The History of England - A Study in Political Evolution
by A. F. Pollard
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and Book of Common Prayer. 1553-1558. MARY and the Roman Catholic reaction. Spanish control in England. 1558. ELIZABETH. 1559. The Elizabethan settlement of religion. 1560. Elizabeth assists the Scots to expel the French. 1568-1569. Flight of Mary Queen of Scots into England, and rebellion of the northern earls. 1570. Papal excommunication and deposition of Elizabeth. 1571. Ridolfi's plot. 1572. Execution of Norfolk and extinction of English dukedoms. Beginning of the Dutch Republic. Massacre of St. Bartholomew. 1577-1580. Drake sails round the world. 1587. Execution of Mary Queen of Scots. 1588. Spanish Armada. 1599-1601. Conquest of Ireland. 1600. Foundation of East India Company. 1603. JAMES VI of Scotland and I of England. 1607. Foundation of Virginia. 1608. Plantation of Ulster. 1620. Sailing of the Mayflower. 1623. Re-creation of dukedoms. Massacre of Amboyna. 1625. CHARLES I. 1628. Petition of Right. 1629. First British capture of Quebec. 1629-1640. The "Eleven Years' Tyranny." 1638-1639. National Covenant. Bishops' war in Scotland. 1640. The Long Parliament. 1642. First Civil War. 1648. Second Civil War. 1649. THE COMMONWEALTH. Abolition of monarchy and the House of Lords. 1650-1651. Navigation Acts and Dutch War. 1653. THE PROTECTORATE. First Cromwellian constitution. 1657. Second Cromwellian constitution. 1658. Cromwell's death. 1660. The Restoration. CHARLES II. 1662. The last Act of Uniformity. 1664. War with the Dutch: conquest of New Netherlands 1667. Fall of Clarendon. The Cabal administration. 1670. Treaty of Dover. 1672. Declaration of Indulgence. 1673. Danby. The Test Act. 1678. Titus Gates' Plot. 1679. Habeas Corpus Act. 1681. Charles II's triumph over the Whigs. 1685. JAMES II. Monmouth's and Argyll's rebellions. 1688. The Revolution. WILLIAM III and MARY. 1689. Bill of Rights. Toleration Act. 1690. Battle of the Boyne. 1694. Bank of England established. 1696. The Whig Junto. 1701. Act of Settlement. 1702. ANNE. War with France. 1704. Capture of Gibraltar. England becomes a Mediterranean power. 1707. Act of Union with Scotland. 1708. Capture of Minorca. 1708-1710. Whig ministry. 1710-1714. Tory ministry. 1713. Peace of Utrecht. 1714. GEORGE I and the Hanoverian dynasty. 1721-1742. Walpole's administration. Evolution of the Cabinet and Prime Minister. Growth of imports and exports, 1727. GEORGE II. 1739. War with Spain. 1741-1748. War of the Austrian Succession. Clive in India. 1756-1763. Seven Years' War. 1757. Battle of Plassey. 1759. Capture of Quebec. 1760. GEORGE III. 1764-1779. Inventions by Arkwright, Hargreaves, and Crompton. Beginning of the Industrial Revolution. 1765. Grenville's Stamp Act. 1770. Lord North Prime Minister. Captain Cook surveys Australia and New Zealand. 1774. The Quebec Act. 1776. Declaration of American Independence. Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations. 1778-1779. France and Spain join the Americans. 1780. The "Armed Neutrality." Warren Hastings saves India. 1781. Fall of Yorktown. 1782. Volunteer movement In Ireland. Irish parliamentary independence. 1783. American Independence granted. 1784. Pitt Prime Minister: his India Bill. 1788. Convict settlement in Australia. 1789. French Revolution. 1791. The Canadian Constitutional Act. 1794. The "Glorious First of June." 1795-1796. Conquest of the Cape and of Ceylon. 1797. Battles of St. Vincent and Camperdown. 1798. Battle of the Nile. Irish rebellion. 1799. Wellesley in India. Capture of Seringapatam. Partition of Mysore and the Carnatic. 1800. Union of Great Britain and Ireland. Seizure of Malta. 1801. Battle of Copenhagen. 1802. Peace of Amiens. 1803. Battles of Assye and Argaum. Defeat of the Mahrattas. 1805. Battle of Trafalgar. 1806. Second capture of the Cape. 1808-1814. Peninsular War. 1810. Capture of Mauritius. 1812-1814. War with the United States. 1814. Corn Laws passed. 1815. Battle of Waterloo. 1820. GEORGE IV. 1825. Huskisson's Tariff Reform. 1827. Battle of Navarino. 1828. Corn Laws revised. 1828-1829. Repeal of Test Act. Roman Catholic Emancipation. 1830. WILLIAM IV. Whigs return to power. 1832. First Reform Act. Representative Government established in Newfoundland. 1834-1835. Reform of the Poor Law and Municipal corporations. 1837. QUEEN VICTORIA. Mackenzie and Papineau's rebellions in Canada. Great Boer "trek." 1840. Annexation of New Zealand. 1841-1846. Peel's Free Trade policy. 1842. Representative government in Australia. 1846. Corn Laws repealed. 1848. Responsible self-government In Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. 1849. Repeal of the Navigation Acts. 1852. Responsible government developed In Australia and New Zealand. 1853. Representative government in Cape Colony. 1854-1856. Crimean War. 1855. Responsible government in Newfoundland. 1856. Representative government in Natal. 1857. Indian Mutiny. 1858. Transference of India to the Crown. 1867. Disraeli's Reform Act. Federation of the Dominion of Canada. 1869. Disestablishment of the Irish Church. Opening of the Suez Canal. 1870. Compulsory education. 1872. Abolition of purchase in the army by executive action. Responsible government in Cape Colony. 1876. Queen proclaimed Empress of India. 1876-1877. Russo-Turkish War. Dual control established in Egypt. Annexation of the Transvaal. 1881. Transvaal granted independence. 1882. British administration of Egypt begins. 1885. Fall of Khartoum. Gladstone's Reform Act. Annexation of Burma. 1887. Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria, and Italy. 1889. Establishment of County Councils. 1890. Free Education. Franco-Russian entente. Responsible government in Western Australia. 1893. Responsible government in Natal. 1894. Establishment of district and parish councils. 1895. Jameson Raid. 1896-1898. Reconquest of the Sudan. 1899-1903. The Great Boer War. 1900. Establishment of the Australian Commonwealth. 1901. EDWARD VII. 1904. Russo-Japanese War. 1905. Anglo-Japanese alliance. 1906-1907. Responsible government granted to the Transvaal and Orange River Colonies. 1909. The Union of South Africa. 1910. GEORGE V. 1911. Asquith's Parliament Act. Capital of India transferred from Calcutta to Delhi. Beginnings of National Insurance.


J. R. GREEN'S Short History of the English People (Macmillan), and C. R. L. FLETCHER'S Introductory History of England, 4 vols. (Murray), both eminently readable in very different styles, illustrate the diverse methods of treatment to which English history lends itself. More elaborate surveys are provided by LONGMANS' Political History of England, 12 vols. (edited by W. Hunt and R. L. Poole), and METHUEN'S History of England, 7 vols. (edited by C. Oman).

The student of Constitutional History should begin with F. W. MAITLAND'S Lectures on Constitutional History (Cambridge University Press), and for a compendium of facts may use Medley's Constitutional History of England (Blackwell).

Periods can be studied in greater detail in—J. R. GREEN: The Making of England and The Conquest of England (Macmillan). FREEMAN: Norman Conquest, 6 vols., and William Rufus, 2 vols. (Oxford University Press). NORGATE: England under the Angevins, 2 vols., and John Lackland (Macmillan). RAMSAY: Lancaster and York, 2 vols. FROUDE: History of England, 1529-1588, 12 vols. (Longmans). GARDINER: History of England, 1603-1642, 10 vols.; Civil War, 1642-1649, 4 vols.; Commonwealth and Protectorate, 1649-1656, 4 vols. (Longmans). MACAULAY: History of England, 1685-1702 (Longmans). LECKY: History of England, 1714-1793, 7 vols.; Ireland, 1714-1800, 5 vols. (Longmans). SPENCER WALPOLE: History of England, 1815-1846, 6 vols. HERBERT PAUL: History of Modern England, 1846-1895, 5 vols. (Macmillan). MORLEY: Life of Gladstone, 2 vols. (Macmillan).

English Constitutional History is detailed in—STUBBS: Constitutional History to 1485, 3 vols. (Oxford University Press). HALLAM: Constitutional History, 1485-1760, 3 vols. (Murray). ERSKINE MAY: Constitutional History, 1760-1860, 3 vols. (Longmans). ANSON: Law and Custom of the Constitution, 3 vols. (Oxford University Press). DICEY: Custom of the Constitution (Macmillan).

For Ecclesiastical History see STEPHENS and HUNT'S History of the Church of England, 7 vols. (Macmillan); for Colonial History, SEELEY'S Expansion of England (Macmillan), and The British Empire (ed. Pollard; League of the Empire); for Economic and Industrial History, CUNNINGHAM'S Growth of Industry and Commerce, 3 vols.; ASHLEY'S Economic History, 2 vols. (Macmillan), and TOYNBEE'S Industrial Revolution; for sketches of movements and biographies, see MACAULAY'S Essays (Longmans), STUBB'S Lectures on Mediaeval and Modern History (Oxford University Press), and POLLARD'S Factors in Modern History (Constable).


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