethought in providing for revision of Athenian constitution, 7, 8

Sophists, doctrine of, 70 their ideas of utilitarianism, 17

Sorbin, Confessor of Charles IX., and the Orleans massacres, 126; his account of the death of Charles IX., 126-7 & note on premeditation of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 112

Soto, on political conscience, 216 cited on assassination as a political resource, 213

Spain (see also Cadiz Constitution), abortive monarchy of (1812), 89 absolute monarchy in, due to appropriation of tribunal of Inquisition, 41 designs against, of Charles IX., utilisation in, of the Protestants, 105, 116 effect on, of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 124, 143 and the Inquisition, 152 Montalembert's journey to, 425 national character of rejection of French forces and ideas, 281 Parliamentary system of, origin, 34 reasons for persecution in, 170 and representation on Vatican Council, 507 view in, of the planned character of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 124

Spinoza, advocate of passive obedience to the State, 48 interpreter of Machiavelli, 228

Spirit of the American Revolution, what it was, 587; what it was not, 584-5

Spondanus, Bishop, on Gregory XIII., reasons for permitting the Navarre marriage, 128

Stahl, J., 589; injustice of Doellinger to, 391

Stahr, A., cited on historical deductions, 221

Stanley, Dean, considered Vatican Council important to all denominations, 493

State, the (see also Church and State), authority of, excessive in ancient times, insufficient in Middle Ages, 4 free constitution of, free action of Church a test of, 246 limitations of its duties, 3 and religious liberty, 151-3 sole authority according to modern theory, 151 sole care of the Absolutists, eighteenth century, 273

State Church, its connection with the community, 260 of Ireland, Goldwin Smith on, 259

States, boundaries of, as coincident with Nationalities, J.S. Mill on, 285 classic, taking from citizens more than they gave them. 17; vice of, 16 small, drawbacks of, 295

States-General, the, and the Inquisition, 570

Stein, 282

Stenzel, G.A.H., cited on political expediency, 222

Stephen, Leslie, cited on philosophy of history based on truth, 223

Stewart, Dugald, praise of Machiavelli, 224

Stoics, their emancipation of mankind from subjugation to despotic rule, 24 their implied opposition to principle of slavery, 25, 26 their teaching nearest approach to that of Christianity, 24, 25 views of, 73

Stolberg, classed as Ultramontane, 451

Story, on Tocqueville's views of the American Constitution, 576 cited on The Federalist, 581

Strappado, the, 569

Strasburg, Senate of, reluctance of, to act harshly to Catholics, 172

Stratagemma, Lo, di Carlo IX., and its author, 129

Strossmayer, Bishop (upon Turkish frontier), 548; absence of, from vote on decree (involving acceptance of Infallibility), 543 demand for reform made by, 536 opposition of, at Vatican Council, 522 protest of, to Vatican Council altered before presentation, harmony restored by, 542 on authority of Vatican Council, 541 on the dogmatic decree, 527, 533 on ungenerous treatment of Protestants, 541

Strozza, Philip, 113 note

Stuart, House of, misrule of, only temporarily foiled under Cromwell, 50 upholders of supremacy of kingship over people, 47

Suarez, revision of MS. of, in Rome, 428

Suffrage, limitations of, effects of, 96 restricted, not always a safeguard of monarchy, 2 universal, of what school the triumph, 590

Sunderland, 410

Sura, Bishop of, 519

Sweden, bishops of, and political assassinations, 217 religion in, Doellinger on, 341-2 working of Protestant theory of persecution in, 170

Swift, Jonathan, 409

Swiss, the, true nationality of, 294-5 Constitution (1874), significant work of modern democracy, 91 reformers, unlikenesses of, to the Saxons, 173

Switzerland, see Historical Philosophy in France and French Belgium and Calvinism in, Doellinger on, 338-9 Cantons of, influence in days preceding French Revolution, 50 progress and success of democracy in, 91 and the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 120, 124-5

Sybel, H. von, historical style of, 384 cited on historical deduction, 221

Sylla, invested with dangerous powers, 77

Syllabus, the Archbishop of Paris led by, to urge moderation, 526 the, designed to restore authority to the Church, 492 opinions of Pius IX. collected in, 496-8 opposition controlled by, 524 Prince Hohenlohe opposed to discussing state maxims of, at Vatican Council, 503-4 Symmachus, cited, 196

Synods, Acts of, alleged tampering with, as affecting doctrine of Infallibility, 499

Tacitus, confession of, respecting mixed constitutions, 20

Taine, Henri, Doellinger's ambiguous praise of, 417 influence of, on Doellinger, 434

Talleyrand de Perigord, Charles Maurice, 100 signs of sympathy with idea of nationality shown by, 282-3 cited on Hamilton, 581

Tapparelli, classed as Ultramontane, 451

Taxation of American colonists, opposition of Lords Chatham and Camden to, 55 exemption of clergy from, 34 inseparable from representation, origin of this principle in Middle Ages, 39

Taylor, Sir Henry, on necessity for political subtlety, 219

Teligny and the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 107

Tempesti on Catherine de' Medici and the Massacre of St-Bartholomew, 148

Templars, Doellinger's lecture on, 433 trial of, Lea's conclusions on, 552, 563

Temporal power of the Papacy, 312-13, 352-62, 367-71, 412-16, 422-5 antagonism to, 315-16 Doellinger on, 301-74

Terror, the, see Reign of Terror

Tertullian, language of, which might be taken as Arian, 592

Teutonic races, missionaries the channel of conversion to Christianity, 245 union political more than religious, 244 State and the Church, quarrel between, cause of revival of democracy, 80 tribes, Christianity readily accepted by, 199

Theiner, A., early views of, superseded, 429 Life of Clement the Fourteenth, by, 411 Permission to publish acts of Council of Trent, refused to, by the Pope, 431 skill of, as editor, 421 as source of information on the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 102 views of, on Jesuits not in agreement with Doellinger, 411-12

Theognis on domination of oligarchies, 6

Theology in Germany, unique and scientific, 317, 347-51, 376, 471-82 schools of, at Munich, 375, and Tuebingen, 376

Theramenes as statesman, 70

Thiers, Adolphe, opinion of Machiavelli's works, 227

Thou, De, and the charge against the Bordeaux clergy, 127 note on the Navarre marriage, 128 reproached for condemning Huguenot massacres, 147

Thucydides on reformed government at Athens, 12

Tocqueville, 400; indictment brought by, against democracy, 93 influence of, on Doellinger's politics, 414 on the inspiration of the American Revolution, 584 on the need for two chambers in a Senate, 575-6 cited on the American federal constitution, 576 on democracy and absolute government, 239

Toledo, Councils of, framework of Parliamentary system of Spain, 34

Toleration, advocacy of, by William Penn, 84 of Anabaptists, varying views of Reformers on, 157, 164, 176 anonymous tract on, against Calvin, 182 Calvinism a danger to, 180 cause and effect of decline of Protestantism, 255 early attitude of Reformers towards, 153-55, 168 in the early church, 186 Edict of, deceitful, of Charles IX., 117 Maryland an example of, 187 as a political principle, reasons for and against, 252 religious, in Poland, 103 forced upon Protestantism, 187 Protestant theory of, 151 and religious liberty, 152 traditional, attitude to, of Lea, 562 views of Beza on, 146

Tommasini, praise of Machiavelli, 226

Torquemada, 569

Tosti, on Papal Liberty, 313 on Temporal Power, 412

Toulouse, and the Albigenses, 556 Count of, and the Council of Arles, 565

Treitschke, cited on Political Morality, 222

Trent Commissioners and prohibited works, 215

Trent, Council of, 111, 175 intolerance of, reformed by Vatican Council, 493-4 spirit of, 138

Treviso (province), story of, 387

Tridentine Reformation, see Trent, Council of

Tronchin, on Voltaire's death, 215

Tuebingen, heresies of, 381 school of positive theology at, 376, 377

Turgot, attempted reforms of, 85 cited on political expediency, 220 views of, on single or double form of Legislature, 576

Turin, Court of, policy of, 445

Turks, Charles IX.'s pourparlers with, 104

Twesten, cited in support of Machiavelli's policy, 229

Tyrol, movement in, against Napoleonic institutions, a national one, 281

Ultramontane school, eminent writers of, two peculiarities of, 451 supersession of, 452

Ultramontanism, see also Doellinger extreme, considered to be keystone of the Church, by Lamennais, 462-3

United States, see America

Unity, aimed at, by English Catholics, 438 change of constitution effected by, in Italy and Germany, 225 of faith in France, enforcement of, aim of the Court, 117 liberty sacrificed to, by Machiavelli, 229 in relation to nationality, 287, 289 and religious liberty, incompatibility of, frequent, 252 necessity for, in Church and State, 252 religious, in relation to religious freedom, 152

Universal suffrage, of what school the triumph, 590

University of Paris and the Inquisition, 570

Ussher, Archbishop, advocate of passive obedience to kings, 47

Utilitarianism in classical ages, 17

Utrecht Psalter, story of, 551

Vaissete, 565

Valois, Margaret of, see Navarre, Queen of

Vasari, paintings by, in the Sixtine Chapel, of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 135

Vatican Council, 431, 492-550 constitution of, 501-11 convened by Pius IX., 492; approbation of Pius IX.'s action in convening, 492-511 decree of, dissatisfaction with, 531 discussion on validity of dicta of, 548 Infallibility, doctrine of, its victory over opposition, 543 letter from German bishops to, on doctrinal points, 517 methods of, reformed to involve admission of Papal Infallibility, 539 opening of, 511 opposition at, 492-511, 525-9 preparations for, 492-511 proceedings of, 527-50 programme of, discussed in The Reform of the Church in its Head and Members, 494-6 representation on:— by Belgium, 507 by England, 506 by France, 504 by Germany, 505 by Italy, 508 by Portugal, 507 by Spain, 507 Strossmayer prevented by, from protesting, 541

Vaticinia Pontificum, Lea's knowledge of, 560

Vauban, Marshal, 48

Vaudois, the, of Provence, extermination of, by Louis XII., 217

Vavasour, Sir Edward, acquaintance of, with Doellinger, 388

Venice, extinction of, as State, 283 not surprised by the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 109; the event celebrated at, 125 and political murders, 213, 214 withdrawal of, from the League, 105, 107 republic of, nature, 49

Vergennes, cited on political judgment, 227

Vergniaud, on the laws in relation to the will of the people, 276

Verona, centre of historical work, 387

Vespucci, 562

Veuillot, Louis, Doellinger on, 428 and the Droit du Seigneur, 566 Montalembert, cited on, 428

Vico, 590

Vienna, Congress of, dynastic interests predominant at, 282-3 effects of, on ideas of nationality, 283

Vienne, Inquisition at, and Servetus, 184

Villari, admiration of Machiavelli, 226

Vinet, 591

Virginia and Maryland, 187

Visconti family, models for Machiavelli, 212

Vitae Paparum Avenionensium, utilised by Lea and others, 559

Vives, toleration taught by, 570

Voltaire, profane criticism of, 218

Waldenses, analogy of Arnold of Brescia with, 559 why they opposed persecution, 563

Waldus, 558

Walpole, Horace, cited on political scruples, 219

Walsingham, English ambassador in France, his reports on the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 101, 107, 115-16 condemnation by French Catholics as a whole, 143

War, art of, no national feeling in, till after 1789., 274 of Deliverance, new forces evoked by, 282 of 1859, troubles of the Papacy after, 412-14

Wars of religion, end of, 274

Washington, George, 579 political example of, 586

Waterloo, 282

Webster, 584

Weingarten on St. Anthony's life and origin of monasticism, 420

Wesel, English Calvinists at, 170

Wesley, John, Doellinger's tribute to, 395

Westminster, Archbishop of, at Council of Bishops, 1867., 500 on Papal Infallibility, 528

Westphalia, Peace of, and Roman ambition, 323, 324

Whigs, English, and their continental counterparts, attitude of, after Waterloo, 282

Wilberforce, Archdeacon, Doellinger consulted by, 395 Samuel, Bishop of Winchester, story of, 551

Wilkins, 421

Will or sovereignty, the, of the people (see also Democracy), as criterion of right, 271; as above the law, 276; idea of, the parent of idea of nationality, 277 theory of nationality involved in, 287

William III., King of England, and massacre of Glencoe, 218, 410

Windelband, cited on national government, 227

Windischmann (elder), Doellinger's esteem for, 381 public indifference to, 430

Winkelmann on the Inquisition, 426

Wirtemberg, left by Moehler, after publication of Symbolik, 377 Duke of, and the Huguenot refugees, 145

Wiseman, Cardinal, 424, 436 Doellinger consulted by, on mediaeval authorities, 390-91 influence of, on the Church of England, and on the Oxford movement, 437-8 literary standing of, 437, 438 position of, universal and local in Catholicism, 437 relations of, with English Catholics, 437, 438 view of, on English theology, 380 work of, at Oscott, 438 on the "covert insinuations" of the Home and Foreign Review, 439-40; the editor's defence of that publication, 440 et seq.

Witt, De, murder of, 410

Wittelsbach, house of, contests of the Empire in the, 275

Wuerzburg, Bishop of, reform urged by, 495 (city) Doellinger and Platen at, 375

Wycliffe, John, difference between his teaching and Luther's, 271

Ximenes, Cardinal, and the Inquisition, 570

Young Europe, Mazzini's evolution of Young Italy, 286

Young Italy and Mazzini, 286

Zanchini, an Inquisitor, leading authority of the fourteenth century, 559; cited by Lea, 560

Zeller, cited on Anti-Machiavel policy in Prussia, 227

Zimmerman, Wilhelm, and Machiavelli's policy, 227

Zuniga, Juan and Diego, 123 denunciation by, of French treachery even to heretics, etc., 144

Zuerich, the question of toleration in, 174, 175

Zwickau, Saxony, prophets of, Melanchthon's attitude towards, 164

Zwingli, Ulrich, influence of, on politics, 81; influence of environment on him, 173, 177 theory of government, including persecution, 173-4 republican views of, 42

Zwinglian schism, influence of, on Luther, 155

Zwinglians, the, condemned by Melanchthon, 167, 170 note

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BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

8vo. 10s. net.

HISTORICAL ESSAYS

AND STUDIES

BY THE LATE LORD ACTON, D.C.L., LL.D., ETC. REGIUS PROFESSOR OF MODERN HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

Edited with an Introduction by JOHN NEVILLE FIGGIS, M.A., and REGINALD VERE LAURENCE, M.A.

CONTENTS

I. Wolsey and the Divorce of Henry VIII. II. The Borgias and their Latest Historian. III. Secret History of Charles II. IV. The Civil War in America. V. The Rise and Fall of the Mexican Empire. VI. Cavour. VII. The Causes of the Franco-Prussian War. VIII. The War of 1870. IX. George Eliot's "Life." X. Mr. Buckle's "Thesis and Method." XI. German Schools of History. XII. Talleyrand's Memoirs. XIII. The "Life" of Lord Houghton. XIV. A History of the Papacy during the Period of the Reformation. XV. A Short History of Napoleon I. The First Napoleon: A Sketch, Political and Military. XVI. Mabillon et la Societe de l'Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Pres a la Fin du XVIIe Siecle. XVII. A History of England, 1837-1880. XVIII. A History of the French Revolution. XIX. Wilhelm von Giesebrecht.

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BY THE SAME AUTHOR

8vo. 10s. net.

LECTURES ON MODERN HISTORY

BY THE LATE LORD ACTON, D.C.L., LL.D., ETC.

REGIUS PROFESSOR OF MODERN HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

Edited with an Introduction by JOHN NEVILLE FIGGIS, M.A., and REGINALD VERE LAURENCE, M.A.

CONTENTS

Introduction.

Inaugural Lecture on the Study of History.

LECTURES ON MODERN HISTORY I. Beginning of the Modern State. II. The New World. III. The Renaissance. IV. Luther. V. The Counter-Reformation. VI. Calvin and Henry VIII. VII. Philip II., Mary Stuart, and Elizabeth. VIII. The Huguenots and the League. IX. Henry the Fourth and Richelieu. X. The Thirty Years' War. XI. The Puritan Revolution. XII. The Rise of the Whigs. XIII. The English Revolution. XIV. Lewis XIV. XV. The War of the Spanish Succession. XVI. The Hanoverian Settlement. XVII. Peter the Great and the Rise of Prussia. XVIII. Frederic the Great. XIX. The American Revolution. Appendix I.—Letter to Contributors to the Cambridge Modern History. Appendix II.—Notes to Inaugural Lecture. Index.

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