The History of England - From the Accession of Henry III. to the Death of Edward III. (1216-1377)
by T.F. Tout
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BY T.F. TOUT, M.A. Professor of Mediaeval and Modern History in the University of Manchester.


Seventy-six years have passed since Lingard completed his HISTORY OF ENGLAND, which ends with the Revolution of 1688. During that period historical study has made a great advance. Year after year the mass of materials for a new History of England has increased; new lights have been thrown on events and characters, and old errors have been corrected. Many notable works have been written on various periods of our history; some of them at such length as to appeal almost exclusively to professed historical students. It is believed that the time has come when the advance which has been made in the knowledge of English history as a whole should be laid before the public in a single work of fairly adequate size. Such a book should be founded on independent thought and research, but should at the same time be written with a full knowledge of the works of the best modern historians and with a desire to take advantage of their teaching wherever it appears sound.

The vast number of authorities, printed and in manuscript, on which a History of England should be based, if it is to represent the existing state of knowledge, renders co-operation almost necessary and certainly advisable. The History, of which this volume is an instalment, is an attempt to set forth in a readable form the results at present attained by research. It will consist of twelve volumes by twelve different writers, each of them chosen as being specialty capable of dealing with the period which he undertakes, and the editors, while leaving to each author as free a hand as possible, hope to insure a general similarity in method of treatment, so that the twelve volumes may in their contents, as well as in their outward appearance, form one History.

As its title imports, this History will primarily deal with politics, with the History of England and, after the date of the union with Scotland, Great Britain, as a state or body politic; but as the life of a nation is complex, and its condition at any given time cannot be understood without taking into account the various forces acting upon it, notices of religious matters and of intellectual, social, and economic progress will also find place in these volumes. The footnotes will, so far as is possible, be confined to references to authorities, and references will not be appended to statements which appear to be matters of common knowledge and do not call for support. Each volume will have an Appendix giving some account of the chief authorities, original and secondary, which the author has used. This account will be compiled with a view of helping students rather than of making long lists of books without any notes as to their contents or value. That the History will have faults both of its own and such as will always in some measure attend co-operative work, must be expected, but no pains have been spared to make it, so far as may be, not wholly unworthy of the greatness of its subject.

Each volume, while forming part of a complete History, will also in itself be a separate and complete book, will be sold separately, and will have its own index, and two or more maps.

Vol. I. to 1066. By Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L., Litt.D., Fellow of University College, London; Fellow of the British Academy.

Vol. II. 1066 to 1216. By George Burton Adams, M.A., Professor of History in Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Vol. III. 1216 to 1377. By T.F. Tout, M.A., Professor of Medieval and Modern History in the Victoria University of Manchester; formerly Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford.

Vol. IV. 1377 to 1485. By C. Oman, M.A., Fellow of All Souls' College, and Deputy Professor of Modern History in the University of Oxford.

Vol. V. 1485 to 1547. By H.A.L. Fisher, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of New College, Oxford.

Vol. VI. 1547 to 1603. By A.F. Pollard, M.A., Professor of Constitutional History in University College, London.

Vol. VII. 1603 to 1660. By F.C. Montague, M.A., Professor of History in University College, London; formerly Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford.

Vol. VIII. 1660 to 1702. By Richard Lodge, M.A., Professor of History in the University of Edinburgh; formerly Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford.

Vol. IX. 1702 to 1760. By I.S. Leadam, M.A., formerly Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford.

Vol. X. 1760 to 1801. By the Rev. William Hunt, M.A., D. Litt, Trinity College, Oxford.

Vol. XI. 1801 to 1837. By the Hon. George C. Brodrick, D.C.L., late Warden of Merton College, Oxford, and J K. Fotheringham, M.A., Magdalen College, Oxford, Lecturer in Classics at King's College, London.

Vol. XII. 1837 to 1901. By Sidney J Low, M.A., Balliol College, Oxford, formerly Lecturer on History at King's College, London.

The Political History of England IN TWELVE VOLUMES







19 Oct., 1216. Death of King John Position of parties The Church on the king's side 28 Oct. Coronation of Henry III 11 Nov. Great council at Bristol 12 Nov. The first charter of Henry III 1216-17. Progress of the war 1217. Rising of Wilkin of the Weald Louis' visit to France 22 April. Return of Louis from France Sieges of Dover, Farnham, and Mount Sorrel 20 May. The fair of Lincoln 23 Aug. The sea-fight off Sandwich 11 Sept. Treaty of Lambeth 6 Nov. Reissue of the great charter Restoration of order by William Marshal 14 May, 1219. Death of William Marshal His character and career



1219. Pandulf the real successor of William Marshal July, 1221. Langton procures Pandulf's recall Ascendency of Hubert de Burgh Jan.-Feb., 1221. The rebellion of Albemarle July, 1222. The sedition of Constantine FitzAthulf 1221-24. Marriage alliances 1219-23. War in Wales April, 1223. Henry III. declared by the pope competent to govern June, 1224. Revolt of Falkes de Breaute 20 June-14 Aug. Siege of Bedford Fall of Falkes Papal and royal taxation April, 1227. End of the minority Relations with France during the minority The Lusignans and the Poitevin barons 1224. Louis VIII.'s conquest of Poitou 1225. Expedition of Richard of Cornwall and William Longsword to Gascony Nov., 1226. Accession of Louis IX. in France 1229-30. Henry III.'s campaign in Brittany and Poitou 21-30 July, 1230. Siege of Mirambeau 1228. The Kerry campaign 2 May, 1230. Death of William of Braose 1231. Henry III.'s second Welsh campaign Aug. Death of Archbishop Richard le Grand Gregory IX. and Henry III. 1232. Riots of Robert Twenge 29 July. Fall of Hubert de Burgh 1231. Death of William Marshal the Younger 1232. Death of Randolph of Blundeville, Earl of Chester



1232-34. Rule of Peter des Roches Aug., 1233. Revolt of Richard Marshal 23 Nov. Fight near Monmouth 1234. Richard Marshal in Ireland 1 April. Defeat and death of the Earl Marshal near Kildare 2 April. Edmund Rich consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury 9 April. Fall of Peter des Roches Beginning of Henry III.'s personal government Character of Henry III. The alien invasions 14 Jan., 1236. Henry's marriage to Eleanor of Provence The Savoyards in England Revival of Poitevin influence 1239. Simon of Montfort Earl of Leicester 1237. The legation of Cardinal Otto 1239. Quarrel of Gregory IX. and Frederick II. 1235. Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln 16 Nov., 1240. Death of Edmund Rich in exile Henry III. and Frederick II. Attempted reconquest of Poitou May-Sept., 1242. The campaign of Taillebourg 1243. Truce with France The Lusignans in England The baronial opposition Grosseteste's opposition to Henry III., and Innocent IV. 1243. Relations with Scotland and Wales 1240. Death of Llewelyn ap Iorwerth 1246. Death of David ap Llewelyn



1248-58. Characteristics of the history of these ten years Decay of Henry's power in Gascony 1248-52. Simon de Montfort, seneschal of Gascony Aug., 1253. Henry III. in Gascony 1254. Marriage and establishment of Edward the king's son Edward's position in Gascony Edward's position in Cheshire 1254. Llewelyn ap Griffith sole Prince of North Wales Edward in the four cantreds and in West Wales 1257. Welsh campaign of Henry and Edward Revival of the baronial opposition 1255. Candidature of Edmund, the king's son, for Sicily 1257. Richard of Cornwall elected and crowned King of the Romans Leicester as leader of the opposition Progress in the age of Henry III The cosmopolitan and the national ideals French influence The coming of the friars 1221. Gilbert of Freynet and the first Dominicans in England 1224. Arrival of Agnellus of Pisa and the first Franciscans in England Other mendicant orders in England The influence of the friars The universities Prominent English schoolmen Paris and Oxford The mendicants at Oxford Roger Bacon and Duns Scotus Academic influence in public life Beginnings of colleges Intellectual characteristics of thirteenth century Literature in Latin and French Literature in English Art Gothic architecture The towns and trade



2 April, 1258. Parliament at London 11 June. The Mad Parliament The Provisions of Oxford 22 June. Flight of the Lusignans Appointment of the Fifteen Working of the new Constitution 4 Dec., 1259. Treaty of Paris Its unpopularity in England and France 1259. Dissensions among the baronial leaders 1259. Provisions of Westminster 1261. Henry III.'s repudiation of the Provisions 1263. Reconstitution of parties The changed policy of the marchers Outbreak of civil war The appeal to Louis IX 23 Jan., 1264. Mise of Amiens Renewal of the struggle 4 April. Sack of Northampton The campaign in Kent and Sussex 14 May. Battle of Lewes Personal triumph of Montfort



15 May. Mise of Lewes 15 Dec. Provisions of Worcester Jan.-Mar., 1265. The Parliament of 1265 Split up of the baronial party Quarrel of Leicester and Gloucester 28 May. Edward's escape 22 June. Treaty of Pipton Small results of the alliance of Llewelyn and the barons The campaign in the Severn valley 4 Aug. Battle of Evesham The royalist restoration 1266. The revolt of the Disinherited 15 May. Battle of Chesterfield 31 Oct. The Dictum de Kenilworth Michaelmas. The Ely rebellion April, 1267. Gloucester's support of the Disinherited July. End of the rebellion 25 Sept. Treaty of Shrewsbury 1267. Statute of Marlborough 1270-72. Edward's Crusade 16 Nov., 1272. Death of Henry III



Character of Edward I. 1272-74. Rule of the regency Edward's doings in Italy and France Edward's relations with Philip III. 1273-74. Wars of Bearn and Limoges Edward I. and Gregory X. May-July, 1274. Council of Lyons Relations of Edward I. and Rudolf of Hapsburg 23 May, 1279. Treaty of Amiens 1281. League of Macon 1282. Sicilian vespers 1285. Deaths of Philip III., Charles of Anjou, Peter of Aragon, and Martin IV. Bishop Burnell 1275. Statute of Westminster, the first 1278. Statute of Gloucester Hundred Rolls and placita de quo warranto Archbishops Kilwardby and Peckham 1279. Statute of Mortmain 1285. Circumspecte agatis 1285. Statute of Westminster, the second (De Donis) 1285. Statute of Winchester



Execution of the Treaty of Shrewsbury Llewelyn's refusal of homage 1277. Edward's first Welsh campaign 1277. Treaty of Aberconway Edward's attempts to introduce English law into the ceded districts 1282. The Welsh revolt 1282. Edward's second Welsh campaign Llewelyn's escape to the Upper Wye 11 Dec. Battle of Orewyn Bridge 1283. Parliaments and financial expedients Subjection of Gwynedd completed 3 Oct. Parliament of Shrewsbury and execution of David The Edwardian castles Mid-Lent, 1284. Statute of Wales Effect of the conquest upon the march Peckham and the ecclesiastical settlement of Wales 1287. Revolt of Rhys ap Meredith



Edward I. at the height of his fame April, 1286-Aug 1289, Edward's long visit to France 1289. The Sicilian arbitration 1287. Treaty of Oloron 1288. Treaty of Canfranc 1291. Treaty of Tarascon Maladministration during Edward's absence Judicial and official scandals 1289. Special commission for the trial of offenders 1290. Statute of Westminster, the third (Quia emptores) The feud between Gloucester and Hereford 1291. The courts at Ystradvellte and Abergavenny Humiliation of the marcher earls 1290. Expulsion of the Jews The rise of the Italian bankers 1272-86. Early relations of Edward to Scotland 1286. Death of Alexander III. of Scotland 1286-89. Regency in the name of the Maid of Norway 1289. Treaty of Salisbury 1290. Treaty of Brigham Death of the Maid of Norway The claimants to the Scottish throne May, 1291. Parliament of Norham. Edward recognised as overlord of Scotland 1291-92. The great suit for Scotland 17 Nov., 1292. John Balliol declared King of Scots Edward's conduct in relation to Scotland 1290. Death of Eleanor of Castile Transition to the later years of the reign Edward's later ministers



Commercial rivalry of English and French seamen 15 May, 1293. Battle off Saint-Mahe 1294. Edmund of Lancaster's failure to procure a settlement with Philip IV. The French occupation of Gascony June, 1294. War with France Preparations for a French campaign 1294. Revolts of Madog, Maelgwn, and Morgan Edward's danger at Aberconway 22 Jan., 1293. Battle of Maes Madog July. Welsh revolts suppressed 1295. Failure of the Gascon campaign Failure of attempted coalition against France Organisation of the English navy Treason of Sir Thomas Turberville The naval attack on England Rupture between Edward and the Scots 5 July. Alliance between the French and Scots Nov. The "Model Parliament" 1296. Gascon expedition and death of Edmund of Lancaster Edward's invasion of Scotland 27 April. Battle of Dunbar 10 July. Submission of John Balliol Conquest and administration of Scotland The Ragman Roll Sept., 1294. Consecration of Archbishop Winchelsea 29 Feb., 1296. Boniface VIII. issues Clericis laicos. Conflict of Edward and Winchelsea 24 Feb., 1297. Parliament at Salisbury Conflict of Edward with the earls July. Break up of the clerical opposition Increasing moderation of baronial opposition 24 Aug. Edward's departure for Flanders May. Revolt of the Scots under William Wallace. 11 Sept. Battle of Stirling Bridge. 12 Oct. Confirmation of the charters with new clauses.



1297. Edward's unsuccessful campaign in Flanders 31 Jan., 1298. Truce of Tournai, and end of the French war July. Edward's invasion of Scotland 22 July. Battle of Falkirk Slowness of Edward's progress towards the conquest of Scotland 19 June, 1299. Treaty of Montreuil 9 Sept. Marriage of Edward and Margaret of France Mar., 1300. Articuli super cartas July-Aug. Carlaverock campaign 20 Jan.-14 Feb., 1301. Parliament of Lincoln The barons' letter to the pope Edward of Carnarvon, Prince of Wales 1302. Philip IV.'s troubles with the Flemings and Boniface VIII 20 May, 1303. Peace of Paris between Edward and Philip Increasing strength of Edward's position The decay of the earldoms Additions to the royal demesne 1303. Conquest of Scotland seriously undertaken 24 July, 1304. Capture of Stirling Aug., 1305. Execution of Wallace and completion of the conquest The settlement of the government of Scotland 1305. Disgrace of Winchelsea and Bek Edward I. and Clement V. 1307. Statute of Carlisle 1305. Ordinance of Trailbaston 10 Jan., 1306. Murder of Comyn Rising of Robert Bruce 25 Mar. Bruce crowned King of Scots Preparations for a fresh conquest of Scotland 7 July, 1307. Death of Edward I.



Character of Edward II. 1307. Peter Gaveston Earl of Cornwall 25 Jan., 1308. Marriage of Edward with Isabella of France 25 Feb. Coronation of Edward II. Power and unpopularity of Gaveston 8 May. Gaveston exiled July 1309. Return of Gaveston condoned by Parliament at Stamford 1310. Renewal of the opposition of the barons to Gaveston 16 Mar. Appointment of the lords ordainers Sept. Abortive campaign against the Scots Character and policy of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster 1311. The ordinances Nov., 1311, Jan., 1312. Gaveston's second exile and return The earls at war against Edward and Gaveston Gaveston's surrender at Scarborough 19 June, 1312. Murder of Gaveston Consequent break up of the baronial party Oct., 1313. Edward and Lancaster reconciled May. Death of Archbishop Winchelsea 1312. Fall of the Templars Walter Reynolds Archbishop of Canterbury Complaints of papal abuses Progress of Bruce's power in Scotland 1314. The siege of Stirling An army collected for its relief 24 June, Battle of Bannockburn The results of the battle



Failure of the rule of Thomas of Lancaster 1315. Revolts of Llewelyn Bren 1315. Rising of Adam Banaster. 1316. The Bristol disturbances. 1315. Edward Bruce's attack on the English in Ireland. 1317. Roger Mortimer in Ireland. 1318. Death of Edward Bruce at Dundalk. Lancaster's failure and the break up of his party. Pembroke and the middle party. 9 Aug. Treaty of Leek and the supremacy of the middle party. 1314-18. Progress of Robert Bruce. 1319. Renewed attack on Scotland. Battle of Myton. Rise of the Despensers. 1317. The partition of the Gloucester inheritance. 1320. War between the husbands of the Gloucester heiresses in South Wales. June, 1321. Conferences at Pontefract and Sherburn. July. The exile of the Despensers. Break up of the opposition after their victory. 23-31 Oct., 1321. The siege of Leeds Castle. Jan.-Feb., 1322. Edward's successful campaign in the march. 11 Feb. Recall of the Despensers. The king's march against the northern barons. 16 Mar. Battle of Boroughbridge. 22 Mar. Execution of Lancaster. 2 May. Parliament at York and repeal of the ordinances. The triumph of the Despensers.



Aug. Renewed attack on the Scots. Oct. Edward II.'s narrow escape at Byland. Mar., 1323. Treason and execution of Andrew Harclay. Incapacity of the Despensers as administrators. Their quarrels with the old nobles. 1324. Their breach with Queen Isabella. Their chief helpers: Walter Stapledon and Ralph Baldock. Reaction against the Despensers. 1303-14. Relations of England and France. 1314-22. Edward's dealings with Louis X. and Philip V. 1322. Accession of Charles IV. 1324. Affair of Saint-Sardos. Renewal of war. Sequestration of Gascony. Charles of Valois' conquest of the Agenais and La Reole. Isabella's mission to Paris. Edward of Aquitaine's homage to Charles IV. 1325. Treachery of Charles IV. and second sequestration of Gascony. 1326. Relations of Mortimer and Isabella The Hainault marriage 23 Sept. Landing of Isabella and Mortimer Riots in London: murder of Stapledon 26 Oct. Execution of the elder Despenser 16 Nov. Capture of Edward and the younger Despenser Triumph of the revolution 7 Jan., 1327. Parliament's recognition of Edward of Aquitaine as king 20 Jan. Edward II.'s resignation of the crown 24 Jan. Proclamation of Edward III. 22 Sept., 1328. Murder of Edward II. 1327-30. Rule of Isabella and Mortimer 1327. Abortive Scottish campaign April, 1328. Treaty of Northampton; "the shameful peace" Character and ambition of Mortimer Oct. Mortimer Earl of the March of Wales Henry of Lancaster's opposition to him Mar., 1330. Execution of the Earl of Kent Oct. Parliament at Nottingham 19 Oct. Arrest of Mortimer 29 Nov. His execution 1330-58. Later life of Isabella



Character and policy of Edward III. 1330-40. The rule of the Stratfords 1337. The new earldoms Scotland during the minority of David Bruce Edward Balliol and the Disinherited 6 Aug., 1332. The Disinherited in Scotland Battle of Dupplin Moor 6 Aug.-16 Dec. Edward Balliol's brief reign and expulsion Treaty of Roxburgh 1333. Attempt to procure his restoration Siege of Berwick 19 July. Battle of Halidon Hill Edward Balliol restored 12 June, 1334. Treaty of Newcastle, ceding to Edward south-eastern Scotland Failure of Edward Balliol 1334-36. Edward III.'s Scottish campaigns 1341. Return of David Bruce from France 1327-37. Relations of England and France 31 Mar., 1327. Treaty of Paris Edward's lands in Gascony after the treaty of Paris 1328. Accession of Philip of Valois in France Protests of the English regency 1328. The legal and political aspects of the succession question Edward III.'s claim to France 6 June, 1329. Edward's homage to Philip VI. 8 May, 1330. Convention of the Wood of Vincennes 9 Mar., 1331. Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye April. Interview of Pont-Sainte-Maxence Crusading projects of John XXII. 1336. Abandonment of the crusade by Benedict XII Strained relations between England and France 1337. Mission of the Cardinals Peter and Bertrand Edward and Robert of Artois The Vow of the Heron Preparations for war Breach with Flanders and stoppage of export of wool Alliance with William I. and II. of Hainault Edward's other Netherlandish allies 1337. Breach between France and England Nov. Sir Walter Manny at Cadzand Fruitless negotiations and further hostilities July, 1338. Edward III.'s departure for Flanders 5 Sept. Interview of Edward and the Emperor Louis of Bavaria at Coblenz The Anglo-imperial alliance Further fruitless negotiations Renewal of Edward's claim to the French crown The responsibility for the war



1339. Edward's invasion of France Oct. Campaign of the Thierache 23 Oct. The failure at Buironfosse Alliance between Edward and the Flemish cities James van Artevelde Jan., 1340. Edward III. at Ghent His proclamation as King of France 20 Feb. His return to England 22 June. His re-embarkation for Flanders Parallel naval development of England and France The Norman navy and the projected invasion of England 24 June. Battle of Sluys Ineffective campaigns in Artois and the Tournaisis 25 Sept. Truce of Esplechin 30 Nov. Edward's return to London The ministers displaced and a special commission appointed to try them 30 Nov. Controversy between Edward and Archbishop Stratford. 23 April, 1341. Parliament at London supporting Stratford and forcing Edward to choose ministers after consulting it. 1 Oct. Edward's repudiation of his concessions. April, 1343. Repeal of the statutes of 1341. John of Montfort and Charles of Blois claim the duchy of Brittany. War of the Breton succession. June, 1342. The siege of Hennebont raised. 1343. Battle of Morlaix. 19 Jan., 1343. Edward III. in Brittany. Truce of Malestroit. Edward's financial and political troubles. End of the Flemish alliance. June, 1345. Henry of Derby in Gascony. 21 Oct. Battle of Auberoche. 1346. Siege of Aiguillon and raid in Poitou. Preparations for Edward III.'s campaign. July-Aug. The march through Normandy. 26 July. Capture of Caen. Aug. The march up the Seine valley. The retreat northwards. The passage of the Somme at the Blanche taque. 26 Aug. Battle of Crecy. 17 Oct. Battle of Neville's Cross. 4 Sept. Siege of Calais. 3 Aug., 1347. Capture of Calais. 20 June. Battle of La Roche Derien. 28 Sept. Truce of Calais.



1347-48. Prosperity of England after the truce. 1348-50. The Black Death and its results. 1351. Statute of labourers. Social and economic unrest. Religious unrest. The Flagellants. The anti-clerical movement. 1351. First statute of provisors. 1353. First statute of praemunire. Richard Fitzralph and the attack on the mendicants. 1354. Ordinance Of the Staple. 1352. Statute of treasons. 1349. Foundation of the Order of the Garter. Dagworth's administration of Brittany. Hugh Calveley and Robert Knowles. 27 Mar., 1351. Battle of the Thirty. 1352. Battle of Mauron Fighting round Calais 1352. Capture of Guines 29 Aug., 1350. Battle of the Spaniards-on-the-sea 6 April, 1354. Preliminaries of peace signed at Guines 1355. Failure of the negotiations and renewal of the war Failure of John of Gaunt in Normandy Sept.-Nov. Black Prince's raid in Languedoc 1356. Operations of John of Gaunt in Normandy in alliance with Charles of Navarre and Geoffrey of Harcourt 9 Aug.-2 Oct. Black Prince's raid northwards to the Loire 19 Sept. Battle of Poitiers. 23 Mar., 1357. Truce of Bordeaux Oct. Treaty of Berwick 1357-71. The last years of David II. 1371. Accession of Robert II. in Scotland 1358. Preliminaries of peace signed between Edward III. and John State of France after Poitiers 24 Mar., 1359. Treaty of London The rejection of the treaty by the French Nov., 1359-April, 1360. Edward III.'s invasion of Northern France Champagne and Burgundy 11 Jan., 1360. Treaty of Guillon 7 April. Siege of Paris 8 May. Treaty of Bretigni 24 Oct. Treaty of Calais



Difficulties in carrying out the treaty of Calais Guerilla warfare: exploits of Calveley, Pipe, and Jowel 16 May, 1364. Battle of Cocherel 29 Sept. Battle of Auray 1365. Treaty of Guerande Exploits of the free companies: John Hawkwood 1361. The charters of renunciation not exchanged 1364. Death of King John: accession of Charles V. 1366. Expulsion of Peter the Cruel from Castile by Du Guesclin and the free companies Feb., 1367. The Black Prince's expedition to Spain 3 April. Battle of Najera The Black Prince's rule in Aquitaine His difficulties with the great nobles Jan., 1368. The hearth tax imposed Jan., 1369. Renewal of the war. Changed military and political conditions. Relations of England and Flanders. 1371. Battle in Bourgneuf Bay. Successes of the French. Sept., 1370. Sack of the cite of Limoges. 1371. The Black Prince's return to England with shattered health. 1370. Futile expeditions of Lancaster and Knowles. Treason of Sir John Minsterworth. Battle of Pontvallain. 1370-72. Exploits of Sir Owen of Wales. 23 June, 1370. Defeat of Pembroke at La Rochelle. Aug. Defeat of Thomas Percy at Soubise. 1372. Edward III.'s last military expedition. Expulsion of the English from Poitou and Brittany. July-Dec., 1373. John of Gaunt's march from Calais to Bordeaux. 1374. Ruin of the English power in France. 27 June, 1375. Truce of Bruges.



Glories of the years succeeding the treaty of Calais. 1361-69. John Froissart in England. His picture of the life of court and people. The national spirit in English literature. Gower and Minot. Geoffrey Chaucer. The standard English language. Lowland Scottish. The national spirit in art. "Flowing decorated" and "perpendicular" architecture. Contrast between England and Scotland. The national spirit in popular English literature. William Langland. His picture of the condition of the poor. The national spirit and the universities. Early career of John Wycliffe. Spread of cultivation among the laity. The national spirit in English law. The national spirit in commerce. Edward III.'s family settlement. Marriage of the Black Prince and Joan of Kent. Marriages of Lionel of Antwerp with Elizabeth de Burgh and Violante Visconti. Lionel in Ireland. Statute of Kilkenny. 1361-69. Philippa of Clarence's marriage with the Earl of March. John of Gaunt and the Duchy of Lancaster. Continuation of ancient rivalries between houses now represented by branches of the royal family. The great prelates of the end of Edward III.'s reign. Feb., 1371. Parliament: clerical ministers superseded by laymen. Clerical and anti-clerical, constitutional and court parties. Edward III.'s dotage. Alice Perrers. Struggle of parties at court. Increasing bitterness of the opposition to the courtiers. April-July, 1376. The "Good Parliament". Fall of the courtiers. 8 June. Death of the Black Prince. John of Gaunt restored to power. Jan., 1377. Packed parliament, and the reaction against the Good Parliament. Persistence of the clerical opposition. The attack on John Wycliffe. 10 Feb. Wycliffe before Bishop Courtenay. John of Gaunt's substantial triumph. 21 June. Death of Edward III. Characteristics of his age.




Comparative value of records and chronicles. Record sources for the period. Chancery Records:— Patent Rolls Close Rolls Rolls of Parliament Charter Rolls Inquests Post-Mortem Fine Rolls Gascon Rolls Hundred Rolls Exchequer Records Plea Rolls and records of the common law courts Records of local courts Scotch and Irish records Ecclesiastical records Bishops' registers Monastic Cartularies Papal records Chroniclers of the period. St. Alban's Abbey as a school of history. Matthew Paris. Later St. Alban's chroniclers. Other chroniclers of Henry III. Other monastic annals. Chroniclers of Edward I. Civic chronicles. Chroniclers of Edward II. Chroniclers of Edward III. Scottish and Welsh chronicles. French chronicles illustrating English history. The three redactions of Froissart. Other French chroniclers of the Hundred Years' War. Legal literature. Literary aids to history. Modern works on the period. Maps. Bibliographies. Note on authorities for battle of Poitiers.


MAPS. (At the End of the Volume) 1. Map of Wales and the March at the end of the XIIIth century. 2. Map of Southern Scotland and Northern England in the XIIIth and XIVth centuries. 3. Map of France in the XIIIth and XIVth centuries.



When John died, on October 19, 1216, the issue of the war between him and the barons was still doubtful. The arrival of Louis of France, eldest son of King Philip Augustus, had enabled the barons to win back much of the ground lost after John's early triumphs had forced them to call in the foreigner. Beyond the Humber the sturdy north-country barons, who had wrested the Great Charter from John, remained true to their principles, and had also the support of Alexander II., King of Scots. The magnates of the eastern counties were as staunch as the northerners, and the rich and populous southern shires were for the most part in agreement with them. In the west, the barons had the aid of Llewelyn ap Iorwerth, the great Prince of North Wales. While ten earls fought for Louis, the royal cause was only upheld by six. The towns were mainly with the rebels, notably London and the Cinque Ports, and cities so distant as Winchester and Lincoln, Worcester and Carlisle. Yet the baronial cause excited little general sympathy. The mass of the population stood aloof, and was impartially maltreated by the rival armies.

John's son Henry had at his back the chief military resources of the country; the two strongest of the earls, William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, and Randolph of Blundeville, Earl of Chester; the fierce lords of the Welsh March, the Mortimers, the Cantilupes, the Cliffords, the Braoses, and the Lacys; and the barons of the West Midlands, headed by Henry of Neufbourg, Earl of Warwick, and William of Ferrars, Earl of Derby. This powerful phalanx gave to the royalists a stronger hold in the west than their opponents had in any one part of the much wider territory within their sphere of influence. There was no baronial counterpart to the successful raiding of the north and east, which John had carried through in the last months of his life. A baronial centre, like Worcester, could not hold its own long in the west. Moreover, John had not entirely forfeited his hereditary advantages. The administrative families, whose chief representative was the justiciar Hubert de Burgh, held to their tradition of unswerving loyalty, and joined with the followers of the old king, of whom William Marshal was the chief survivor. All over England the royal castles were in safe hands, and so long as they remained unsubdued, no part of Louis' dominions was secure. The crown had used to the full its rights over minors and vacant fiefs. The subjection of the south-west was assured by the marriage of the mercenary leader, Falkes de Breaute, to the mother of the infant Earl of Devon, and by the grant of Cornwall to the bastard of the last of the Dunstanville earls. Though Isabella, Countess of Gloucester, John's repudiated wife, was as zealous as her new husband, the Earl of Essex, against John's son, Falkes kept a tight hand over Glamorgan, on which the military power of the house of Gloucester largely depended. Randolph of Chester was custodian of the earldoms of Leicester and Richmond, of which the nominal earls, Simon de Montfort and Peter Mauclerc, were far away, the one ruling Toulouse, and the other Brittany. The band of foreign adventurers, the mainstay of John's power, was still unbroken. Ruffians though these hirelings were, they had experience, skill, and courage, and were the only professional soldiers in the country.

The vital fact of the situation was that the immense moral and spiritual forces of the Church remained on the side of the king. Innocent III. had died some months before John, but his successor, Honorius III., continued to uphold his policy. The papal legate, the Cardinal Gualo, was the soul of the royalist cause. Louis and his adherents had been excommunicated, and not a single English bishop dared to join openly the foes of Holy Church. The most that the clerical partisans of the barons could do was to disregard the interdict and continue their ministrations to the excommunicated host. The strongest English prelate, Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, was at Rome in disgrace. Walter Grey, Archbishop of York, and Hugh of Wells, Bishop of Lincoln, were also abroad, while the Bishop of London, William of Sainte-Mere-Eglise, was incapacitated by illness. Several important sees, including Durham and Ely, were vacant. The ablest resident bishop, Peter des Roches of Winchester, was an accomplice in John's misgovernment.

The chief obstacle in the way of the royalists had been the character of John, and the little Henry of Winchester could have had no share in the crimes of his father. But the dead king had lately shown such rare energy that there was a danger lest the accession of a boy of nine might not weaken the cause of monarchy. The barons were largely out of hand. The war was assuming the character of the civil war of Stephen's days, and John's mercenaries were aspiring to play the part of feudal potentates. It was significant that so many of John's principal supporters were possessors of extensive franchises, like the lords of the Welsh March, who might well desire to extend these feudal immunities to their English estates. The triumph of the crown through such help might easily have resolved the united England of Henry II. into a series of lordships under a nominal king.

The situation was saved by the wisdom and moderation of the papal legate, and the loyalty of William Marshal, who forgot his interests as Earl of Pembroke in his devotion to the house of Anjou. From the moment of John's death at Newark, the cardinal and the marshal took the lead. They met at Worcester, where the tyrant was buried, and at once made preparations for the coronation of Henry of Winchester. The ceremony took place at St. Peter's Abbey, Gloucester, on October 28, from which day the new reign was reckoned as beginning. The marshal, who had forty-three years before dubbed the "young king" Henry a knight, then for a second time admitted a young king Henry to the order of chivalry. When the king had recited the coronation oath and performed homage to the pope, Gualo anointed him and placed on his head the plain gold circlet that perforce did duly for a crown.[1] Next day Henry's leading supporters performed homage, and before November 1 the marshal was made justiciar.

[1] There is some conflict of evidence on this point, and Dr. Stubbs, following Wendover, iv., 2, makes Peter of Winchester crown Henry. But the official account in Faedera, i., 145, is confirmed by Ann. Tewkesbury, p. 62; Histoire de G. le Marechal, lines 15329-32; Hist. des ducs de Normandie, et des rois d'Angleterre, p. 181, and Ann. Winchester, p. 83. Wykes, p. 60, and Ann. Dunstable, p. 48, which confirm Wendover, are suspect by reason of other errors.

On November 2 a great council met at Bristol. Only four earls appeared, and one of these, William of Fors, Earl of Albemarle, was a recent convert. But the presence of eleven bishops showed that the Church had espoused the cause of the little king, and a throng of western and marcher magnates made a sufficient representation of the lay baronage. The chief business was to provide for the government during the minority. Gualo withstood the temptation to adopt the method by which Innocent III. had ruled Sicily in the name of Frederick II. The king's mother was too unpopular and incompetent to anticipate the part played by Blanche of Castile during the minority of St. Louis. After the precedents set by the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, the barons took the matter into their own hands. Their work of selection was not an easy one. Randolph of Chester was by far the most powerful of the royalist lords, but his turbulence and purely personal policy, not less than his excessive possessions and inordinate palatine jurisdictions, made him unsuitable for the regency. Yet had he raised any sort of claim, it would have been hardly possible to resist his pretensions.[1] Luckily, Randolph stood aside, and his withdrawal gave the aged earl marshal the position for which his nomination as justiciar at Gloucester had already marked him out. The title of regent was as yet unknown, either in England or France, but the style, "ruler of king and kingdom," which the barons gave to the marshal, meant something more than the ordinary position of a justiciar. William's friends had some difficulty in persuading him to accept the office. He was over seventy years of age, and felt it would be too great a burden. Induced at last by the legate to undertake the charge, from that moment he shrank from none of its responsibilities. The personal care of the king was comprised within the marshal's duties, but he delegated that branch of his work to Peter des Roches.[2] These two, with Gualo, controlled the whole policy of the new reign. Next to them came Hubert de Burgh, John's justiciar, whom the marshal very soon restored to that office. But Hubert at once went back to the defence of Dover, and for some time took little part in general politics.

[1] The fears and hopes of the marshal's friends are well depicted in Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal, lines 15500-15708.

[2] The panegyrist of the marshal emphasises strongly the fact that Peter's charge was a delegation, ibid., lines 17993-18018.

On November 12, the legate and the regent issued at Bristol a confirmation of the Great Charter. Some of the most important articles accepted by John in 1215 were omitted, including the "constitutional clauses" requiring the consent of the council of barons for extraordinary taxation. Other provisions, which tied the hands of the government, were postponed for further consideration in more settled times. But with all its mutilations the Bristol charter of 1216 marked a more important moment than even the charter of Runnymede. The condemnation of Innocent III. would in all probability have prevented the temporary concession of John from becoming permanent. Love of country and love of liberty were doubtless growing forces, but they were still in their infancy, while the papal authority was something ultimate against which few Christians dared appeal. Thus the adoption by the free will of the papal legate, and the deliberate choice of the marshal of the policy of the Great Charter, converted, as has well been said, "a treaty won at the point of the sword into a manifesto of peace and sound government".[1] This wise change of policy cut away the ground from under the feet of the English supporters of Louis. The friends of the young Henry could appeal to his innocence, to his sacred unction, and to his recognition by Holy Church. They offered a programme of limited monarchy, of the redress of grievances, of vested rights preserved, and of adhesion to the good old traditions that all Englishmen respected. From that moment the Charter became a new starting-point in our history.

[1] Stubbs, Const. Hist., ii., 21.

In strange contrast to this programme of reform, the aliens, who had opposed the charter of Runnymede, were among the lords by whose counsel and consent the charter of Bristol was issued. In its weakness the new government sought to stimulate the zeal both of the foreign mercenaries and of the loyal barons by grants and privileges which seriously entrenched upon the royal authority. Falkes de Breaute was confirmed in the custody of a compact group of six midland shires, besides the earldom of Devon, and the "county of the Isle of Wight,"[1] which he guarded in the interests of his wife and stepson. Savary de Mauleon, who in despair of his old master's success had crossed over to Poitou before John's death, was made warden of the castle of Bristol. Randolph of Chester was consoled for the loss of the regency by the renewal of John's recent grant of the Honour of Lancaster which was by this time definitely recognised as a shire.[2]

[1] Histoire des ducs de Normandie, etc., p. 181.

[2] Tait, Medieval Manchester and the Beginnings of Lancashire, p. 180.

The war assumed the character of a crusade. The royalist troops wore white crosses on their garments, and were assured by the clergy of certain salvation. The cruel and purposeless ravaging of the enemy's country, which had occupied John's last months of life, became rare, though partisans, such as Falkes de Breaute, still outvied the French in plundering monasteries and churches. The real struggle became a war of castles. Louis endeavoured to complete his conquest of the south-east by the capture of the royal strongholds, which still limited his power to the open country. At first the French prince had some successes. In November he increased his hold on the Home counties by capturing the Tower of London, by forcing Hertford to surrender, and by pressing the siege of Berkhampsted. As Christmas approached the royalists proposed a truce. Louis agreed on the condition that Berkhampsted should be surrendered, and early in 1217 both parties held councils, the royalists at Oxford and the barons at Cambridge. There was vague talk of peace, but the war was renewed, and Louis captured Hedingham and Orford in Essex, and besieged the castles of Colchester and Norwich. Then another truce until April 26 was concluded, on the condition that the royalists should surrender these two strongholds.

Both sides had need to pause. Louis, at the limit of his resources, was anxious to obtain men and money from France. He was not getting on well with his new subjects. The eastern counties grumbled at his taxes. Dissensions arose between the English and French elements in his host. The English lords resented the grants and appointments he gave to his countrymen. The French nobles professed to despise the English as traitors. When Hertford was taken, Robert FitzWalter demanded that its custody should be restored to him. Louis roughly told him that Englishmen, who had betrayed their natural lord, were not to be entrusted with such charges. It was to little purpose that he promised Robert that every man should have his rights when the war was over. The prospects of ending the war grew more remote every day. The royalists took advantage of the discouragement of their opponents. The regent was lavish in promises. There should be no inquiry into bygones, and all who submitted to the young king should be guaranteed all their existing rights. The result was that a steady stream of converts began to flow from the camp of Louis to the camp of the marshal. For the first time signs of a national movement against Louis began to be manifest. It became clear that his rule meant foreign conquest.

Louis wished to return to France, but despite the truce he could only win his way to the coast by fighting. The Cinque Ports were changing their allegiance. A popular revolt had broken out in the Weald, where a warlike squire, William of Cassingham,[1] soon became a terror to the French under his nickname of Wilkin of the Weald. As Louis traversed the disaffected districts, Wilkin fell upon him near Lewes, and took prisoners two nephews of the Count of Nevers. On his further march to Winchelsea, the men of the Weald broke down the bridges behind him, while on his approach the men of Winchelsea destroyed their mills, and took to their ships as avowed partisans of King Henry. The French prince entered the empty town, and had great difficulty in keeping his army alive. "Wheat found they there," says a chronicler; "in great plenty, but they knew not how to grind it. Long time were they in such a plight that they had to crush by hand the corn of which they made their bread. They could catch no fish. Great store of nuts found they in the town; these were their finest food."[2] Louis was in fact besieged by the insurgents, and was only released by a force of knights riding down from London to help him. These troops dared not travel by the direct road through the Weald, and made their way to Romney through Canterbury. Rye was strongly held against them and the ships of the Cinque Ports dominated the sea, so that Louis was still cut off from his friends at Romney. A relieving fleet was despatched from Boulogne, but stress of weather kept it for a fortnight at Dover, while Louis was starving at Winchelsea. At last the French ships appeared off Winchelsea. Thereupon the English withdrew, and Louis finding the way open to France returned home.

[1] Mr. G.J. Turner has identified Cassingham with the modern Kensham, between Rolvenden and Sandhurst, in Kent.

[2] Histoire des ducs de Normandie, etc., p. 183.

A crowd of waverers changed sides. At their head were William Longsword, Earl of Salisbury, the bastard great-uncle of the little king, and William, the young marshal, the eldest son of the Earl of Pembroke. The regent wandered from town to town in Sussex, receiving the submission of the peasantry, and venturing to approach as near London as Dorking. The victorious Wilkin was made Warden of the Seven Hundreds of the Weald. The greatest of the magnates of Sussex and Surrey, William, Earl Warenne, followed the example of his tenantry, and made his peace with the king. The royalists fell upon the few castles held by the barons. While one corps captured Odiham, Farnham, Chichester, and other southern strongholds, Falkes de Breaute overran the Isle of Ely, and Randolph of Chester besieged the Leicestershire fortress of Mount Sorrel. Enguerrand de Coucy, whom Louis had left in command, remained helpless in London. His boldest act was to send a force to Lincoln, which occupied the town, but failed to take the castle. This stronghold, under its hereditary warden, the valiant old lady, Nichola de Camville,[1] had already twice withstood a siege.

[1] On Nichola de Camville or de la Hay see M. Petit-Dutaillis in Melanges Julien Havet, pp. 369-80.

Louis found no great encouragement in France, for Philip Augustus, too prudent to offend the Church, gave but grudging support to his excommunicated son. When, on the eve of the expiration of the truce, Louis returned to England, his reinforcements comprised only 120 knights. Among them, however, were the Count of Brittany, Peter Mauclerc, anxious to press in person his rights to the earldom of Richmond, the Counts of Perche and Guines, and many lords of Picardy, Artois and Ponthieu. Conscious that everything depended on the speedy capture of the royal castles, Louis introduced for the first time into England the trebuchet, a recently invented machine that cast great missiles by means of heavy counterpoises. "Great was the talk about this, for at that time few of them had been seen in France."[1] On April 22, Louis reached Dover, where the castle was still feebly beset by the French. On his nearing the shore, Wilkin of the Weald and Oliver, a bastard of King John's, burnt the huts of the French engaged in watching the castle. Afraid to land in their presence, Louis disembarked at Sandwich. Next day he went by land to Dover, but discouraged by tidings of his losses, he gladly concluded a short truce with Hubert de Burgh. He abandoned the siege of Dover, and hurried off towards Winchester, where the two castles were being severely pressed by the royalists. But his progress was impeded by his siege train, and Farnham castle blocked his way.

[1] Histoire des ducs de Normandie, etc., p. 188; cf. English Hist. Review, xviii. (1903), 263-64.

Saer de Quincy, Earl of Winchester, joined Louis outside the walls of Farnham. Saer's motive was to persuade Louis to hasten to the relief of his castle of Mount Sorrel. The French prince was not in a position to resist pressure from a powerful supporter. He divided his army, and while the Earl of Winchester, along with the Count of Perche and Robert FitzWalter, made their way to Leicestershire, he completed his journey to Winchester, threw a fresh force into the castles, and, leaving the Count of Nevers in charge, hurried to London. There he learnt that Hubert de Burgh at Dover had broken the truce, and he at once set off to renew the siege of the stronghold which had so continually baulked his plans. But little good came of his efforts, and the much-talked-of trebuchet proving powerless to effect a breach, Louis had to resign himself to a weary blockade. While he was besieging Dover, Saer de Quincy had relieved Mount Sorrel, whence he marched to the help of Gilbert of Ghent, the only English baron whom Louis ventured to raise to comital rank as Earl of Lincoln. Gilbert was still striving to capture Lincoln Castle, but Nichola de Camville had resisted him from February to May. With the help of the army from Mount Sorrel, the castle and its chatelaine were soon reduced to great straits.

The marshal saw that the time was come to take the offensive, and resolved to raise the siege. Having no field army, he stripped his castles of their garrisons, and gave rendezvous to his barons at Newark. There the royalists rested three days, and received the blessing of Gualo and the bishops. They then set out towards Lincoln, commanded by the regent in person, the Earl of Chester, and the Bishop of Winchester, whom the legate appointed as his representative. The strong water defences of the rebel city on the south made it unadvisable for them to take the direct route towards it. Their army descended the Trent to Torksey, where it rested the night of May 19. Early next day, the eve of Trinity Sunday, it marched in four "battles" to relieve Lincoln Castle.

There were more than 600 knights besieging the castle and holding the town, and the relieving army only numbered 400 knights and 300 cross-bowmen. But the barons dared not risk a combat that might have involved them in the fate of Stephen in 1141. They retreated within the city and allowed the marshal to open up communications with the castle. The marshal's plan of battle was arranged by Peter des Roches, who was more at home in the field than in the church. The cross-bowmen under Falkes de Breaute were thrown into the castle, and joined with the garrison in making a sally from its east gate into the streets of the town. While the barons were thus distracted, the marshal burst through the badly defended north gate. The barons taken in front and flank fought desperately, but with no success. Falkes' cross-bowmen shot down their horses, and the dismounted knights soon failed to hold their own in the open ground about the cathedral. The Count of Perche was slain by a sword-thrust through the eyehole of his helmet. The royalists chased the barons down the steep lanes which connect the upper with the lower town. When they reached level ground the baronial troops rallied, and once more strove to reascend the hill. But the town was assailed on every side, and its land defences yielded with little difficulty. The Earl of Chester poured his vassals through one of the eastern gates, and took the barons in flank. Once more they broke, and this time they rallied not again, but fled through the Wigford suburb seeking any means of escape. Some obstruction in the Bar-gate, the southern exit from the city, retarded their flight, and many of the leaders were captured. The remnant fled to London, thinking that "every bush was full of marshals," and suffering severely from the hostility of the peasantry. Only three persons were slain in the battle, but there was a cruel massacre of the defenceless citizens after its close. So vast was the booty won by the victors that in scorn they called the fight the Fair of Lincoln![1]

[1] For a discussion of the battle, see English Hist. Review, xviii. (1903), 240-65.

Louis' prospects were still not desperate. The victorious army scattered, each man to his own house, so that the marshal was in no position to press matters to extremities. But there was a great rush to make terms with the victor, and Louis thought it prudent to abandon the hopeless siege of Dover, and take refuge with his partisans, the Londoners. Meanwhile the marshal hovered round London, hoping eventually to shut up the enemy in the capital. On June 12, the Archbishop of Tyre and three Cistercian abbots, who had come to England to preach the Crusade, persuaded both parties to accept provisional articles of peace. Louis stipulated for a complete amnesty to all his partisans; but the legate declined to grant pardon to the rebellious clerks who had refused to obey the interdict, conspicuous among whom was the firebrand Simon Langton, brother of the archbishop. Finding no compromise possible, Louis broke off the negotiations rather than abandon his friends. Gualo urged a siege of London, but the marshal saw that his resources were not adequate for such a step. Again many of his followers went home, and the court abode first at Oxford and afterwards at Gloucester. It seemed as if the war might go on for ever.

Blanche of Castile, Louis' wife, redoubled her efforts on his behalf. In response to her entreaties a hundred knights and several hundred men-at-arms took ship for England. Among the knights was the famous William des Barres, one of the heroes of Bouvines, and Theobald, Count of Blois. Eustace the Monk, a renegade clerk turned pirate, and a hero of later romance, took command of the fleet. On the eve of St. Bartholomew, August 23, Eustace sailed from Calais towards the mouth of the Thames. Kent had become royalist; the marshal and Hubert de Burgh held Sandwich, so that the long voyage up the Thames was the only way of taking succour to Louis. Next day the old earl remained on shore, but sent out Hubert with the fleet. The English let the French pass by, and then, manoeuvring for the weather gage, tacked and assailed them from behind.[1] The fight raged round the great ship of Eustace, on which the chief French knights were embarked. Laden with stores, horses, and a ponderous trebuchet, it was too low in the water to manoeuvre or escape. Hubert easily laid his own vessel alongside it. The English, who were better used to fighting at sea than the French, threw powdered lime into the faces of the enemy, swept the decks with their crossbow bolts and then boarded the ship, which was taken after a fierce fight. The crowd of cargo boats could offer little resistance as they beat up against the wind in their retreat to Calais; the ships containing the soldiers were more fortunate in escaping. Eustace was beheaded, and his head paraded on a pole through the streets of Canterbury.

[1] This successful attempt of the English fleet to manoeuvre for the weather gage, that is to secure a position to the windward of their opponents, is the first recorded instance of what became the favourite tactics of British admirals. For the legend of Eustace see Witasse le Moine, ed. Foerster (1891).

The battle of St. Bartholomew's Day, like that of Lincoln a triumph of skill over numbers, proved decisive for the fortunes of Louis. The English won absolute control of the narrow seas, and cut off from Louis all hope of fighting his way back to France. As soon as he heard of the defeat of Eustace, he reopened negotiations with the marshal. On the 29th there was a meeting between Louis and the Earl at the gates of London. The regent had to check the ardour of his own partisans, and it was only after anxious days of deliberation that the party of moderation prevailed. On September 5 a formal conference was held on an island of the Thames near Kingston. On the 11th a definitive treaty was signed at the archbishop's house at Lambeth.

The Treaty of Lambeth repeated with little alteration the terms rejected by Louis three months before. The French prince surrendered his castles, released his partisans from their oaths to him, and exhorted all his allies, including the King of Scots and the Prince of Gwynedd, to lay down their arms. In return Henry promised that no layman should lose his inheritance by reason of his adherence to Louis, and that the baronial prisoners should be released without further payment of ransom. London, despite its pertinacity in rebellion, was to retain its ancient franchises. The marshal bound himself personally to pay Louis 10,000 marks, nominally as expenses, really as a bribe to accept these terms. A few days later Louis and his French barons appeared before the legate, barefoot and in the white garb of penitents, and were reconciled to the Church. They were then escorted to Dover, whence they took ship for France. Only on the rebellious clergy did Gualo's wrath fall. The canons of St. Paul's were turned out in a body; ringleaders like Simon Langton were driven into exile, and agents of the legate traversed the country punishing clerks who had disregarded the interdict. But Honorius was more merciful than Gualo, and within a year even Simon received his pardon. The laymen of both camps forgot their differences, when Randolph of Chester and William of Ferrars fought in the crusade of Damietta, side by side with Saer of Winchester and Robert FitzWalter. The reconciliation of parties was further shown in the marriage of Hubert de Burgh to John's divorced wife, Isabella of Gloucester, a widow by the death of the Earl of Essex, and still the foremost English heiress. On November 6 the pacification was completed by the reissue of the Great Charter in what was substantially its final form. The forest clauses of the earlier issues were published in a much enlarged shape as a separate Forest Charter, which laid down the great principle that no man was to lose life or limb for hindering the king's hunting.

It is tempting to regard the defeat of Louis as a triumph of English patriotism. But it is an anachronism to read the ideals of later ages into the doings of the men of the early thirteenth century. So far as there was national feeling in England, it was arrayed against Henry. To the last the most fervently English of the barons were steadfast on the French prince's side, and the triumph of the little king had largely been procured by John's foreigners. To contemporary eyes the rebels were factious assertors of class privileges and feudal immunities. Their revolt against their natural lord brought them into conflict with the sentiment of feudal duty which was still so strong in faithful minds. And against them was a stronger force than feudal loyally. From this religious standpoint the Canon of Barnwell best sums up the situation: "It was a miracle that the heir of France, who had won so large a part of the kingdom, was constrained to abandon the realm without hope of recovering it. It was because the hand of God was not with him. He came to England in spite of the prohibition of the Holy Roman Church, and he remained there regardless of its anathema."

The young king never forgot that he owed his throne to the pope and his legate. "When we were bereft of our father in tender years," he declared long afterwards, "when our subjects were turned against us, it was our mother, the Holy Roman Church, that brought back our realm under our power, anointed us king, crowned us, and placed us on the throne."[1] The papacy, which had secured a new hold over England by its alliance with John, made its position permanent by its zeal for the rights of his son. By identifying the monarchy with the charters, it skilfully retraced the false step which it had taken. Under the aegis of the Roman see the national spirit grew, and the next generation was to see the temper fostered by Gualo in its turn grow impatient of the papal supremacy. It was Gualo, then, who secured the confirmation of the charters. Even Louis unconsciously worked in that direction, for, had he not gained so strong a hold on the country, there would have been no reason to adopt a policy of conciliation. We must not read the history of this generation in the light of modern times, or even with the eyes of Matthew Paris.

[1] Grosseteste, Epistolae, p. 339.

The marshal had before him a task essentially similar to that which Henry II had undertaken after the anarchy of Stephen's reign. It was with the utmost difficulty that the sum promised to Louis could be extracted from the war-stricken and famished tillers of the soil. The exchequer was so empty that the Christmas court of the young king was celebrated at the expense of Falkes de Breaute. Those who had fought for the king clamoured for grants and rewards, and it was necessary to humour them. For example, Randolph of Blundeville, with the earldom of Lincoln added to his Cheshire palatinate and his Lancashire Honour, had acquired a position nearly as strong as that of the Randolph of the reign of Stephen. "Adulterine castles" had grown up in such numbers that the new issue of the Charter insisted upon their destruction. Even the lawful castles were held by unauthorised custodians, who refused to yield them up to the king's officers. Though Alexander, King of Scots, purchased his reconciliation with Rome by abandoning Carlisle and performing homage to Henry, the Welsh remained recalcitrant. One chieftain, Morgan of Caerleon, waged war against the marshal in Gwent, and was dislodged with difficulty. During the war Llewelyn ap Iorwerth conquered Cardigan and Carmarthen from the marchers, and it was only after receiving assurances that he might retain these districts so long as the king's minority lasted that he condescended to do homage at Worcester in March, 1218.

In the following May Stephen Langton came back from exile and threw the weight of his judgment on the regent's side. Gradually the worst difficulties were surmounted. The administrative machinery once more became effective. A new seal was cast for the king, whose documents had hitherto been stamped with the seal of the regent. Order was so far restored that Gualo returned to Italy. He was a man of high character and noble aims, caring little for personal advancement, and curbing his hot zeal against "schismatics" in his desire to restore peace to England. His memory is still commemorated in his great church of St. Andrew, at Vercelli, erected, it may be, with the proceeds of his English benefices, and still preserving the manuscript of legends of its patron saint, which its founder had sent thither from his exile.

At Candlemas, 1219, the aged regent was smitten with a mortal illness. His followers bore him up the Thames from London to his manor of Caversham, where his last hours were disturbed by the intrigues of Peter of Winchester for his succession, and the importunity of selfish clerks, clamouring for grants to their churches. He died on May 14, clad in the habit of the Knights of the Temple, in whose new church in London his body was buried, and where his effigy may still be seen. The landless younger son of a poor baron, he had supported himself in his youth by the spoils of the knights he had vanquished in the tournaments, where his successes gained him fame as the model of chivalry. The favour of Henry, the "young king," gave him political importance, and his marriage with Strongbow's daughter made him a mighty man in England, Ireland, Wales, and Normandy. Strenuous and upright, simple and dignified, the young soldier of fortune bore easily the weight of office and honour which accrued to him before the death of his first patron. Limited as was his outlook, he gave himself entirely to his master-principle of loyally to the feudal lord whom he had sworn to obey. This simple conception enabled him to subordinate his interests as a marcher potentate to his duty to the English monarchy. It guided him in his difficult work of serving with unbending constancy a tyrant like John. It shone most clearly when in his old age he saved John's son from the consequences of his father's misdeeds. A happy accident has led to the discovery in our own days of the long poem, drawn up in commemoration of his career[1] at the instigation of his son. This important work has enabled us to enter into the marshal's character and spirit in much the same way as Joinville's History of St. Louis has made us familiar with the motives and attributes of the great French king. They are the two men of the thirteenth century whom we know most intimately. It is well that the two characters thus portrayed at length represent to us so much of what is best in the chivalry, loyalty, statecraft, and piety of the Middle Ages.

[1] Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal, published by P. Meyer for the Soc. de l'histoire de France. Petit-Dutaillis, Etude sur Louis VIII. (1894), and G.J. Turner, Minority of Henry III., part i, in Transactions of the Royal Hist. Soc., new ser., viii. (1904), 245-95, are the best modern commentaries on the history of the marshal's regency.



William Marshal had recognized that the regency must end with him. "There is no land," he declared, "where the people are so divided as they are in England. Were I to hand over the king to one noble, the others would be jealous. For this reason I have determined to entrust him to God and the pope. No one can blame me for this, for, if the land is not defended by the pope, I know no one who can protect it." The fortunate absence of Randolph of Chester on crusade made it easy to carry out this plan. Accordingly the king of twelve years was supposed to be capable of acting for himself. But the ultimate authority resided with the new legate Pandulf, who, without any formal designation, was the real successor of the marshal. This arrangement naturally left great power to Peter des Roches, who continued to have the custody of the king's person, and to Hubert the justiciar, who henceforth acted as Pandulf's deputy. Next to them came the Archbishop of Canterbury. Langton's share in the struggle for the charters was so conspicuous, that we do not always remember that it was as a scholar and a theologian that he acquired his chief reputation among his contemporaries. On his return from exile he found such engrossing occupation in the business of his see, that he took little part in politics for several years. His self-effacement strengthened the position of the legate.

Pandulf was no stranger to England. As subdeacon of the Roman Church he received John's submission in 1213, and stood by his side during nearly all his later troubles. He had been rewarded by his election to the bishopric of Norwich, but was recalled to Rome before his consecration, and only came back to England in the higher capacity of legate on December 3, 1218, after the recall of Gualo. He had been the cause of Langton's suspension, and there was probably no love lost between him and the archbishop. It was in order to avoid troublesome questions of jurisdiction that Pandulf, at the pope's suggestion, continued to postpone his consecration as bishop, since that act would have subordinated him to the Archbishop of Canterbury. But neither he nor Langton was disposed to push matters to extremities. Just as Peter des Roches balanced Hubert de Burgh, so the archbishop acted as a makeweight to the legate. When power was thus nicely equipoised, there was a natural tendency to avoid conflicting issues. In these circumstances the truce between parties, which had marked the regency, continued for the first years after Earl William's death. In all doubtful points the will of the legate seems to have prevailed. Pandulf's correspondence shows him interfering in every matter of state. He associated himself with the justiciar in the appointment of royal officials; he invoked the papal authority to put down "adulterine castles," and to prevent any baron having more than one royal stronghold in his custody; he prolonged the truce with France, and strove to pacify the Prince of North Wales; he procured the resumption of the royal domain, and rebuked Bishop Peter and the justiciar for remissness in dealing with Jewish usurers; he filled up bishoprics at his own discretion. Nor did he neglect his own interests; his kinsfolk found preferment in his English diocese, and he appropriated certain livings for the payment of his debts, "so far as could be done without offence". But in higher matters he pursued a wise policy. In recognising that the great interest of the Church was peace, he truly expressed the policy of the mild Honorius. For more than two years he kept Englishmen from flying at each other's throats. If they paid for peace by the continuance of foreign rule, it was better to be governed by Pandulf than pillaged by Falkes. The principal events of these years were due to papal initiative.[1] Honorius looked askance on the maimed rites of the Gloucester coronation, and ordered a new hallowing to take place at the accustomed place and with the accustomed ceremonies. This supplementary rite was celebrated at Westminster on Whitsunday, May 17, 1220. Though Pandulf was present, he discreetly permitted the Archbishop of Canterbury to crown Henry with the diadem of St. Edward. "This coronation," says the Canon of Barnwell, "was celebrated with such good order and such splendour that the oldest magnates who were present declared that they had seen none of the king's predecessors crowned with so much goodwill and tranquillity." Nor was this the only great ecclesiastical function of the year. On July 7 Langton celebrated at Canterbury the translation of the relics of St. Thomas to a magnificent shrine at the back of the high altar. Again the legate gave precedence to the archbishop, and the presence of the young king, of the Archbishop of Reims, and the Primate of Hungary, gave distinction to the solemnity. It was a grand time for English saints. When Damietta was taken from the Mohammedans, the crusaders dedicated two of its churches to St. Thomas of Canterbury and St. Edmund the King. A new saint was added to the calendar, who, if not an Englishman, had done good work for the country of his adoption. In 1220 Honorius III. canonised Hugh of Avalon, the Carthusian Bishop of Lincoln, on the report of a commission presided over by Langton himself.

[1]: H.R. Luard, On the Relations between England and Rome during the Earlier Portion of the Reign of Henry III. (1877), illustrates papal influence at this period.

No real unity of principle underlay the external tranquillity. As time went on Peter des Roches bitterly resented the growing preponderance of Hubert de Burgh. Not all the self-restraint of the legate could commend him to Langton, whose obstinate insistence upon his metropolitical authority forced Pandulf to procure bulls from Rome specifically releasing him from the jurisdiction of the primate. In these circumstances it was natural for Bishop Peter and the legate to join together against the justiciar and the archbishop. Finding that the legate was too strong for him, Langton betook himself to Rome, and remained there nearly a year. Before he went home he persuaded Honorius to promise not to confer the same benefice twice by papal provision, and to send no further legate to England during his lifetime. Pandulf was at once recalled, and left England in July, 1221, a month before his rival's return. He was compensated for the slight put upon him by receiving his long-deferred consecration to Norwich at the hands of the pope. There is small reason for believing that he was exceptionally greedy or unpopular. But his withdrawal removed an influence which had done its work for good, and was becoming a national danger. Langton henceforth could act as the real head of the English Church. In 1222, he held an important provincial council at Oseney abbey, near Oxford, where he issued constitutions, famous as the first provincial canons still recognised as binding in our ecclesiastical courts. He began once more to concern himself with affairs of state, and Hubert found him a sure ally. Bishop Peter, disgusted with his declining influence, welcomed his appointment as archbishop of the crusading Church at Damietta. He took the cross, and left England with Falkes de Breaute as his companion. Learning that the crescent had driven the cross out of his new see, he contented himself with making the pilgrimage to Compostella, and soon found his way back to England, where he sought for opportunities to regain power.

Relieved of the opposition of Bishop Peter, Hubert insisted on depriving barons of doubtful loyalty of the custody of royal castles, and found his chief opponent in William Earl of Albemarle. In dignity and possessions, Albemarle was not ill-qualified to be a feudal leader. The son of William de Fors, of Oleron, a Poitevin adventurer of the type of Falkes de Breaute, he represented, through his mother, the line of the counts of Aumale, who had since the Conquest ruled over Holderness from their castle at Skipsea. The family acquired the status of English earls under Stephen, retaining their foreign title, expressed in English in the form of Albemarle, being the first house of comital rank abroad to hold an earldom with a French name unassociated with any English shire. During the civil war Albemarle's tergiversations, which rivalled those of the Geoffrey de Mandeville of Stephen's time, had been rewarded by large grants from the victorious party. Since 1219 he suffered slight upon slight, and in 1220 was stripped of the custody of Rockingham Castle. Late in that year Hubert resolved to enforce an order, promulgated in 1217, which directed Albemarle to restore to his former subtenant Bytham Castle, in South Kesteven, of which he was overlord, and of which he had resumed possession on account of the treason of his vassal. The earl hurried away in indignation from the king's Christmas court, and in January, 1221, threw himself into Bytham, eager to hold it by force against the king. For a brief space he ruled over the country-side after the fashion of a baron of Stephen's time. He plundered the neighbouring towns and churches, and filled the dungeons of Castle Bytham with captives. On the pretext of attending a council at Westminster he marched southwards, but his real motive was disclosed when he suddenly attacked the castle of Fotheringhay. His men crossed the moat on the ice, and, burning down the great gate, easily overpowered the scanty garrison. "As if he were the only ruler of the kingdom," says the Canon of Barnwell, "he sent letters signed with his seal to the mayors of the cities of England, granting his peace to all merchants engaged in plying their trades, and allowing them free licence of going and coming through his castles." Nothing in the annals of the time puts more clearly this revival of the old feudal custom that each baron should lord it as king over his own estates.

Albemarle's power did not last long. He incurred the wrath of the Church, and both in Kesteven and in Northamptonshire set himself against the interests of Randolph of Chester. Before January was over Pandulf excommunicated him, and a great council granted a special scutage, "the scutage of Bytham," to equip an army to crush the rebel. Early in February a considerable force marched northwards against him. The Earl of Chester took part in the campaign, and both the legate and the king accompanied the army. Before the combined efforts of Church and State, Albemarle dared not hold his ground, and fled to Fountains, where he took sanctuary. His followers abandoned Fotheringhay, but stood a siege at Bytham. After six days this castle was captured on February 8. Even then secret sympathisers with Albemarle were able to exercise influence on his behalf, and Pandulf himself was willing to show mercy. The earl came out of sanctuary, and was pardoned on condition of taking the crusader's vow. No effort was made to insist on his going on crusade, and within a few months he was again in favour. "Thus," says Roger of Wendover, "the king set the worst of examples, and encouraged future rebellions." Randolph of Chester came out with the spoils of victory. He secured as the price of his ostentatious fidelity the custody of the Honour of Huntingdon, during the nonage of the earl, his nephew, John the Scot.

A tumult in the capital soon taught Hubert that he had other foes to fight against besides the feudal party. At a wrestling match, held on July 25, 1222, between the city and the suburbs, the citizens won an easy victory. The tenants of the Abbot of Westminster challenged the conquerors to a fresh contest on August 1 at Westminster. But the abbot's men were more anxious for revenge than good sport, and seeing that the Londoners were likely to win, they violently broke up the match. Suspecting no evil, the citizens had come without arms, and were very severely handled by their rivals. Driven back behind their walls, the Londoners clamoured for vengeance. Serlo the mercer, their mayor, a prudent and peace-loving man, urged them to seek compensation of the abbot. But the citizens preferred the advice of Constantine FitzAthulf, who insisted upon an immediate attack on the men of Westminster. Next day the abbey precincts were invaded, and much mischief was done. The alarm was the greater because Constantine was a man of high position, who had recently been a sheriff of London, and had once been a strenuous supporter of Louis of France. It was rumoured that his followers had raised the cry, "Montjoie! Saint Denis!" The quarrels of neighbouring cities were as dangerous to sound rule as the feuds of rival barons, and Hubert took instant measures to put down the sedition. With the aid of Falkes de Breaute's mercenaries, order was restored, and Constantine was led before the justiciar. Early next day Falkes assembled his forces, and crossed the river to Southwark. He took with him Constantine and two of his supporters, and hanged all three, without form of trial, before the city knew anything about it. Then Falkes and his soldiers rushed through the streets, capturing, mutilating, and frightening away the citizens. Constantine's houses and property were seized by the king. The weak Serlo was deposed from the mayoralty, and the city taken into the king's hands. It was the last time that Hubert and Falkes worked together, and something of the violence of the condottiere captain sullied the justiciar's reputation. As the murderer of Constantine, Hubert was henceforth pursued with the undying hatred of the Londoners.

During the next two years parties became clearly defined. Hubert more and more controlled the royal policy, and strove to strengthen both his master and himself by marriage alliances. Powerful husbands were sought for the king's three sisters. On June 19, 1221, Joan, Henry's second sister, was married to the young Alexander of Scotland, at York. At the same time Hubert, a widower by Isabella of Gloucester's death, wedded Alexander's elder sister, Margaret, a match which compensated the justiciar for his loss of Isabella's lands. Four years later, Isabella, the King of Scot's younger sister, was united with Roger Bigod, the young Earl of Norfolk, a grandson of the great William Marshal, whose eldest son and successor, William Marshal the younger, was in 1224 married to the king's third sister, Eleanor. The policy of intermarriage between the royal family and the baronage was defended by the example of Philip Augustus in France, and on the ground of the danger to the royal interests if so strong a magnate as the earl marshal were enticed away from his allegiance by an alliance with a house unfriendly to Henry.[1]

[1] Royal Letters, i., 244-46.

The futility of marriage alliances in modifying policy was already made clear by the attitude of Llewelyn ap Iorwerth, the husband of Henry's bastard sister Joan. This resourceful prince had already raised himself to a high position by a statecraft which lacked neither strength nor duplicity. Though fully conscious of his position as the champion of a proud nation, and, posing as the peer of the King of Scots, Llewelyn saw that it was his interest to continue the friendship with the baronial opposition which had profited him so greatly in the days of the French invasion. The pacification arranged in 1218 sat rightly upon him, and he plunged into a war with William Marshal the younger that desolated South Wales for several years. In 1219 Llewelyn devastated Pembrokeshire so cruelly that the marshal's losses were currently, though absurdly, reported to have exceeded the amount of the ransom of King Richard. There was much more fighting, but Llewelyn's progress was impeded by difficulties with his own son Griffith, and with the princes of South Wales, who bore impatiently the growing hold of the lord of Gwynedd upon the affections of southern Welshmen. There was war also in the middle march, where in 1220 a royal army was assembled against Llewelyn; but Pandulf negotiated a truce, and the only permanent result of this effort was the fortification of the castle and town at Montgomery, which had become royal demesne on the extinction of the ancient house of Bollers a few years earlier. But peace never lasted long west of the Severn, and in 1222 William Marshal drove Llewelyn out of Cardigan and Carmarthen. Again there were threats of war. Llewelyn was excommunicated, and his lands put under interdict. The marshal complained bitterly of the poor support which Henry gave him against the Welsh, but Hubert restored cordiality between him and the king. In these circumstances the policy of marrying Eleanor to the indignant marcher was a wise one. Llewelyn however could still look to the active friendship of Randolph of Chester. While the storm of war raged in South Wales, the march between Cheshire and Gwynedd enjoyed unwonted peace, and in 1223 a truce was patched up through Randolph's mediation.

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