HotFreeBooks.com
The History of England - From the Accession of Henry III. to the Death of Edward III. (1216-1377)
by T.F. Tout
Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

For the early years of Henry III. we have besides Wendover's Flores: (i) The CANON OF BARNWELL'S continuation of Howden published in STUBBS'S Memoriale Fratris Walteri de Coventria (Rolls Series), written in 1227 and copious for the years 1216-1225. (2) RALPH OF COGGESHALL's Chronicon Anglicanum (ed. Stevenson, Rolls Series), ending at 1227 and important for its last twelve years. (3) The Histoire des Ducs de Normandie et des Rois d'Angleterre, which, published by F. Michel in 1840 (Soc. de l'histoire de France), was first appreciated at its full value by M. Petit-Dutaillis in the Revue Historique. tome 2 (1892). (4) The Chronique de l'Anonyme de Bethune printed in 1904 in vol. xxiv. of the Recueil des Historiens de la France. (5) A French rhyming chronicle, the Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal, discovered and edited by P. Meyer for the Soc. de l'histoire de France. Written by a minstrel of the younger Marshal from materials supplied by the regent's favourite squire, it is, though poetry and panegyric, an important source for Marshal's regency.

St. Alban's was not the only religious house that concerned itself with the production of chronicles. Other Annales Monastici have been edited in five volumes (Rolls Series, vol. v. is the index) by Dr. Luard. They are of special importance for the reign of Henry III. In vol. i. the meagre annals of the Glamorganshire abbey of Margam only extend to 1232. The Annals of Tewkesbury are useful from 1200 to 1263, and specially for the history of the Clares, the patrons of that house. The Annals of Burton-upon-Trent illustrate the years 1211 to 1261 with somewhat intermittent light, and are of unique value for the period of the Provisions of Oxford, containing many official documents. Vol. ii. includes the Annals of Winchester and Waverley. The former, extending to 1277, though mainly concerned with local affairs are useful for certain parts of the reign of Henry III., and particularly for the years 1267-1277. The annals of the Cistercian house of Waverley, near Farnham, go down to 1291. From 1259 to 1266 the narrative is contemporary and valuable; from 1266 to 1275, and partly from 1275 to 1277 it is borrowed from the Winchester Annals; from 1277 to its abrupt end it is again of importance. The Annals of Bermondsey in vol. iii. are a fifteenth century compilation. The Annals of the Austin canons of Dunstable are of great value, especially from the year 1201, when they become original, down to 1242. This section is written by RICHARD DE MORINS, prior of Dunstable from 1202 to 1242. After his death the annals become more local, though they give a clear narrative of the puzzling period 1258-1267. They stop in 1297. The chief contents of vol. iv, are the parallel Annals of Oseney and the Chronicle of THOMAS WYKES, a canon of that house, who took the religious habit in 1282. To 1258 the two histories are very similar, that of Wykes being slightly fuller. They then remain distinct until 1278, and again from 1280 to 1284 and 1285-1289. In the latter year Wykes stops, while Oseney goes on with independent value until 1293, and as a useless compilation till 1346. Wykes is of unique interest for the Barons' Wars, as he is the only competent chronicler who takes the royalist side. The Oseney writer, much less full and interesting, represents the ordinary baronial standpoint. Wykes is occasionally useful for the first years of Edward I.; after 1288 his importance becomes small. The Annals of Worcester are largely a compilation from the Winchester Annals and the Flores; the local insertions have some value for the period 1216-1258, and more for the latter part of the reign of Edward I., at whose death they end.

Other monastic chronicles of the thirteenth century, of small importance, enumerated by Dr. Luard (Ann. Mon., iv., liii.) are not yet printed in full. Extracts from many are given in PERTZ'S Monumenta Germaniae Hist. Scriptores, vols. xxvii. and xxviii. The Annales Cestrienses (to 1297) have been edited by R.C. Christie (Record Soc. of Lancashire and Cheshire); EDMUND OF HADENHAM'S Chronicle (down to 1307) is given in part in WHARTON'S Anglia Sacra, and M. Bemont publishes in an appendix to his Simon de Montfort (pp. 373-380) a valuable fragment of a Chronicle of Battle Abbey on the Barons' Wars, 1258-1265. For the latter part of that period we have some useful notices in HENRY OF SILEGRAVE's brief Chronicle (ed. Hook, Caxton Soc., 1849), whose close relationship to the Battle Chronicle M. Bemont has first indicated. To these may be added the Annals of Stanley Abbey (1202-1271) in vol. ii. of Chronicles of Stephen, Henry II. and Richard I. (ed. Hewlett, Rolls Series, 1885), and the Chronicle of the Bury monk, JOHN OF TAXSTER or TAYSTER, which becomes copious from the middle of the thirteenth century and ends in 1265; it was partly printed in 1849 by Benjamin Thorpe as a continuation of Florence of Worcester (English Historical Society), and the years 1258-1262 are best read in Luard's edition of Bartholomew Cotton (Rolls Series). Taxster's work became the basis of several later compilations of the eastern counties, including: (i) JOHN OF EVERSDEN, another Bury monk, independent from 1265 to 1301, also printed without his name by Thorpe, up to 1295, as a further continuation of Florence. (2) JOHN OF OXNEAD, a monk of St. Benet's, Hulme, a reputed continuator of Taxster and Eversden up to 1280, who adds a good deal of his own for the years 1280-1293, edited somewhat carelessly by Sir Henry Ellis as Chronica J. de Oxenedes (Rolls Series). (3) BARTHOLOMEW COTTON, a monk of Norwich, whose Historia Anglicana, original from 1291 to 1298, and specially important from 1285 to 1291, is edited by Luard (Rolls Series). Some thirteenth and early fourteenth century Bury chronicles are also in Memorials of St. Edmund's Abbey, ed. T. Arnold (vols. ii. and iii., Rolls Series). The Chronicon de Mailros (Bannatyne Club), from the Cistercian abbey of Melrose, goes to 1270; though utterly untrustworthy, it may be noticed as almost the only Scottish chronicle before the war of independence, and as containing a curious record of the miracles of Simon de Montfort.

Among the historians of Edward I.'s reign is WALTER OF HEMINGBURGH, Canon of Guisborough in Cleveland (ed. H.C. Hamilton, 2 vols., Engl. Hist. Soc.). His account of Henry III.'s reign is worthless, but from 1272 to 1312 his work is of great value, though never precise and full of gaps. It contains many documents and is remarkable for its stirring battle pictures. Hemingburgh probably laid down his pen when the narrative ceases early in the reign of Edward II. Another writer, identified by Horstmann with John of Tynemouth, carries the story from 1326 to 1346.

In striking contrast to the flowing periods of Hemingburgh is the well-written and chronologically digested Annals of the Dominican friar NICHOLAS TREVET or TRIVET, the son of a judge of Henry III.'s reign (ed. Hog, Engl. Hist. Soc.). Beginning in 1138, his work assumes independent value for the latter years of Henry III. and is of first-rate importance for the reign of Edward I., at whose death it concludes, though Trevet was certainly alive in 1324. It was largely used by the later St. Alban's chroniclers.

Franciscan historiography begins earlier than Dominican with the remarkable tract of THOMAS OF ECCLESTON, written about 1260, De Adventu Fratrum Minorum in Anglia, published with other Minorite documents (including Adam Marsh's letters) in BREWER'S Monumenta Franciscana (Rolls Series, continued in a second volume by R. Hewlett). The first important Franciscan chronicle, called the Chronicon de Lanercost (ed. J. Stevenson, Bannatyne Club, 2 vols.), really comes from the Minorite convent of Carlisle. It covers the years 1201 to 1346. The early part is derived from the valueless chronicle of Melrose, and its incoherent cult of the memory of Montfort does not save it from the grossest errors in dealing with his history. It becomes important for northern affairs from Edward I. onwards, giving full details with a strong anti-Scottish bias. Another north-country chronicle is Sir T. GREY'S Scalacronica (ed. Stevenson, Maitland Club, 1836), useful for the Scottish wars and for Edward III.'s reign up to 1362.

A sign of the times is the beginning of civic chronicles. The London series alone is important for English history. It begins with the Liber de Antiquis Legibus, or Chronica Majorum et Vicecomitum Londoniarum (1188-1274, ed. T. Stapleton, Camden Soc.). The work of ARNOLD FITZTHEDMAR, alderman of the German merchants in London, it is copious for the years 1236 to 1274, and is, with Wykes, the only chronicle of the Barons' Wars written with a royalist bias. Fourteenth century civic chronicles, based upon Flores Historiarum, and continued independently, form the main contents of the two volumes of Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I. and II. (ed. by Dr. Stubbs for the Rolls Series). These are: (1) Annales Londonienses, perhaps written by ANDREW HORN, chamberlain of London, and compiler of the Liber Horn; they have much general value for the period 1301 to 1316, and deal more narrowly with London history from 1316 to 1330, when they conclude. (2) Annales Paulini, 1307-1341, compiled by one of the clergy of St. Paul's, but not by Adam Murimuth. These take up Dr. Stubbs's first volume. The second contains: (1) JOHN OF LONDON'S Commendatio Lamentabilis in Transitu magni Regis Edwardi quarti, a funeral eulogy containing the most elaborate contemporary analysis of Edward's character. (2) The CANON OF BRIDLINGTON'S Gesta Edwardi de Carnarvon, with a continuation down to the death of Edward III., of little value after 1339. It has frequent reference to the vaticinations of the local prophet, John of Bridlington, and was not put in its present shape before 1377. Its first part is based on earlier sources, and it is, for lack of better, a prime authority for north-country history and Anglo-Scottish relations; the continuation contains the best account of Edward Balliol's attempts on the Scottish throne. (3) Vita Edwardi II., from 1307 to 1325, attributed by Hearne on slight grounds to a MONK OF MALMESBURY, with many notices of the history of Gloucestershire and Bristol, of which the famous rising is described at length. The writer is the most human of the annalists of the reign, prolix, self-conscious, moralising, and somewhat incoherent. He is the most outspoken of all the fourteenth century critics of the Roman curia, and has more insight than most of his contemporaries.

The following are of primary importance for the early years of Edward III.; it is significant that they are nearly all secular, not monastic, in origin. (1) Continuatio Chronicorum, 1303-1347, by ADAM MURIMUTH, a canon of St. Paul's much employed by Edward III. (ed. E.M. Thompson in Rolls Series), a mere continuation of the Flores until 1325, thence enlarged from personal sources, but still meagre until 1337, when it becomes a first-rate authority to 1346. Murimuth's adoption of Michaelmas day as the beginning of the year has often confused those who have imitated him. Chief among these is (2) GEOFFREY LE BAKER of Swinbrooke, an Oxfordshire man, and like Murimuth, a secular clerk, whose Chronicon (ed. E.M. Thompson), beginning in 1303 on the basis of Murimuth, has independent value after 1324, and is noteworthy for its touching details of Edward II.'s fall and death. It ends in 1356 with an excellent account of the battle of Poitiers. The early part of Baker's chronicle, widely circulated as Vita et Mors Edwardi II., was previously assigned to Sir Thomas de la Moor, and was so edited by Stubbs, but Sir E.M. Thompson showed clearly that this Oxfordshire knight was Baker's patron and not the writer of a chronicle. With many defects, Baker can tell a story picturesquely. (3) ROBERT OF AVESBURY, a canon lawyer, wrote De mirabilibus Gestis Edwardi III., of special importance for the war from 1339 to 1356, and containing many state documents. It is edited by E.M. Thompson in the same volume as Murimuth. (4) HENRY KNIGHTON, Canon of Leicester, wrote a Chronicle about 1366 which is valuable for the period 1336-1366 and includes the best contemporary account of the Black Death. The latest edition by Lumby in the Rolls Series is not a scholarly work. (5) Eulogium Historiarum (ed. Haydon, Rolls Series) is contemporary and valuable for 1356-1366 only. There is a great dearth of English chronicles for the latter years of Edward III. The signal exception is the important St. Alban's Chronicon Angliae already mentioned.

In the age of Edward III. the Flores Historiarum were superseded by the Polychronicon (often called the "Brute" after WACE'S Brut d'Angleterre), the voluminous compilation (to 1352) of RANDOLPH HIGDEN, a monk of Chester (edited by Babington and Lumby, Rolls Series). ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER, PETER LANGTOFT, and ROBERT MANNYNG have been referred to elsewhere. The first is of some original value for the Barons' Wars and Edward I., while Langtoft, a Yorkshire canon specially interested in the Scottish wars, is a contemporary for all Edward I.'s reign. Among rhyming chronicles, French in tongue but English in origin, may be mentioned Le Siege de Carlaverock, 1300 (ed. Nicolas, 1828), of value for heraldry, and CHANDOS HERALD'S Prince Noir (ed. H.O. Coxe, whose edition was pillaged by F. Michel for his more accessible version of 1883). L'Histoire de Foulques Fitz Warin (d. 1260?), a picturesque marcher hero, a prose romance of the end of the thirteenth century, can be read in Stevenson's edition of COGGESHALL (Rolls Series), or Englished by A. Kemp-Welch (1904).

No contemporary Scottish chronicles of importance deal with the War of Independence, though fairly full Scottish versions of it exist in later books. The earliest of these is the Bruce of JOHN BARBOUR, Archdeacon of Aberdeen. Written in 1375 at the instigation of Robert II., Barbour's spirited verses are inspired by patriotic rather than historic motives. His details are minute, but impossible to control by other sources, and he is more valuable as the epic poet of Scottish liberty than as an historical authority. He is edited by Skeat (Early English Text Soc.), Jamieson, and Innes. The earliest prose Scottish chronicle, that of JOHN FORDUN, who died about 1384 (ed. Skene, in Historians of Scotland), is of value for the fourteenth century. ANDREW WYNTONN'S Originale, a metrical history written in the fifteenth century, has next to no authority until the end of this period (ed. Laing, in Historians of Scotland), BLIND HARRY'S Wallace, written in 1488, is romance not history.

Wales is more fortunate than Scotland in preserving contemporary thirteenth century annals, of which a Latin chronicle, Annales Cambriae, extending to 1288, and a Welsh one, Brut y Tywysogion (i.e., Chronicle of the Princes), down to 1278, are edited by J. Williams in the Rolls Series, the latter with an English translation. A more critical version of the Welsh text of the Brut is that of J. RHYS and J.G. EVANS' Red Book of Hergest, vol. ii. (1890).

The close relations between England and France for the whole of this period render the French chronicles by far the most important of foreign sources for English history. They are enumerated in detail by Auguste Molinier in vols. iii. (up to 1328) and iv. (after 1328) of the first part of Les Sources de l'Histoire de France (Manuels de Bibliographie historique). The chief French chronicles of the period 1226-1328 are collected in vols. xx.-xxiv. of the Recueil des Historiens de la France begun by Dom Bouquet. Some of them are of special importance for English history. For Anglo-Netherlandish relations under Edward I. see Annales Gandenses (1296-1310), "la chronique la plus remarquable de la fin du xiiie siecle," the French Chronique Artesienne (1295-1304), and the Chronique Tournaisienne (1296-1314), all edited by F. Funck-Brentano in the already mentioned Collection de Textes. For the Hundred Years' War the French chroniclers are indispensable, especially for military history. The most famous of these writers, JEAN FROISSART, has been characterised in my text (p. 419). He can best be studied in Luce and Raynouart's excellent edition for the Soc. de l'Histoire de France (tomes i.-viii., 1869-1888) which completes the story up to Edward III.'s death. Luce's careful "sommaire et commentaire critique" often affords means of checking Froissart by other sources. The magnificent volumes of indexes of Kervyn de Lettenhove's complete edition (vols. XX.-XXV.) are still of immense use, though his text and comments are inferior to those of Luce, Froissart's spirit may well be caught in Lord Berners's racy English translation (Tudor Translations), or in G.C. Macaulay's useful abridgment. The three redactions of Froissart's first book (from 1327 to 1373-1377), which is all that concerns our period, have been clearly distinguished by Luce. (1) The first edition, written about 1373, at the request of Count Robert of Namur, is inspired by an English bias. Up to 1360 it is largely derived from the chronicle of JEAN LE BEL, Canon of St. Lambert of Liege; after that date it is original. (2) The second edition, only represented by two MSS., of which one is incomplete, is a modification of the first with a French bias. The earlier part is more independent of Jean le Bel. (3) The third edition, preserved in a single MS., ends with the death of Philip VI in 1350, and, written after 1400, is even more hostile to England than the second. The best edition of Jean le Bel is by Polain for the Academie royale de Belgique.

A few of the more important French chronicles after 1328 may be mentioned shortly. (1) Grands Chroniques de France (ed. Paulin Paris). Original from 1350 to 1377, a work of first-rate importance, where, if truth is altered, it is altered deliberately from political motives. (2) JEAN DE VENETTE, 1340-1368, written with a popular bias, and partly favourable to Charles of Navarre (edited as a supplement to Geraud's edition of Guillaume de Nangis, ii., 178-378, Soc. de l'Hist. de France). (3) Chronique Normande du xiv'e siecle, 1337-1372 (ed. Molinier, Soc. de l'Hist. de France, 1882), exact and very important for the wars 1337 to 1372. (4) Chronique des quatre premiers Valois (Soc. de l'Hist. de France). (5) CUVELIER'S poetical Vie de Bertrand du Guesclin (2 vols., Doc. inedits). Further details can be found in Molinier's bibliography. Netherlandish sources for the Hundred Years' War are summarised in PIRENNE'S Bibliographie de l'Histoire de Belgique (1895). Of special importance is JAN VAN KLERK'S Van den Derden Edewaert Rym Kronyk. (1840), useful for 1337-1341, and written with an English bias.

The unofficial legal literature of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries is of exceptional variety and value. Many lawyers' treatises throw light on matters far beyond legal technicalities. HENRY OF BRACTON or BRATTON'S De Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae illustrates the union of English and Roman juridical ideas characteristic of the age of Henry III. It has been edited badly by Sir T. Twiss in six volumes (Rolls Series), and some portions well by Professor Maitland in his Select passages from Bracton and Azo (Selden Soc.). Maitland's Bracton's Note Book includes extracts from plea rolls seemingly made by Bracton. Bracton's book on the laws was translated, condensed, and rearranged by a writer of the next generation called Britton. It may be studied in a modern edition in NICHOLLS'S Britton on the laws of England, while Fleta, an almost contemporary Latin law book, must be read in Selden's seventeenth century edition. Another thirteenth century law-book, Le Mirroir des Justices, has been edited by Maitland and W.J. Whittaker for the Selden Society. From Edward I.'s time onwards unofficial reports of trials called YEAR BOOKS, written in French, become valuable for their vividness and detail, and for the light which they throw on the more technical records of the plea rolls. Many of them are printed in unsatisfactory seventeenth century editions, but the Year Books of five of Edward I.'s regnal years, between 1292 to 1307, together with the Year Book of 11-12 Edward III., are accessible in A.J. Horwood's editions in the Rolls Series. L.O. Pike has also edited in the Rolls Series the Year books of Edward III. from 1338 to 1345, and Maitland's Year books of Edward II. for the Selden Society are the first two instalments of a scheme for publishing the Year Books of the reign. Besides their legal value, the Year Books are an almost unworked mine for social and economic, and often even political and ecclesiastical, history.

Of literary aids to history T. WRIGHT'S Political Songs (Camden Soc.) illustrate this period to the reign of Edward II. One of Wright's pieces has been more elaborately edited in C.L. KINGSFORD'S Song of Lewes (1890), and C. Hardwick published a Poem on the Times OF Edward II. for the Percy Soc. (1849). With Edward III. such literature becomes copious. Of special importance are T. Wright's Political POEMS and SONGS FROM the accession of Edward III., vol. i. (Rolls Series, 1859), J. Hall's Poems of LAURENCE MINOT, Skeat's editions of CHAUCER and LANGLAND, and G.C. Macaulay's edition of GOWER. The Latin works of Wycliffe, published by the Wycliffe Society, mainly belong to the succeeding period, but De Dominio Divino and De Civili Dominio, as well as some tracts printed in the appendix to LEWIS'S Life of Wiclif and in Shirley's edition of Fasciculi Zizanioram (Rolls Series), were written before 1377.

Of modern works treating of this period, many monographs, dealing with particular points, have been mentioned in notes in the course of the narrative. Of general guides to the period the best by far are Stubbs and Pauli. STUBBS'S Constitutional History (vol. ii.) is as valuable for the chapters summarising the political history as for the more strictly constitutional matter. R. PAULI'S Geschichte von England, iii., 489-896, and iv., 1-505, 716-741, remains, after half a century, the fullest and most satisfactory working up in detail of these reigns, though the great additions to our material make parts of it a somewhat unsafe guide. It can be supplemented for particular aspects of history by the following: For legal history, POLLOCK and MAITLAND'S History of English Law before the time of Edward I., especially vol. i., book i. (chapters iv.-vi.), and book ii.; and most of vol. ii.; to which should be added the prefaces by Prof. Maitland and others to the volumes of the Selden Society. MAITLAND'S Roman Canon Law in the Church of England (1898) is also of great importance. For economic history, W.J. ASHLEY'S Economic History, parts i. and ii.; W. CUNNINGHAM's Growth of English Industry and Commerce, Early and Middle Ages; VINOGRADOFF'S Villainage in England, S. DOWELL'S History of Taxation (2nd edition), H. HALL'S Customs Revenue of England, and, as a collection of materials, J.E. THOROLD ROGERS' History of Agriculture and Prices, vols. i. and ii. For ecclesiastical history, W.R.W. STEPHENS'S History of the English Church, 1066-1272; W.W. CAPES'S History of the English Church in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, and F. MAKOWER'S The Constitutional History and Constitution of the Church of England (translated from the German). For academic history, DENIFLE'S Entstehung der Universitaeten des Mittelalters bis 1400, especially pp. 1-40, 237-251 (Oxford) and pp. 367-376 (Cambridge), HAUREAU'S Histoire de la Philosophie scholastique and RASHDALL'S Universities of the Middle Ages, i., 1-74, and ii., part ii. (Oxford and Cambridge). For military history, KOeHLER'S Entwickelung des Kriegswesens in der Ritterzeit, OMAN'S History of the Art of War in the Middle Ages, CLARK'S Mediaeval Military Architecture, and (above all) J.E. MORRIS'S Welsh Wars of Edward I. For naval history, NICOLAS'S History of the Royal Navy, and C. DE LA RONCIERE'S Histoire de la Marine Francaise. For particular reigns the following may be found useful: For Henry III., PETIT-DUTAILLIS'S Etude sur Louis VIII., GASQUET'S Henry III. and the Church (1905), BEMONT'S Simon de Montfort, PROTHERO'S Simon de Montfort, and BLAAUW'S Barons' Wars (2nd ed., 1871). For the reign of Edward I., SEELEY's Life and Reign of Edward I. (1872), my Edward I.; GOUGH'S Itinerary of Edward I., MAXWELL'S Robert the Bruce (Heroes of the Nations), and MORRIS'S above-mentioned Welsh Wars of Edward I. For some aspects of Edward II.'s reign, STUBBS'S prefaces to Chronicles of Edward I. and Edward II. are of special value. For Edward III.'s reign, BARNES's History of Edward III. (1688) is not quite superseded by LONGMAN'S Life and Times of Edward III. (2 vols., 1869), and MACKINNON'S History of Edward III. (1900). For the Hundred Years' War, E. DEPREZ'S Preliminaires de la Guerre de Cent Ans (1328-1342) (Bibl. de l'Ecole francaise de Rome, 1902) for diplomatic history, and DENIFLE's Desolation des Eglises et Monasteres de la France pendant la Guerre de Cent Ans (ii., part i., 1899) for the best general survey of the war to 1380. See also LUCE'S La Jeunesse de Bertrand de Guesclin and La France pendant la Guerre de Cent Ans, and (for Brittany) A. DE LA BORDERIE'S Histoire de Bretagne (1899). The end of Edward III.'s reign is illustrated by S. ARMITAGE SMITH'S John of Gaunt (1904), J. LECHLER'S Wiclif und die Vorgeschichte der Reformation (2 vols., 1873), also translated, not very adequately, Wycliffe and His English Precursors (1878 and 1881), F.D. MATTHEW'S introduction to Wyclif's English Works (Early English Text Society), and R.L. POOLE'S Illustrations of the History of Mediaeval Thought (1884), and Wycliffe (1889). G.M. TREVELYAN's England in the Age of Wycliffe (1899) is interesting but not always very scholarly.

Some account of the general foreign history of the period can be found in LAVISSE and RAMBAUD'S Histoire generale (tomes ii. and iii.), LOSERTH'S Geschichte des spaeteren Mittelalters (good bibliographies), and, briefly, in my Papacy and Empire (up to 1273), and LODGE'S Close of the Middle Ages (after 1273). For French history of the period LAVISSE'S Histoire de France (iii., pt. i., 1137-1226, by A. LUCHAIRE; iii., pt. ii., 1226-1328, by C.V. LANGLOIS, and iv., pt. i., 1328-1422, by A. COVILLE) cover the whole of the period. More detailed works are, PETIT-DUTAILLIS'S Louis VIII., E. BERGER'S Blanche de Castile, WALLON'S Louis IX., BOUTARIC'S Saint Louis et Alfonse de Poitiers, C.V. LANGLOIS'S Philippe le Hardi, BOUTARIC'S France sous Philippe le Bel, LEHUGEUR'S Philippe le Long, PETIT'S Charles de Valois, FOURNIER'S Royaume d'Arles et de Vienne, L. DELISLE'S Hist. de Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte, and (for the south) the new edition of DE VIC and VAISSETE's Hist. generale de Languedoc. Much recent work has been done by French scholars towards the reconstruction of the external history of England during the whole of our period. For the Low Countries, PIRENNE'S Hist. de Belgique, ii., ASHLEY'S James and Philip van Artevelde, and VANDER KINDERE'S Le Siecle des Arteveldt. PAULI is good for the relations of England and Germany.

Maps illustrating the period are to be found in POOLE'S Oxford Historical Atlas, LONGNON'S Atlas historique de la France, and SPRUNER-MENKE'S Historischer Hand-Atlas; special maps of Edward I.'s Scottish expeditions in GOUGH'S Itinerary of Edward I., of Edward III.'s and the Black Prince's campaigns in THOMPSON'S Chronicon Galfridi le Baker, and KERVYN'S Froissart, of John of Gaunt's in ARMITAGE-SMITH's John of Gaunt, and of Wales in the thirteenth century in Owens College Historical Essays. VIDAL DE LA BLACHE'S Tableau de la Geographie de la France (LAVISSE, Hist. de France, i., pt. i.) is instructive for the physical features of the campaigns of the Hundred Years' War.

Further details as to English authorities, ancient and modern, can be found in GROSS'S excellent Sources and Literature of English History (1900). The Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores, vols. xxvii., xxviii., consist of excerpts from English writers of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries; the introductions (in Latin) by Pauli and Liebermann contain noteworthy estimates of the works from which the extracts are taken.

NOTE TO PAGES 390-92.

My reasons for my account of the battle of Poitiers demand longer explanation than can be given in a footnote. Like most modern writers, I have based my narrative on the Chronicle of Geoffrey le Baker as expounded by Sir E.M. Thompson, though I agree with Professor Oman in holding that Baker's "ampla profundaque vallis et mariscus, torrente quodam irriguus," must be the valley of the Miausson. I also, however, agree with Father Denifle in not setting great store on Chandos Herald, though I would not reject him altogether, as all prudent writers must reject Froissart. My conjectural account of the movements of the armies is an attempt to combine Baker with what may be true in the Herald. I hope elsewhere to be able to justify my narrative at length.



INDEX.

Aachen. Abbeville. Aberconway Abbey. Aberdeen. Aberdeen, John Barbout, Archdeacon of. See Barbour, John. Abergavenny, town, castle and lordship. Abergavenny, Lords of. See Hastings. Aberystwyth. Abingdon. Abingdon, Edmund of. See Rich, Edmund. Acre. Acre, Joan of. See Joan. Acton Burnell. Adolf of Nassau, King of the Romans. Adour, the river. Agen. Agenais, the. Agnelius of Pisa. Aigueblanche, Peter of, Bishop of Hereford. Aiguillon. Albemarle, William of Fors, Earl of. Albemarle and Devon, Isabella of Fors, Countess of. Albigenses, the. Albert the Great. Albret, Lord of. Aldgate. Alencon, Count of. Alexander II., King-of Scots. Alexander III., King of Scots. Alexander, son of Alexander III of Scotland. Alexander IV., Pope. Alexander of Hales. See Hales. Alfonso X., King of Castile. Alfonse of France, Count of Poitiers. Alice, Countess of Lancaster. Alice of Lusignan. Aliens. Almaine, Henry of. See Henry of Almaine. "Almaines, The." Almond, the river. Alnwick Castle. Alton Castle. Amadeus III., Count of Savoy. Amesbury. Amice, mother of the elder Simon de Montfort. Amiens, cathedral; mise of; treaty of. Amory, Roger of. Anagni. Andrew, St. Anne of Brittany. Angers. Anglesey. Anglia, East. Angouleme. Angouleme, Isabella, Countess of. See Isabella, Queen of England. Angoumois. Anjou. Anjou, Charles of. See Charles. Anjou, Louis, Duke of. See Louis. Annandale. Antrim. Antwerp. Apulia. Aquinas, St. Thomas. Aquitaine, See also Gascony. Aquitaine, Dukes of. See under the Kings of England. Aquitaine, Edward, Prince of. See Edward the Black Prince. Aquitaine, Eleanor of. Aragon. Aragon, James, King of. See James. Aragon, Peter, King of. See Peter. Archers, English; Welsh; Scottish. Architecture, gothic; ecclesiastical; domestic; military; "decorated" style, "flamboyant"; "perpendicular"; Norman; French. Arden, forest of. Argenton. Aristotle. Armagh, Archbishop of. See Fitzralph, Richard. Armagnac, Counts of. Armagnac, John, Count of. Arnold, T., his edition of Memorials of St. Edmund's Abbey. Art. See also Architecture. Artevelde, James van. Arthur I., Count of Brittany. Arthur II., Duke of Brittany. Arthur, King. Arthurian Legend, the Articuli super cartas. Artois. Artois, Blanche of. See Blanche. Artois, Maud, Countess of. See Maud. Artois, Robert of. See Robert. Arundel, the Countess of. Arundel, Edmund Fitzalan, Earl of. Arundel, Richard Fitzalan, Earl of. Arvon. Ashley, W.J., his Economic History; his James and Philip van Artevelde. Assisi. Athenry, battle of. Athis, treaty of. Athol, David of Strathbolgie, Earl of. Auberoche, battle of. Aubigny, Philip of. Aude, the river. Audley, Hugh of. Audley, Earl of Gloucester. See Gloucester. Audley, James (1258). Audley, James (d. 1369). Audleys of Shropshire. Audrehem, Marshal. Aumale, Counts of, See also Albemarle. Auray; battle of; Church of St. Michael. Ausculta, Fili, bull. Austin Canons of Lanercost. Austin Friars. Austria. Austria, Duke of. Auvergne. Auvergne, Counts of. Auvezere, the river. Avalon, Hugh of. See Hugh, St. Avesbury, Robert of, chronicler. Avesnes; house of. Avesnes, William of. See William, Count of Hainault. Avignon, the papal court at; records of Popes of. Avon, the river. Axholme. Ayermine, William, Bishop of Norwich. Aymer of Valence, Bishop of Winchester. Aymer of Valence, Earl of Pembroke. See Pembroke. Ayr.

"Babylonish Captivity, the." Bacon, Roger. Bacon, Robert. Badenoch, John Comyn, lord of, See Comyn. Badlesmere, Bartholomew, Lord. Badlesmere, Lady. Baker, Geoffrey le, Chronicle of. "Balance of Power," the. Baldock (town). Baldock, Ralph, chancellor and bishop of London. Baldock, Robert, chancellor. Baldwin, Count of Flanders, Latin Emperor of the East. Ball, John, Balliol, Edward, eldest son of King John of Scotland. Balliol, John (d. 1269). Balliol, John, lord of Barnard Castle, and of Galloway, son of the above, See also John, King of Scots. Balsham, Hugh, Bishop of Ely. Barnburgh Castle. Bampton in the Bush. Banaster, Adam. Banbury. Banff. Bankers, foreign; Jewish; Italian. Bannatyne club, publications of the. Bannock, the river. Bannockburn, battle of. Bar, Joan of. See Joan. Bar, Count of. Barbavera. Barbezieux. Barbour, John, Bruce. Bardi, the. Bardolf, William. Barfleur. Bar-gate, the, Lincoln. Barnard Castle. Barnes's History of Edward III. Barnwell. Barnwell, Canon of. Barons' war, the. Barres, William des. Basset, Gilbert. Bastides. Bastilles. Bath. Bath and Wells, Bishop of. See Burnell, Robert; Drokensford; Shrewsbury, Ralph of, and Harewell, John. Battle Abbey, chronicle of. Battles of —— Athenry. Auberoche. Auray. Ayr. Bannockburn. Boroughbridge. Bourgneuf Bay. Cassel. Chalon. Chesterfield. Cocherel. Corte Nuova. Courtrai. Crecy. Dupplin Moor. Dunbar. Dundalk. Evesham. Falkirk. Halidon Hill. La Rochelle. Lewes. Lincoln. Lisieux. Madog's Field. Maes Madog. Mauron. Methven. Morgarten. Morlaix. Myton. Najera. Neville's Cross. Orewyn Bridge. Poitiers. Pontvallain. Sandwich. Sluys. Stirling Bridge. The Thirty. Winchelsea. Bayonne. Bazas. Bearn. Bearn, Gaston, Viscount of. See Gaston. Beatrice, daughter of Henry III. and wife of John II. of Brittany. Beatrice, sister of Amadeus III., Count of Savoy, wife of Raymond Berengar IV., Count of Provence. Beaucaire. Beauce, the. Beauchamp, Thomas. See Warwick, Earl of. Beauchamp, William. See Warwick, Earl of. Beauchamps of Warwick, the. Beaumanoir, commandant at Josselin. Beaumaris Castle. Beaumont, Henry de. Beaumont, Louis de, Bishop of Durham. Beaumont, Robert of, Earl of Leicester. See Leicester. Beaumonts, the. Beauvais. Becket, Archbishop, St. Thomas. Bedale, 182. Bedford, Castle of; scutage of. Bedfordshire. Begard, Abbey of. Beghards, the. Beguines, the. Behuchet, Nicholas. Bek, Anthony, Bishop of Durham. Bek, Thomas, Bishop of St. David's. Belleville. Bembro, Robert. Bemont, Charles; his Roles Gascons; his Chartes des libertes anglaises; his Simon de Montfort. Benauge. Bene, Amaury of. Benedict XI. Benedict XII. Bengeworth, near Evesham. Bentley, Sir Walter. Bere Castle. Bereford, Sir Simon. Berg, Count of. Berger's Blanche de Castile. Bergerac. Berkeley Castle. Berkeleys, the. Berkhampstead, siege of. Berkshire. Berkstead, Stephen, Bishop of Chichester. Bermingham, John of. See Louth, Earl of. Bernabo, Visconti, Lord of Milan. Berners, Lord, translator of Froissart. Berri, John, Duke of. Bertrand, Cardinal. See Montfavence. Berwick. Bethune, Chronique de l'Anonyme de. Bibliographies, historical Bidassoa, the. Bigod, the house of. Bigod, Hugh, justiciar. Bigod, Roger, earl marshal and Earl of Norfolk. See Norfolk, Earl of. Bigorre, county of. Biscay, Bay of. Blaauw's Barons' Wars. Black Prince, the. See Edward, Prince of Wales and Aquitaine. Black death, the. Blacklow Hill. Blanche of Artois, Queen of Navarre. Blanche of Bourbon, wife of Peter the Great of Castile. Blanche of Castile, Queen of Louis VIII. and regent of France. Blanche, Duchess of Lancaster. Blanche taque, the, in estuary of Somme. Blaneforde's Chronicle Blankenberghe. Blavet, the river. Blaye. Bliss' Calendars of Papal Registers. Blois. Blois, Charles of. See Charles. Blois, Theobald, Count of. Blount, Sir Thos., Blundeville, Randolph of, Earl of Chester. See Chester, Randolph, Earl of. Boccaccio. Bohemia. Bohemia, Ottocar, King of. Bohun, Humphrey, Earl of Hereford. See Hereford. Bohun, Humphrey of Brecon, son of the Earl of Hereford. Bohun, Margaret. Bohun, William, Earl of Northampton. See Northampton. Bohuns, the. Bollers, house of. Bologna. Bolton. Bonhommes, order of. Boniface VIII., Pope. Boniface of Savoy, Archbishop of Canterbury. Bordeaux; truce of. Bordeaux, Bertrand de Goth, Archbishop of. See Clement V. Bordelais, the. Borderie's Histoire de Bretagne. Boroughbridge; battle of. Boroughs; growth of; representation of. Bothwell Castle. Boulogne. Bouquet, Dom, his Recueil des Historiens de la France. Bourbon, Blanche of. See Blanche. Bourbonnais. Bourchier, Sir Robert. Bourg, of Limoges, the. Bourg. Bourgneuf, Bay of. Bourne. Boutaric's St. Louis et Alfonse de Poitiers; his France sous Philippe le Bel Bouvines, battle of. Brabant. Brabant, Dukes of. See John II., John III., and Wenceslaus. Brabant, Mary of. See Mary, Queen of France. Brabazon, Roger de, chief justice after 1295. Bracton, Henry of, his book De Legibus; his Note Book. Bradwardine, Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury. Brandenburg. Brandenburg, Elector of. Brantingham, Thomas, treasurer, Bishop of Exeter. Brantome. Braose, house of. Braose, William de, his daughter. Bratton, Henry. See Bracton. Braybrook, Henry de. Breaute, Falkes de. Brechin. Brecon. Bren, Llewelyn. See Llewelyn. Brentwood. Bremen. Brest. Bretagne bretonnante, La. Bretigni, treaty of, See also Calais, treaty of. Bretons. See Brittany. Brewer's Monumenta Franciscana. Bridgnorth. Bridlington. Bridlington, Canon of, his Gesta Edwardi de Carnarvon. Bridlington, John of. Brie. Brigham, treaty of. Bristol, council meets at; confirmation of the Great Charter at; castle of; channel; disturbances at. Brittany, Celtic; French. Brittany, Counts, afterwards Dukes, of. See Arthur I., Arthur II., John II., John III., John IV., John V., Peter Mauclerc. Brittany, Constance of, wife of Randolph of Chester. See Constance of Brittany. Brittany, John of, Earl of Richmond. See John of Brittany, Earl of Richmond. Britton, lawyer, his treatise On the Laws of England. Bromfield. Brotherton, Thomas of, Earl of Norfolk. See Thomas of Brotherton. Bruce, David. See David II., King of Scots. Bruce, Edward, "King of Ireland." Bruce, Elizabeth, Queen of Scots. See Elizabeth. Bruce, Joan, Queen of Scots. See Joan. Bruce, Robert, Lord of Annandale, claimant to the Scots throne (d.1295). Bruce, Robert, Earl of Carrick, son of the above (d. 1304). Bruce, Robert, Earl of Carrick, son of the above. See also Robert, King of Scots. Bruce, John Barbour's. Bruges, the Matins of. truce of (1375). Brussels. Brut, the Trojan. Brut d'Angleterre, Wace's. Brut y Tywysogion. Buch, Captal de. Buchan, Comyn, John, Earl of. Buchan, Henry de Beaumont, Earl of, See also Beaumont, Henry de. Builth, town and castle. Buironfosse. Bulgaria. Burgh, the family of. Burgh, Elizabeth de, wife of Robert, King of Scots. See Elizabeth, Queen of Scots. Burgh, Elizabeth de, wife of Lionel of Clarence. Burgh, Hubert de, Earl of Kent. Burgh, Richard de, Earl of Ulster. See Ulster. Burgh, Richard de, Lord of Connaught. Burgh, William de, Lord of Connaught and Earl of Ulster, See Ulster. Burgh-on-Sands. Burghersh, Bartholomew, Bishop of Lincoln. Burgos. Burgundy. Burgundy, Duke of. See Philip the Bold and Philip de Rouvres. Burnell, Robert, Chancellor, and Bishop of Bath and Wells. Burton-on-Trent. Bury, Richard of, Bishop of Durham. Bury St. Edmunds. Busses, Spanish. Butler, Edmund. Butler of Ireland, James, the. Byland Abbey. Bytham Castle.

Cader Idris. Cadzand, island of. Caen; abbeys of; church of St. Peter at. Caerlaverock. See Carlaverock. Caerleon, Morgan of. Caerphilly Castle. Cahors; bishopric of, See Quercy. Calais; treaty of, See also Bretigni. Calendar of Close Rolls. Calendar of Charter Rolls. Calendars of Documents relating to Scotland and Ireland. Calendar of Inquisitions Post-mortem and other analogous documents. Calendars of Papal Registers. Calendar of the Patent Rolls. Calendarium Genealogicum, C. Roberts'. Calendarium Inquisitionum sive Eschaetarum. Calendarium Rotulorum Cartarum. Calveley, Sir Hugh. Cambrai. Cambresis, the. Cambridge; university of. Cambridge, Edmund of Langley, Earl of. See Edmund. Camville, Nichola de. "Candlemas, The Burnt,". Canfranc, treaty of. Canons, Austin, annals by. Canterbury; cathedral; hall, Oxford; register. Canterbury, Archbishops of. See Langton, Stephen; Grand, Richard le; Neville, Ralph, and Blunt, John (archbishops elect); Rich, Edmund; Boniface of Savoy; Kilwardby, Robert; Peckham, John; Winchelsea, Robert; Cobham, Thomas (archbishop elect); Reynolds, Walter; Meopham, Simon; Stratford, John; Bradwardine, Thomas; Islip, Simon; Langham, Simon; Whittlesea, William, and Sudbury, Simon. Cantilupe, St. Thomas of, chancellor and Bishop of Hereford. Cantilupe, Walter of, Bishop of Worcester. Cantilupes, the. Cantreds, the four. See also Perveddwlad. Caours, Raoul de. Capes's, W.W., History of the English Church. Capetians, the. Captal de Buch, the. See Buch. Captivity, the Babylonish, of the Papacy. Carcassonne. Cardiff Castle. Cardigan and Cardiganshire. Cardinerie, La. Carlaverock, castle; chronicle of the siege of. Carentan. Carhaix. Carlisle, town and castle; parliament of 1307 at; Statute of. Carlisle, Andrew Harclay, Earl of. Carmarthen, town and castle, and Carmarthenshire; justice of. Carmelites, the. Carnarvon, town and castle. Carnarvon, Edward of. See Edward. Carnarvonshire. Carrick, Earl of. See Bruce, Robert. Carrickfergus. Carta menatoria. Cartmel. Cartularies. Cassel, battle of. Cassingham (Kensham), William of. Castile. Castile, Alfonso, King of. See Alfonso. Castile, Blanche of. See Blanche. Castile, Constance of. See Constance. Castile, Eleanor of. See Eleanor. Castile, Ferdinand the Saint, King of. See Ferdinand. Castile, Henry of Trastamara, King of. See Henry. Castile, Isabella of. See Isabella. Castile, Peter the Cruel, King Of. See Peter. Castile, John, King of Leon and Duke Lancaster. See John of Gaunt. Castle of Aberconway or Conway. Abergavenny. Aberyswyth. Alnwick. Alton. Bamburgh. Barnard. Beaumaris. Bedford. Bere. Berkeley. Berwick. Bothwell. Bristol. Builth. Bytham. Caen. Caerphilly. Cardiff. Carlaverocc. Carmarthen. Carnarvon. Castleton, Liddesdale. Chepstow. Christchurch. Clare. Colchester. Conway. See Aberconway. Conisborough. Corfe. Cornet. Criccieth. Deganwy. Devises. Diserth. Dolwyddelen. Dover. Drysllwyn. Dublin. Dumfries. Dunbar. Dynevor. Edinburgh. Flint. Fotheringhay. Gloucester. Grosmont. Harlech. Hawarden. Hedingham. Josselin. Kenilworth. Kilkenny. Kidwelly. Knaresborough. Leeds (Kent). Limoges. Lincoln. London. See Tower of London, the. Maud's. Monmouth. Montgomery. Mount Sorrel. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Norham. Norwich. Nottingham. Orford. Peebles. Pevensey. Pontefract. Powys. Rhuddlan. Rising. Rochester. Rockingham. Romorantin. Rose. Roxburgh. Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte. Scarborough. Skelton. Skenfrith. Stirling. Swansea. Tickhill. Tintagel. Tunbridge. Tutbury. Usk. Wallingford. Wark, Warwick. Whitecastle. Wigmore. Windsor. Wolvesey (Winchester). Castles; royal; adulterine; Welsh; of South Wales; Edward I.'s; concentric; Scottish. Castleton Castle, Liddesdale. Castor, Church of St., Coblenz. Castorplatz, the, Coblenz. Caversham. Celestine V., Pope. Celts, Irish. Celts of Scotland, the. Chaboterie, la. Chalon, little battle of. Champagne, Blanche of Artois, Queen of Navarre and Countess of. See Blanche. Champagne, Edmund, Count of. See also Edmund of Lancaster. Champagne, Henry, Count of. See Henry. Champagne, Joan of. See Joan. Champagne, Theobald IV., Count of. See Theobald. Champagne. Champollion-Figeac's Lettres des rots d'Angleterre. Chancellor, office of. Chancery courts, for Wales; records. Chandos, Sir John. Chandos Herald. Channel, the Bristol; the English. Channel Islands, the. Charente, the river. Charing. Charles IV., the Emperor. Charles IV., the Fair, King of France. Charles V., King of France. Charles of Anjou, younger brother of Louis IX., Count of Provence and Charles I., King of Sicily. Charles the Bad, Count of Evreux and King of Navarre. Charles of Blois, claimant to Duchy of Brittany. Charles of La Cerda. Charles of Moravia, King of the Romans. See Charles IV., the Emperor. Charles, Duke of Normandy. See also Charles V., King of France. Charles of Salerno, afterwards Charles II. of Sicily. Charles, Count of Valois. Charlemagne. Charlton, Tohn, lord of Powys. Charltons of Powys, the. Charter, the Great; the forest; Rolls, the, See Rolls. Charterhouse, the London. Charters, confirmations of the; of London; Carta Mercatoria; as sources for history. Chartley. Chartres. Chateauneuf. Chateauroux. Chatelherault. Chaucer, Geoffrey. Chauvigny. Chaworth, Payne of. Cheapside. Chepstow. Cher, the river. Cherbourg. Cheshire; palatine earldom of; palatine courts of; records of county palatine of. Chester. Chester, Edward, Earl of. See Edward I., Edward II. and Edward III. Chester, John de Lacy, Constable of. See Lacy. Chester, John the Scot, Earl of. See also Huntingdon. Chester, Simon de Montfort, Earl of. See Leicester. Chester, Randolph Blundeville, Earl of. Chesterfield, battle of. Chichester. Chichester, Bishops of. See Berkstead, Stephen; Neville, Ralth, and Stratford, Robert. Chilham, barony of, Kent. Chilterns, the. Chinon. Chirk. Chirk, Roger Mortimer of. See Mortimer, Roger, of Chirk. Christchurch Castle. Christopher, The. Chroniclers, the. Chronicles as sources of history. Cinque Ports, the. Cirencester. Cistercian, nuns of Eastminster; monks of Whalley. Cistercians, the. Clare Castle; the house of. Clare, Eleanor de. See Despenser, Eleanor de. Clare, Elizabeth of. Clare, Gilbert of, Earl of Gloucester. See Gloucester. Clare, Margaret of. Clare, Richard of, Earl of Gloucester. See Gloucester. Clarence, Duchy of. See Lionel of Antwerp. Clarendon. Clares, the poor. Clark's, G.T., Mediaeval Military Architecture. Clark's, J.W., Observances in use at Barnwell Priory. Clement IV., Pope. Clement V., Pope. Clement VI., Pope. Clergy, taxation of the. Clericis laicos, the bull. Clerkenwell. Clermont, Marshal. Cleves, Count of. Clifford, Robert. Clifford, Roger. Cliffords, the. Clinton, Earl of Huntingdon. See Huntingdon. Clisson, Oliver de. Cloth, manufacture of English. Clydesdale. Clwyd, the river. Clun. Cobham, Thomas of, Archbishop elect of Canterbury. Coblenz. Cocherel, battle of. Cog Thomas, the. Coggeshall's Chronicle. Cognac. Coinage. Colchester, Castle of. Coldstream. Colleges, growth of. Cologne. Cologne, Archbishop of. Colons, faction of the. Commerce under Edward III. Comminges, Counts of. Commons, house of. Companies, the free. Company, the White. Compiegne. Compostella. Comyn, John, the elder, lord of Badenoch. Comyn, John, of Badenoch, the younger, or the Red, regent of Scotland. Comyn, John, of Buchan. See Buchan, Earl of. Confirmation of the charters. See Charters. Conisborough Castle. Connaught. Connaught, Phelim O'Connor, King of, Connaught, King of. Conrad, son of Frederick II. Conservators of the Peace. Consilium ordinarium, the. Constable, office of. Constance of Brittany. Constance of Castile, daughter of Peter the Cruel, wife of John, Duke of Lancaster. Convocation. Conway, the river. Corfe Castle. Cormeilles, Abbey of. Cornet Castle, Cornouailles. Cornwall; earldom of. Cornwall, Dunstanville, Earls of. See Dunstanville. Cornwall, Edmund, Earl of. See Edmund. Cornwall, Edward, Duke of. See Edward, the Black Prince. Cornwall, John of Eltham, Earl of. See John. Cornwall, Peter Gaveston, Earl of. See Gaveston. Cornwall, Richard, Earl of. See Richard. Corte Nuova, battle of. Cosneau's Grands Traites de la Guerre de Cent Ans. Cotentin, the. Cotton, Bartholomew's Historia Anglicana. Coucy, Enguerrand de. Councils, General, at Lyons. Court of King's Bench, records of. Court of Common Pleas, records of. Court of the County. Courts of Chancery and Exchequer in Wales. Courtenay, House of, Earls of Devon. Courtenay, William, Bishop of London. Courtrai; battle of. Coventry, Roger Northburgh, Bishops of. See Northburgh, Roger. Coville's Histoire de France. Craven. Crecy, battle of. Crecy-en-Ponthieu. Cree, the river. Cressingham, Hugh. Creuse, the river. Criccieth Castle. Crockart. Crossbowmen, Genoese. Crotoy, Le. Crusades, the. Crutched friars, the. Cumberland. Cunningham's, W., Growth of English Industry. Curzon, Robert. Customs. "Custom, the Great and Ancient,"; "the New and Small,". Cuvelier's Vie de Bertrand de Guesclin. Cymry, the. See also Wales. Cyprus. Cyprus, Lusignan kings of.

Dagworth, Sir Thomas. Damietta, Crusade of. Damietta, Archbishop of. See Roches, Peter des. Damme. Dampierre, Guy, Count of Flanders. See Guy. Dancaster, John. Dante. Darlington, John of, Archbishop of Dublin. David I., King of Scots. David II., son of Robert Bruce, King of Scots. David I., an Llewelyn, Prince of Wales. David II., ap Griffith, Prince of Wales. David, Earl of Huntingdon. See Huntingdon. David of Strathbolgie, Earl of Athol. See Athol. Dax. Dean, Forest of. "Decorated" style of architecture. Deddington. Deganwy, Castle of. Delisle's Histoire de Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte. Denbigh, town, lordship and castle of. Denifle's Desolation des Eglises de France, etc.; his Entstehung der Universitaeten. Deprez's Preliminaires de la Guerre de Cent Ans. Derby, Henry of Grosmont, Earl of. See also Lancaster. Derby, Robert Ferrars, Earl of. Derby, Thomas, Earl of Lancaster and. See Lancaster. Derby, William of Ferrars, Earl of. Deschamps, Eustace. Despenser, Eleanor de, wife of Hugh le Despenser, the younger. Despenser, Hugh, justiciar. Despenser, Hugh, the elder, Earl of Winchester, son of the justiciar. Despenser, Hugh, the younger, Lord of Glamorgan, son of the foregoing. Devizes, Castle of. Devon, earldom of, Falkes de Breaute as warden of. Devon, Courtenays, earls of. Dictum de Kenilworth, the. Dinan. Disafforestments. Diserth, Castle of. Disinherited, the (after Evesham); the, Scotch. Disseisin, novel. Dolwyddelen Castle. Dominic, St. Dominicans. Don, the river. Donaldbane, brother of Malcolm Canmore. Dordogne, the river. Dordrecht. Dorking. Dorsetshire. Douai. Douglas, Sir Archibald. Douglas, Sir James. Douglas, Sir William. Douglas, Sir William (at Poitiers). Dover, town and castle; straits of. Dovey the river. Dowell's, S., History of Taxation. Downs, the north; the south. Drokensford, Bishop of Bath and Wells. Dublin, Castle of. Dublin, Archbishop of. See Hotham, William of, Archbishop of. Dubois, Peter. Dugdale's Monasticon. Dumfries. Dunbar, battle of. Dunfermline. Dunkeld, Bishop of. Duns Scotus. Dunstable. Dunstanville, house of. Dupplin Moor, battle of. Durham; bishopric of; records of. Durham, Bishops of. See Bek, Anthony; Beaumont, Louis de; and Bury, Richard of. Dynevor Castle.

Earn, the river. Eastminster, the, London. Eastry, Henry of, prior of Christ Church, Canterbury. Ebro, the river. Eccleston, William of, his De adventu fratrum minorun. Edinburgh, town and castle. Edington, church of. Edington, William of, Bishop of Winchester. Edmund of Almaine, Earl of Cornwall, son of Richard of Cornwall. Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, Leicester and Derby, some time titular King of Sicily, son of Henry III. Edmund of Langley, son of Edward III., Earl of Cambridge, afterward Duke of York. Edmund of Woodstock, son of Edward I., Earl of Kent. Edmund (Rich). St. See Rich, Edmund. Edmund, St., of East Anglia. Edward the Confessor, saint and king; translation of. Edward I.; authorities for reign of. Edward II.; sources for the reign of. Edward III.; sources for the reign of. Edward, son of Henry III. See also Edward I. Edward of Carnarvon, Prince of Wales. See also Edward II. Edward of Windsor, Duke of Aquitaine. Edward, Prince of Wales and of Aquitaine, called the Black Prince. Education; of clergy. Elbeuf. Egypt. Elderslie. Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of Henry II. Eleanor of Castile, Queen of Edward I. Eleanor, second daughter of Raymond Berenger IV., Count of Provence, Queen of Henry III. Eleanor, younger sister of Henry III., married (1) William Marshal, (2) Simon de Montfort. Elgin. Elizabeth, daughter of Edward I., Countess of Holland, afterwards of Hereford. Elizabeth de Burgh, queen of Robert (Bruce), King of Scots. Ellis, Sir Henry, ed. of Chronica I. De Oxenedes. Eland, William. Ely, bishopric of, isle of. Ely, Bishops of. See Marsh, Adam; Balsham, Hugh; Langham, Simon; Hotham, John. Eltham. Eltham, John of. See John. Englefield. English language; in law courts. Eric, King of Norway. Escheats. Esplechin, treaty of. Essex; earldom of. Essex, Countess of. See Isabella of Gloucester. Estates, the three. Etsi de statu, bull. Etaples. Ettrick forest. Eu, Count of, constable of France. Eure, the river. Eulogium Historiarum. Eustace the Monk. Evans, J.G., his edition of the Red Book of Hergest. Eversden, John of. Evesham, battle of; Abbey. Evreux. Evreux, Counts of. See Charles the Bad, King of Navarre; Philip the Bold. Evreux, Louis, Count of. See Louis. Exchequer courts for Wales. Exchequer records. Exeter, Bishops of. See Brantingham, Thomas; Stapledon, Walter. Exeter College, Oxford. Exports. Eynsham, Walter of. Eyville, John d'.

Fair of Lincoln, the. See Lincoln, battle of. Falkirk; battle of. Famine, of 1316, the; of wool, in Flanders. Farnham. Farrer's, W., Lancashire Final Concords. Faucigny. Fecamp. Fecamp, Peter Roger, Abbot of. See Clement VI. Feet of Fines. Felton, Sir Thomas, Seneschal of Aquitaine. Ferdinand of Portugal, Count of Flanders. Ferdinand III. the Saint, King of Cast& [Castile]. Ferrars, house of. Ferrars, Robert of, Earl of Derby. See Derby. Ferrars, William of, Earl of Derby. See Derby. Fife. Fife, Earl of. Fifteen, the Council of. Figeac. Firstfruits. Fitzalan, Edmund, and Richard, Earls of Arundel. See Arundel. Fitzalan of Bedale, Brian. Fitzalans, the. FitzAthulf, Constantine, sheriff of London. FitzGeoffrey, John. Fitzgerald, governor of Ireland. Fitzgerald, Maurice, justiciar of Ireland. Fitzgeralds, the. Fitzralph, Richard, Archbishop of Armagh. Fitzthedmar, Arnold. FitzWalter, Robert. Flemings, the. See Flanders. Fleta, law-book. Fletching. Flint, county of; town and castle of. Flodden, battle of. Florence. Florence, count of Holland. Florence of Worcester, Continuators of the Chronicle of. Flores Historiarum, Roger of Wendover's. Flores Historiarum (fourteenth century). Flagellants, the. Flamangrie, La. Flanders, county of. Flanders, counts of. See Ferdinand of Portugal, Guy of Dampierre, Louis of Male, Louis of Nevers, Robert of Bethune and Thomas of Savoy. Flanders, Joan, Countess of. See Joan. Flanders, Margaret of. See Margaret. Foedera, Rymer's. Foix. Foix, Count of. Foix, Gaston Phoebus, Count of. Fontenelles, Cistercian Abbey of. Fontevraud. Fordun, John, his Chronicle. Forests, charter of the; perambulation of the; enlargement of the. Fors, William of, Earl of Albemarle. See Albemarle. Fors, Isabella of. See Albemarle, Countess of. Forth, the. Fotheringhay, Castle of. Foulquois, Guy, Cardinal-bishop of Sabina. See Clement IV. Fountains Abbey. Fournier, James. See Benedict XII. Fournier's Royaume d'Arles. France; records of; chronicles of. France, King of, Edward III. takes title of. France, Kings of. See Philip Augustus, Louis VIII., Louis IX., Philip III., Philip IV., Louis X., Philip V., Charles IV., Philip VI., John and Charles V. Francis, St., of Assisi. Franciscans, the; the spiritual. Franks, the Salian. Frankton, Stephen of. Frascati. Fraser, William, Bishop of St. Andrews. Frederick II., the emperor. French language, the. Frescobaldi, the. Freynet, Gilbert of. See Gilbert. Friars, the; the four orders of; See Austin or hermits of order of St. Augustine; Bonhommes; Carmelite or White; Crutched; Dominicans; Francisans; —— of the Penance of Jesus Christ or —— of the Sack; Trinitarians or Maturins. Froissart, John. Froissart, Chroniques, ed. Luce; ed. Kervyn. Fronsac, Viscount of. Funck-Brentano's, F., editions of the Chronique Artesienne and Annales Gandenses. Furness.

Gabaston. Gaetano, Benedict. See Boniface VIII. Galeazzo Visconti, Lord of Pavia. Galloway. Garonne, the river. Garter, Order of the. Gascony, See also Aquitaine. Gaston, Viscount of Bearn. Gaveston, Peter, Earl of Cornwall. Gelderland, Duke of. Genitours. Genoa. Genoese, the; crossbowmen. Geraldines of Leinster, the. Germany. Ghent. Ghent, Gilbert of. See Lincoln, Earls of. Giffard, Walter, Archbishop of York; his register. Giffords, the. Gilbert of Freynet. Gilsland. Gironde, the river. Glamorgan, lordship of. Glamorgan, Lords of. See Gloucester, Earls of. Glasgow, Robert Wishart, Bishop of. See Wishart. Glendower, Owen. Gloucester; St. Peter's Church; statute of; earldom of. Gloucester, Richard of Clare, Earl of. Gloucester, Earl of, Gilbert of Clare, son of the above. Gloucester, Earl of, Gilbert of Clare, son of the above. Gloucester, Ralph of Monthermer, Earl of. Gloucester, Audley, Earl of. Gloucester, Thomas of Woodstock, Earl of. See Thomas. Gloucester, Isabella, Countess of. See Isabella, Queen of King John. Gloucester, Robert of. Gloucestershire. Gomez, Peter, Cardinal. Gordon, Adam. Gothic architecture. See Architecture. Gough's Itinerary of Edward I. Gower, Gower, John; his works. Grampians, the. Granada. Grand, Richard le, Archbishop of Canterbury. Grandisons, the. Greek, study of. Greenfield, William, Archbishop of York. Gregory IX., Pope. Gregory X., Pope. Gregory XI, Pope. Grey, Reginald. Grey, Richard of. Grey's Sir T., Scalachronica. Grey, Walter, Archbishop of York; his register. Griffith ap Gwenwynwyn. Griffith ap Llewelyn. Griffith of Welshpool. Grosmont, castle of. Grosmont, Henry of, Earl of Derby. See Derby and Lancaster. Gross's, C., Select Cases from the Coroners' Rolls; his Bibliography of British Municipal History; his Sources of English History. Grosseteste, Robert, Bishop of Lincoln. his Epistoae. Gualo the legate. Guerande, treaty of. Guernsey. See also Channel Islands. Guesclin, Bertrand du. Guienne. See also Aquitaine and Gascony. Guillon, treaty of. Guines. Guines, Baldwin of. Guines, Count of. Gurney, Thomas. Guy of Brittany, Count of Penthievre. Guy of Dampierre, Count of Flanders. Guy of Lusignan, Lord of Cognac. Gwent. Gwenwynwyn, house of. Gwynedd. See also Wales, North. Gwynedd, house of.

Haddan and Stubbs' Councils. Haddington. Hadenham's, Edmund of, Chronicle. Haggerston. Hainault. Hainault, Counts of. See John and William. Hainault, Countess of, Abbess of Fontenelles. Hainault, Philippa of. See Philippa Queen. Hales, Alexander of. Halidon Hill, battle of. Halifax, John of. Hall's, H., Customs Revenue. Hall's, J, ed. of Minot's Poems. Hamilton, H.C., ed. of Walter of Hemingburgh. Hampole. Hampshire. Hapsburg, house of. Hapsburg, Rudolf of. See Rudolf. Harby. Harclay, Andrew, governor of Carlisle. See Carlisle, Earl of. Harcourt, Geoffrey of. Harcourts, the. Hardy, Registrum Palatinum Dunelmense. Harewell, John, Bishop of Bath. Harlech Castle. Harry's, Blind, Wallace. Hastings, battle of. Hastings, John, first Earl of Pembroke. See Pembroke. Hastings, John, second Earl of Pembroke. See Pembroke. Hastingses of Abergavenny, the. Hathern. Haureau's Histoire de la philosophie scholastique. Haverfordwest. Hawarden. Hawkwood, John. Hay. Haydon's ed. of Eulogium Historiarum. Hearne. Hebrew, study of. Hebrews. See also Jews. Hedingham Castle. Hengham, Justice. Henley, Walter of. Hemingburgh, Walter of. Hennebont. Henry I., King of England. Henry II.. Henry III.; chroniclers for the reign of. Henry VIII. Henry, King of the Romans, son of Frederick II. Henry II. of Navarre. Henry II. of Trastarnara, King of Castile. Henry, Earl of Derby, afterwards King Henry IV. Henry of Lancaster, younger son of Earl Edmund; Earl of Leicester; Earl of Lancaster. Henry of Grosmont, Earl of Derby, then Earl afterwards Duke of Lancaster. Hereford; earldom of. Hereford, Bishops of. See Aigueblanche, Peter of; Cantilupe, St. Thomas of; Orleton, Adam. Hereford, Humphrey Bohun, Earl of. Hereford, Humphrey Bohun, grandson of above, Earl of. Hereford, Humphrey Bohun, son of above, Earl of. Herefordshire. Heretics, Albigensian. Hertford. Hesdin. Hewlett's editions of Chronicles. Hexham. Hexhamshire. Higden's, Randolph, Polychronicon. Highlands, the. Hingeston-Randelph's Exeter Registers. History, study of. Hohenstaufen, the. Holderness, ruled by Counts of Aumale. Holland. Holland, Florence, Count of. Hollands, Earls of Kent. Holy Land, the. See Palestine and Crusades. Holywood, John of. See also Halifax. Honorius III, Pope. Honorius IV., Pope. Hood, Robin. Horn, Andrew. Horstmann, Dr., his Legenda Anglie. Horwood's, A.L., editions of Year Books. Hospitallers, the. Hotham, John, Bishop of Ely. Hotham, William of, Archbishop of Dublin. Hougue, La. Hoveden, or Howden, Roger of; his continuator. Howlett's ed. of Monumenta Franciscana. Howel the Good. Huelgas, las, monastery of. Hugh, Choir of St., at Lincoln. Hugh of Avalon, Bishop of Lincoln, St., Little St. Hugh of Lincoln. Hugh X., of Lusignan. See also Lusignan. Hugh XI. of Lusignan. See also Lusignan. Hull. Hulme, St. Benet's. Humanism. Humber, the. Hundred Rolls, the. Hungary, Primate of, visits Canterbury. Hungerford, Sir Thomas. Hunter's Leet Jurisdiction of Norwich; Rotuli Selecti. Huntingdon, David, Earl of. Huntingdon, Honour of. Huntingdon, Earl of, John the Scot. Huntingdon, Clinton, Earl of. Husbandry, Walter of Henley's treatise on.

Imperium, the. Immunities, baronial. Indre, the river. Ingham, Sir Oliver. Infantry, English; French; Irish; Scotch; Welsh. Innocent III., Pope. Innocent IV., Pope. Innocent VI., Pope. Inquisition, the, in England; in the Netherlands. Interregnum, the Great. Inverness. Iolande, daughter of Peter Mauclerc, Count of Brittany. Ireland. Ireland, the Butler of, made Earl of Ormonde. See Ormonde. Irthlingborough, Northamptonshire. Irvine. Isabella of Castile, daughter of Peter the Cruel, wife of Edmund, Earl of Cambridge. Isabella Marshal, wife of Richard of Cornwall. See Marshal. Isabella of Angouleme, Queen of John, and wife of Hugh of Lusignan. Isabella of France, Queen of Edward II.. Isabella of Gloucester, divorced wife of John, wife of Hubert de Burgh. Isabella, sister of Henry III., queen of Frederick II. Isabella, younger sister of Alexander II., wife of Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk. Islands, the Channel. See Channel Islands, the. Isleworth. Isle, the river. Isle de France, the. Isle Saint-Jean, Caen. Islip, Simon, Archbishop of Canterbury. Italy.

James, King of Sicily, son of Peter of Aragon; afterwards James II. of Aragon. Jaudy, the river. Jedburgh. Jerusalem, Latin kingdom of. Jerusalem, Patriarch of. See Bek, Antony. Jews, in England, the; expulsion of the. Joan of Champagne, Queen of Philip the Fair. Joan of Ponthieu, Queen of Ferdinand the Saint. Joan of the Tower, sister of Edward III., Queen of David Bruce. Joan, sister of Henry III., Queen of Alexander II. of Scotland. Joan, Countess of Flanders, wife of Thomas of Savoy. Joan, Countess of Kent, Princess of Wales, wife of Edward the Black Prince. Joan, daughter of Edward III. Joan, eldest daughter of Charles of Valois. Joan of Acre, daughter of Edward I. and Countess of Gloucester. Joan of Bar, grand-daughter of Edward I. Joan of Flanders, Countess of Penthievre, wife of Charles of Blois. Joan of Toulouse, daughter of Raymond of Toulouse, wife of Alfonso of Poitiers. Joan, Princess of North Wales, wife of Llewelyn ap Iorwerth. Joan, sister of Richard I., grandmother of Joan of Poitiers. John, King. John, King of Bohemia. John, King of France. John (Balliol), King of Scots. John XXII., Pope. John, Duke of Berri. John II., Duke of Brabant. John III., Duke of Brabant. John II., Duke of Brittany. John III., Duke of Brittany. John IV., Duke of Brittany (Montfort). John V., Duke of Brittany (Montfort). John, Duke of Normandy. See also John, King of France. John of Avesnes, Count of Hainault. John of Brittany, Earl of Richmond, son of John II., Duke of Brittany, and nephew of Edward I. John of Eltham, son of Edward II., Earl of Cornwall. John of Gaunt, son of Edward III., Duke of Lancaster. John of Hainault, brother of William II. of Hainault. John of Montfort, Earl of Richmond. See John V., Duke of Brittany. John of Montfort, half-brother of John III. of Brittany. See John IV., Duke of Brittany. John the Scot, Earl of Chester. See Chester. Joinville, Joan of. Joinvilles, the. Joinville's History of St. Louis. Josselin Castle. Jowel, John. Judges, the. Juelich, Dukes of. Jurisprudence, Anglo-Norman; Roman. Justiciar, office of. Justiciars. See Burgh, Hubert de; Marshal, William; Roches, Peter des; Segrave, Stephen. Justiciars of Ireland. See Marsh, Geoffrey, and Fitzgerald, Maurice. Justiciars of Scotland. See Ormesby, William.

Keighley, Henry of, knight of the shire for Lancashire. Kelso. Kenilworth, Dictum de. Kenilworth Castle. Kennington. Kensham. Kent; earldom of. Kent, Earl of, Hubert de Burgh. See Burgh. Kent, Edmund of Woodstock, Earl of. See Edmund. Kerry (Wales); Vale of; scutage of. Kervyn de Lettenhove's edition of Froissart. Kesteven, South. Kidwelly, castle and lordship. Kildare, Curragh of. Kildare, Earl of. Kilkenny, Castle; statute of. Kilwardby, Robert, Archbishop of Canterbury. Kinghorn. Kingsford's, C.L., Song of Lewes. Kingston-on-Thames. Kinloss. Kintyre. Kirk's Accounts of the Obedientiaries of Abingdon. Kirkby, John, treasurer of Edward I and Bishop of Ely. Kirkby's Quest. Kirkcudbright, stewartry of. Kirkliston, 213. Klerk, Jan van, his Chronicle. Knaresborough, castle and town. Knighton's, Henry, Chronicle. Knights, of the Shire; Templars; of St. John; of the Garter; of the Star. Knowles, Sir Robert. Knyvett, Sir John. Koehler's Entwickelung des Kriegswesens in der Ritterzeit.

Labourers, Statute of. Lacy, Alice, Countess of Lancaster. Lacy, Henry, Earl of Lincoln. See Lincoln. Lacy, Hugh de, Earl of Ulster. See Ulster. Lacy, John de, Constable of Chester. See also Lincoln, Earls of. Lacy, the house of; the house of, in Meath. Lagny, Abbot of. Lalinde. Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews. Lambeth, treaty of. Lancashire. Lancaster, Alice, Countess of. See Alice. Lancaster, Blanche, Duchess of. See Blanche. Lancaster, Edmund, Earl of. See Edmund. Lancaster, Henry, Earl of. See Henry. Lancaster, Henry of Grosmont, Earl and Duke of. See Henry. Lancaster, honour of; town; house of; records of Duchy of. Lancaster, John of Gaunt, Duke of. See John. Lanercost; chronicle of. Langham, Simon, Chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury. Langland, William. Langley. Langley, Geoffrey of. Langlois, Charles V., his Philippe le Hardi; his Histoire de France. Langon. Langtoft's, Peter, Chronicle. Langton, John, Bishop of Chichester. Langton, Simon, Archdeacon of Canterbury. Langton, Stephen, Archbishop of Canterbury. Langton, Walter, Bishop of Lichfield. Language, English; French; German; Latin; Scottish. Languedoc. Laon. Laon, Robert Lecoq, Bishop of. Laonnais, the. Lapsley's County Palatine of Durham. Latimer, Lord, Chamberlain. Latin-language. Lavisse and Rambaud's Histoire Generale. Lavisse's Histoire de France. Law, study of English; literature of; the Salic; English. Laws, Celtic, of Highlanders and Strathclyde Welsh. Lawyers, Italian; English. Layamon's English version of Wace's Brut. Lechler's Wycliffe. Lecoq, Robert, Bishop of Laon. Leeds Castle (Kent). Leek, treaty of. Lehugeur's Philippe le Long. Leicester; earldom of. Leicester, Abbot of. Leicester, Countess of. See Eleanor. Leicester, Henry, Earl of. See Henry, Earl of Lancaster. Leicester, Robert Beaumont, Earl of. Leicester, Simon de Montfort, Earl of. Leicester, Simon de Montfort, the elder, Count of Toulouse and titular Earl of. Leicester, Thomas, Earl of. See Thomas, Earl of Lancaster. Leicestershire. Leinster. Leon. Leon. L'Estrange, Roger. Levant, the. Lewes; battle of; mise of. Lewis' Life of Wiclif. Libellus Famosus, Edward III.'s. Libourne. Lichfield, Bishops of. See Langton, Walter; Northburgh, Roger. Liddesdale. See also Liddell. Liddell. Liebermann, Dr., works by. Liege, William, Bishop of. See William. Liege. Lille. Limburg. Limerick. Limoges; sack of. Limousin. Lincoln; Castle; battle of; Cathedral; parliament of (1301); parliament at (1316). Lincoln, Bishops of. See Wells, Hugh of; Hugh, St., of Avalon; Grosse-teste, Robert; Burghersh, Henry. Lincoln, Richard le Grand, Chancellor of. See Canterbury. Lincoln, Gilbert of Ghent, Earl of. Lincoln, Henry Lacy, Earl of. Lincoln, John de Lacy, Earl of, 45, 47. Lincoln, Randolph de Blundeville, Earl of. See also Chester. Lincoln, Thomas of Lancaster, Earl of. See Thomas, Earl of Lancaster. Lincolnshire. Linlithgow. Lionel of Antwerp, son of Edward III., Duke of Clarence and Earl of Ulster. Lisieux; battle near. Literature in the thirteenth century; French; English. Literature in the fourteenth century; English; French. Littleton's Tenures. Llandaff, Bishop of. Llandilo. Llewelyn ap Griffith, Prince of Wales. Llewelyn ap Iorwerth, Prince of North Wales. Llewelyn Bren. Lleyn. Lloughor. Lochmaben Castle. Lodge's Close of the Middle Ages. Logrono. Loire, the river. Lombards. Lombardy, cities of. London. London, Bishops of. See Sainte-Mere-Eglise, William of; Basset, Fulk; Baldock, Ralph; Courtenay, William. London, Mayors of. See Serlo; Waleys, Henry le, and Pyel, John. London, Sheriffs of. See FitzAthulf, Constantine. London, treaty of. Longjumeau. Longman's Life and Times of Edward III.. Longnon's Atlas historique de la France. Longsword, William, Earl of Salisbury. See Salisbury. Lorraine. Loserth's Geschichte des spaeteren Mittelalters. Lot, the river. Lothians, the. Loughborough. Louis, Count of Evreux. Louis, Duke of Anjou, brother of Charles V. of France. Louis of Bavaria, the Emperor. Louis of France, afterwards Louis VIII. Louis IX. (St. Louis), King of France. Louis X., King of France. Louis of Male, Count of Flanders. Louis of Nevers, Count of Flanders. Louth; Earldom of. Louth, John of Bermingham, Earl of. Louvain. Luard, Dr. H.R., his Roberti Grosse-teste Epistolae; his editions of Annales Monastici; B. Cotton, and Flores Historiarum, and Matthew Paris' Chronica Majora. Luce's Jeunesse de Betrand du Guesclin; La France pendant la Guerre de Cent An. Luce and Raynouart's edition of Froissart's Chronicle. Lucy, Anthony. Ludlow. Lundy Island. Lusignan, Alice of. Lusignan, Aymer of. See Valence, Aymer de. Lusignan, Guy of. Lusignan, House of. Lusignan, Hugh X. of. Lusignan, Hugh XI. of. Lusignan (town). Lusignan, William of. See Valence, William of. Lussac, bridge of. Luxemburg, house of. Lyons, Richard. Lyons. Lyons, Council at (1245). Lyons, Council at (1274). Lyrics, English. Lys, the river.

Macaulay's, G.C., edition of Gower's Works. Mackinnon's History of Edward III. Macon, league of. Madden's, Sir F., edition of Matthew Paris' Historia Minor. Madog ap Llewelyn. Maelgwn. Maenan. Maes Madog, battle of. Maidstone. Maine. Mains. Elector of. Maitland's, F.W., Memoranda de Parliamento; Select Pleas of the Crown; Bracton's Note Book; Le Mirroir des Justices; Select Passages from Bracton, etc.; Year Books of Edward II. and Canon Law. Maitland, F.W., and Pollock, Sir F., History of English Law.

Makower's, F., Constitutional History of the Church of England. Malestroit, truce of. Malmesbury, the Monk of. Malmesbury, William of. Malton. Maltravers, John. Mandeville, Geoffrey de. Manfred, King of Sicily. Mangonels. Manny, Sir Walter. Mannyng, Robert. Mansel, John. Mansura. Maps for period. Mar, Donald, Earl of. Marcel, Stephen. March of Calais. March (of Scotland), Patrick, Earl of. March of Wales, the. March of Wales, Earl of the. See also Mortimer, Edmund, and Mortimer, Roger. March, Edmund Mortimer, Earl of (d. 1381). March, Roger Mortimer, first Earl of (d. 1330). See also Mortimer, Roger, of Wigmore (d. 1330). Marche, Counts of La. Marche, La. Mare, Sir Peter de la. Margam, annals of abbey of. Margaret of England, Queen of Alexander III. of Scotland. Margaret of Flanders. Margaret of France, sister of Philip the Fair, and second Queen of Edward I. Margaret of Hainault, sister of Queen Philippa, Empress of Louis of Bavaria. Margaret of Provence, Queen of Louis IX. of France. Margaret, Queen of Eric, King of Norway, and mother of Margaret, Queen of Scots. Margaret, Queen of Scots, the Maid of Norway, daughter of Margaret and Eric of Norway. Margaret, sister of Alexander II. of Scotland, wife of Hubert de Burgh. Margaret, sister of David of Scotland. Margaret, Viscountess of Limoges. Margaret, wife of Philip of Burgundy. Mark, Count of. Marlborough, statute of. Marseilles. Marsh, Adam; Letters of. Marsh, Geoffrey, justiciar of Ireland. Marshal, office of. Marshal, house of. Marshal, the Earls. See Pembroke, Earl of; Thomas of Brotherton, Earl; March, Mortimer, Edmund, Earl of March; and Percy, Henry. Marshal, Gilbert. See Pembroke, Gilbert Marshal, Earl of. Marshal, Isabella, wife of Richard of Cornwall. Marshal, Richard. See Pembroke, Richard Marshal, Earl of. Marshal, William. See Pembroke, William Marshal, the elder, Earl of, regent of England. Marshal, William, the younger. See Pembroke, William Marshal, the younger, Earl of. Martin IV., Pope. Martin, papal envoy. Martin's, C. Trice, Registrum Epistolarum J. Peckham. Mary of Brabant, Queen of France. Maturins, the. Mauclerc, Peter, Count of Brittany. See Peter. Maud, daughter of Henry, Duke of Lancaster. Maud of Artois, wife of Otto, Count of Burgundy. Maud's Castle. Mauleon, Savary de. Mauley, Peter de. Mauleys, the family of. Maupertuis. Mauron, battle of. Maxwell's Robert the Bruce. Maye, the river. Meath. Meaux, treaty of. Mechlin. Mediterranean, the. Melton, William, Archbishop of York. Melrose Abbey. Melrose, chronicle of. Menai Straits, the. Mendicants, the See also Friars. Meopham, Simon, Archbishop of Canterbury. Mercenaries. Merchants, statute of; foreign; English. Meredith ap Owen. Merioneth. Merionethshire. Merlin. Merton. "Merton, Rule of,". Merton, Walter of. Messina, Archbishop of. Methven, battle of. Metingham, John of. Meyer, Paul, his edition of the Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal. Miausson, the river. Michel, Francisque. Milan. Ministers' Accounts. Minorites, the, See also Franciscans. Minot, Lawrence. Minsterworth, Sir John. Miracle plays. Mirambeau. Miranda. Mirroir des Justices, Le. Mise of Amiens, the. Mise of Lewes, the. Model Parliament, the. See Parliament. Mohammedans, the. Molinier, Auguste, Sources de l'histoire de France. Monasteries. Monasticon, Dugdale's. Monmouth, castle and town of. Monnow, the river. Mont Cenis, the. Montague, Sir William. See also Salisbury, Earls of. Montague; the house of. Montfavence, Bertrand of, Cardinal. Montfichet, Richard of. Montfort l'Amaury. Montfort, county of. Montfort, Amaury of. Montfort, the house of (Dukes of Brittany). See also John IV. and John V., Dukes of Brittany. Montfort, the house of (Earls of Leicester). Montfort, Henry of. Montfort, John of, the elder. See Brittany, John, Duke of. Montfort, John of, the younger. See Brittany, John, Duke of. Montfort, Peter of. Montfort, Simon of, Count of Toulouse. See also Leicester. Montfort Simon of, Earl of Leicester. See Lester. Montfort, Simon of, the younger, son of Simon, Earl of Leicester. Montgomery, castle and town of. Monthermer, Ralph of. Monthermer, Thomas of, Montjoie. Montmorenci, Matthew of. Montpellier, University of. Montpezat, lord of. Montreuil-sur-mer. treaty of. Montrose. Mont-Saint-Martin, Monastery of. Monumenta Franciscana, Brewer's. Monumenta Hist. Germanicae, Scriptores, Pertz'. Moors of Granada. Moor, Sir Thomas de la. Moray. Moray, Randolph, Earl of. Moray, Sir Andrew. Morbihan. Morgan of Caerleon. Morgan, leader of Glamorganshire rebels. Morgarten, battle of. Morlaix. battle of. Morley, Robert. Mortimer, Edmund (d. 1303). Mortimer, Edmund (d. 1381). See March, Edmund Mortimer, Earl of. Mortimer, Roger, of Chirk. Mortimer, Roger, of Wigmore (d. 1282). Mortimer, Roger, of Wigmore (d. 1330). See also March, Roger Mortimer, first Earl of. Mortimer, Roger, grandson of Roger Mortimer, first Earl of March. Mortimer, Roger, son of Edmund, Earl of March. Mortimer, the house of. Mortmain, Statute of. Moselle, the river. Mountchensi, Joan of. Mount Sorrel. Mowbray, John of (of Scotland). Mowbray, John of. Murimuth, Adam. Myton, battle of.

Najarilla, the river. Najera, battle of. Nantes. Naples. Narbonne. Nassau, Adolf of. King of the Romans. See Adolf, King of the Romans. Navarre, Blanche of Artois, Queen of. See Blanche. Navarre, Henry III., King of. See Henry. Navarre, King of, Charles the Bad. See Charles. Navarre, Philip of. See Philip. Navarre, Theobald IV., King of. See Theobald. Navarre. Navarete, Navy, the English; the French; the Norman. Neath Abbey. Netherlands, the. Neufbourg, house of. Neufbourg, Henry of, Earl of Warwick. See Warwick. Nevers, Louis of. See Louis of Nevers, Count of Flanders. Nevers, the Count of. Neville of Raby, Lord. Neville, Ralph, Bishop of Chichester and Chancellor. Nevilles, the. Neville's Cross, battle of. Newark. Newcastle-on-Tyne. Newport-on-Usk. Nicholas IV., Pope. Nicolas's History of the Royal Navy. Nine, Council of. Niort. Nivernais, the. Norfolk; earldom of. Norfolk, Roger Bigod, Earl of. Norfolk, Roger Bigod, Earl of, nephew of above. Norfolk, Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of See Thomas. Norham Castle. Norman architecture. Normandy. Normandy, Charles, Duke of. See Charles. Normandy, John, Duke of. See John, King of France. Normans, the; in Ireland, the. Norsemen in Scotland, the. Northallerton. Northampton; parliaments at; treaty of Brigham confirmed at; treaty of; earldom of. Northampton, William Bohun, Earl of. Northamptonshire. Northburgh, Roger, Bishop of Lichfield or Coventry and treasurer. Northumberland. Norway, Eric, King of. See Eric. Norway, Margaret, the Maid of, Queen of Scotland. See Margaret. Norwich. Norwich, Bishops of. See Ayermine, William, and Pandulf. Nottingham. Nouaille.

Ochils, the. Ockham, William of. O'Connor, Phelim, King of Connaught. See Connaught. Odiham. O'Donnells, the. Oleron, Isle of. Oliver, illegitimate son of King John. Oloron, treaty of. Oman's History of the Art of War in the Middle Ages. O'Neils, the. Oise, the river. Ordainers, the Lords. Order of the Garter, the. Order of the Star, the. Orders, the Religious. Orders of Friars. Orewyn Bridge, battle of. Originalia Rolls, the. Orkneys, the. Orleans, Duke of. Orleton, Adam, Bishop of Hereford. Ormonde, the Butler of Ireland, made Earl of. Ormesby, William, justiciar. Orne, the river. Orvieto. Orwell, port and river. Oseney Abbey; Annals of. Oswestry. O'Tooles, the. Otto, nuncio to England; legate. Otto, Count of Burgundy. Ottobon, Cardinal, legate. Ottocar, King of Bohemia. Ouistreham. Ouse, the river. Owain Lawgoch. See Owen of Wales. Owen of Wales, Sir Owen ap Thomas ap Rhodri. Owen the Red, son of Griffith ap Llewelyn. Owens College Historical Essays. Oxford, University of, Balliol College, Merton College, the Provisions of, parliament at, Exeter College. Oxfordshire. Oxnead, John of.

Painting in Westminster Abbey. Palatine, the Elector. Palermo. Palestine. Palestrina, Cardinal-bishop of. Palgrave's, Sir F.T., Parliamentary Writs and Writs of Military Service. his Documents illustrating the History of Scotland. Pamplona. Pandulf, Papal Legate and Bishop of Norwich. Pantheism. Papacy, the, See also under Popes. Paris, University of, College of the Sorbonne in, Cathedral of, parliament of, treaty of (1259), treaty of (1303), treaty of (1327). Paris, Matthew. Parliament, of, the mad (1258), of Oxford, growth Of, at Oxford (1264), at Northampton (1267), at Bury (1267), of 1273, at Westminster (1275), of 1283, at Shrewsbury (1284), at Acton Burnell (1284), of 1289, at London (1294), the model(1295), of the perambulation (1300), at Lincoln (1301), at Westminster (1305), of Carlisle (1307), of 1308, at Westminster (1309), at Stamford (1309), of London (1310), at London (1315), at Lincoln (1316), the Irish, at York (1318), at York (1319), in London (July, 1320), at York (May, 1322), at Westminster (January, 1327), at Salisbury (October, 1328), at Northampton (1329), at Winchester (March, 1330), prorogued to Westminster (November, 1330), of April 23, 1341, of April, 1343, of 1347, of 1371, of 1372, the Good (April, 1376), of 1377, of Paris, see Paris, parliament of. Parthenai. Passelewe, Robert. Pastaureaux, the. Patrick, Earl of March, See also March (Scotland), Earl of. Pauli's, R., Geschichte von England. Pavia, Galeazzo Visconti, Lord of. Paynel, Fulk. Pearl, the, poem of. Peasants' revolt, the. Peasants, revolts of French. Peckham, John, Archbishop of Canterbury. Peebles. Pell Records, the. Pembroke, earldom of. Pembroke, Gilbert Marshal, Earl of. Pembroke, Richard Marshal. Earl of. Pembroke, William Marshal, the elder, Regent and Earl of, History of. Pembroke, William Marshal, the younger, Earl of. Pembroke, Aymer of Valence, Earl of. Pembroke. John Hastings, second Earl of that house. Pembroke. William of. See William of Valence. Pembrokeshire, palatine county of. Penance of Jesus Christ, Friars of the. Penne. Penrith. Penthievre, county of. Penthievre-Treguier, county of. Perche, Count of. Percy, Henry, grandson of Earl Warenne. Percy, Henry, marshal of England. Percy, Sir Thomas, seneschal of Poitou. Percy, the family of. Perigord. Perigord, Count of. Perigueux, bishopric of. Peronne. Perpendicular style in architecture. Perrers, Alice. Perth. Pertz's Monumenta. Peruzzi, the. Perveddwlad. Peter, Cardinal. See Gomez, Peter. Peter III., King of Aragon. Peter Mauclerc, Count of Brittany. Peter of Aigueblanche, Bishop of Hereford, See Aigueblanche. Peter of Gaveston. See Gaveston. Peter of Savoy, Earl of Richmond. Peter of Spain, Cardinal. Peter Roger, Archbishop of Rouen. See Roger, Peter, and Clement VI. Peter the Chamberlain. Peter the Cruel, King of Castile. Peterhouse, Cambridge. Peter's Pence. Petit's Charles de Valois. Petit-Dutaillis, M., his Etude sur Louis VIII. Petrarch, Francis. Petrariae. Pevensey Castle. Philip II., Augustus, King of France. Philip III., the Bold, King of France. Philip IV., the Fair, King of France. Philip V., the Long, King of France. Philip VI. of Valois, King of France. Philip, Count of Savoy. Philip, Count of Valois, See also Philip VI., King of France. Philip of Navarre. Philip of Rouvres, Duke of Burgundy. Philip the Bold, Count of Evreux. Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, son of John, King of France. Philippa, daughter of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, Countess of March. Philippa of Hainault, Queen of Edward III. Philippine, daughter of Guy of Dampierre, Count of Flanders. Philpots, the. Philobiblon, the, of Richard of Bury. Philosophy. Picardy. Pike, L.O., his editions of the Year Books. Pipe, James. Pipe Rolls. Pipton, treaty o. Pirenne's Bibliographie de l'histoire de Belgique. Histoire de Belgique. Pisa, Agnellus of. See Agnellus. Plague, the. See Black Death. Plays, miracle. Plessis, John du, Earl of Warwick. See Warwick. Ploermel. Plympton. Poissy. Poitevins. Poitiers, battle of, sources for. Poitiers, Alfonse of. See Alfonse. Poitou, scutage of. Poitou, Count of, Richard, son of King John, Count of. See Richard. Polain's edition of Jean le Bel, Pole, the house of Pole, William de la. Pollock, Sir P., and Maitland's History of English Law, Polychronicon, Higden's. Pons. Pont-Sainte-Maxence. Pontefract, Castle. Ponthieu. Pontigny. Pontoise. Pontvallain, battle of. Poole's, R.L., Mediaeval Thought, his Wycliffe, his Oxford Historical Atlas. Popes. See under Innocent III., Honorius III., Gregory IX., Innocent IV., Alexander IV., Urban IV., Clement IV., Gregory X., Nicholas III., Martin IV., Honorius IV., Nicholas IV., Celestine V., Boniface VIII., Benedict XL, Clement V., John XXII., Benedict XII., Clement VI., Urban V., Gregory XL. Port Blanc. Ports, the Cinque. Portsmouth. Portugal, Ferdinand of. Powys; Castle. Powys, Charltons of. See Charltons. Praemunire statute of. Preachers, Order of. See Dominicans. Pressuti's Registers of Honorius III. Preston. Prices, rise in, after the Black Death. Principality of Wales, the. Priories, the alien. Proclamation in English, French and Latin. Prothero's Simon de Montfort. Provencals. Provence. Provence, Raymond Berengar IV., Count of, See Raymond Berengar. Proving. Provisions, papal; of Oxford, the; of Westminster, the; of Worcester. Provisors, statute of. Public Record Office, the. Purveyance. Puymirol. Pyel, John, mayor of London. Pyrenees, the.

Quercy Quia Emptores statute. Quieret, Hugh. Quincy, Saer de, Earl of Winchester. See Winchester.

Rageman, statute of. Ragman. Roll, the. Ranee, the river. Randolph, Sir Thomas, Earl of Moray. Rashdall's Universities of the Middle Ages. Rathlin Island. Rationalism. Ravenspur. Raymond Berengar IV., Count of Provence. Raymond VII., Count of Toulouse. Record of Carnarvon, the. Record Commission, the. Records, as sources for history; of Court of Chancery; of Court of Exchequer; of Common Law Courts; of King's Bench and Court of Common Pleas; of Scotland; Welsh; Papal. Recueil des historiens de la France, begun by Dom Bouquet. Red Hills, the. Redesdale. Redesdale, Gilbert of Umfraville, Lord of. See Umfraville. Regalis Devotionis, Bull. Reginald, Count of Gelderland. Registers, Bishops; Papal Calendars of. Reims. Reims, Archbishop of. Renaissance of the twelfth century, the. Rennes. Reole, La. Reports of Deputy-keeper of the Records; of Historical Manuscripts Commission. Revolt, the peasants'. Reynolds, Walter, Treasurer of England and Archbishop of Canterbury. Rhine, the. Rhine, Count Palatine of the. Rhineland, the. Rhos, Cantred of. Rhone Valley, the. Rhuddlan Castle. Rhunoviog, Cantred of. Rhys ap Howel. Rhys ap Meredith. Rhys, J., and J.G. Evans' Red Book of Hergest. Rich, St. Edmund, Archbishop of Canterbury. Richard I. Richard of Bordeaux, son of the Black Prince. Richard, son of King John, titular Count of Poitou, Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans. Richmond, John, Earl of. See John of Gaunt. Richmond, John of Brittany, Earl of. See John of Brittany. Richmond, Peter Mauclerc, Earl of. See Peter, Count or Duke of Brittany. Richmond, Peter of Savoy, Earl of. See Peter of Savoy. Richmond (place). Richmond, Simon de Montfort, made Earl of. See Leicester, Earl of Rievaux. Rigaud, Bishop of Winchester Rigaud, Eudes, Archbishop of Rouen. Rigg's, J.M., Select Pleas of the Jewish Exchequer. Riley's, H.T., his edition of Rishanger, etc. Rioms. Ripon. Rishanger, William. Rivaux, Peter of, treasurer. Robert I, Bruce, King of Scots. See also Bruce, Robert. Robert II, Steward of Scotland, afterwards King Robert II. Robert, Steward of Scotland. Robert, Count of Artois. Robert of Artois, enemy of Philip VI. Robert, Count of Namur. Roberts' Calendarium Genealogicum. Roche Derien, La, battle of. Rochelle, La. Rochelle, battle of La. Roches, Peter des, Bishop of Winchester. Rochester, Castle and city. Rockingham Castle. Rodez, Bishop of. Roger, Peter. See also Clement VI Pope. Rogers, J.E. Thorold, History of Agriculture and Prices. Roles Gascons. See Rolls Roll, the Ragman. Rolle, Richard Rolls; the hundred; patent; the close; of parliament; series, the; of Court of Chancery; Charter; Escheat or Inquisitiones post mortem; fine; Excerpt a e Rotulis Finium (C. Roberts'); exchequer; Assize; Coroners; Romana Mater, bull. Romances. Romanesque architecture. Romans, Adolf of Nassau, King of the, see Adolf of Nassau; Charles of Moravia, King of the, see Charles IV; Henry, King of the, see Henry; Rudolf of Hapsburg, King of the, see Rudolf; William of Holland, King of the, see William of Holland. Rome. Romney. Romont. Romorantin Castle. Roncesvalles, Pass of. Ronciere, de la, Histoire de la Marine Francaise. Rose Castle. Roslin. Rostein, the family of. Rotuli. See Rolls. Round Table at Windsor. Rouen, Archbishops of. See Rigaud, Eudes, Roger, Peter. Rouergue, Counts of. See Armagnac, Count of. Roussillon. Roxburgh, town and castle; treaty of. Royan. Rudel, Elie, lord of Bergerac. Rudolf of Hapsburg, King of the Romans. Runnymede. Ruthin. Rye. Rymer's Foedera.

Sabina, Guy Foulquois, Cardinal-bishop of, papal legate. See Clement IV. Sacerdotium, the. Sack, Friars of the. Sailors, English. Saints, English, honour paid to. St. Albans; abbey; chroniclers of abbey of; St Albans, Abbot Simon of. St Andrews; Bishops of. See Fraser and Lamberton. Saint-Bavon, abbey of. St. Davids, Bishop of. See Bek, Thomas. Saint-Denis. Saint-Emilion. Saint-Germain-en-Laye. St. Giles, John of. Saint-James-de-Beuvron. Saint-Jean-d'Angely. Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port. St. John, John of. Saint-Lo. Saint-Macaire. Saint-Mahe. Saint-Malo. Saint-Omer. Saint-Pol-de-Leon. St. Paul's, London; canons of; dean of; annalist of; See also London. Saint-Quentin. Saint-Sardos. Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte. Saint-Sever. Saint-Vaast-de-la-Hougue. Saint-Valery. Sainte-Mere-Eglise, William of, Bishop of London. Saints, English. Saintes. Saintonge. Salerno, Charles, Prince of. Salic Law, the. Salisbury; cathedral; treaty of; parliaments at. Salisbury, Henry, of Lacy, Earl of. See Lincoln. Salisbury, Thomas of Lancaster, Earl of. See Thomas. Salisbury, William Longsword, Earl of. Salisbury, William Montague, Earl of. See also Montague, William. Salisbury, William Montague, Earl of (son of the above). Salvatierra. Sambre, the river. Sanchia of Provence, second wife of Richard of Cornwall. Sandal Castle. Sandale, Bishop of Winchester. Sandwich. Santander. Satires, English. Savoy; palace of the. Savoy, Amadeus III., Count of Savoy. See Amadeus. Savoy, Boniface of. See Boniface. Savoy, Peter of. See Peter. Savoy, Philip of. See Philip. Savoy, Thomas of. See Thomas. Savoyards, the. Saxony. Scalachronica, Sir T. Grey's. Scarborough Castle. Scheldt, the river. Schiltron of pikemen. Schism between eastern and western Churches. Scholasticism. Science. Scimus Fili, papal letter. Scone. Scotland. Scrope, Sir Richard le, treasurer. Sculpture. Scutage of Bedford, the; of Kerry; of Poitou. Seeley's Life and Reign of Edward I. Segrave, John. Segrave, Stephen. Seine, the river. Selby, William. Selden Society, the. Selkirk; forest of; See Ettrick. Sens. Sens, William of. Septs, the Irish. Serlo, Mayor of London. Severn, the river. Sheen. Sherburn-in-Elmet. Sheriffs; for Scotland. Shire, system in Wales; courts; knights of the. Shrewsbury; Castle of; treaty of; parliament at. Shrewsbury, Ralph of, Bishop of Bath and Wells. Shropshire. Sicilian Vespers, the. Sicily. Silegrave's Henry of, Chronicle. Simony. Siward, Richard. Skeat's editions of Chaucer and Langland. Skelton Castle. Skenfrith, Castle of. Skicsea Castle. Sluys. Smith's, S. Armitage, John of Gaunt. Smithfield. Snowdon. Soissonais, the. Soisy. Sellers, Rostand de, seneschal of Gascony. Sologne, the. Solway, the. Somme, the river. Sorbon, Robert of. Soubise. Southampton. Southwark. Spalding, Peter of. Spain. See also Aragon and Castile. Spain, Peter of, Cardinal. See Peter. Speaker, office of. Spruner-Menke's Historischer Hand-Atlas. Staffordshire. Stammoor. Stamford; parliaments at; statute of. Stanley Abbey, Chronicle of. Staple, ordinance of the; system the. Stapledon, Walter, Bishop of Exeter. Statute of —— Acton Burnell. Carlisle (1307). De Donis. Gloucester. Kilkenny. Marlborough. Merchants. Mortmain. Praemunire. Provisors. Quia Emptores. Rageman. Stamford. Treasons (1352). Wales. Westminster, the first; the second; the third. 1341 as to election of auditors of royal officers. Statutum de Tallagio won concedendo Stephen, papal collector. Stephen, King. Stephens, W. R W., his History of the English Church. Stevenson's, J., Documents of Scotland; Chronicon de Lanenost; edition of Coggeshall's Chronicon Anglicanum. Stevenson's, W.H., Records of Nottingham. Steward, of England, Simon de Montfort; of Scotland, the. Stewart Kings of Scotland. Stirling Bridge, battle of. Stirling, castle and town. Stone, use of, in building houses. Stratford. Stratford, John, chancellor, Bishop of Winchester and Archbishop of Canterbury. Stratford, Robert, Bishop of Chichester, chancellor. Strathearn. Strathspey. Stratton, Adam of. Strongbow. Stubbs' Select Charters; Councils; edition of Walter of Coventry; Chronicles of Edward I and Edward II.; Constitutional History. Studium, the. Studium Generale. See University. Subinfeudation. Subsidy Rolls. Sudbury, Simon of, Archbishop of Canterbury. Suffolk. Suffolk, Ufford, Earl of. Surrey. Sussex. Swale, the river. Swaledale. Swansea, castle and town. Swinbrooke. Syria.

Taillebourg, battle of. Tallagio non concedendo, Statutum de. Talleyrand, the Cardinal. Tancarville, Lord of, Chamberlain of France. Tany, Luke de, seneschal of Gascony. Tarascon, Treaty of. Taxatio Ecclesiastica Angliae et Walliae. Taxation; papal; of clergy. Taxes, on exports; on land. Taxster, John de, Chronicle of. Tayster. See Taxster. Teivi, the river. Templars, Order of the; suppression of the. Temple, Church of the; the New. Temple, Knights of the. See Templars. Tertiaries. Testa de Neville, the. Thames, the. Theiner's Vetera Monumenta Hib. et Scot. Historiam Illustrantia. Theobald IV, Count of Champagne and King of Navarre. Theology. Therouanne. Thierache, the. Thirty, battle of the. Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, Leicester and Derby. Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk, son of Edward I. Thomas of Savoy, uncle of Eleanor of Provence. Thomas of Woodstock, Earl of Gloucester. Thomas, St. Aquinas See Aquinas, St. Thomas. Thomas, St., of Canterbury; translation of relics of. See also Becket. Thomas, St., of Cantilupe. See Cantilupe. Thomist teaching. See Aquinas, St. Thomas. Thompson's, Sir E. Maunde, Chronicon Angliae; Chronicon Galfridi le Baker. Thoresby, John, Archbishop of York. Thorpe, Benjamin, his Florence of Worcester. Thorpe, Sir Robert, Chancellor and Chief Justice. Thouars, house of. Thouars, the Viscount of. Tintagel Castle. Tickhill Castle. Torksey. Torture. Toulouse. Toulouse, Joan, Countess of. See Joan. Toulouse, Raymond VII., Count of. See Raymond VII. Touraine. Tournai. Tournaments. Tours. Tout's Edward I.; Papacy and Empire. Tower, of London, the; the Round, Windsor. Tower Hill. Towns, growth of; Gascon; Welsh; "Staple". Towy, the river. Trade. Trailbaston, Ordinance of. Translations into English. Treasons, Statute of. Treasurer, office of. Treaty of —— Aberconway. Amiens. Athis. Berwick. Bordeaux. Bretigni. Brigham. Bruges. Calais (1347); (1360). Canfranc. Coblenz. Esplechin. Guerande. Guillond. Lambeth. Leek. London. Malestroit. Meaux. Montreuil. Newcastle. Northampton. Oloron. Paris (1259); (1303); (1327). Pipton. Roxburgh. Saint-Germain. Salisbury. Shrewsbury. Tarascon. Valenciennes. Vincennes. Trebuchet, the. Treguier; County of Penthievre-Treguier. Trent, the river. Trevelyan's, G.M., England in the Age of Wycliffe. Trevet. See Trivet. Trier. Trim. Trinitarian Friars, the. Trivet, Nicholas, Dominican chronicler. Trokelowe, J. de, Annales. Troyes. Trussell, Sir William. Tunbridge. Tunis. Turner's, G.J., Pleas of the Forest; Select Pleas of the Forest; Minority of Henry III., 1. Turberville, Payne of. Turberville, Sir Thomas. Turks, the. Tuscans. Tuscany. Tutbury Castle. Tweed, the river. Tweeddale. Twemlow's Calendars of Papal Registers. Twenge, Sir Robert. "Twenty-Four," the. Twiss, Sir T.'s edition of Bracton. Tyburn Elms. Tynedale. Tynemouth. Tyre, Archbishop of.

Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14     Next Part
Home - Random Browse