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The History of Freedom
by John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton
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Bellarmine, Cardinal, deceived by hierarchical fictions, 420

"Bellum Haereticorum pax est Ecclesiae," maxim utilised by Polish bishops, 103

Benedict XIV., Pope, 148 scholarship under, 387

Bennettis, De, appreciated by Doellinger, 387

Bentham, Jeremy, pioneer in abolition of legal abuses, 3 principle of greatest happiness, 223

Berardi, Cardinal, influence of, on Doellinger, 387 proposed announcement of discussion of Infallibility at Vatican Council set aside, 518

Bergier, 573

Berlin, 378

Bernard, Brother, 564

Bernays, 432

Besold, followers of Machiavelli denounced by, 225

Beust, Count, on Vatican Council, 503; indifference to, 509

Beza, Theodore, death of Servetus approved by, 185 defence of Calvin, 183 on the Huguenot massacres, on toleration, and on the civil authority over religious crime, 146 on religious assassination, 326

Beziers, siege of, 567

Bianchi, recommended by Doellinger, 387

Bible, inspiration of, 513-15 as sole guide in all things, Luther's principle, 154, 158, 159, 161

Bigamy of the Landgrave of Hesse, how dealt with by Luther, and why, 160

Bilio, Cardinal, junior president of Vatican Council, 534

Biner, apologist of the St. Bartholomew, 148

Biran, Maine de, cited on political expediency, 220

Bishops, the, address to Pius, in preparation for Vatican Council, 494, 499 attitude of, towards Bull Multiplices inter, 520-25 and the Papacy, 511 protesting, charge of sharing Doellinger's views, repudiated by, 538 deception of, at Vatican Council, 518-526 hostility of, harm done by, 531 withdrawal of, from close of Vatican Council, 549

Bismarck, Count, on State participation in Vatican Council, 506

Bizarri, policy of, on Vatican Council, 534

Blanc, Louis, a secret worker for overthrow of Louis Philippe, 92

Blasphemy, reasons for its punishment by the Reformers, 169, 175

Blois, French court at, 112; Coligny at, 1571., 115

Blondel, Doellinger's gratitude to, 393

Blue Laws of Connecticut, 55

Boccaccio, Giovanni, revision of the Decamerone, 215

Boccapaduli, Papal secretary, speech of, on the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 136

Bodin, cited on Il Principe, 218

Bohemia, religious future of, in relation to the case of Hus, 571

Bolingbroke, Lord, slight knowledge of Machiavelli's works, 218

Bologna, University of, 556

Bona, Cardinal, urged suppression of Liber Diurnus, 516

Bonald, and absolute monarchy, 467 and Lamennais's theory, 593 ultramontanism of, 451

Bonelli, Michiel, see Alessandria, Cardinal of

Boniface VIII., Pope, Bull of, on supreme spiritual power, 324; vindications of, inspired by Doellinger, 391

Bonnechose, Cardinal, share of, in elections to Commission of Dogma, 529, 532 urged French representation on Vatican Council, 504

Bordeaux, the Huguenot massacres of, 127

Boretius, cited on Frederick the Great and Machiavelli, 229

Borghese, Cardinal, afterwards Paul V., Pope, his knowledge of the planned character of St. Bartholomew, 114

Borgia, compiler of history, 387 family, models for Machiavelli, 212 Francis, S.J., 113

Borromeo, Cardinal, 108 & notes, 108-9

Bossuet, advocate of passive obedience to kings, 47, 429, 434 Defensio feared, 378 indignation of, 148 and the idea of development, 591, 592, 593, 595 on love of country, 20 & note work of, compared to Doellinger, 424

Boucher, 45; on Henry III. of France and reliance on maxims of Il Principe, 215

Bourbon, Cardinal of, unguarded speech of, on coming Huguenot massacre, 111 Etienne de, inquisitor, works of, 558-9 House of, French and Spanish, contests of the Habsburgs with, 275 House of, upholders of supremacy of kingship over people, 47

Bourges, massacre of Huguenots commanded at, by Charles IX. La Chastre's refusal to obey, 115

Boys, Du, defender of the Inquisition, 573

Brandenburg, Albrecht, Margrave of, and the Anabaptists, 157, & see 156 note

Brantome on the death of Elizabeth of Valois, 104

Brescia, Bishop of, see Guala city, centre of historical work, 387

Brewer, intercourse with Doellinger, 402

Brief of Pius IX. to Archbishop of Munich, and attitude of Home and Foreign Review to supreme authority of the Church, 482-491

Brill, the, Dutch maritime victory, its importance, 103

British empire, why substantially one of the most perfect states, 298

Brittany, and the Huguenot massacres, 119

Brixen, Bishop of, on Papal authority, 543

Brosch, on Cardinal Pole and Il Principe, 214

Brougham, Lord, advice to students, 393

Bruce, house of, struggle with house of Plantagenet, 35

Bruno, 430

Bryce, James, The American Commonwealth, review, 575

Bucer, Martin, in favour of persecution, 172-73

Buch, De, 430

Buchanan, 44, 45

Buckeridge, Blondel, Doellinger's Roman antidote to, 387

Buckle, H.T., 589, 590

Bugge, discoveries of, 405

Bull, censure of the Reformation of, 416

Bull of Boniface VIII., on supreme spiritual authority, 324

Bull of Gregory XIII. relating to the Huguenot massacres, 134-45 & note; not admitted into official collections 101

Bull Multiplices inter, of Vatican Council, 520-22

Bullarium Dominicanum, the, referred to by Lea, 563

Bullinger, Heinrich, death of Servetus approved by, 185 cited on persecution, 174-76

Burd, L.A., edition of Machiavelli's Il Principe, introduction to, 212-31; skill as exponent of Machiavelli's political system, 212 text of the Discorsi produced by, 227

Burgundy, refusal of its governors to massacre Huguenots, 118

Burke, Edmund, 580; Doellinger's political model, 393, 417 French Revolution denounced by, 219 on the moral and political as distinct from the merely geographical, 294 on the partition of Poland, 275 on revolution, 587 cited on political oppression in Ireland, 253, note on the rights of mankind, 56

Burning of heretics, Lea's view on, 568

Byzantine despotism, due to combined influence of Church and State, 33

Bzovius, authority on the Inquisition, 554

Cadiz Constitution, 1812., 89; its overthrow the triumph of the restored monarchy of France, 89

Caesarius of Heisterbach, authority of, distrusts by Lea, 567

Calhoun, J.C., indictment against democracy, 93

Calvin, John, 176, 585 action of, with regard to Servetus, 184; and his defence of the same, 181 attitude of, to the civil power, 179-81 hostility to, of Lutherans, 145 republican views of, 42, 43 system of Church government, 177-79

Calvinism in Germany, 345

Calvinists, English, tolerated by Melanchthon, 170 & note

Camden, Lord, cited in disfavour of American taxation, 55

Campanella, ideal society of, 270

Campeggio, Cardinal, commentary of, on Zanchini, 559

Canello, cited on Machiavelli's unpopularity, 226

Canning, G., on the question as to who reigned, George III. or his ministers, 583; his wisdom, 40

Capalti, Cardinal, junior President of Vatican Council, 534

Capecelatro, 412

Capilupi, Camillo, author of Lo Stratagemma di Carlo IX., 129; its bearing on the position of the Cardinal of Lorraine, 130; and others, on Alessandria's information as to forthcoming massacre of Huguenots, 114 family, glorification by, of Charles IX. for the St. Bartholomew, 128 et seq. Hippolyto, Bishop of Fano, support given by, to Charles IX., 128-9

Capito, Wolfgang Fabricius, reformer, 172, 174

Capponi, friend of Doellinger, 420 as federalist, 414 Doellinger's study of, 402

Capuchins, General of, and the Inquisition, 553

Carbonari, supporters of, 284; their impotence, 286

Carcassonne, no Huguenot massacres at, 142

Cardinal Wiseman, 436

Cardinals, approval by, of the St. Bartholomew, 140 opposition of, to Vatican Council, 493 French, and absolute monarchy, 41

Carena, "De Officio S.S. Inquisitionis," valuable matter in, on the Inquisition, 560

Carius, works of, edited by Trent Commissioners, 215

Carlstadt, Andreas, polygamy defended by, 159

Carlyle, Thomas, on truth as basis of success, 223

Carneades, his infusion of Greek ideas into minds of Roman statesmen, 16

Carouge, and the Rouen massacre of Huguenots, 119

Caspari, at Doellinger's house, 405

Castagna, Papal Nuncio, 117

Catechism of St. Sulpice, Lea's deductions from, 571

Catherine de' Medici, Queen-Mother of France, advisers urging, to destroy Coligny and his party, 108-9 & notes challenge of, to Queen Elizabeth, 122 children of, trained on Machiavelli's principles, 215 hints of the intended massacre, 110, 111, 113-14 jealous for her merit in the St. Bartholomew, 130 levity of her religious feelings, 122 long premeditation by, of the massacre, 115 methods of, to balance Catholic and Huguenot power, 103 wrath of, at Gregory's demand for revocation of the edict of Toleration, 137 on the death of her daughter, Queen of Spain, 104 & note cited, 580-81

Catholic attitude to Huguenot massacres, 146-8; change in, how induced, 148 Church, see Church countries, revolution more frequent in, than in Protestant, and why, 278 Emancipation Act, spiritual fruits of, gathered by Wiseman, 437 legitimists and democracy, link between, 590 literature, phases of, last hundred years as to principles in politics and science, 450-51 theory on the proper way to deal with heretics, discredit caused by, 140-41 use of subterfuge, 454

Catholic and Protestant intolerance, difference between, 165, 168-70, 186-7

Catholicism, in the Dark Ages, 200 ground lost by, since the Middle Ages, 593 holiness of, hated by its enemies, 437 identification of, with some secular cause an Ultramontane peculiarity, 451 liberal, supposed founder of, 588 spreads as an institution as well as a doctrine, 246 tendency of, 189

Catholics, English, peculiarities of their position, 438; unity aimed at by them, ib. treatment of, by the Reformers, 157, 162, 163, 168, 174, 178-9

Cavalli, Venetian ambassador, on the bad management of the St. Bartholomew, 109

Celts, Gallic and British, why conquered, 241 the materials less than the impulse of history supplied by, 240

Champel, half-burned book from, 569

Chanson de la Croisade, 565

Character, national, influence of, on events, limits of, 557

Charlemagne, 409

Charles Albert, King of Piedmont, revolution under, 285

Charles I., King of England, execution of, a triumph for Royalism, 51

Charles II., King of England, secret treaty between him and Louis XIV., 53

Charles V., Emperor, records of reign of, 409

Charles IX., King of France, active conciliation by, of Protestants, 105 alliances made by, with Protestant rulers, 105 attempts of, to appease Protestant powers after the massacre, 120 blamed for "leniency," "cruel clemency," etc., in the massacre, 126, 141, 143 Cardinal Lorraine's eulogy of, for the massacre, 112 civil war resulting from persecutions during his minority, 103 date when Catherine suggested the massacre to him, 115 desirous of thwarting Spain, his measures to that end, 104, 105 effect on his attitude to Rome of his success in crushing Huguenots, 137 explanations offered by, various, on the massacre, 118 hints dropped by, of the coming massacre, 111 letters of, to Rome, fate of, 101 letter from, to the Pope, announcing the massacre, 132; reasons alleged in, 133 massacre of Huguenot prisoners ordered by, 141 methods of, in the provincial massacres, 118 et seq. Naude's Apology for its basis, 147 negotiations of, for Anjou's marriage with Queen Elizabeth, 105 Nuncio on Charles IX., tenacity of his authority, 137 panegyric on, by Panigarola, 125 personal share of, in the massacre, approved by Mendoca, 124 praised for his conduct as to the massacre, 112, 125, 128-9, 136, 140, 147 suppression by, of materials for history of the massacre, 121 & note threats of Pius V. to, 139 tracts on his danger from Coligny, and on his joy at the massacre, 131 on his plan for the massacre, 117 death of, Sorbin's account, 126-7 his wife and her parentage, 105

Charron, on subordination to universal reason, 46

Chastre, La, refuses to execute Charles IX.'s orders as to Huguenot massacre at Bourges, 115

Chateaubriand, Marquis de, 464 liberalism of, discussed, 594 maxim of, on the timidity of the better sort of men, 582; endorsed by Menou, ib. transcription by, of Salviati's despatches, 102

Chatham, Lord, against taxation of American colonists, 55

Chatillon, House of, feud of, with the Guises, 112

Chemnitz, Lutheran divine, on Calvinists, 145

Cherbuliez, the elder, on the power of abstract ideas, 585

Cheverus, 402

Chinese, stationary national character of, 241

Christ, His divine sanction the true definition of the authority of government, 29

Christian states, constitution of the Church as model for, 192

Christianity, appeal to barbarian rulers, 33 considered as force, not doctrine, by Doellinger, 383-7 in the Dark Ages, 200 as history, Doellinger's view of, 380 how employed by Constantine, 30, 31 influence of, on the human race, 200; and on popular government, 79 primitive, penetration of influence over State gradual, 27 progress of, must be supplemented by secular power, 246, 247 teaching of Stoics nearest approach to that of, 24, 25 universality of, influence of nations on, 317-21 why Romans opposed establishment of, 195, 198 freedom in, appeal of Christianity to rulers, 33 effects on, of Teutonic invasion, 32 influence on, of feudalism, 35 political influence of the Reformation on, 43 supplying faculty of self-government in classical era, 31 political advances of Middle Ages due to, 39 rise of Guelphs and Ghibellines as affecting, 36 rise and progress of absolute monarchy as affecting, 41, 47, 48 rise of religious liberty and toleration as resulting from, 52, 53 rise and progress of political liberty due to, 56, 57, 58 sovereignty of people in Middle Ages acknowledged in consequence of, 35

Christina, Queen, of Sweden, on truth, 316

Chronicle, The, Acton's leaders in, ix

Chrysippus, views of, 73

Church, the, see also Catholicism, Papacy, Popes, and Rome attitude of, to isolation of nations, 292 attitude of, to Wycliffe, Hus, and Luther, 271; difference in their attitude to her, ib. both accepting and preparing the individual to receive, 450; how she performs this, ib. censure of, ineffectual against Machiavelli's political doctrines, 218 condemnation of Frohschammer's book, and excommunication, 477 and the development of Machiavelli's policy, 225 difficulties of, how nourished, 455 Doellinger's vindication of, 404 effect on, of growth of feudalism, 245 fables of, Doellinger's investigation of, in Papstfabeln des Mittelalters, 418-21 free action of, test of free constitution of State, 246 Goldwin Smith's unfair estimate of, 234 in Ireland, Goldwin Smith's views on, 259 great work (salvation of souls) and its subsidiaries, 448-9 hostility to, roused by conflicts with science and literature, 461-91 indebted to the barbarians for corporate position, 244 manifestation of, how seen, 269 minority in, in agreement with Doellinger, 313 not justified in resisting political law or scientific truth on grounds of peril in either to the faith, 449 et seq. not openly attacked, eighteenth century, 273-4 her peculiar mission to act as channel of grace not her sole mission, 448-9 political thoughts on, 188; authority, supreme, the Church as, 192; Catholicism in the "Dark Ages," 200; Christianity, influence of, on human race, 200; divine order in the world, establishment of, 189; English race, Christianity a cause of greatness of, 204; liberty, influence of Christianity on, 203; religion, true, definition of, 197; Romans, persecution of Christians by, reasons for, 196, 198 position of, in State, regulation difficult, 252 struggle of feudalism with, 35 tolerance of, in early days, 186 view of, on government, 260

Church discipline, Bucer's system of, 172-3 government, under control in the modern State, 151

Church of England, internal condition of, 437-8 establishment, English and Irish, difference between, 259

Church and State Teutonic, quarrel between, cause of revival of democracy, 80 relations of, 150-52, 162, 163-4 union of, creating Byzantine despotism, 33; effect of, on paganism, 33 views on, of Anabaptists, 171-2; Bucer, 172-3; Calvin, 177 et seq.; Luther, 154, 156, 157-8, 159, 161-4, 180; Melanchthon, 164 et seq.; OEcolampadius, 176-7; Zwingli, 173-4; Reformers in general, 181

Cicero, 409

Cienfuegos, Cardinal and Jesuit, view of, on Charles IX., 148

Circumspice, as motto for the Catholic Church, 269

Citeaux, 567

Citizenship in Athens, 68

"City of the Sun," an ideal society described by, 270

Civil authority over religious crime (see also Passive obedience), Beza's view, 146 liberty, point of unison of, with religious liberty, 151; its two worst enemies, 300 War of America, consolidating effects of, on the Constitution, 579 society, its aim and end, 298

Civilisation, despotism in relation to, 5, 6, 27 liberty the product of, 596 mature, liberty the fruit of, 1 social, unconnected with political civilisation, 243 in Western Europe retarded by five centuries owing to Teutonic invasion and domination, 32, 33

Civilta Cattolica, organ of Pius IX., 497

Classical literature, subjects not found in, 25, 26

Clay, H., despondency of, as to American institutions, 579

Clement IV., Pope, directions of, for Inquisitors, 560

Clement V., Pope, decree of, on privilege of Inquisitors, deductions on, of Lea, 566 share of, in the trial of the Templars, 563 cited on political honesty, 214 publication of Il Principe authorised by, 214

Clement VIII., Pope (Aldobrandini), testimony of, on premeditation of the St Bartholomew, 114-15 & notes

Clergy, immunities of, 34; unpopular in Italy, 363 upholders of absolute monarchy, 41

Clifford, Lord, acquaintance of, with Doellinger, 388

Colbert, admirers of, in accord with Helvetius, 220

Coleridge, S.T., metaphysics of, Doellinger's love for, 381

Coligny, Admiral de, 105; death of, origin and motives of, discussed, 101 et seq., 117-18; the story of, 106, 111 et seq., 118; the question of its premeditation discussed, 106-7 et seq. alleged plot to kill Charles IX., 131, 135, 136 murderer of, 124; reward of, from Philip II., 123, and presented to the Pope, 144 & note; nationality (alleged) of, 124

Colocza, Archbishop of, head of Council of Bishops, 1867., 499

Cologne, Archbishop of, loose reading of terms of the legal reform of Index, 531

Cologne, Synod at, and infallibility, 499

Commines, Philip de, on levying of taxes, 39

Commonwealth, The American, by James Bryce, review, 575

Commonwealths, founders of, 70

Communism, a subversive theory, proclaimed by Baboeuf, 273; theory of its antiquity due to Critias, 17

Comte, Auguste, historic treatment of philosophy, 380

Concordat, Austrian, failure of, 292

Confederacy essential to a great democracy, 277

Confederate scheme of American government, 577

Conference of Bayonne, resolutions inimical to Huguenots taken at, 108-9 & notes

Confession of Anjou, on the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 107

Confession of Augsburg, apology of, on excommunication, 158 importance of, recognised by Luther, 159

Conflicts with Rome, 461-91

Connecticut, Blue Laws of, 55

Conrad, Master (of Marburg), principles inspiring, 556; as confessor of St. Elizabeth, 570

Conscience, freedom of, a postulate of religious revolution, 153 in politics, expedient elasticity of, 212-14

Conservateur, the, 594

Conservatism, indirect elections not always a safeguard of, 2; restriction of suffrage in relation to, 96

Conservatism of American revolutionists, 580 European, 583

Constance, Council of, support of, to the Inquisition, 570

Constantine, donation of, 469; political Christianity of, 30, 31

Constantinople, seat of Roman Empire transferred to, 30 Patriarchs of, see Eutychius

Constitution, American, consolidated by the Civil War, 579 despondency of its founders as to, 579 Hamilton's views on, 581-3 not understood by Tocqueville, 576

Constitution of England, Sir E. May on, 62

Constitutions, evolution of, 58 growth of, nature of, 5 Periclean, characteristic of, 10 view of Guelph writers respecting, 36 how ancient, differ from modern, 19 mixed, difficulty of establishing and impossibility of maintaining, 20

Contarini, Gaspar, 214

Contarini, Venetian ambassador, on the expected change in France (as to the Huguenots), 109

Conti, story of priests and the St. Bartholomew disproved, 126

Cooley, Judge, cited by Bryce, on American liberty and government, 580

Copernican system, the, derided by Luther, 160

Corsica, 105

Cortes, Donoso, classed as ultramontane, 451

Council of Arles and the Count of Toulouse, 565

Council of Constance, support of, to the Inquisition, 570

Council of Trent, 111, 138; Doellinger's investigations of, 431; and tradition, 513

Council of Ten, Molino on, 213

Cournot, intellectual qualities of, 589

Cousin, Victor, 224, 588, 589 historic treatment of philosophy, 380

Cranmer, 430

Creuzer, 405

Critias, cited, 70 originator of notion of original communism of mankind, 17

Croker, see Canning

Cromwell, Oliver, Constitutions of, short-lived, 50 study of, 410

Cromwell, Thomas, acquaintance of, with Il Principe, 214 death of, a joy of Melanchthon, 217

Culturgeschichte of Hellwald, 573

Cumberland, expositor of Grotius, 46

Cusa, Cardinal of, on Christian doctrine, 514

Daniel, historian, 588

Dante, Doellinger's return to study of, 433 key to, where found, 574 views of, on conscience, 562 and Cecco d'Ascoli, on schism, 564

Danton, his action in the Reign of Terror, 266

Darboy, Archbishop, on Papal Infallibility, 547 opposition of, at Vatican Council, 522

Daru, revival by, of Hohenlohe's policy, 511

Darwin, Charles, estimate of Carlyle, 223

Deak on Hungarian administration, 510

Decree, the first, issued to Vatican Council, 531; withdrawn, 535

Defoe, Daniel, on want of principle among contemporary politicians, 53

"De Haereticis," tract on toleration, 182

Delbrueck, criticism of Macaulay's power of historical deduction, 385

Delicieux, fall of, conclusions on, of Lea, 563, 564

Democracy (see also Will of the People), alliance of, with despotism, 238 alliance of, with socialism baneful, 92, 93, 98 attitude to, of Aristotle, 71, 72 and Catholic Legitimists, link between, 590 curbing of, by ancient constitutions, 19 definition and tendencies of, 62 enlightened ideas of Lilburne on, 83 essence of, 7 federalism most effective check on, 98 in fourteenth century, 80 government by, danger of, 20 a great, in relation to self-government, 277 modern mistakes in true conception of, 93, 94 in Pennsylvania, 84 pervading evil of, 97 political writers against, 93 Presbyterianism and, 81, 82 present aim, 95 principles of, advocated by Pericles, 9 progress of, in Europe, 85 revival of, to what due, 80 ancient, partial solution of, by popular government, 79 Athenian, tyranny manifested by, 12 Swiss, 90

Democracy in Europe, by Sir Erskine May, 61

Democratic method of Socrates, 71 principle, triumph of, in France, results of, 287

Denifle, Father, 574

Denmark, religion in, Doellinger on, 340-31

Derby, Lord, cited, 189

Descartes, advocate of passive obedience to kings, 48

Despotic spirit, old, its two adversaries, 276

Despotism after peace of Westphalia, 325 alliance of democracy with, 238 emancipation of mankind from, to what due, 24, 25 overpowering strength of, the doom of classical civilisation, 27 product of civilisation, 5, 6 see also Absolutism

Development, see also Progress and its earlier supporters, 592 Flint on, topic discussed, 591, 592

Diocletian's persecution of the Christians due to attempt to transform Roman government into despotism of Eastern type, 30, 31

Dispensation, the, for the Navarre marriage long withheld, 128 & note; price, assumed, for, ib.; never granted, 131-2; Charles IX.'s hope regarding, 133

Divine right of freeholders established by Revolution of 1688., 54 of kings, principle of, led to advocacy of passive obedience, 47 of the people, 36, see also Will of the People with respect to election of monarch, 35

Divine order in the world, establishment of, 189

Djakovar, Bishop of, on validity of Vatican Council's decrees, 549

Doctrine, danger from, motive for religious persecution in pagan and mediaeval times, 251

Dogma, Commission on, at Vatican Council, election and proceedings of, 529-31

Dolcino, two versions of the story of, 555, 568

Doellinger, Dr. J.J. Ignatius von, his attacks on Papal Infallibility, 538, 545; on episcopal authority, in Council, 545 character of, 403 declaration of, on papal necessity for temporal power, 312-13 fame of, 463 historical insight of, limitations of, 409-10 judgments of, compared to Moehler's, 378; their gentleness, 410 influences acting upon, earlier and later studies, intercourse, literatures, etc.—evolution due to—375-6, 379-82, 383, 386-9, 392-3, 399; later views of, 396, 425-36 later life of, 399 and Moehler in Munich, views at variance, 377-80 politics and their interest for, 400-403 reliance of scholars on, in theological difficulties, 382-3 silence of followers of, 313-15 style of, 375-435; own estimate of, 432; views on, and methods of, 383, 385, 389-92 tract attributed to, on Infallibility, 512, 513 value as historian of the Church, 408-10 views of, compared to Moehler's, 378-9; on temporal power, 301-74 visits of, to Oxford, 403; to Rome, 410-14 Works by— Church History, interpretations of, 379-435; source of, 386; new edition of, refused by, 392-3 Heidenthum und Judenthum, publication of, 405-7 Hippolytus und Kallistus, publication of, 404-5 Kirche und Kirchen, argument of, 414-18; description of, 384-6; source of, 386; preface to, cited on temporal authority of the Church, 303-12; purpose of, 371-4 Papstfabeln des Mittetalters, spurious authority of the Church, 418-21 Philosophumena, vindication of Rome, after publication of, by, 404 Reformation, preparation for, 392-4; publication of, 394; ridiculed in Rome, 411; style of, 393-7 cited on attitude of Pius IX. and the Council, 371 character of Pius IX., 365-6 Council of Trent, 432 England's attitude to temporal power of Pope, 415 German loyalty to the Church, 370-71 Luther, 397 mistaken judgments of youth, 429 St. Dominic, 428 the temporal power of the Pope, 414-15

Dominicans, the, theology of, discountenanced, 498

Dominis, De, 432

Dorner, 389

Dort, Canons of, 580

Doyle, 402

Duchesne, Abbe, 400, 574 on the idea of development, and what impeded its acceptance, 592-3

Dupanloup, 400, 425; opposition of, at Vatican Council, 522, 526 defence of Syllabus by, 424 opposition of, to Papal temporal power, 412

Duperron, Cardinal, on Arianism, apparent, in St. Irenaeus and Tertullian, 592

Duplessis-Mornay, forebodings of, as to Huguenot perils, 107

Dutch independence due to maritime successes, 103

Dynastic interest, dominant in old European system, 273 at the Congress of Vienna, 283

Ebrard, Doellinger's opinion of work of, 420

Ecclesiastical authority, functions of its office, 460

Echard, authority on the Inquisition, 554 book by, on St. Thomas, pages by another, printed in, 558-9

Eckstein, character of, 400

Ecole des Chartes, pupils of, methods of, 561

Ecole Francaise, 574

Edessa, Archbishop of, at commission of preparation for Vatican Council, 500

Edict of Nantes, Revocation of, an inconsistency, 170 not approved by Innocent XI., 147 remarks on, 260 of Pacification, 108 of Toleration, deceitful, of Charles IX., 117, 135

Elections, indirect, 97; not always a safeguard of conservatism, 2

Elizabeth, Queen of England, Catherine de' Medici's challenge to a massacre of Catholics, 122 Doellinger's lenient view of, 410 murder of, sanctioned by Pius V., 139 not alienated by Charles IX.'s Huguenot massacres, 120 proposed league of, for Protestant defence, Lutheran protest, 145

Elizabeth of Valois, first wife of Philip II. of Spain, fate of, 104 & note

Ellicott, Dr., Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, on Lamennais's theory, 593

Emerson, R.W., on attitude of the best Americans to politics, 578

Encyclical, the, of 1846, Infallibility proclaimed in, 496

England, an exception to the common law of dynastic States till 1745., 274 indignation in, at the idea of development in religion, 591 Inquisition never admitted into, 59 status of kings in, Canning on, 583-4 under the Stuarts, Church and liberty in, 208

English Catholics, peculiarities of their position, 438; Wiseman's personal relations with, 437, 438 legal system, pioneer work of Jeremy Bentham in reform of, 3 liberty, adversary of the despotic policy, 276 nation, endurance of, and supremacy of, in art of labour, 60 foremost in battle for liberty, 59 views of, on the Huguenot massacres, 144 race, Christianity a cause of greatness of, 204 writers, Doellinger's acquaintance with, 388

Entremont, Countess, marriage of, with Coligny, Salviati's denunciation on, 110

Eoetvoes on lay interest in religious government, 510

Ephialtes and democracy, 68

Epictetus, 406

Epicurus on purpose of foundation of societies, 18

Equality, passion for, in France, 57, 58 subversive theory proclaimed by Rousseau, 273; making French Revolution (1789) disastrous to liberty, 88 of fortune, and class interests, 69 political, observations on the right to, 262

Erasmus, his idea of renovating society on the principles of self-sacrifice, 58

Erhle, Father, 552, 560, 574

Essenes, disappearance of, 66 idea of renovating society on the principles of self-sacrifice, 58 slavery, both in principle and practice, rejected by, 26

Ethical offices of the Church not exclusively hers, 448-9

Ethnology and Geography united, in relation to security of free institutions, Mill on, 286

Eudaemon-Johannes, praise given by, to the St. Bartholomew, 147

Eugenius IV., Pope, election of, 355

Euphemus, cited, 70

Europe, attitude of, to the French massacre of Huguenots, 120. 124-5; progress of democracy in, 85; theory of Nationality in, how awakened, 275 civilised, to what its preservation is due according to Lea, 568 Latin, frequency in, of revolution, 278; its object, 280-81 Western, retrogression in arts and sciences due to domination of Teutons, 32, 33 the two conquests of, and their effects on social ideas, 278 et seq.

European liberalism and conservatism, 582-3 system, the old, reigning families, not nationalities, dominant in, 273

Eutychius, Lea's remarks on, challenged, 563

Excommunication, of Frohschammer, 477 what it involves, according to the confession of Schmalkald, etc., 158

Eymeric, author of the Directorium, President of Arragonese tribunal against heretics, 558, 559

Fables of the Church (Papstfabeln des Mittelalters), Doellinger's investigations of, 418-21

Faenza, why menaced by Pius V., 137

Faith not to be kept with heretics, Catholic theory on, 140-41

Falloux, value of, as historian, 400 opposition of, to Montalembert, 425

False principles, place of, in social life of nations, 272

Fantuzzi, compiler of history, 387

Farel, death of Servetus approved by, 185

Farnese, Cardinal, see Paul III., Pope

Fatalism, philosophy of historians, 221

Fauriel, 565

Federal government, views on, of Hamilton, 581-3

Federalism, most effective check on democracy, 98; value of, 20

Federalist, The, by Alexander Hamilton, various views on, 581

Federal form of American constitution, said not to be understood by Tocqueville, 576

Fenelon, his idea of renovating society on the principles of self-sacrifice, 58 on absolutism, 433 on domains as dowries, 273 on national distress, 49

Ferdinand I., Doellinger's lenient estimate of, 410

Ferdinand II., Doellinger's lenient estimate of, 410

Ferralz, despatches of, on attitude of Roman Court to the St. Bartholomew, unused, 102 quarrels of, with the Cardinal of Lorraine, 129 true particulars of the Navarre marriage according to, 131-2 on the attitude of Gregory XIII. on hearing of the St. Bartholomew, 132-3 note

Ferrara, Alfonso, Duke of, a massacre of Huguenots advised by (1564), 108 & note

Ferrari, 590; Doellinger's tribute to, 417 on Machiavelli's character, 226

Ferrier, Du, Catherine de' Medici's words to, on the death of the Queen of Spain and the massacre of St. Bartholomew, 104

Ferrieres, 122

Fessler, see St. Poelten, Bishop of

Feudalism, alien to the sentiment of France, 279 growth of, 34; effect on Church, 245 struggles of, with the Church, 34, 35

Feuerlein, Machiavelli's loyalty upheld by, 229 on political expediency, 224

Fichte, J.S., cited in praise of Machiavelli's policy, 228

Ficker, Prof., account by, of the Inquisition, 426 on the real contriver of the Inquisition's rule by terror, 555

First Empire, the French, things most oppressed by, the causes of its downfall, 281

Fischer, Kuno, trace of Machiavelli in metaphysics of, 228

Fisher, John, Bishop of Rochester, on persecution, 570

Flaminian Gate, ancient custom connected with, 136

Flaminius, works of, edited by Trent Commissioners, 215

Fleury, style of, Doellinger's compared to, 381

Flint, Professor Robert, 572; Historical Philosophy in France and French Belgium and Switzerland, review, 588 critical faculty strong in, 591 nature of his superiority as writer, 588-9; some defects, 589-90

Florence, prepared for the St. Bartholomew, 109

Fontana, authority on the Inquisition, 554

Forbes (Bishop of Brechin), Doellinger's intimacy with, 416

Force replaced by opinion as Catholic tribunal, 148

Foreign rulers, objection to, as third cause of popular risings, 284

Forgery, Church authority supported by 511, 513

Formosus, 563

Fors de Bearn, the, 566

"Fourth Estate," rise of, 67

Fox, Charles James, 54

France, absolute monarchy in, 48; how built up, 41 the Church in, and Protestantism, Doellinger on, 337 democratic principle in, its triumph the cause of the energy of the national theory, 287 feudalism alien to, 279 Gallican theory in, with respect to reigning houses, 35 governed by Paris during Revolution of 1789., 88 of history, how, and why, it fell, 277 inherent absence of political freedom and presence of absolutism in, 237-40 kingdom of, how evolved, 278 opposition in, to Lamennais's Ultramontanism, 463-4 passion in, for equality, 57, 158 political ideas concerning, of Charles IX., and of Richelieu, 116 removal of Papacy to, 370 and representation on Vatican Council, 504-5 "the slave of heretics" according to Pius V., 105 restored monarchy of, see Restoration

Franchi at Council of Bishops in 1867., 499

Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria, in 1859., 287

Franciscan masters, the, and the idea of development in religion, 592

Franciscans, General of, on the planned character of the St. Bartholomew, 124 struggle of Avignon with, 552

Franklin, Benjamin, irreligious tone of, 584

Franks, preamble of the Salic law of, 200

Franzelin on commission of preparation for Vatican Council, 500

Frederic the Great and Machiavelli's political schemes, 227 ignorant opposition of, to Machiavelli's works, 218

Frederic II., Emperor, treaty of, with the Church, 555 Lombard law of, 152; its provisions, 555, 556

Free institutions, a generally necessary condition for securing, Mill on, 286

Freedom (see also Liberty) accorded to English Catholics, 438 in antiquity— age of Pericles, 9 antiquity of liberty, modernity of despotism, 5 cause of liberty benefited more under Roman Empire than under Republic, 15 dangers of monarchy, of aristocracy and democracy, 19, 20 decline of Athenian constitution, 11 definition of liberty, 3 early communism and utilitarianism, 17, 18 emancipation by Stoics of mankind from despotic rule, 24 guiding principle of Roman Republic, 13 highest teaching of classical civilisation powerless to avert despotism, 27 history of institutions often deceptive and illusive, 2 implicit opposition of Stoics to principle of slavery, 25, 26 influence of Christianity over the State, gradual, 27 infusion of Greek ideas of statesmanship among Romans, 16 liberty, highest political end, 22, 23, 24 limitation and excess in duties of State, 4 method of growth of constitution, 5 nature of government of Israelites, 4 object of constitutions, 10 reform in English legal system instituted by Jeremy Bentham, 3 representative government, emancipation of slaves, and liberty of conscience not a subject of classical literature, 25, 26 revision of laws of Athens by Solon, 6 sanction of Christ the true definition of the authority of government, 29 teaching of Plato and Aristotle respecting politics, 22 teaching of Pythagoras and Heraclitus of Ephesus, 21, 22 triumphs due to minorities, 1, 4 value of federalism, 20 vice of the Classic State, 16 wisest minds among the ancients tainted with perverted morality, 18

Freedom in Christianity, history of— Christianity employed by Constantine to strengthen his empire, 30, 31 civil, its two worst enemies, 300 conscience, a postulate of religious revolution, 153

Freeholders, "divine right of," established by Revolution of 1688, 54

Freeman, Doellinger on, as a historian, 421 on Mommsen's want of generous sentiment, 222

French Belgium, see Historical Philosophy in France and French Belgium and Switzerland

French Catholics, reasons of their confusion between piety and ferocity, 141 clergy, and the St. Bartholomew, 126-7 & notes monarchy, aid of the democracy in establishing and in demolishing, reasons for both, 278-80 people, attitude of, to and after the Huguenot massacres, 143 et seq. how regarded after the Revolution, 277 provincial massacres of Huguenots, 118-19, 134 writers, influence of, on Doellinger, 387 scholarship, dependence on, of Mr. H.C. Lea, 558

French Republic of 1848, of what school the triumph, 590

French Revolution, see Revolution, French

Frohschammer, 473-7 conflict with Rome, 462, 467, 469, 473-483

Fulcodius, Cardinal, see Clement IV.

Fulda, council of bishops at, 517

Funds of the Church, proposed disposal of, in Italy, 509

Gallicanism, corruption of Christianity, 463, 524 Lamennais's crusade against, 464 theory of, on reigning houses in France, 35

Gams, 429; defender of the Inquisition, 573

Ganganelli, Cardinal, influence of, on Doellinger, 434

Gaspary, cited on Machiavelli's loyalty, 230

Gass, on St. Anthony's life and origin of monasticism, 420

Gaul, Roman, tolerance in, of absolutism, 279

Gazette de France and universal suffrage, 590

Geneva, trial of Servetus at, 184

Genlis, Huguenot commander, defeat of, the consequences to Coligny, 116, 117, 141

Genoa, extinction of, as State, 283

Gentz cited on Machiavelli's policy, 229

George III., King of England, 583

George IV., King of England, 583

German, or Teutonic, conquest of Europe, its consequences, 277 et seq. writers, as influencing Doellinger, 389

Germany, effect on, of the massacre of St. Bartholomew, 124, 143 Protestantism in (1572), 103 theology of, unique and scientific, 317, 347-351, 376, 471-482 union of, 225 and the Vatican Council— circular of German bishops to, 517 opposition in, 503; and to Infallibility, 500; representation of, 505

Gerson, 562; cited, 191

Gervinus, G.G.. on Machiavelli as prophet of modern politics, 229

Ghibellines, political theory of, 37

Gibbon, Edward, 389

Gieseler, Doellinger's dislike of, 389, and estimate of, 404

Ginoulhiac, on Papal Infallibility, 540 on Strossmayer's influence, 536

Gioberti, followers of, 314 metaphysics of, Doellinger's love for, 381

Girondists, objects of, 263

Gladstone, W.E., Acton's admiration for, xxiii; and Doellinger, letter to, on the Irish question, 434; estimate of historical judgment and style, 416; intercourse of, 400 policy of, feared in Rome, 507

Glencoe, massacre of, 218, 410

Gneist, 377

Gonzaga, Lewis, see Nevers

Goerres, Joseph, 282, 405 centre of Munich group of theologians, 386

Goettingen, 378; seminary pupils of, methods of, 561

Government, authority of, defined by Divine sanction of Christ, 29 Catholic view of, 260 chief duty of, to maintain political right, 449 American, Judge Cooley on, 580

Gracchus, opposition to Octavius, 76

Grant, General Ulysses, 579

Granvelle, Cardinal, Viceroy of Naples, on the massacre of St. Bartholomew, 125, 140; on Alva's prisoners, 142

Gratian, 557

Gratry, letters of, to the Archbishop of Mechlin, on divisions in the Church, 537-8 on the Inquisition, 424 tribute from, to Doellinger, 424 cited on Veuillot's school, 429

Greece, national beliefs yielding to doubt during age of Pericles, 8, 9 politics of, infused into minds of Roman statesmen, 16

Greek Church, development of, 332-3 revolution, causes united in, 284

Greeks, democracy of, 66 as makers of history, 240 slavery discouraged by, 63

Gregory VII., Pope, deception of, by hierarchical fictions, 420 and democracy, 80 his disparagement of civil authorities, 36

Gregory IX., Pope, 430 appointed Guala as first Inquisitor, 553 Lea's view of, as intellectual originator of the Inquisition, 555, 557

Gregory X., Pope, and the Inquisition, 426

Gregory XIII., Pope, 430 and the Massacre of St. Bartholomew— Bull of, on, 101, 134 complicity of, discussed, 128 fate of his letters to France, 101 previous knowledge of, 110, 116 receipt of the news by, his public and private attitude, and his reply, 132-5, 137 urges full and complete extirpation of Huguenots, 142 conduct as viewed by French and by Italians, 148 reply, 137 undue hatred of, consequent on his attitude to the matter, 138 and the Navarre marriage, his steady opposition, 105, 111, 113, 128 on destruction as result of sedition, 216

Gregory XVI., Pope, personal fallibility of, admitted, and denounced by Lamennais, 465, 466

Grenoble, Bishop of, doctrine of Papal Infallibility admitted by, 528 excluded from Commission on Dogma, 530 on dogmatic decrees of the Vatican Council, 533

Grey, Lord, 219

Grotius, 432; days of, 225 founder of study of real political science, 46 on the principles of law, 46

Guala, Bishop of Brescia, successor of Moneta and St. Dominic, 553 and the burning of heretics. 555-6

Guelphs, political theory of, 36

Guicciardini, Francesco, abridged by Trent Commissioners, 215

Guidonis, Bernardus, frequently cited by Lea, 568 leading authority of the fourteenth century, 559 Practitia of, 558 protests of, on Clement V.'s decree on privilege of Inquisitors, 566

Guise, Duke of, initiative of, in the massacre of St. Bartholomew, 112 recalled to France, 213 slain by Henry III. of France, 121

Guise, House of, 112, 118

Guizot, 400 on the eighteenth century, 585 on Hamilton's work The Federalist, 581 on importance, to all denominations, of the Vatican Council, 493 wisdom of, 401

Guenther, 473

Gurney, Archer, alarm of, at Doellinger's views, 382

Guyon on the murder of heretics, 147

Habeas Corpus Act, principle originated in Middle Ages, 39

Habsburg family, contests of, 274

Halifax Archbishop of (Conolly), on the dogmatic decree, 533 opposition of, at Vatican Council, 522 on Scriptural authority, 547

Halifax, George Savile, Lord, 53

Hallam, Henry, favourable comparison of theory of Il Principe with other political theories, 224

Hamilton, Alexander, eulogised, 581-3 history, treatment of philosophy, 380 political example of, 586 views of, as cited by Bryce, 578

Harnack, estimate of Doellinger, 434

Harrington, political writer in advance of his time, 51

Hartwig, 230

Hase, Prof. K., cited on political expediency, view of, on importance of Vatican Council to all denominations, 493

Haureau, Histoire Litteraire by, divergence from, of Lea, 558, 563

Havet, 555

Haynald, Archbishop of Colocza, at Council of Bishops, 1867, 499

Hefele, defender of the Inquisition, 573 estimate by, of Doellinger, 434 on Papal Infallibility, 540, 544 on validity of dicta of Vatican Council, 548

Hegel, Carl, friend of Doellinger, 420

Hegel, G.W.F., 589, 590 definition by, of universal history, 224 as enemy of religion, Doellinger's disparaging view of, 376, 381 master of Cousin, 589 posthumous work of, 385 view of, on Development of Liberty, 596

Henry III., King of France (see also Anjou. Duke of), 44, 580 Doellinger's lenient estimate of, 410 hopes of his destroying the Huguenots root and branch, 142; urged on him by Muzio, 143 and the murder of the Guises, 121, 213 reliance of, on Il Principe, 215

Henry IV., King of France, see Navarre, King of

Heraclitus, of Ephesus, on the supremacy of reason and divine origin of laws, 21, 22

Herbert, cited to show Machiavelli's sacrifice to unity, 229

Herder, J.G., 375 on Il Principe, 228

Heresy (see also Intolerance, Persecution, and Toleration), books on, definition of, by the Archbishop of Cologne, 531 Calvin's views on punishment, 181; its famous refutation, 182 causes of, in Frohschammer, 481 dependent on the State, 317 laws of Frederic II. on, 152, 555 punishable by death, doctrine of the Church, 216-19 methods of dealing with the Reformers cited on, 154, 157, 163-164, 166, 167, 175, 181, 183

Heretics, attitude towards, of St. Dominic, 554 Catholic theory on the proper way to deal with, 569; discredit incurred from, 140-41 a prominent dissentient, 144 divisions among, 103 first proscribed in Aragon, 557-58 murder of, Guyon on, 147

Hermann, reliance of Doellinger on authority of, 403

Hermas, 406

Hermes and followers denied the power of the Index, 473

Hesse, Landgrave of, bigamy of, why condoned by Luther, 160 & note

Hindoos, stationary national character of, 241

Historians, qualities of, revealed by use made of their authorities, 235 scientific, method of, how differing from that of artist and annalist, 233

Historical Philosophy in France and French Belgium and Switzerland, by Robert Flint, review, 588

History, deductions of, Doellinger's theory, 389-92; not drawn from moral standards, 219-21 Doellinger's work in, 375-435 equity of, deductions drawn from action, 219 God seen in, 594 no conscience in, Hartwig's opinion of, 230 teaching of, Doellinger's desertion of theology for, 379-83 theory of, Doellinger's view, 385

History, A, of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, by Henry Charles Lea, review, 551

Hobbes, Thomas, advocate of passive obedience to kings, 48 and Machiavelli's policy, 228

Hoefler, 434

Hogendorp, on the American Revolution and the decline of religion in America (circ. 1784), 584

Hohenlohe, Prince, defeat of his policy, 511 defeated by Ultramontanes, 505 Doellinger secretary to, 385 opposed to discussion of Infallibility at Vatican Council, 503-4

Hohenzollern, house of, contests of Silesia with, 275

Holland, see also Low Countries and Netherlands, declares for the Prince of Orange, 103 republican, an exception to common law of dynastic states, 274

Holst on Hamilton's genius, 581 Verfassungsgeschichte, by, 577

Holy Alliance, originated by Baader, 377; the devotion of, to absolutist interests, 282; and to suppression of the revolution and national spirit, 283

Home and Foreign Review, The, action concerning, of Wiseman, 439-40; deprecated, 440 et seq.; his complaints investigated, 442-43; and replied to, 443-44; how Wiseman came to misconceive the words of the Review, 444 et seq.; position on which the Review was founded, 447, 457; sphere of such a publication delimited, 448-56; topics excluded from its purview, 457; its aid to religion indirect but valuable, 459; attitude of, on supreme authority of the Church, 482-91

Honorius III., Pope, characterisation by, of Gregory IX., 556 the Inquisition extant under, 554 and the Lombard law for burning heretics, 556

Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity, 45

Hosius, Cardinal, opposition of, to Beza, concerning the Polish Socinians, 146

Hoetzl, Father, support of Doellinger, 545

House of Commons, the, and the Inquisition, 570

Huguenots, expulsion of from Switzerland, 125 massacres of, in Paris and the provinces, 106, and see Massacre of St. Bartholomew passim position of, in 1572, and apparent prospects, 102 views of, on the massacres of co-religionists, 145-46

Humboldt, W. von, 282

Hume, David, 54; cited on Il Principe, 218

Hungary, Church constitution of 1869., 510 growing autonomy of, 526

Huns, stationary national character of, 241

Hus, John, difference between his teaching and Luther's, 271 trial of, 552, 570; a test case, 572; Lea's puzzling views on, 573

Ideals, energy evoked by, why greater than in case of rational ends, 272 usefulness of, 272; how limited, 273

Ideas, abstract, more powerful than practical, views on cited, 585

Il Principe (Machiavelli's), dedication of, 215 Nourrisson's praise of, 227 Pole's attention called to, 214 publication of, 214; interpretation of, by all later history, 213; known to Pole and Cromwell, 214 various criticisms of, 218

Immaculate Conception, doctrine of, Archbishop of St. Louis on, 545

Income Tax, known in Middle Ages, 39

Independent congregations, advocacy of toleration by, 52

Index, the Church's instrument of preventing scandal by literature, 469-471 institution and origin of, 215, 495 permanent exclusion of Il Principe by, 215 power of, in Germany, 473 reform of, urged on and effected by the Vatican Council, 495, 525, 531 sanction of, 544

Indifference, religious, of educated Protestants, 350-51

Indulgences granted by Pius V., in connection with war against the heretics, 141

Infallibility, Papal— attitude to, of Lamennais, 462-4, 465, 466 Bavarian warning against adoption of, by Vatican Council, 511 Civilta Cattolica on, 500-501 continental discussions on, 518 debate on, at Vatican Council, 532-549 declaration of, urged on Vatican Council, 499 definition of, not to be made, by Vatican Council, 518 discussion and definition of, by Vatican Council, 525-49 doctrine of the Jesuits, 498; establishment of, Vatican Council, 499 opinions in England, on discussion of, at Vatican Council, 507 opposition to, 502-4 origin of doctrine of, 513-515 to be presented at Vatican Council, 500-501 proposed by Cardoni at commission of preparation for Vatican Council, 500

Infidelity, growth of, due to intolerance, 256

Innocent III., commonly reported as founder of the Inquisition, 553; intolerance of, 431 treatment of heretics, 568

Innocent IV., Pope, cited, 206

Innocent X., Pope, protest against Peace of Westphalia, 324-25

Innocent XI., Doellinger's proposed history of, 433

Innocent XI., Pope, and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 147

Inquisition, the, earlier and later, distinction between aims and characteristics of, 552 Lea's view on, 568 Machiavelli denounced to, 214-15 never admitted into England, 59 origin of, controversy on, 553 period of its activity and decline, 574 problem of, 570 sanction of, 544 in Spain, 152 supporters of, 570 tribunal of, appropriation by Spanish kings leading to absolute monarchy, 41 at Vienna, 184 writers defending, 573 Inquisition, The, of the Middle Ages, A History of, by Henry Charles Lea, review, 551

Institutes, Calvin's, on Toleration, 182

Insurrections previous to 1789, wherein differing from the French Revolution, 271

Intellectual offices of the Church not exclusively hers, 448-9

International league of nations founded by Mazzini, 286

Intolerance carried to an extreme by the Anabaptists, 172 Catholic and Protestant, distinguished, 165, 168-70, 186-7 cause of growth of infidelity, 256 inherent in the Mediaeval Church, Leas view, 571 motive and principle of, when justifiable, 251 of Reformers, 184 as a rule of life, Lea's view on, 562-3

Ireland, Church in, Goldwin Smith's views on, 259 Celtic race in, yielding to higher political aptitude of the English, 242 failure of Reformation in, 43 history of, comparative method of, study of, 234 land question, the great difficulty in, 236 question of, Doellinger's views on, 434 religious disabilities in, an engine of political oppression, 253 and Ultramontanism at Vatican Council, 507

Irish agitation, causes united in, 284

Israelites, democracy of the, 65 government of, exhibiting principle upon which freedom has been won, 4, 5 a federation held together by faith and race, 4 resistance of monarchy among, by prophet Samuel, 4

Italian States (1862), nationality in, 295

Italy, Austrian rule in, error of, 285 effect on, of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 124, 143 literature of, influence on Doellinger, 386-7 policy of, under Machiavelli and before, use of assassination, 213 politics of, influenced by Vatican Council, 508-511 reliance in, on Machiavelli, 226 Machiavelli's triumph, 225, 266 temporal power of papacy in, 355-62, 367-71 wisdom of Huguenot massacres confessed, 125

Ivan the Terrible. Czar of Muscovy, protests of, on the St. Bartholomew, 144

Jackson, Andrew, American President, 578

Jacobins, policy of, criticism of, 261

James II., King of England, 54, 410 overthrow imperative, 468

Janus, 519; book on Ultramontane ideal, 511, 513

Jefferson, Thomas, President, U.S.A., 579 irreligion of, 585

Jesuit attitude to the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 1, 127, 147, 148

Jesuits, the, and infallibility, 498 and preparations for Vatican Council, 497-98

Jews, see also Israelites treatment of, by Catholics, 169; and by Protestants, 164, 179

Joachim, Abbot, and his work, 560

Joan of Arc, 552; authorities on, not consulted by Lea, 558

John Of Salisbury, 45; reputed author of the Historia Pontificalis, 559

Joubert, on authority of the Church, 463

Judae, Leo, views of, as to persecution, 174

Julian, apostate, reasons for persecution by, 196

Julius Caesar, conversion by, of Roman republic into monarchy, 15

Juergens, his estimate of Luther, 161

Justification by faith, dogma of, as test of orthodoxy, 158

Justin, summit reached by, 406

Justinian, code of, greatest obstacle to liberty next to feudalism, 79 on the absolute authority of the Roman Emperor, 31

Kolde, effect of works of, 408

Kampschulte, effect of works of, 408

Kant, Immanuel, 594

Kaulbach, pictorial ridicule of Doellinger's Reformation, 411

Kenrick, on Papal infallibility, 540, 544

Ketteler, W.E. von, Doellinger's lectures praised by, 381 on Papal infallibility, 540, 544

Kings, status of, in England, Canning on, 583-84

Kirchmann on political ethics, 222 cited on the adoption of Machiavelli's policy, 227-28

Klein. J.L., cited on Machiavelli's moral purpose, 229

Kleutgen, garbled version of Strossmayer's protest, 542

Kliefoth, influence on Doellinger, 389 work on penitential system, 381

Knowledge, growth of, freedom of, in the Church, 461

Knox, John, 44 "Monstrous Regiment of Women," 45

Laboulaye, indictment against democracy, 93

Labour, supremacy of English nation in art of, 60

Lacordaire, Henry, advice of, ignored by Montalembert, 400 cited on political honesty, 220 Doellinger antagonistic to, 401 on St. Dominic, 428

Lafayette, 590

La Farina, tribute to Machiavelli, 226

Lamennais and the Church, condemnation and fall, and cause of the latter, 398, 465, 466-73 conflict with Rome, 462-473 classed as Ultramontane, 451 endeavours of, to exalt Rome, 463-4 intercourse of, with Doellinger, 398 and the idea of development, 591, 593 theory of common sense, 593

Land question, the great difficulty in Ireland, 236

Languedoc, work in, of St. Dominic, 553

Lanza, 509

La Roche-sur-Yon, on the resolutions of the conference of Bayonne, 108 & notes

Larroque, Tamizey de, rejection by, of Arnaud's speech at Beziers, 567

Lasaulx, Ernst von, estimation of, 405

Lassalle, Ferdinand, on collective thought, 585

Laurent, 590; Doellinger's praise of, 417 cited on Machiavelli's doctrines, followed by detractors, 226

Laval, Bishop of, opposition of, at Vatican Council, 522

Lavradeo, Count de, Portuguese ambassador to Vatican Council, 507

Lavaur, fate of Albigenses at, 556

Law, custom and national qualities, not will of government, makers of, 58 mediaeval opinions on, 258 in relation to the will of the people, Vergniaud on, 276

Laws (see also Legal system), divine origin of, 22 of realm, Socratic view that they were only sure guide of conduct, 18 view of Ghibelline writers respecting, 37 view of Guelph writers respecting, 36

Lay representation on Vatican Council, plans for, 503-8

Lea, Henry Charles, A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, review, 551 characteristics of, 555, 559, passim; as historical writer, 551

League, the, Charles IX.'s refusal to join, 129

League, Holy, attempts to bring France into, 113

Le Blanc de Beaulieu on political expediency, 225

Lecoy de la Marche, collection, 559

Lee, murder of, note on, 65

Legal system, English, pioneer work in reform of, of Jeremy Bentham, 3

'Leges Barbarorum,' principle of, in respect to the Church, 244

Legislation, liberty independent of domain of, 2

Legitimate ruler, defence of, first cause of popular risings, 1813., 284

Leibniz, Doellinger's gratitude to, 393 on Il Principe, 228 influence of, on Doellinger, 381

Leo I., Pope, and the suppression of heresy at any cost, 571

Leo X. (Medici), Pope, character of, 378 treatment of tyrant of Perugia, 214

Leo XIII., Pope, literary fruits of his liberality, 573-4

Leopold, 401

Lepanto, naval battle of, 104; effect foiled by Charles IX., 105 victory of, less dear to the Pope than the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 134

Leti, cited, 140

Lewis XII., king of France, extermination of Vaudois of Provence by, 217

Lewis XIII., king of France, Doellinger's lenient estimate of, 410

Lewis XIV., king of France, death penalty by, indicted for disobedience to his will, 48 Doellinger's lectures on, 433 ordinance against Protestants, 50 as political assassin, 410 records of reign of, 409 secret treaty between, and Charles II., 53 supreme among tyrants for bad use of his power, 49; adulation bestowed on him sign of national subjection to absolutism, 49

L'Hopital, 126

Liberal movement in Latin Europe, its objects, 280-81

Liberalism, European, 582-3

Liberals, eighteenth century, their care only for the individual, 273 of the French Restoration, limitations of, 282

Liberty (see also Freedom), change in constitution not effected by, in Italy and Germany, 225 definition of, 3 and democracy, 63 essential condition and guardian of, religion, 4 essential to the subsistence of a country, Rousseau on, 294 failure of Protestant systems to secure, 181 influences of Christianity on, 203 Luther's attitude to, 156 and property, connection between, 54 realisation of, on what depended, 288 reconciled to religion, dispute concerning, 467-9 theory of, as regards nationality, 289 religion and nationality, causes united in revolutions after 1815., 284 sacrificed to unity, by Machiavelli, 229 views on, of Hegel, and of Flint, 596 vulgar definition of, 580

Liberty, American, Judge Cooley on, 580 civil and religious, point of unison between, 151 English, adversary of old despotic policy, 276 English, adversary of former despotic power, 276 municipal, vigorous growth of, in Belgium, 38 religious, definition of, 151-2 effect on, of State control, 151-3 in Maryland, 187 necessary conditions of, 152-3 not impossible, 367

Liddon, Canon, intimacy with Doellinger, 416

Liebig, 377

Lightfoot (Bishop of Durham), Church history of, 418

Lilburne, political writer in advance of his time, 50; his enlightened ideas on democracy, 83

Limborch, 563

Lipsius, R.A., study of Machiavelli by, 215

Lisle, Ambrose de, 423

Littre, 590

Locke, John, 54 doctrine of resistance, 54 inconsistent ideas regarding liberty, 53 on rules of morality, 221

Lombard law of Frederick II., as affecting heretics, 152, 555, 556

Lombardy, the heresy of (Waldensian), 559 work of St. Dominic in, 553

Longperier, cited, on Italy's adoption of Machiavelli's policy, 227

Lorraine, Cardinal of (Guise), on Anjou's hatred of Protestants and its consequences, 105 & note approval expressed by, of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 140 high position of, 111; on his initiative in the Huguenot massacre, his praise of Charles IX., 112 & note; complicity of, in the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 129-30 quarrels with, of Ferralz, 129; its reason, the Pope's attitude to him, 130 on the price of the Navarre marriage, 128 slain by Henry III., attitude of the Pope, 121

Louis XVI., king of France, policy of, 57 powerlessness of, to effect reform, 85 why he perished, 280

Louis Philippe, king of the French, his good opinion of republican government, 56, 90 decline of his popularity, 92

Love of country, Bossuet on, 294 note

Low Countries (see also Holland and Netherlands), Alva's failure in, 103

Loyola, Ignatius, founder of the Society of Jesus, 113

Luca, Cardinal de, proposed discussion of infallibility at Vatican Council denied by, 518 Reisach's deputy as president, 534

Lucchesini, sermon against Machiavelli, 215

Lucius, attack of, on Philo, 419

Luther, Martin, 502 attitude of, to the marriage difficulties of Henry VIII., 160 and the bigamy of Philip of Hesse, 160 Doellinger's estimate of, 397 early utterances of, on toleration, 153-5; his change of view, 155 influence of, on politics, 81 Moehler on, 378 persecuting principles involved in his system, 164, 590 teaching of, wherein differing from that of Wycliffe and of Hus, 271 views of, on government, 42; on polygamy, 159, 162; on the relations of Church and Slate, 156, 157-58, 161-63, 173, 177, 180; logical outcome of his theory, 159; its inconsistency, 162; work of, on the Civil Power, 154 & note; cited on toleration of Anabaptists, 157

Lutheran attitude to heretics, gradual change in, 154, 157 to Huguenots, 145-6 theory of persecution, political element in, 172

Lutheranism, decline of, 327-9 in Denmark, 341 description of, 343-5 national character of, 319-320 roused by abuses in the Church, 495 in Sweden, 341

Lyons, massacre of Huguenots at, 119; news of, sent to Rome, 132; horror aroused by, in Provence, 144; letter from, on the massacres at that place, 131

Macaulay, T.B., 580 historical limitation of, 385 injustice of Doellinger to, 391-2 opinion of, on Father Paul, 432 on the study of history, 232

Machiavelli, Niccolo (see also Il Principe), character of, 225-6; its complexity, 212-14 crime of Catherine de' Medici not instigated by, 216 denouncement of, to Inquisition, by Muzio, 214-15 doctrine of, 40, 41; impulse given by, to absolutism, 41 influence on succeeding generations, 40, 41; political, 49; held by rulers before and since, 216-19; estimated by early historians, 225-231 ignorance of, displayed by great men, 218-19 indulgent views taken of methods of, 224 Medici patron and his daughter, 122 merits of, admitted by later historians, 230-231 methods of, 225-6 secret patriotism of, upheld by various historians, 229-230 in touch with reasoners and imitators, by theory of success, 223 zenith of power, 225-7

Mackintosh, Sir James, on constitutions, 581

Macmaster, on Hamilton's genius, 581

Madison, James, 579 on Hamilton's theory of government, 581

Maffei, on regicide, 217

Magdeburg, Archbishop of, temp. Gregory IX., 556

Mai, Cardinal, as an editor, 421

Maimbourg, 215

Maine, Sir Henry, on the Droit du Seigneur, 566-7

Maistre, Count de, Ultramontane writer, 451, 468; on the authority of the Church, 377 and Lamennais's theory, 593 relation to Savigny, 593 exaggerations of, 378 influence on Doellinger, 377 interpreted by elder Windischmann, 381 rank of, as writer, 417 thoughts of, on Nationality, 282 & note

Malebranche, 382

Malvenda, authority on the Inquisition, 554

Mamachi, authority on the Inquisition, 554

Mandelot, Governor of Lyons, and the Huguenot massacres, 119

Manin, Daniele, 287

Manning, Cardinal, Archbishop of Westminster, adviser of De Angelis, 529 on admission of papal infallibility by acknowledgment of supreme authority, 543-4

Manteuffel, administration of, 283

Manzoni on temporal power of Papacy, 512

Marat, madness of, 401 outcome of Rousseau's teaching on his policy, 57, 58

Maret, book of, on Vatican Council plans, 512, 513 opposition of, at Vatican Council, 426 and papal infallibility, 528

Mariana, rejoicing of, over the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 124 cited on death of Henry III., 217

Marini, as a compiler of history, 387 occasional removal of, from Index, 215

Marlborough, Duke of (the Great), character of, 53

Marseilles, Bishop of, on validity of Vatican Council's decrees, 549

Marsilius of Padua, the Ghibelline, views of, on power and persecution, 561-2 cited on the relation of kings to the people, 37

Marshall, John, 579; and the development of the American Constitution, 581

Martens, 427

Martensen, Bishop, estimate of Doellinger, 434 tribute to Baader's powers, 376

Martineau, Dr., and Mill's opinion of results as test of actions, 223

Mary Tudor, Queen of England, 410

Maryland, religious history of, 187

Massachusetts, history of, contrasted with that of Maryland, 187

Massacre, the, of St. Bartholomew, 101 defects in plan and execution of, as judged by immediate results, 106; sources of the same, 117 defence of, on political grounds, 218 Doellinger's work on, 430-31 evidence concerning, how dealt with, difficult of access, 101; best existing sources, 102 motive inspiring its chief author, 121 question of numbers slain in, 106, 137 question of premeditation of, contemporary view, 106; modern view, 107; evidence in support of the former, 107 et seq. results anticipated from, 69; Philip II., 123; view not stated by Alva, 124

Massillon, Jean-Baptiste, cited on retribution, 220

Mathieu, Cardinal, share in elections to Commission of Dogma, 529, 530, 532

Matter, cited on Machiavelli's influence on liberty, 227

Maurenbrecher, rank of Doellinger estimated by, 386

Maurer, Conrad, at Doellinger's house, 405

Maximillian II., Emperor, information sent to, of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 107 opinion of, on the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 144 toleration of, 105 urged to follow example of Charles IX., 134 & note

May, Sir Erskine, Democracy in Europe, by, 61

Mazade, influence on Doellinger, 434

Mazzini, Giuseppe, association of, with the growth of the idea of Nationality, 286 association of his revolutionary ideas with conservatism of Niebuhr, 59 on Machiavelli's politics, 219 proclaimer of Nationality, 273 profane criticism by, 218

Mazzuchelli, 114

Mechlin, Archbishop of, reply to the Bishop of Orleans by, 537

Medici, Cosmo de', patron of Machiavelli, father of Catherine, 122 family of, in disfavour under Paul III., 214 Machiavelli not countenanced by followers of, 214

Mediaeval writers on law and right, 258

Melanchthon, Philip, his theory of persecution, 164-170 views of, on polygamy, and the bigamy of Philip of Hesse, 160 & note on religious assassination, 325 cited on Cromwell's death, 217

Memorandum of the Powers, 183; on temporal power, 366

Menabrea, circular of, on representation of Vatican Council, 509

Mendoca, praise of those concerned in the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 124

Mentz, Bishop of, belief in infallibility doctrine, 518

Merode, 414

Metternich, Prince, 283; attitude of, to Nationality, 285

Metz, Bishop of, repudiation of Doellinger's declaration, 538

Mexico, nationality in, 245-46

Meyer, Paul, on the Council of Arles, 565

Michelet, Jules, Flint compared to, 596 cited on human action as interpreter of God's commands, 223 on Machiavelli, 213 influence on Doellinger, 433 Doellinger's study of, 421

Michiel, Giovanni, Venetian ambassador, 109; on premeditation of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 110

Middle Ages, authority of State inadequate in, 4 decline of religion in, 595 history of, reason for its unity, 244 political advances in, 39 persecution in, 152, 168 revival of study of, 390-91

Middle Ages, The, A History of the Inquisition of, by Henry Charles Lea, review, 551

Mignet, Doellinger's praise of, 417

Milan, Archbishop of, on validity of Vatican Council's decrees, 549

Mill, John Stuart, indictment of democracy, 93 on results as tests of actions, 223 on states as coincident with nationalities, 285

Milton, John, his justification of execution of Charles I., 51

Minerve, fate of Albigenses at, 556

Modena, 386

Mohammedans, treatment of, by Catholics, 169; by Protestants, 179; their tolerance, 186

Moehler, J.A., 593 influence on Doellinger's views of fixity of national types, 434 publication of Symbolik, 377 on the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 149 suggested history of progress of doctrine of, 385 cited on Doellinger's rank as theologian, 379 cited on intercourse with Doellinger, 377 partiality as historian of religious wars, 428 rank of, 430 views of, compared to Doellinger's, 378-9 cited on Luther, 378-9

Moehler and Doellinger in Munich, views at variance, 377-380

Molina, Luis, 380

Molinier, Auguste, on a history of the Inquisition, 551-2 rejection by, of Arnaud's speech at Beziers, 567

Molino, Francesco da, cited on the recall of the Guises, 213

Mommsen, Theodor, cited on political expediency, 222 distinction of pupils of, 419 indifference of the public to, 430

Monarchy— adulation manifested towards, after the Middle Ages, 48 danger of, 19, 20 and democracy, 64 limitation of powers, aim of modern constitutions, 19 resistance of, among Israelites, justified in later ages, 4 restricted suffrage not always a safeguard of, 2 Absolute— clergy upholders of, 41 development and destruction of, by the democracy in France, & notes, 279-80 France chief centre of, 48 one of the worst enemies of civil freedom, 300

Monarchs, election and deposition of, divine right of people with respect to, 35 Guelphic and Ghibelline views respecting, 36, 37 subjection of, to public law, 35

Mondoucet, French agent at Brussels, Charles IX.'s letter to, on the proposed Massacre, 117

Moneta, Fra, successor of St. Dominic, 553

Monluc, Bishop of Valenca, dying speech of, its bitterness against Huguenots, 141 on the effect of the Huguenot massacres on Poland, 120 view of, on St. Bartholomew, 107

Monroe, James, President, his term of office "the era of good feeling," 56

Mons, fall of, 103; Lewis of Nassau at, 105 the garrison devoted to death by Charles IX. and Philip II., 141-2

Montaigne, Michel de, view held by, on Machiavelli's fame, 215

Montalembert, Count de, classed as Ultramontane, 451 influence of, on Doellinger, 400 intercourse unbroken, 463 unacknowledged agreement with Doellinger, 316 and Kirche und Kirchen, views cited, 417; estimate of that work, 424 in Munich, 398 opposition of, at Vatican Council, 524-5 politics of, 400 and the temporal power of the Papacy, 412

Montalto, Cardinal, alleged dissent of from congratulation on the St. Bartholomew, 140

Montegut, influence on Doellinger, 434

Montesquieu, and his development of Locke's teaching, 54

Montezuma, and Torquemada, resemblance between the gods of, 569

Montferaud, Sieur de, rumoured orders to, as to massacre of Huguenots, 127 note

Montfort and the Albigenses, 556

Montgomery and the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 107, 122

Montpensier, Duke of, Huguenot massacres ordered by, in Brittany, 119 unguarded speech by, on coming massacre, 111

Montpezat, Lieutenant of Guienne, and the Bordeaux massacres, 127

Morality, perverted ideas of, prevailing among classic sages, 18 public, how differing from private, 40

Mordenti, cited on Machiavelli, as champion of conscience, 226

More, Sir Thomas, author of the Utopia, 270 idea of renovating society on the principles of self-sacrifice, 58

Mores Catholici, Digby's, 569

Morinus cited, 194 basis of Kliefoth's work in, 381

Morley, John, on equity of history, 219

Mornay, see Duplessis-Mornay

Morris of Exeter, and study of Petavius, 380

Morris, Robert, an American, the suggester of the French wars of speculation and plunder, 578 cited on Hamilton as a leader, 582-3

Morvilliers, Bishop of Orleans, attitude of, to the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 126

Mozley, James, visit of Doellinger to, 403

Muenscher, works of, esteemed by Doellinger, 381

Mueller, 282

Munich, Archbishop of (Reisach), brief from the Pope to, denouncing Frohschammer, 481-5 nominated as President of Vatican Council, 501; death of, before taking seat as, 534

Munich, conference at, Doellinger's declaration to, 312-13 Doellinger at, 386; lectures in, 375 Frohschammer's work in, 473 Moehler with Doellinger in, 377-80 school of theology at, 398-9, 434

Municipal liberties, vigorous growth in Belgium, 38

Muenster (Westphalia), excesses of Anabaptists at, 171

Muenzer, Thomas, intolerance of, 171

Muratori, Doellinger's study of, 387 on evangelists, 419 papal biographies by, 559 and the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 148

Murder (see also Assassination, Heretics, and Persecution), on plea of religion, attitude to, of Rome, 138, 139, 140, 147

Muretus, 101; famous speech of, on the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 130

Muzio, the Decamerone recommended to students by, 215 in favour with Pius V., 214-15 letter from, to Henry III. of France, urging unsparing extirpation of Huguenots, 143 Machiavelli denounced by, to the Inquisition, 214-15

Mylius, view of, on the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 107

Nantes, city, refusal of, to massacre Huguenots, 119 edict of, revocation of, not approved by Innocent XI., 147; inconsistency, 170; remarks on, 260

Napoleon I., causes of his downfall, 281, 284 new power called into existence by, 281 question respecting the durability of his institutions, 238 cited on importance of results, 221 cited on quality of endurance in English nation, 66

Napoleon III., ambition of, 316 and discussion of infallibility doctrine at Vatican Council, 504

Nassau, Lewis of, at Mons, French auxiliaries with, 105

National character, influence of, on events, units of, 557 claims, based on race only, futility of, an instance, 295

Nationality, essay on, 270 auxiliary and substance of present-day revolution, 276 denial of, what it implies, 297 evolution of, three stages in, 284-5; and definition of, in its final form, 285 idea of, as influencing modern thought greater than that of liberty, 59 modern theory of, greatest advocate of rights of, 297 historical importance of, its two chief causes, 298, 299 how awakened in Europe, 273, 275, 276; its parentage, 277, 286, 287; how first seen, 278, 281, 286 mission of, in the world, 300 more absurd and criminal than that of Socialism, 300 political character and value of, discussed, 280 et seq. a retrograde step in history, 298 rights of, and greatest adversary of, 297 some of its first supporters, 281-2 a subversive theory, 273 summing up of, 287-8 political theory of, in contradiction with the historic nation, 243 the true, 294, 295

Nations, different, in one State, considerations regarding, 289 et seq.

Naude, basis of his apology for Charles IX., 147

Navarre, Henry, King of, later Henry IV., King of France, 44 marriage of, with Margaret of Valois, opposed by the Popes, 105, 109, 111, 128; real facts regarding, 131-3; representations on, of Charles IX. and his mother, 135; dissolution of, by Paul V., 114 murder of, schemed as a good deed, 139 and the proposed league of Protestant defence, 145

Navarre, Queen of (Margaret of Valois), death of, reckoned on in France, 109, and see Marriage, under Navarre, Henry, King of

Neander, rank of, 421 special gifts of, 555 unconventionally of, 384

Nelson, 592

Netherlands (see also Holland and Low Countries), deposition of Philip II., and establishment of republic, 44 republic of, inaugurated reign of law through freedom of press, 50

Nevers, Duke of (Lewis Gonzaga), high station of, 128 share of, in the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 110; his "ill-timed generosity" on this occasion, 122; praises of, by Capilupi, 129

Newman, John Henry, Cardinal, 573, 592, 593 distinction drawn between Pope and Court, 417 Doellinger's early appreciation of, 395; intercourse with, 402 Napoleon III. not condemned by, 413 theory of development different from Doellinger's, 407-8 cited on papal authority, 423

Nicholas I., 431

Niebuhr, 581; association of his conservatism with revolutionary ideas of Mazzini, 59 Doellinger's gratitude to, 393

Nimes, Bishop of, on infallibility, 515; opposed to discussion of, 501

Nimes (city), no Huguenot massacres at, 143

Nippold, rank of Doellinger estimated by, 386

Nourrison cited on Machiavelli's sincerity, 227

Nugent, Count, proclamation by, on Italian independence, 285

Nuremberg, Anabaptists at, 157

Octavius, opposition of Gracchus to, 76

Odescalchi, character of, 433

OEcolampadius, Joannes, opinions of, on Church government, 176-7

Ollivier, opposition of, to French lay representation in Vatican Council, 504

Orange, Prince of (William the Silent), 44 alliance made with, by Charles IX., 105 declaration for (1572), of province of Holland, 103 Huguenot expedition to aid, failure of results, 116, 141 not alienated by Charles IX.'s Huguenot massacres, 120

Origines de la France Contemporaine, 569

Orleans, Bishop of, attitude of, to papal infallibility, 228, 316, 515, 523, 524 at Council of Bishops, 1867., 500 patriotism of (1862), 445 permission refused to, for publication of reply to the Archbishop of Mechlin, 537 promotion of Vatican Council by, 493 unacknowledged agreement with Doellinger, 316 on validity of Vatican Council's decrees, 549 Orleans, city of, horrors of Huguenot massacre at, 124 Orleans dynasty, result of appeal from, in 1848., 590

Orsi, Doellinger's tribute to, 387

Orsini, Cardinal, Legatine mission of, to France, his instructions, 137; Charles IX.'s representations to him, 138

Oscott, Wiseman's work as President of, 438

Osiander, Andreas, cited on toleration, 157

Ossat, D' 114 & note

Overbeck, on Epistle to Diognetus, 420

Oxford movement, Doellinger told of, by Brewer. 402 Wiseman's influence on, 438

Paderborn, Bishop of, on infallibility of Pope, 518

Paine, Thomas, 585; citation of, from Rights of Man, on the confusion of political forms with political liberty, 238

Pallavicini, Theiner on, 431

Panhellenism, 284

Panigarola, panegyric by, on Charles IX., 125

Panslavism, rise of, 284

Papacy, the, acknowledgment of small principalities of Italy, 355 based on organic development, 321-4 and the Byzantine Empire, 353 extraordinary notions of Godwin Smith on the, 267 future of, 367-70 government of, reform in, 363-5 reform of, attempted by Pius IX., Doellinger on, 365 removal to France, a challenge to schism, 370 temporal power of, see Temporal power

Papal Legations rescued from Austria at the Congress of Vienna, 283 See, confusion between direct and indirect authority of, 256 struggle with the Franciscans, 552

Papinian, cited on political progress, 79

Paramo, 428

Paris, attitude hostile to the Huguenots, 116, 117 attitude after the murder of Coligny and Massacre of St. Bartholomew in, 106, 126, and see both heads France governed by, during revolution of 1789, 88 Mendoca's praise of its Catholic inhabitants, 124 Archbishop of, cardinals hat refused for, by Pius IX., 526 career of, 526 character of, 326 French representation on Vatican Council urged by, 505 on Papal infallibility, 532 on validity of Vatican Council's decrees, 549 university of, and the Inquisition, 570

Paris, Matthew, Lea's authorities on, 558

Parliamentary corruption in America, past and present, 578 government, primitive republicanism the germ of, 32

Parma, centre of historical work, 387 (1862) nationality in, 292

Partition of Poland, see under Poland

Pascal, Blaise, advocate of passive obedience to kings, 48 cited on varying standards of right and wrong, 220

Passaglia, fame of, 413 on papal liberty, 313 reputation of, 502

Passive obedience to the State, doctrine upheld by theologians and philosophers, 47, 48 taught by Luther, 156, 161, 180; asserted by Calvin, 180-81

Patrie, French newspaper, criticism by, of Wiseman's address at Rome, 439, 443, 444, 445; his reply, 439

Paul, Father, 432

Paul III., Pope (Cardinal Farnese), hatred of the Medici family, 214; letter from Sadolet, praising the extermination of the Vaudois, 217

Paul V., Pope (Borghese), aware of premeditated Huguenot massacre, 114

Peace of St. Germains, as affecting French Huguenots, 105; alarmist views on, held by Salvati, 110

Peasants' war, the, in Germany, attitude of Luther towards, 155, 156 & note, 162

Pegna, Arragonese origin of, 558, 560 character of works of, 428

Pelleve, Cardinal, Archbishop of Sens, on the premeditation of a massacre of Huguenots, 111

Peloponnesian war, influence of, on Athens, 69

Penn, William, 410; follower of doctrine of toleration, 84

Pennaforte, home of St. Raymond, 556

Pennsylvania, democratic constitution of, 84

People, see also Democracy and Will of the People sovereignty of, idea of parent of idea of Nationality, 277 wishes, etc., of, as criterion of right, teaching on, of the French Revolution as to, 271

Percin, authority on the Inquisition, 554 German ignorance of, 428

Peresius, on Bible inspiration, 514

Perez, Antonio, accusation by, of

Philip II. of Spain, 104

Pericles and democracy, 9, 68 effort to prevent predominance of any particular interest in politics, 10

Perronne, on biblical critics, 514 on commission of preparation for Vatican Council, 500 hostility to Passaglia, 413 rank of, 417

Persecution, attitude to, of Marsilius, 562 by Catholics, principles of, 168-170, 186 by heathen Rome, justified on political grounds, 186 mediaeval, justification of, 254 method of escaping from imposition of religious disabilities, 250 natural stage in the progress of society, 250 Protestant theory of, 150; the book by H.C. Lea, review, inadequate as history of, 574 reasons for and against, as a political principle, 252 some noted supporters of, 570 Spain and Sweden contrasted, 170 two propositions regarding, 572-3

Persian wars, influence of, 67

Persians, makers of history, 240

Petavius (s.j.) and the idea of development in religion, 591, 592 Doellinger's early study of, 379 Doellinger's gratitude to, 393 Morris of Exeter advised to read, 380

Peter Martyr, death of Servetus approved by, 185

Petrucci, communications of, forecasting the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 109 mysticism of, 376

Philip II., king of Spain, aid of, essential to crush French Huguenots, 104 the St. Bartholomew massacre urged by, 116-17 orders from, for slaughter of Alva's Huguenot prisoners, 142 revolt against, of the Netherlands, 44

Philo of Alexandria, Lucius's attacks on, 420 on customs of the Essenes, 26

Philosophers, doctrine of passive obedience, upheld by, 48 schemes of, for ideal societies, why never realised, 270-71

Piatti, apologist of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 148

Piedmontese government and the Papacy, 368-9

Pilgrim fathers, belief of, not influencing the American revolution, 584-5

Pistoja, on treatment of heretics in Rome under Pius V., 138

Pitra, influence of, in France, 404

Pius IV., Pope, Bull Multiplices inter, published by, 520-25

Pius V., Pope, blessing given by, to war against Huguenots, 141 denunciatory letter from, to court of France, 110 patron of Muzio, 214-15 previous information of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew supplied to, 130-31 strong anti-Protestant views of, 138-9 on the peace of St. Germains, 105

Pius VII., Pope, destruction of church of France by, 323 influence on Doellinger, 402 cited on Papal authority, 323

Pius IX., Pope, alarm of dissenting bishops allayed by, 519 Archbishop of Paris rebuked by, 526 brief of, to the Archbishop of Munich, censuring Frohschammer, 481-5 character of, described by Doellinger, 365-6 confidence in the support of the bishops at the discussion of Papal infallibility, 523-4 on Doellinger's Kirche und Kirchen, 415 on the infallibility of the Pope, 496 personal popularity of, 497 quarrel with Russia, 493 reform of excommunication laws, 531 treatment of Doellinger, 411 Vatican Council convened and prepared for by, 492-511 obstinacy in management of Vatican Council, 532 reforms of, 402 refusal of permission to Theiner to publish acts of Council of Trent, 431 and Vatican Council, Doellinger's estimate of, 431 veneration of, spell broken by protesting bishops, 531

Planck, Moehler's address to, 378

Plantagenet, house of, claims backed by Rome against house of Bruce, 35

Plantier, authority on Louis Philippe, 402

Platen, diaries of, description of Doellinger's early studies in, 375

Plato, Laws, 22 on class interests, 69, 71 opinions of, 71 not without perverted notions of morality, 18 Republic of, 270

Plebeians, Roman, struggle with aristocracy, 13, 14

Plotinus, ideal society of, 270

Plutarch, religious knowledge of, 406

Poland, 105; Anjou as candidate for throne of, 105; prospects of, after the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 144 an exception to common law of dynastic States, 274; and why, 275; the consequence, the partition, 275 extinction of, 283 government of, and the Reformation, 43 partition of, awakening theory of nationality in Europe, 275 religious toleration in sixteenth century, 103 republic of, nature, 49 Socinians in, Beza's hostility to, 146 wrath in, at the Huguenot massacres, 120

Pole, Cardinal, Il Principe brought to notice of, 214 cited on political scruples, 219

Polish exiles, why always champions of national movements, 286 Protestants, strength and unity of, 103 revolution, causes united in, 284

Political corruption, Hamilton's paradox on, 581 disorders, distribution supersedes concentration of power as remedy against, under Solon, 7 equality at Athens, 68 forms, confusion with popular rights, 238 freedom inherently absent in France, 237-40 habits and ideas special to particular nations, varying in the national history, 297 intelligence, not culture, the test of a conquering race, 242 liberty in modern times the fruit of self-government, 253 life a sign of true patriotism, 293 opposition to Vatican Council, absence of, 511 power should be in proportion to public service, 8 observance of this principle at Athens, 8 principles, obligation of, essentials for understanding, 458 science, America's rank in, its exponents, 578 theory of nationality in contradiction with the historic notion, 243 thoughts on the Church, 188

Politics, attitude to, of the best Americans, 578 conscience in, expedient elasticity of, 212-14 contemporary, Doellinger's part in, 400-403 honesty in, approved by great men, 219-23; not always expedient, 219-21; opinions of Pope Clement, 214; Machiavelli, 212; Michelet, 213; Molino, 213; Sarpi, 213; Soto, 213 laws of, rest on experience, 391 liberty highest end of, 22, 23, 24 Machiavellian, tribute to, 219 principles of, high teaching regarding, in Plato's Laws and Aristotle's Polities, 22 retribution in, 220-23 science of, impartial study, unknown in seventeenth century, 43-46; impartial study originated by Grotius, 46

Politics and science, authority of, now re-established, extent of, 453; discoveries and principles of, how generally judged, 454

Polygamy, attitude of reformers to, 159, 160

Pontiac, price on head of, 213

Pope, the, and the court, Lamennais's distinction between, 464-5 intervention of, between state and sovereign, 257

Popes, the (Medicean), unofficial countenance of Machiavelli, 214

Popular rights, confusion of political forms with, 238

Population, masses of, not benefited by liberty of subject, 94 relief of, aim of modern democracy, 95

Porrette, Marguerite, 558, 568

Portugal, lay representative of, on Vatican Council, 507

Postel, 382

Potomac, army of, 579

Praetorius, 432

Presbyterianism, democratic element in, 81, 82 Doellinger's sketch of, 336-7

Prescott, W., 569

Press, freedom of, in Netherlands Republic inaugurated reign of law, 50

Principles, false, place of, in social life of nations, 272 political, obligation of, essentials for understanding, 458 touchstone and watershed of, 454

Principles and interests, relative importance of, 449

Priscillian, fate of, Lea's view on, 572

Property, liberty and connection between, 54

Protagoras cited, 70

Protestant authorities, use made of, by the Ultramontanes, 451-2 Church government, agitation for reform in Prussia, 347 establishment, its views on government, 260 Reformers, see Reformers "Protestant Theory, The, of Persecution," 150, & see 254, 255, 576 involved in Luther's teaching, 164 developed by Melanchthon, 164 et seq. carried to an extreme by the Anabaptists, 172 carried out by Calvin, 178; and defended by Beza, 183 continued in Massachusetts, 187 characteristics of, 168-70 failure of, 187 Zwinglian varieties of, 174 et seq.

Protestantism, aversion of, to freedom, 240 and the civil power, 150, 159, 161, 181 decline of, in Northern Europe, Doellinger's description of, 342-51 Doellinger's survey of, 302-303 final acceptance by, of toleration, 187 friendly feeling of Doellinger towards, 396-7 growth of, 325-52 and the later mediaeval sects, essential difference between, 271 never successful in France, 595 toleration as, cause and effect of its decline, 255

Protestants, the, see also Huguenots and Lutherans as cats' paws of France against Spain, 105-16 ordinance of Louis XIV. against, and their action, 50 position and apparent prospects of (1572), 102 English, unanimity amongst, 189 Polish, unity and strength among, 103

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