"'Most men judge superficially and unwisely in such cases. So far as I know, the most competent judges of Dr. Dana's relations to Dartmouth see nothing that does not redound to his honor. It is understood that he accepted the presidency with great reluctance, on account of his other responsibilities and attachments, and with distrust of his physical ability to perform its duties; that, while he performed them, it was with characteristic ability and effect; and that, when his best efforts to regain his health failed, and he saw reason to fear, that, even if his life should not be a sacrifice, his increasing infirmities would be to the disadvantage of a struggling institution, he generously, and entirely of his own accord, resigned. To my apprehension, all this is significant of great moral strength under the pressure of bodily disease, and a memorable instance of that Christian heroism for which he has always been remarkable. "Maluit esse quam videri bonus."'"
The subsequent labors of President Dana in the ministry, and the high esteem of all who best knew him till his death, August 26, 1859, are matters of permanent record. His first wife, Mrs. Elizabeth (Coombs) Dana, and the second, Mrs. Sarah (Emery) Dana, had died previous to his residence at Hanover.
President Dana's brief but earnest labors for the college having closed in 1821, the fifth president was Rev. Bennet Tyler, who was called from a pastorate in Southbury, Conn.
We quote in substance some passages relating to this subject from his "Memoir," by his son-in-law, Rev. Nahum Gale, D.D.
"Early in 1822, Mr. Tyler was appointed president of Dartmouth College. It was to him a mystery why he should be selected for that station. Located in a retired country parish, he had been devoted to the duties of the ministry, and had paid little attention to science or literature. He was strongly attached to his people and his home, for there had arisen, as 'olive plants,' around his table, three sons and four daughters.
"But he was recommended to the Trustees of Dartmouth by Dr. Porter, of Andover, and others, in whose judgment he had great confidence; his brethren around him in the ministry, and the consociation with which he was connected, believed it to be his duty to accept the appointment. Accordingly, he broke away from an endeared people, was inaugurated at Dartmouth in March, and entered upon the duties of his office the following June. In the autumn of 1822, the newly-elected president was honored by the degree of D.D., from Middlebury College. Of his connection with Dartmouth College, Dr. Tyler has left the following record:
"'I was among strangers, and engaged in duties to which I was unaccustomed. But I found myself surrounded by able professors, who treated me with great kindness, and rendered me all the assistance in their power. My situation was much more pleasant than I anticipated; and through the assistance of a gracious Providence, I was enabled to discharge the duties which devolved upon me with acceptance. I have never had any reason to doubt that I was in the path of duty when I accepted the appointment. My labor in the service of the college, I humbly trust, was not altogether in vain. I had the satisfaction to know that I left it in a more prosperous condition than I found it. It was no part of my duty, as president of the college, to preach on the Sabbath; but the health of the professor of Divinity failing soon after my inauguration, I found it necessary to supply his place; and during the whole period of my presidency I preached a considerable part of the time. In the year 1826, there was a very interesting revival of religion, both among the students and the inhabitants of the village, which will be remembered by not a few, while "immortality endures."
"'I was connected with the college six years; and, although I never felt so much at home as in the duties of the ministry, still I had no serious thoughts of relinquishing my station, till, very unexpectedly, I received a call from the Second Church in Portland. When I received this call, I felt a new desire for the duties and joys of the pastoral life, and believing I could resign my office without putting in jeopardy the interests of the college, I concluded to do so. I parted with the Trustees, Faculty, and students, with feelings of great cordiality, and I had reason to believe that the feelings were reciprocated.'
"The following letter from the venerable Professor Shurtleff, addressed to Rev. John E. Tyler, will give the impressions of one associated with Dr. Tyler during his presidency at Hanover.
"Hanover, N. H., September 22, 1858.
"Reverend and very dear Friend: Permit me thus to address you; for I can truly say that I regarded you with much interest and affection during the whole time of your residence here, and I may also add that your venerated parents had no friends in Hanover more sincere and ardent than Mrs. Shurtleff and myself.
"When your dear father was appointed president of Dartmouth College, he had been little heard of in New Hampshire. His first appearance, however, was very prepossessing, and his preaching was much admired. His popularity was so general in this region, that a gentleman of a neighboring town inquired, 'Why, if he is such a man as they say, was he not heard of before?' To which I replied, if you will allow me to quote my own words, that 'the Lord had kept him concealed in an obscure parish for a blessing to our college.' The impression which his first appearance made was not lowered by further acquaintance. I do not recollect hearing a complaint of him from any member of the college. All his intercourse with them was tempered with the utmost kindness, while he was punctual and faithful in every official duty. I think he originated the project of raising, by subscription, a fund of ten thousand dollars for the aid of indigent students seeking an education for the ministry.
"This object he not only conceived, but completed by his own personal efforts. For this, as well as for other services, he should be gratefully remembered by the college, by the church, and by the public.
"But the religious influence of Dr. Tyler, while president of Dartmouth, will never be forgotten. In the summer of 1825, the professor of Divinity was arrested by a severe and protracted affection of the lungs. The president at once took the services of the sanctuary; and the following spring term was rendered memorable by a revival of religion, which issued in adding to the Lord many students and inhabitants of the village.
"During his residence here we had a class of students in their professional studies, who wished to enter the ministry earlier than they could by entering a public seminary. We met with them once in a week, heard their dissertations on subjects that had been assigned, and each of us spoke on the performances, and on the subjects. The young gentlemen were all licensed to preach after about two years, and became useful ministers of the gospel. By these exercises, as well as by long intimacy, I was convinced that Dr. Tyler had peculiarly clear and discriminating views of the doctrines of the gospel, and an uncommon facility in explaining and defending them; and I have often remarked in years past, that with the exception of my friend, Dr. Woods, of Andover, I would sooner recommend him to young men as a teacher of Theology than any other clergyman in the circle of my acquaintance.
"With many pleasing reminiscences, I remain your friend and brother in the gospel,
Dr. Asa D. Smith writes thus:
"New York, December 14, 1858. "Rev. J. E. Tyler,—
"My dear Sir: You ask for my recollections of your honored father, as president of my Alma Mater. I regret that I can furnish but little in that relation. He remained at the head of the institution some two years only after I was matriculated.
"The two lower classes had, of course, much less intercourse with him than those more advanced. You could doubtless obtain more ample information from those who were Seniors under him, and who had more largely the benefit of his instruction. Such impressions as I have, however, I am happy to give.
"It was when a member of Kimball Union Academy, in preparation for college, if I mistake not, that I first set eyes on his commanding form, and listened to the impressive tones of his voice. That academy, as you know, is about a dozen miles from Hanover. Not long before the graduation of one of its classes, he visited the place, and preached on the Sabbath. It is not impossible that his visit had some reference to the fact that there were among us so many candidates for college life. It was, at all events, well for Dartmouth that he came. Judging from the influence on my mind, I cannot doubt that not a few were the more inclined, for what they saw of him, to connect themselves with the institution over which he presided.
"It was the year before I entered college, I think, that is, in 1825-26, that Dartmouth was blessed with one of the most remarkable revivals of religion it has ever enjoyed. Transformations of character were wrought then which have borne the test of decades of years. Some of the finest minds in college were brought under the power of the gospel—minds that have since shone as bright lights in the world.
"When I entered the college, I found him dignified, yet affable and fatherly in his bearing. His preaching then, as we often heard him in the village church, was marked by the same simplicity, clearness, and logical force, the same scripturalness, fullness of doctrine, and evangelical earnestness, that characterized his subsequent ministrations. He preached not to the fancy, but to the conscience and the heart. He confined not himself to hortatory appeals, nor did he, in any wise, skim over the surface of things; but, as both my notes and recollections of his college sermons assure me, he was apt to handle, and that vigorously, the high topics of theology. He gave us not milk alone, but strong meat. Yet have I seldom known a man so remarkable for making an abstruse subject plain to every hearer."
* * * * *
Rev. George Punchard, of Boston, and Rev. Nathaniel Folsom, D.D., professor in Meadville College, Pa., have furnished their recollections respecting the revival in Dartmouth College, in the year 1826, to which allusion is made by Dr. Smith.
The former says:
"Boston, February 16, 1859.
"Rev. John E. Tyler,—
"My dear Sir: Your venerable father was president of Dartmouth College during my whole collegiate course—from 1822 to 1826. My earliest recollections of him are those only which a thoughtless boy of sixteen would be likely to have of a grave and reverend divine, and are of little value.
"It was not until near the close of my college life that I began really to know him. At that time the college was visited by a revival of religion of uncommon power, and my reverend president suddenly awoke (at least to my view) in an entirely new character.
"He came to the students with a power and unction which were quite irresistible, and manifested a depth of religious feeling for us which made us at once love him and admire him. He seemed to have found his appropriate sphere of labor; to have got into an atmosphere which filled his soul and body with life and energy; to have work to do which was congenial, which he loved, and which he knew how to do as few men did. He was at once a son of thunder and a son of consolation. His discourses, which had always been able and instructive, and characterized by simplicity of arrangement and neatness and purity of style, had now the additional attraction of an animated and energetic delivery.
"And yet, perhaps, the conference room and the prayer-meeting were the places in which, at that time, Dr. Tyler specially excelled. He was naturally rather heavy and lethargic in his manner of speaking, and it required a good deal to excite and warm him thoroughly. But the scenes and duties incident to a powerful revival of religion, in which a hundred or more young men were more or less interested, supplied the necessary stimulus, and the strong man was fully waked up, and in his extemporaneous addresses particularly, poured out streams of Christian eloquence which he seldom equaled in his more carefully prepared public discourses, and which few men whom I have ever heard, could excel or equal.
"His labors, however, were not confined to the pulpit and the conference meeting. He cheerfully and heartily did the work of a pastor among the students, going from room to room, instructing and exhorting his beloved pupils, and praying with them. He was among us, not as the grave and dignified head of the college, but rather as a loving, anxious father, seeking to instruct and save his children; or, as an elder brother, tenderly solicitous for our spiritual welfare. He was gentle among us, even as a nurse cherisheth her children. And God, I verily believe, gave him spiritual children from among our number, as the reward of his fidelity; children who never ceased to love him while he lived, and who will cherish his memory with gratitude to their dying hours."
Professor Folsom says:
"Dartmouth College was fortunate in getting Mr. Tyler to stand in the line of its excellent presidents. Each of them was different from the rest in special qualifications, in work performed, in kind and force of influence exerted; but each did what made his administration an important period in the history of the college, and extended its fame and usefulness. Dr. Tyler was inferior to none of them in the depth and extent to which he affected the character of the students for good, and through them, wherever the Divine Providence called them to live and labor, promoted the welfare of the country; the enlightenment and moral activity, and power, and happiness of the people.
"His splendid physique, in which he surpassed everybody in the region; his noble stature and well-proportioned form; his head finely poised, and around it a halo of parental benignity, its perpetual and unfading crown; these struck every one at first sight, and prepossessed all in his favor. I know of none with whom to compare him in these respects except Ezekiel Webster. In his whole spirit and mien, in look and word and action, he was a father, and his whole administration was parental in the best sense of the word. This benignity, as we learn from his 'Memoir,' marked his subsequent career as president of the East Windsor Theological School. His biographer, taking notice of the fact that 'the perversities of human nature make their appearance in such institutions as well as elsewhere,' observes that 'the strong affections of the father in him occasionally swayed the firmness of the tutor and governor, and rendered him indulgent and yielding in cases where there was call for the peremptory and authoritative.' In the first two years of our college life, from the fall of 1824 to the spring of 1826, two or three instances of wrongdoing passed unnoticed which perhaps deserved such a mode of treatment. There were, moreover, it is to be confessed, irregularities and bad practices among students in all the classes at that period, but they were exceptional, so far as my knowledge of them extended, and would have required a system of espionage to detect them, or informers from the guilty ones themselves. Dartmouth however, at its worst, in that period, was not one whit behind any other college in New England, in its general tone of morals, in observance of law, in habits of study and in scholarly attainments. There were not a few whose sense of honor was very high, and as they were popular and influential, they in some degree necessarily gave tone to others. Nay, surrounded by such an atmosphere of benignity—of which every student was more or less conscious, feeling it not only in the presence of the president, but also more or less in our connection with every other officer of the college without exception—I think there was far less tendency to excess, far less of the irritation of inclination against prohibition of law; and assuredly there was never apparent a disposition to rebel from hope of impunity through the recognized forbearance of our teachers.
"In the spring of the year 1828, a higher influence was brought to bear, reinforcing and extending the moral element throughout the college; recovering not a few from irregularities of conduct and waste of talent; awakening the religious nature; giving birth to new motives, and leading many to noble and useful lives. From that period until our class graduated in 1828, I cannot recall an act deserving special even animadversion, nor remember an instance of a student obnoxious to discipline for indolent of other censurable habits. But I remember several young men of exemplary deportment and distinguished ability, among them Salmon P. Chase, who though not publicly regarded as 'subjects of the work,' were greatly affected, their future being largely determined by it. They all subsequently exhibited deep moral and religious purpose, and were foremost in philanthropic action. Without the preaching of Dr. Tyler as its great instrument, and without such a man presiding over it, and guiding it, there is no reason to suppose that the revival would have taken place, or would have been so extensive and powerful.
"It is by looking at Dr. Tyler from every point of view that we alone can form a just estimate of his qualities. His greatest power was that of preacher, and he was most at home in this office. He did not seek it, but it providentially came to him in the illness of Professor Shurtleff, the professor of Theology, and he retired from it when in the year 1827, Professor George Howe succeeded Professor Shurtleff. He had risen in it to the very height of the duty he attempted to discharge, and was majestic in it. His mode of delivery and gesture were beyond criticism, and at times sublime. I never heard a student speak of him in this capacity without the highest praise; and his power ended not simply in producing admiration, but in influencing his hearers to duty. The great object aimed at in his preaching was to induce his hearers to be willing, unconditionally, to do and submit to the revealed Divine will. He who succeeds in persuading his fellow-men to faithfully and perseveringly try to do this, does the highest Christian work, and most for the benefit of man. No one who has sat in the presidential chair of Dartmouth, or of any other college, during an equal length of time, has done more in this direction than Bennet Tyler."
The librarian says:
"In 1819, Isaiah Thomas of Worcester, Massachusetts, presented the college library 470 volumes, which were perhaps an equivalent for the books recently lost, as Professor Haddock makes the statement that there were probably no more books in 1820 than in 1815. In 1820 the Trustees appropriated $400. The three libraries at this time must have numbered not far from 8,000 volumes. In 1826, the 'Social Friends' obtained a Charter, and one was granted to the United Fraternity' during the following year. These Charters gave the societies the right to hold property, and transact business, and made necessary the consent of a majority of the existing members in order to dispose of the libraries. The society libraries had been increasing more rapidly than the college library, and at this time they had reached it in size as well as exceeded it in practical value and in circulation. It is quite noticeable that these three libraries for the twenty-five years following were kept so nearly equal, by additions and losses, that at no time the number of books actually upon their shelves differed by more than a few hundred.
"The work and influence of the societies was neither small nor to be lightly estimated, and in that work the libraries had no small share. Professor Crosby, in speaking of the college life of the class of 1827, says: 'The college library was small, and had been so collected that it contained few books which either the instructors or students wished to read. The chief dependence of the latter was upon the society libraries, in which they took much pride, and to the increase of which they contributed with so great liberality in proportion to their means. During the first years of our course, the library of the "United Fraternity" occupied a place in the north entry of the college, corresponding to that of the "Social Friends" library in the south entry. The libraries were open only on Wednesdays and Saturdays from 1 to 2 P. M., for the delivery and return of books, and the students at these times gathered around the barred entrances to be waited on in turn by the librarians and their assistants. The rooms were so small that only three or four others were admitted at a time within the bar for the examination of the books upon the shelves. The opening of the philological room and of a reading-room about the same time by the members of the "Fraternity" led to the great enlargement of the library rooms, and great increase of library advantages, which took place in the latter part of our course. The ample rooms were now opened daily, instead of twice a week, for the delivery and return of books.'
"The college library is spoken of as, at that time, being open once in two weeks, and occupying a narrow room on the second floor of the college."
The marked advance in the course of study and general advantages of college life, during this period, are too well known to many living readers to require especial notice in this connection. The leading facts will be developed upon succeeding pages.
The following paragraphs from a member of Dr. Tyler's family are worthy of perusal.
"My first recollections of importance regarding Dartmouth College were my father's great concern for its financial interests. There was great need of money at this time for new buildings and scientific apparatus, and no one was found willing to assume the responsibility of soliciting funds except President Tyler, who in his vacations undertook the matter, and was eminently successful in the work. When he first started upon his mission he called upon the late Hon. Isaac Hill, at that time editor of the New Hampshire 'Patriot,' which paper had been, as some thought, opposed to the interests of the college. This gentleman had attended a Commencement at Dartmouth, and had an interview with the new president, and being pleased, had spoken highly of the college and its president in his paper. This emboldened President Tyler to ask Mr. Hill to head the list of subscribers to the college, and to his surprise he did so, pledging himself for one hundred dollars. Mr. Hill's signature was worth many thousands of dollars to the college.
"During one of his winter vacations, President Tyler started with his own horse and sleigh on his mission, going through the State of Vermont into New York. He returned after six weeks' earnest and arduous labor, having been very successful in his mission.
"Dr. Tyler's invaluable services to the church were continued, in various spheres, till his death May 14, 1858, his wife, Mrs. Esther (Stone) Tyler, surviving him only one week."
INAUGURATION OF PRESIDENT LORD.
Rev. Nathan Lord, D.D., of Amherst, New Hampshire, was elected the sixth president of the college. We insert entire his inaugural address, delivered October 29, 1828.
"The revival of learning, like that of religion, originally effected through the instrumentality of the press, though long hindered by the successive political convulsions and changes of the world, is now evidently in the course of rapid advancement, and is producing a deep and wide impression upon the mass of civilized society. It is pervading all classes, and affecting all interests. Its influence penetrates every public and private institution, and is exciting the best energies of the human mind, both to the invention of new methods of intellectual cultivation and the application of knowledge to the practical purposes of life. Fostered by the spirit of freedom, which goes before to disenthral the mind from that state of servitude in which its powers had been made to minister to ignorant and wayward ambition, or still more cramping and perverting superstition, it promises to gain an universal ascendancy, and to render all that influence which had been arrayed against it, henceforth subservient only to its triumphs.
"But it is characteristic of the human mind, when set at liberty from ancient prejudices, and permitted to range in search of expected good, to become extreme in its calculations and projects of improvement, and to distract itself amidst the variety of its experiments. And more especially when its enterprises are favored by the encouragement of wealth, and sustained by the indiscriminate approval of the multitude. It is then, that overlooking the maxims of sound philosophy, and disregarding the safe lessons of experience, it is beguiled into the adoption of untried theories, and wastes its strength in the prosecution of plans, which are found at length to accord neither with the constitution of our nature nor with the approved usages of society. I will not say, that this is a great evil in comparison with that state of mental vassalage and inaction in which nothing is attempted, nor even conceived, for the true interests of mankind. For, the mind unfettered, will ordinarily be corrected of its mistakes and brought back from its wanderings, when truth is the object of its aspirations, and happiness is the prize only of successful effort. But we may learn from this infirmity of our nature, to be cautious in our estimates of the good before us, and to use that moderation in our endeavors which will leave us nothing to regret, when their end shall have been attained.
"It will scarcely be doubted that the impulse which society has received, particularly since the commencement of the passing century, and which has evidently been connected with the growth of freedom in this country, has been attended with many of these excesses, and not the least probably in the department of education. Numerous adventurers have set forth upon this field, with different pretensions indeed, and unequal advantages, but all large in their expectations, and confident of success. They have seemed to themselves almost to realize the ideal good, to annihilate the space between barbarism and refinement, to find in relation to intellectual attainment what experimental philosophy had sought in vain, the mysterious agent which should transmute the baser metals into gold.
"Without denying at all the actual advance of learning, or disparaging the improvements which are taking place in the arrangements and administration both of public and private seminaries, we cannot be so fond (absit invidia verbo) as to accredit all the inventions of this restless age. We cannot suppose that paths so various, which have been struck out in the heat of competition, and systems based on principles and conducted by methods so frequently differing from each other, will all conduce to the purposes for which they are intended, except as they may excite more general attention to the interests of education, and furnish materials of which wisdom and experience shall at length avail themselves, to perfect truer and more practicable systems, suited to the intellectual and moral nature of man, and to the various relations and interests of life. In this view, it is evident that the conduct of public literary institutions, at the present time, is attended with no trivial embarrassments. That expansion of the public mind and progress of society, which necessarily take place in a country favored with advantages of elementary instruction and general information, will always be creating just demands upon the higher seats of learning, which will task all their energies, and bring into requisition all their resources. The mass of the community, becoming more enlightened, will call for proportionally higher qualifications in those who are sent out to preside over the public interests, and their progress in influence will produce a yet more powerful reaction. But to meet these demands amidst the conflicting sectional interests and fluctuations of public feeling, which are usually attendant upon a state of freedom, to discriminate rightly between the diverse systems of instruction and discipline, which are set forth with such frequency and such earnestness of commendation; to keep so near the public sentiment as not to lose the confidence of the community, and yet not to follow it so implicitly as to sacrifice the more desirable good of self-approbation; this is a labor which can be estimated by those only who have had the trial of sustaining it. Institutions that have become venerable by age, powerful in resources and patronage, may go forward to introduce, not only accredited improvements but doubtful changes; and may bring the systems, which either the wise have devised, or the popular voice has required, to the test of actual experiment. But feebler institutions cannot leave the ground of general principles, which, however it may be safer and ultimately more subservient to their true interests, cannot always be easily ascertained, and frequently fails of being approved amidst the varying circumstances, relations, and interests of society.
"The principle which has generally obtained in regard to the colleges of this country, of making them merely introductory to a professional education, is one too important in its connections and results to be hastily relinquished. The correspondence which usually exists between the genius of civil governments, and the arrangement of literary institutions, has been very happily exemplified in our system of schools, rising in regular gradation from the primary to the professional, and wisely accommodated to the public convenience and necessity. This system, whatever defects may have existed in some of its practical operations, has been found, on the whole, admirably suited to the condition of society. Its parts having kept their fair proportions, each one performing its peculiar office, and all acting and reacting upon each other, it is out of question that the results of the whole, in the general diffusion of knowledge and elevation of the public character, have been salutary to a degree unprecedented in the history of the world; and its general adoption, with modifications according to the different circumstances of society, may be contemplated as one of the surest pledges of our national prosperity. Apart from the multiplied facilities of instruction, which upon this system are afforded at the cheapest rate to all who would enjoy the benefits of education, that spirit of fair and honorable competition, which is necessarily excited between so many kindred institutions, would seem to insure improvements proportioned to the means which are afforded them, and prove a check upon those abuses which have usually attended establishments of more extended influence and less responsibility.
"But it would seem important to the continued success of this system, that its several parts should still be kept distinct and subordinate. I will not say that they may not subsist harmoniously, and be conducted usefully upon the same ground. I will not say that an university, sectional or national, that shall, in its separate colleges and halls, prepare our youth for the various departments of life, may not consist with the spirit of our civil governments, and be guarded against the evils which have generally attended establishments so complicate, and of such numerous resort. However this may be judged, it will be found, I apprehend, the wisdom of our scattered institutions, to preserve their individuality, and remain true, as to their general regulations, to the purpose of their foundation. With respect, particularly, to the arrangements of a college, it would seem not less true than in regard to the efforts of an individual mind, or the operations of a machine, that however numerous and various these arrangements may be in detail, the most beneficial results cannot be expected without unity of design. Between that kind of cultivation and discipline necessary as a foundation for professional eminence, and that which is required for success in mercantile, mechanical, or agricultural occupation, there is a very natural and obvious distinction. And not only is it desirable that they who will be successful mainly as they shall be conversant with books, who require to be learned men, and they whose concern lies principally in the active business of life, in skill or labor, should have in some respects a different course of study, but be subjected to the influence of different minds, and examples, and rules, and scenes, and associations, corresponding to the different relations which they will sustain. 'Non omnia possumus omnes,' is a proverb applicable both to teachers and to pupils, and it would forbid the supposition, that minds which act upon others for widely different purposes, should do it always with the best effect, or that they who are so acted upon, should not sometimes suffer injury from the inadequate or ill appropriated influence that is exerted over them.
"But the evils of commingling within the walls of college, and subjecting to the same general influence, persons or classes, requiring a different preparatory training, would not, probably, be greater than those which would result from an attempt to carry collegial instruction above the simple groundwork of the professions, and to accommodate the course of study and discipline to the future intended course of life. To whatever extent improvement should be carried in the preparatory schools, of whatever qualifications young men should be possessed, at the usual time of admission to college, their term of residence here cannot reasonably be thought too long, nor their facilities too ample, for general elementary cultivation. It were not the worst of the evil of providing for professional education at college, that the time which should be devoted to mental preparation would be lost, and young men would go forth into life unfurnished; but many minds uncertain and vacillating soon wearied with the dry elements of one department, would presently attempt another and a third, and disgusted, at length, with all, would resign themselves to a stupefying indolence, or a consuming licentiousness. The examples of other times, when the learning of universities all had respect to the future political and ecclesiastical relations of the student, and these institutions became little better than panders to allied despotism and superstition, may teach us to cultivate our youth in the elements of general knowledge, and impart vigor and force and freeness to their minds, in the course of sound fundamental study, before they are permitted to engage in any merely professional acquisitions; to practice them well on the broad threshold of science, before they are exposed to be blasted or bewildered by the premature unfolding of its mysteries. They will then go forward, prepared, not merely to acquire the technicalities of a profession, but to investigate its essential principles; to avoid those ignes fatui, which so often, with the appearance of truth, mislead and destroy, and draw out from the depths, the living form of truth itself; and thus contribute to the destined emancipation of the world from ignorance, and prejudice, and misrule, and the worse influence of false philosophy. I would not be extreme; but when we consider the controlling influence of mind of those who are accredited as the teachers and guides of other men, and how important that this should be an influence of reason, of knowledge, and of truth, and how slowly and carefully its foundation requires to be laid in the youthful mind, we may well dread to embarrass the process, either by any accidental impressions and associations, or by prematurely trusting to its completion. Nor should an exception be claimed even in favor of the Christian ministry. However desirable that they who contemplate this office should be early qualified for the service of God, and of their fellow men, yet they may not safely trespass upon college hours, by anticipating those higher studies, which await them on other grounds.
"I shall be obliged to trespass further upon the time of this assembly, while I glance at a few particulars connected with the attainment of the single end of a collegial education. It has been alleged, that the preparatory schools have frequently failed in qualifying the mind for successful application to the exercises of college. And it has been answered, that college has sent out into the schools inadequate instructors. The evil which is admitted is probably on both sides, and an obvious remedy will be found, in stating and rigidly exacting such terms of matriculation as shall at once bring into requisition the most thorough preparatory instruction, and provide that such instruction may always be obtained.
"It is evident that, other things being equal, those who, by reason of superior early advantages, are prepared to enter upon the prescribed exercises of college with more readiness and effect than others, will ordinarily prosecute and finish their course with proportionably higher reputation. Indeed, to the want of a thorough initiation into the rudiments of learning may be traced much of that indolence and fickleness and easy yielding to temptation, by which the mind, untaught in the labor of successful occupation, and discouraged by the failure of its imprudent efforts, is presently paralyzed, and lost to every honorable and useful purpose. If then it may be provided that early instruction shall be more adequate, and the mind of the student shall be prepared to enter with readiness and effect upon the studies of college, we shall inspire him with that confidence in his own ability and endeavors which is one of the strongest inducements to exertion, and shall insure a degree of improvement limited only by his capacity and application. It may be true, that some of our colleges, by reason of the temptations of poverty, and the zeal of competition, accommodating themselves to the convenience of youth, have not increased in their demands in proportion to the advances which have been already made in elementary instruction. Such have doubtless mistaken their true interests. It is believed, that those institutions which shall lead in exacting the most extensive and thorough preparation, will have a distinction and a patronage proportioned to the benefits which they shall thus render to society.
"It is of equal importance, that our colleges should be furnished with the materials of study. It was a significant maxim, I think of Juvenal, that it is a great part of learning to know where learning may be found. For, after ascertaining the place of treasure, it is usual to feel the kindling desire of acquisition, and the mind at once receives a corresponding impulse to exertion. The man who has wasted his best days in mental inaction, may feel himself so humbled amidst the productions of genius and learning, which have not instructed him, and instruments, of which he knows not the use, and specimens and models whose properties and beauties he cannot distinguish, that he will wish rather to retreat and forget his poverty, in the gratifications of inferior appetite. But, on these same scenes, the fires of youthful unprostituted ambition glow with a new intensity, and the mind, here waking to the consciousness of its own energies, aspires to the elevation and dignity for which it is designed. The well stored library and philosophical room and cabinet, create an atmosphere, in which it acts with an unwonted freedom and force, and strengthens itself for the high and laborious service to which it is devoted.
"But, apart from the influence of such scenes and their associations, there are more palpable reasons, which especially at this day, call for a great increase of books and apparatus in our literary institutions.
"The time has been, when a few worn out text books, descending from one generation of students to another, were thought sufficient for the purposes of a liberal education. But, in that wider range of investigation, to which the mind is now directed, in all departments of study, every source of information requires to be laid open. It is not the lesson from a single author, that is alone sufficient to be committed, but the subject, of which possibly a score have treated, that requires to be examined and understood. And neither can the teacher nor the student feel himself adequate to the services before him while any valuable authority, on the broad field of his inquiries, is not accessible, or any means of illustration are unattempted. But these facilities are clearly beyond the resources of individuals, and however voluntary associations of students may, to some extent, compensate for private inability, there is a point beyond which public sentiment declares this to be a burden; and it demands that the institutions themselves, which proffer the benefits of education, should supply the means by which this end is to be attained. The question between different places of education, is coming to be decided, more frequently, by reference to the comparative advantages which they afford in this respect; and, however it may be necessary that a college should hold out some show of other accommodation, yet neither the convenience of its situation, nor the splendor of its edifices, nor the number and variety of its departments and instructors, will be held in estimation, without corresponding advantages for an extended course of study.
"In regard to a course of study, it were almost adventurous for one without the advantages of experience on this subject, to remark beyond what is already obvious, that it should be simply accommodated to the most perfect discipline and instruction of the mind. And yet, perhaps, it were more presumptuous to suppose, that improvement in this respect has already reached its limits. The changes which have taken place, and are still occurring in the methods of instruction, at the preparatory schools, may be hoped so far to hasten the development and strengthening of the intellectual powers as that the student may come, at an earlier period of his college course, to that class of studies which call more immediately for the use of reason, and give it direction in its inquiries after truth. The impulse which the mind receives from an acquaintance with its own powers, and their application to some branches of intellectual philosophy, is a matter of general experience. Every one recollects the pleasure of his first acquisitions in this department of study, and the ardor with which he thenceforth aspired to higher attainments. He breathed a free air, he went forward with a new confidence, and his application to all the duties before him became more easy and more successful. If, then, we might, almost on the threshold of a public education, habituate the mind to itself, and aid it in some of the more simple essays of its own powers, it would seem, that we should prepare it for the readier perception of classic beauties, and for mastering more effectually the elements of mathematical, political, and moral science. Study in every department ceases to be a mechanical process, when the mind is thus accustomed, and then we have assurance that study will be a pleasure, and that what becomes a pleasure will be gain and glory.
"If it were asked, whether any branch of college study might be spared, few, probably, would be ready to affirm. However, in the zeal of innovation, the utility of classical learning has been decried, it is not probable that the name of scholar will ever be awarded to one who has not loved to spend his days and nights upon the pages of antiquity, nor drunk deep from these original sources of taste, and genius, and philosophy. We believe it has rarely, if ever happened, that one has attained to a symmetry and finished excellency of character, in the varieties of any one department of learning, who has not, at least in the early stages of education, received inspiration from the oratory and poetry of other times, when language was an index to the passions and emotions of the soul, and conveyed, not the names only, but the properties of things, the qualities of mind. The very vigor of thought and power of eloquence with which many, with a parricidal spirit, have assailed the literature of antiquity, were borrowed from its stores; and should their schemes of reform prevail we might fear that other generations, inheriting only their prejudices, without their refinement, would degenerate into comparative barbarism, and with that of learning, that the light also of religion would be extinguished. It is the worst of this spirit that it would seal up the treasures of heavenly wisdom, and take away the armor in which we trust for assailing the enemies of God. And however it may be with other interests, we will hope that in this respect, as well as ordinarily in all others, the pulpit will prove a defence of the true interests of man. But, it may be questioned whether, if the field of labor were narrowed, and instead of gleaning as is usually done, from many writers, the student should be more thorough in his application to a few of the most approved, the end of this branch of study would not be as fully answered, and opportunity be afforded for greater acquisitions in the literature of modern times. It has been said, particularly in regard to our own language and country, that the style of writing, of conversation, and of public speaking, among educated men, generally fails of that accuracy, propriety, and refinement which might reasonably be expected from their course of preparatory and professional study. The college is undoubtedly the place where the evil, if it be admitted to exist, should be corrected. And its correction would be found in the greater progress of the student, beyond the task of composition, to the examination of the most approved vernacular writings. It is not so much by his own imperfect attempts as by familiarity with the nature and finished productions of other minds, that he may expect to facilitate his conceptions, to extend the circle of his thoughts, to correct his judgment and his taste, and thus increase the readiness, propriety, and effect of his future efforts. A course of thorough reading and comparison of accredited authors, in connection with occasional researches into the history of English literature and essays at higher criticism, will probably do more towards the accomplishment of polite scholarship than all the principles of grammar and rhetoric, however perfectly understood, without opportunity for such an application.
"The actual instruction of college, and its general economy and administration, are subjects, doubtless, of yet higher consideration. But, in view of the recent measures of the Trustees of this institution, to advance its interests in these particulars, remarks in this place, and on this occasion, might be judged unseasonable. I shall be permitted, however, just to allude to these measures, as an evidence of the deep solicitude with which the institution is cherished by its constituted guardians, and as a pledge, that in all things which relate to its modes of government, discipline, and instruction, they will not be backward to provide that it shall answer the great purposes of its foundation. And in view of the success which already appears to have attended the application of these measures, through the zeal of the Faculty of the college, and the commendable spirit of the students, the hope may well be encouraged, that this venerable seat of learning, which has been the care of Almighty God, will not fail of His blessing, nor want the confidence, affection, and patronage of an intelligent community.
"But, what is more necessary than any other means and advantages, and without which the growth of any literary institution were to be deprecated as one of the greatest of evils, is the pervading influence of moral and religious principle. The moral dangers of a college life have probably been sometimes enhanced in the representation. When the arrangement of duties is such as to require of the student as much use of time, and a habit of application as constant and persevering, as are ordinarily expected in the employments of active life, he would seem, so far, in respect to his principles and his habits, to have an advantage over others, inasmuch as intellectual labor is, in itself, better suited to refine and elevate the affections, and removes one farther from the scenes and objects of temptation. If we add to this, that the student is usually under a more uniform superintendence, and comes more frequently and habitually under the influence of moral precept and religious observances, and that the fact of his supposed dangers makes him more a subject of parental solicitude and counsel and prayer, his advantage is still proportionably increased. And in respect to those institutions where these benefits are in the highest degree enjoined, it is believed that the amount of injury to the youth who frequent them is less than that which is suffered by any equal number, in any other sphere of occupation.
"It must, nevertheless, be admitted, that there are dangers to the student in some respects peculiar, affecting deeply the principles of action, and which require a greater care to be prevented, because of the influence which he is destined to exert in future life. The very cultivation of mind has frequently a tendency to impair the moral sensibilities, to induce that pride of conscious ability and variety of attainments, which, as they are most of all affections offensive to God, so they become, surely, though insensibly, most pernicious in their influence upon the individuals themselves who cherish them, and contribute to poison those streams which ought only to carry abroad health and blessing to the world. That spirit of emulation, also, which is naturally excited among so many aspirants for an honorable distinction, too often leads, on the one hand, in those who excel, to an overweening selfishness and an insatiable ambition, which, in the course of life, sacrifice all principle and the highest interests of society to private gratification; and, on the other, in those whose hopes are disappointed, to a destroying negligence and sensuality. Nor is it to be denied, that the unsanctified literature of antiquity, and many of the productions of our own times, which have the greatest power of attraction over the minds of youth, cannot be assiduously cultivated without danger of corrupting the moral sentiments, and ministering strength to the wrong affections of the mind. Against these evils, and others, more immediately pernicious, which are incident to numerous associations of youth, a moral influence, pure, constraining and habitual, requires to be exerted. It is now more than ever demanded, and the fact is most creditable to the spirit of the times, that a literary institution should be a safe resort, and no other advantages will, in the common estimation, compensate for defect and failure in this particular. The relations which every individual student sustains to God and to eternity, call imperiously and aloud, that the great principles of moral obligation, the everlasting distinctions between right and wrong, the methods of the Divine administration, and the solemnities of eternal retribution, should be kept before him, in all their significancy, and enforced by the constraining motives of the gospel of Jesus Christ, without which all secondary authority and influence will be comparatively vain. The relations also of the whole body of students to their country and the world demand, and the admonition is sounded out from every corner of our land, from the city, and the field, and even from the desert, that here should be laid the foundation of those virtuous habits, of that reverence for God, and practical regard for His ordinances, without which the influence of our educated men will gradually undermine the fair fabric of our national freedom, and the ruins of our country will be heaped up for an everlasting memorial, that neither liberty, nor learning, nor wealth, nor arts, nor arms, can stay the decline of that people among whom the redeeming spirit of Christianity has no permanent abode. I know, indeed, that college is no place for infusing or fostering sectarian prejudices, nor for preferring the weapons of sectarian warfare. No spirit of party should walk abroad on this common ground. No distinctive privileges of a denomination should here be ever claimed or allowed. But, as none are exempted from their obligations to God, and none are safe without His blessing, it is most evident that this should be the first and last of our labor with those who are themselves immortal, and whose influence is so connected with the highest interests of their fellow men, to encourage a spirit of inwrought piety, and instill the lessons of practical obedience. That is the noblest of all efforts which has respect to the preparation of mind for the service of its Creator among its kindred intelligences, and for the joys of an immortal life. And that will be a glorious consummation (may it be ours to hasten it) when the destined alliance between religion and learning shall be perfected, and their united influence shall be employed, and shall prevail, to raise a world from ignorance and sin and wretchedness, to the dignity and the privilege of the sons of God. And let us hope, both in regard to this college, whose interests we now cherish, and all other kindred institutions, that amidst the changes of society by which they are occasionally affected, and the adversities by which they are depressed, we shall see the vindication of that rule of Providence by which good is always educed from evil. Let us believe that those prejudices and mistakes and errors and abuses, which are wont, in undisturbed prosperity, to become inveterate, shall be done away; that those improvements which may be expected to flow from the influence of free governments and a free Christianity shall prevail, and shall contribute to make the reign of liberty and knowledge and truth not only universal in extent, but perpetual in duration."
THE POLICY OF THE COLLEGE, ITS PROGRESS, AND ENLARGEMENT UNDER PRESIDENT LORD'S ADMINISTRATION, FROM 1828 TO 1863.
President Lord's official course was marked by a judicious conservatism.
In nothing was this more conspicuous than in his treatment of the matter of "college honors." Near the close of his administration, the occasion requiring, he published a statement, in which we find the following language:
"It will be recollected that about a quarter of a century ago there arose a simultaneous questioning among the students at most of the New England colleges, in regard to college appointments in general. It was a spontaneous movement of the young men, consequent upon an unusual religious awakening among them, and seemed a common reaction of conscience against a common injurious custom. The students of this college were excited more than others. At least, they were more demonstrative. By memorial, they unanimously requested the Trustees to abolish the existing system.
"The Trustees gave great attention to the request. Having ascertained that the Faculty would readily try the experiment of a change, although but two of them were convinced of its utility, they set aside the existing system of exhibitions, prizes, assignments, etc., and ordained the present system, which fully and consistently excludes the principle of the old. This action of the Trustees was thorough, consistent, and decisive, and was far in advance of what had taken place in any other institution. It gave great content to the students. It was followed by many tokens of public approbation. The Faculty at once found their administration relieved, simplified, and greatly facilitated in general. The college rapidly attained to a degree of patronage and prosperity unprecedented in its history.
"After a few years, a severe outside pressure produced a degree of anxiety in regard to the prudence, if not the principle, of the change. Some distinguished alumni of the college, and other gentlemen, remonstrated against it as an innovation not soundly moral and conservative, but radical and disorganizing. They feared that the college would lose its tone and dignity among learned institutions. The Trustees, though not convinced, were stirred, and again asked the judgment of the Faculty.
"The Faculty replied, that, although they had not, as a body, recommended the adoption of the new system, they had given it, as duty required, a fair experiment, and were constrained to say, that it had turned out better than their expectations. Notwithstanding some inconvenience, it had obviated serious evils, had secured unquestionable benefits, and had given a decided impulse to the college. They were not prepared to advise its discontinuance. Whereupon the Trustees resolved to adhere.
"Yet, after another short term of years, changes having occurred both in the Trustees and Faculty, and the outside pressure still continuing, the subject again came under the discussion of the Board. In that instance it was formally proposed by a majority of the Faculty. Some new members had been added to that body, who had had no experience, as college officers, of the old system. Others had left it, and some had seen reasons to change their opinions. A large majority requested that the old regime, or something analogous to it, should be restored.
"The minority confidently protested. They had had experience on both sides, and were satisfied that the new system had greatly the advantage of the old, both in respect to principle and practical results.
"The Trustees gave the subject their attentive consideration, canvassed conflicting reasons, and still adhered. They enjoined it upon the Faculty to abide by the new system, and to keep its principle inviolate in the college discipline.
"Since that time the question has been at rest. Whatever differences of opinion may have existed in the Board or in the Faculty, they have not interfered with the regular and faithful administration of affairs upon the prescribed basis. The college has not suffered. It has not ceased to flourish, in respect to sound instruction, easy and effective discipline, a righteous order, thorough scholarship, a liberal patronage, and an honorable position. It is believed to be not behind any of its sister colleges in the proper characteristics of a learned institution, even though measured not by its best, but its average scholarship, as determined by lot, in the exercises of the Commencement. Its order has become so well settled and understood in this respect, that any reversal of it, principle apart, might be attended with inconveniences and hazards more than sufficient to counterbalance any supposed possible or probable advantages.
"But it is eminently due to the learned Memorialists [Alumni], and to other friends and patrons of the college, to explain more fully the theory on which the Trustees have acted, and which applies equally to the questions now in hand. Wherefore your Committee go on to observe, as first principles:
"1. That a college is a public institution, designed and incorporated to qualify young men for leaders of the Church and the State.
"2. That the requisite qualifications for such leadership are knowledge, wisdom, and virtue. Accidental accomplishments are important in giving prominence and effect to more substantial qualities; but these are fundamental and indispensable. Without them the public interests, so far as connected with college, have no security.
"3. That these qualifications are valueless in separation from each other; and are then likely to be injurious in proportion to the degree of culture. Knowledge without wisdom is insane and mischievous; and both without virtue serve but to give greater energy and efficiency to those naturally destructive elements which are common both to individuals and society. Virtue alone, if it could be supposed to exist without knowledge and wisdom, would be but an idea, or an emotion, and practically futile.
"4. That the organization and discipline of a college constitute what we denominate its order; and the highest responsibility rests on its appointed guardians, to perfect and preserve this necessary order agreeably to the highest standards that are known among men.
"5. That the ultimate standard, binding on all Christian educators, is the Scripture; and their ultimate responsibility is to God. Great latitude is given them by the State; and they are not held accountable to the civil authorities, in the widest exercise of their discretion, while they infringe not upon the civil statutes. The State leaves them to their own opinions and policy, within the terms of their chartered privileges and the laws in general. The Church has no control over them whatever but in respect to patronage, when they are constituted as mere civil corporations; and it may not interfere with them but as individual men; nor then, if they happen to sustain no individual and personal relations to it. But the State and the Church are equally ordained of God; and all educators are responsible to Him that the comprehensive order of their institutions shall be in agreement with the principles of His Word, and thereby subservient to the public good.
"6. That the order of a college is, first, mechanical, in respect to its forms, arrangements, and observances; and, secondly, moral, in respect to principle.
"7. That college mechanism in general should have respect to the most perfect development of the powers of students, and be carried on with great exactness and fidelity; that any want of symmetry, proportion, finish, balance, and executive ability, or frequent experimenting and change to meet internal difficulties, or the humors and caprices of society, must tend to failure and dishonor. But that no mechanism, however organically perfect or judiciously administered, that does not embody a righteous moral principle, or that cannot be operated in consistency with it, can be otherwise than injurious in its ultimate results.
"Whereupon your Committee propose, that a system of scholarships and prizes, as such systems have usually obtained, cannot be introduced into college mechanism, or be carried on, consistently with righteous principle, and favorably to virtue in young men, or to true knowledge and wisdom, so far as these presuppose virtue, and depend upon it."
In regard to the views here set forth, it is proper to remark, that reasoning which had much force, a score of years since, would possibly have less at the present time.
In regard to this period the librarian says:
"In 1830, the three libraries must have numbered in volumes between 12,000 and 13,000, with slight difference in numbers, the college library being the largest, and the United Fraternity's the smallest. The first library catalogue of the latter society was printed previous to 1840, and contained the titles of 4,900 volumes.
"In 1840, the libraries obtained better accommodations by the erection of Reed Hall, which was so far completed that the books were shelved just before the Commencement. They were given the second floor of the building, an amount of space which then seemed to give ample room for additions, as the three libraries together numbered only 15,000 volumes. The college library occupied the east half of the floor, while the west side was divided between the two society libraries. The books were first shelved against the wall, then alcoves and cases were added as long as space remained, while for several years previous to the present time the least valuable books have been removed to make space for additions.
"In the college library, borrowers have generally been excluded from the rooms in which books are kept, while the reverse has been true in the society libraries.
"In June, 1841, the professors of the college with the assistance of some of the gentlemen of the vicinity formed a society since known as the 'Northern Academy.' This society, which was afterwards chartered and has been continued in different forms until the present time, early began the formation of a library. While many old books have been collected, its principal value lies in pamphlets and files of newspapers, some of which covering a number of years extend back beyond the Revolution. This collection, now swelled to several thousand, has always been in connection with the college library, although for several years a want of shelf room and a greater want of funds to place it in usable condition, have made it of little practical value. In 1850, the three libraries having changed little comparatively, numbered 19,000 volumes. The 'Northern Academy,' exclusive of the unbound, had over 1,000 volumes, thus making fully 20,000 volumes accessible. A distinction must be made between the figures given under the different dates (which indicate the number that were actually in the libraries), and the number according to catalogues. The latter were made by adding to former lists the books received during different years, when in fact the additions during some of these years did not more than make good the losses. It frequently happened that ten percent of the catalogued number could not be accounted for. While the society libraries have continued with nearly the same annual additions—an average actual yearly increase of over a hundred volumes,—the great growth of the college library has taken place since 1850. Since that year have been received the donations of books for the different departments of instruction and the funds upon which the constant growth of the library depends. Of these funds the first had its origin in 1846, when Edmund Parker of Nashua, Isaac Parker of Boston, and Joel Parker of Keene, gave $1,000. This was subsequently increased by the latter to $7,000, and in his will (which founded the Law School), provisions were made, that will, when available, place this fund at $20,000. In 1852, Dr. George C. Shattuck, whose name is associated with the Observatory, gave $1,000 for the department of Mathematics as applied to Mechanics and Astronomy. To this during the same year he added $200 for Natural Philosophy and Astronomy, and $800 for the Latin language and Literature. At the same time Dr. Roswell Shurtleff, Emeritus Professor, gave $1,000 for better providing with books the departments of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy and Political Economy. These three donations were intended principally for the use of instructors, and were accompanied with restrictions from general circulation. In 1859, by the will of Dr. Henry Bond of Philadelphia, several hundred volumes were received, and provisions were made for a library fund which when available will be about $11,000. The late Hon. Samuel Appleton established in 1845, a fund which was increased in 1854, and is known as the Appleton Fund. The income of this has been partially applied to the purchase of books relating to Natural Philosophy."
"The Press" in Hanover is worthy of notice in this connection. We quote from a published address by Professor Sanborn:
"No man lives in Hanover to-day, who can tell when any newspaper was first printed in the town, or when it ceased to be printed. Even the papers themselves have perished. Here and there, a stray number, or possibly a bound volume, may be found among the useless lumber of an attic. There was a press in Hanover, before the close of the last century. It is reported that a newspaper was published there prior to the year 1799. I have been unable to find a copy of it. In 1799, Mr. Webster delivered a Fourth-of-July oration before the citizens of Hanover, which was published in that town. A eulogy, by the same orator, on a deceased classmate, was also published the next year. Moses Davis, a citizen of the place, began the publication of the 'Dartmouth Gazette,' August 27, 1799. How long he continued to edit and publish the paper, I cannot certainly ascertain. A paper bearing that name was published for at least twenty years. I have a number of the 'Dartmouth Gazette' dated June 23, 1819, being No. XLIII., vol. 19. The whole number to this date of the paper, in this form, is 1025. It was then printed and published by Charles Spear. It would seem, therefore, that the paper which originated with Moses Davis, lived for more than twenty years. It was a valuable paper, containing a careful summary of foreign news, sometimes long orations of English statesmen, and an accurate record of local events. The original pieces were quite numerous, written by occasional contributors, many of them students of the college. The editorials were brief; in fact, a majority of the early numbers contain no words which appear as editorial. The political articles were decidedly favorable to the Federal party, but moderate in tone. During the first three years of the existence of this paper, Daniel Webster, then a student, was a frequent contributor; he wrote both prose and poetry, more frequently the latter. The topics were trite, but the thoughts were always serious and elevated. In the issue of December 9, 1799, Mr. Webster published a poem on winter; he was then a Junior in college. The European wars commanded his attention and saddened his reflections.
"Mr. Webster continued to write for the paper after leaving college. In his published correspondence, there is a letter from the editor importuning him to write the 'Newsboy's Message' for January, 1803. He says: 'I want a genuinely Federal address, and you are the very person to write it. And this solicitation, sir, is not from me alone—some of our most respectable characters join in the request.'
"The 'Dartmouth Gazette' was the champion of the college during the entire period of its controversy with the State. Many of the ablest articles written in defence of the college, appeared in its columns. I regret that I cannot give the entire history of this useful paper; it did a good work in its day, and we may now say literally, 'peace to its ashes.'
"During a portion of the existence of the 'Dartmouth Gazette,' while it was edited by Charles Spear, another paper was printed by Moses Davis, called 'The Literary Tablet,' purporting to be edited by Nicholas Orlando. Whether this is a nomme de plume or a real name, I cannot determine. Three volumes are known to have been published. It lived for three years at least. The third volume dates from August, 1805, to August, 1806. It was a folio of four pages, three columns to a page, of about fourteen inches by twelve in size. It was printed every other Wednesday for the editor.
"A new paper appeared in Hanover, June, 1820. The prospectus was as follows:
"'A new weekly paper in Hanover, N. H., to be entitled the "Dartmouth Herald." The "Dartmouth Gazette" having been discontinued, the subscribers, at the solicitation of a number of literary gentlemen, propose to publish a paper under the above title. Besides advertisements, the "Herald" will embrace accounts of our National and State Legislatures, and the most interesting articles of news, foreign and domestic; notices of improvements in the arts and sciences, especially agriculture and the mechanical arts most practiced in our own country; and essays, original and selected, upon the mechanical and liberal Arts, Literature, Politics, Morals and Religion.
"'The original articles will be furnished by a society of gentlemen; and it is confidently expected will not be unworthy of the interesting subjects, to which a considerable space will be allotted in this paper.
"'Bannister & Thurston. "'Hanover, April 7, 1820.'
"It was a small folio of four pages, twenty by twelve inches in size. It was well filled with news and original contributions. Its life was brief. Unfortunately, no record was made either on the printed page or the faithful memory, of the date of its decease, so far as I can learn.
"For several years no periodical was published in Hanover. 'The Magnet,' an octavo of sixteen pages, edited by students and published by Thomas Mann, appeared in 1835. The first number bears date October 21, 1835. There seems to have been a rival paper contemporary with this, called 'The Independent Chronicle.' In the November number of the 'Magnet,' we find this allusion to it: 'The second number of the "Independent Chronicle" is below criticism.' In the December number, the 'Magnet' chronicles the demise of its despised rival, with evident satisfaction. In 1837, another student's periodical appeared, called 'The Scrap Book.' I am unable to write its history; it was probably of brief duration. In 1839, the students of Dartmouth College originated a literary periodical called 'The Dartmouth.' It was published, I think, for five years. The editors were chosen from the undergraduates by the Senior class. Among the editors of 1840-41, were J. E. Hood and James O. Adams, both of whom have since gained honorable distinction in a wider field of editorial labor. A few months ago, I received as a present from B. P. Shillaber, the witty and genial author of the 'Life and Sayings of Mrs. Partington,' and other humorous works, a volume of 'The Dartmouth,' which he received from Mr. Hood. It was handsomely bound, and labelled 'Brains' on the back. Mr. Shillaber says of it in a letter, dated July 4, 1872, 'I find, that the volume comprises but a half year ending with Hood's editorship and graduation. It nevertheless will prove interesting; and it gives me pleasure to present it, with a delightful memory of Dartmouth to commend the trifle. I thought it might gratify you personally, as several of your effusions are contained in it. Poor Hood has crossed the dark stream: he died in Colorado last winter. He held you in enduring regard. The title is a boyish suggestion; but there is more evidence of "brains" in it than is to be found in many far more pretentious publications.'
"These remarks will apply with equal justice to the entire ten volumes of 'The Dartmouth.' It was highly creditable to the students who originated and sustained it. 'The Dartmouth' was printed by Mr. E. A. Allen, who during the continuance of this periodical made several other ventures in the newspaper line. Sometime during the year 1840 or 1841, he started a paper called 'The Experiment,' which was edited by James O. Adams, then a student in college. This paper was subsequently issued in quarto form and called 'The Amulet.'
"In 1841, a periodical called the 'Iris and Record' was issued in Hanover. It was published monthly, in numbers of thirty-two royal octavo pages, making two volumes each year. It was edited by 'an association of gentlemen,' and filled with well selected and original literary articles. It must have had a considerable circulation, if we may credit the assertion of the editor of No. II., vol. 3, who says: 'We doubt not there are hundreds of persons, whose names are on our subscription list, who might every month contribute a short article upon some interesting subject.' The 'Iris' was also printed by E. A. Allen.
"During the same year an anti-slavery paper was published in Hanover, called 'The People's Advocate,' by St. Clair and Briggs. In July, 1843, J. E. Hood became its editor, and continued to publish it for more than a year, when it was removed to Concord. 'The Advocate' was a spirited paper; and the editor, then a youth, showed himself an able, fearless, and uncompromising foe of slavery, at a time when it required great moral courage and liberal sacrifices of time, talent, and labor, to advocate the principles of the Free Soil Party. In February, 1844, Mr. Hood established a paper in Hanover, called the 'Family Visitor,' in which he advocated the various reforms of the day; and published a variety of original and selected articles in prose and poetry, for the profit and amusement of his patrons. On looking over some of the back numbers, I find the contents as lively, piquant, and interesting, as the best journals of to-day. Mr. Hood was born an editor, and to the day of his death he performed well his part; and when his Master bade him 'go up higher,' he left few peers behind him in his chosen vocation."
Rev. H. A. Hazen, a reliable authority on any historical point, states that there was a printing-press at Dresden, (which included the "College District," in Hanover, and a part of Lebanon), as early as 1777. Mr. Abel Curtis' Grammar was printed there by J. P. and A. Spooner, in 1779. Other works, still extant, were printed by them at about the same period.
 "The Dartmouth" having been revived in 1867, is now issued as a Weekly Magazine.
In tracing the progress of the college during President Lord's administration, we cannot more fitly conclude, than by adopting the language of Mr. William H. Duncan, who in a valuable tribute to his worth and his memory, says:
"It was the proud boast of Augustus, that he found Rome of brick and left it of marble. Might not President Lord, at the time of his resignation, have said without a shadow of boasting, I found the college, what its great counsel called it in that most touching and pathetic close of his great argument in the College Case before the Supreme Court at Washington: I found it truly 'a small college'; it was in an humble condition; its classes were small; its finances embarrassed; its buildings in a dilapidated and ruinous condition. I left it one of the leading institutions of the land!"
Fuller details on these points will be gathered from subsequent chapters.
CHARACTER OF PRESIDENT LORD.
The period of President Tyler's resignation was a most critical one in the history of the college.
Its eminent founder passed away in the midst of the Revolutionary struggle, leaving the frail bark, in which were centered fond and long-cherished hopes, tossing upon uncertain and dangerous waters. A fearful storm was raging when his immediate successor put off the robes of office, and a little later went "to give account of his stewardship." Thirteen years had scarcely been sufficient fully to restore to a healthy condition the discipline of the college, which had been materially weakened by the lack of harmony between the second president and his associates in office.
Material aid was needed also to provide better accommodations for the students.
In common with other colleges, Dartmouth needed most of all, in those trying times, a president "rooted and grounded" in the truth.
The multiplication of colleges rendered it especially desirable, at this period, that this college should have a man at its head well fitted and furnished for his work. In the little more than half a century of its existence, the number of New England colleges, founded upon the same religious faith, had increased from three to eight, rendering the best leadership necessary to meet the competition.
A more judicious selection could not have been made for the sixth president of the college.
Rev. Nathan Lord, the son of John and Mehitable (Perkins) Lord, was born at Berwick, Maine, November 28, 1792, and belonged to a highly respectable family. At the early age of sixteen, he graduated at Bowdoin College, in the class of 1809. Very rarely has a student at college the opportunity to sit under the instruction of two such men as Joseph McKeen and Jesse Appleton, each of whom filled the president's chair two years, while young Lord was a student.
After valuable experience as a teacher in the Exeter Academy, he pursued a theological course at the Andover Seminary, graduating in 1815. He had been twelve years pastor of the Congregational Church at Amherst when called to the presidency of Dartmouth, having been for some time a Trustee. In the intellectual strength and literary attainments of its people, this had been for a long period one of the leading towns in southern New Hampshire. Being the county seat, it was visited periodically by gentlemen eminent in the law, with whom professional men resident in the place would most naturally have frequent intercourse. At a period when the whole community was profoundly agitated, by the most earnest and important theological controversy in the history of New England, we can readily understand that the youthful preacher would have abundant opportunity to measure swords with skilled warriors, in the field of religious debate. That he wielded his weapons, in the discussions of that period, with a force indicating that he was a man of no ordinary mould, is a matter of history. When he entered upon his great work at Dartmouth, those who, as its guardians, had called him to it, cherished confident hope of his success. Seldom has there been so full a realization of such hope in the history of American colleges.
President Lord brought to the accomplishment of his task a fine physique; a countenance serene, yet impressive; a voice rare both for its richness and its power; a pleasing, almost magnetic, dignity of mien; a mind most capacious and discriminating by nature, richly stored by severe application, and thoroughly disciplined by varied professional labor; and a heart always tender, yet always true to the profoundest convictions of duty. A deep, rich, and thorough religious experience well fitted the graceful and earnest man to be a graceful and earnest Christian teacher. The question of fitness for the position as an executive was soon settled beyond the possibility of a doubt. It required but a brief acquaintance with President Lord to teach any one, that he fully believed in the most literal acceptation of the doctrine, that "the powers that be are ordained of God."
A recognition of this fundamental law guided and governed him daily and hourly through all his public life. When early in his administration, he discovered marked symptoms of a spirit of insubordination in the college, he gave all concerned to understand most fully, that it would be his duty to maintain the supremacy of the law. There was never any deviation from this loyalty to duty in administering the discipline of the college. No undue regard for his own dignity, or comfort, or safety, deterred him from visiting, at any hour of day or night, the scene of disorder. When he had been more than forty years an officer of the college he reaffirmed his adherence to this principle, in a most emphatic manner, when those to whom he did not deem himself responsible sought to point out to him the path of duty.
As a teacher it was President Lord's province, chiefly to unfold the various relations and obligations of man to his Maker. In the performance of this duty he gave remarkable prominence to the Divine Revelation. Jealous for the honor of his great Master and Teacher, he was very suspicious, possibly too suspicious, of any intermixture of "man's wisdom." This habit may have induced occasionally, measurable disparagement of worthy and eminent men. But the genial manner and chastened tone invariably extracted the point from the severest word, and left upon the pupil's mind a profound conviction that his teacher had been "taught of God." It may well be doubted whether, of the large numbers who graduated during President Lord's administration, any who were brought in close contact with him, and listened with a "willing mind" to his instructions, failed to receive measurably, yet consciously, the impress of their honored teacher.
The following extracts from the official records of the Trustees, are deemed worthy of insertion in this connection in order to a full understanding of the circumstances attending President Lord's resignation.
"Annual Meeting, July 1863. Mr. Tuck offered the following, to wit: 'The undersigned has had his attention called to the accompanying resolutions passed by the Merrimack County Conference of Congregational Churches, held on the 23d and 24th of June last; and he submits the same to the Trustees, with a motion that a Committee be appointed to report what action thereon ought to be taken.
"'1. "Resolved. That the people of New Hampshire have the strongest desire for the prosperity of Dartmouth College, and that they rejoice in the wide influence this noble institution has exerted in the cause of education and religion.
"'2. "Resolved. That we cherish a sincere regard for its venerable president; for the rare qualifications he possesses for the high office he has so long and ably filled; but that we deeply regret that its welfare is greatly imperiled by the existence of a popular prejudice against it, arising from the publication and use of some of his peculiar views touching public affairs, tending to embarrass our government in its present fearful struggle, and to encourage and strengthen the resistance of its enemies in arms.
"'3. "Resolved. That in our opinion it is the duty of the Trustees of the College to seriously inquire whether its interests do not demand a change in the presidency; and to act according to their judgment in the premises."'
"Whereupon, Messrs. Tuck, Bouton, and Eastman were appointed a Committee, to report on the subject aforesaid."
"The Committee to whom was referred the resolutions of the Merrimack County Conference, respecting Dartmouth College, made the following Report:
"'The Committee have taken into most respectful consideration the action of the Conference and the sentiment pervading the churches of which the resolutions of the Conference are the expression. We do not forget, but thankfully avow the debt of gratitude which has rested on the college, throughout its history, to the churches of New England, and to the pious teachings and generous patronage of those included within their embrace. We are fully aware of the obligations of science and literature, in all past time, to the clerical profession; that the countenance and support of the clergy and the churches have ever been the chief reliance of this college, and that we can hope for little prosperity or usefulness to the institution in future, without meriting the confidence bestowed upon it in the past. We deplore the present condition of the college in respect to the sentiments entertained towards it, as expressed in said resolutions, and we proffer our readiness to do any act which our intimate knowledge of its affairs and circumstances enable us to judge practicable and beneficial. Neither the Trustees nor the Faculty coincide with the president of the college in the views which he has published, touching slavery and the war; and it has been their hope that the college would not be adjudged a partisan institution, by reason of such publications. It has been our purpose that no act of ours should contribute to such an impression upon the public mind, inviting the public as we do, to contribute to its support, and to partake of its privileges.
"'It would be impracticable if it were wise to embody in this report all the reasons which induce us to propose no action by which the removal of the president from the head of the institution should be undertaken by the Trustees; and we bespeak with confidence the favorable judgment that we act discreetly, from the members of the Conference who have expressed in their resolutions their generous appreciation of the eminent ability and qualifications of the president for the position which he occupies.
"'Yet the Committee do not fail to see that the present crisis in the country is no ordinary conflict between opposing parties, but is a struggle between the government on one side, and its enemies on the other, and that in it are involved vital issues, not only respecting science and learning, virtue and religion, but also respecting all the social and civil blessings growing out of free institutions.
"'The Committee recommend that the resolutions of the Merrimack County Conference, this report and the accompanying resolutions, be published in pamphlet forms, and that the Treasurer be directed to cause the same to be circulated among the members of said Conference, and other persons, according to his discretion.
Amos Tuck. N. Bouton."
"'The Trustees of Dartmouth College, impressed with the magnitude of the crisis now existing in public affairs, and with the vital consequences which the issue of current events will bring to the nation and the world; and, considering that it is the duty of literary institutions and the men who control them to stand in no doubtful position when the Government of the country struggles for existence; inscribe upon their records, and promulgate the following Resolutions:
"'First. We recognize and acknowledge with grateful pride, the heroic sacrifices and valiant deeds of many of the sons of Dartmouth, in their endeavors to defend and sustain the Government against the present wicked and remorseless rebellion; and we announce to the living now on the battlefields, to the sick and the maimed in the hospitals and among their friends, and to the relatives of such of them as have fallen in defense of their country, that Dartmouth College rejoices to do them honor, and will inscribe their names and their brave deeds upon her enduring records.
"'Second. We commend the cause of our beloved country to all the Alumni of this Institution; and we invoke from them, and pledge our own most efficient and cordial support, and that of Dartmouth College, to the Government, which is the only power by which the rebellion can be subdued. We hail with joy and with grateful acknowledgments to the God of our fathers, the cheering hope that the dark cloud which has heretofore obscured the vision and depressed the hearts of patriots and statesmen, in all attempts to scan the future, may in time disappear entirely from our horizon; and that American slavery, with all its sin and shame, and the alienations, jealousies, and hostilities between the people of different sections, of which it has been the fruitful source, may find its merited doom in the consequence of the war which it has evoked.
"'Third. The Trustees bespeak for the College in the future the same cordial support and patronage of the Clergy and Churches of New England, as well as other friends of sound learning, which they have given to it in time past, reminding them of the obligations which the cause of education, science, and religion seem to lay upon them, to stand by this venerable Institution, in evil report and in good report, in view of its past history and great service to the Church and the State, entertaining an abiding faith that it will triumph over all obstacles, and go down to posterity with its powers of usefulness unimpaired.'
"It was moved by Dr. Barstow that the foregoing Report and Resolutions be accepted and adopted.
"On the question of adopting the report, two voted in the negative and five in the affirmative. On the adoption of the preamble and second resolution, two voted in the negative and five in the affirmative, for the first and third resolutions the vote was unanimous, so the report and resolutions were adopted.
"The president asked leave to withdraw for a short time, and Dr. Barstow was requested to take the chair.
"The President on resuming the chair read to the Trustees the following paper, to wit:
* * * * *
"'Dartmouth College, July 24, 1863.
"'To the Trustees of Dartmouth College:
"'In making this communication to the Hon. and Rev. Board of Trustees I take the liberty respectfully to protest against their right to impose any religious, ethical, or political test upon any member of their own body or any member of the College Faculty, beyond what is recognized by the Charter of the institution, or express statutes or stipulations conformed to that instrument, however urged or suggested, directly or indirectly, by individuals or public bodies assuming to be as visitors of the college, or advisers of the Trustees.
"'The action of the Trustees, on certain resolutions of the Merrimack County Conference of Churches, virtually imposes such a test, inasmuch as it implicitly represents and censures me as having become injurious to the college, not on account of any official malfeasance or delinquency, for, on the contrary, its commendations of my personal and official character and conduct during my long term of service, far exceed my merits; but, for my opinions and publications on questions of Biblical ethics and interpretations, which are supposed by the Trustees to bear unfavorably upon one branch of the policy pursued by the present administration of the government of the country.
"'For my opinions and expressions of opinion on such subject, I hold myself responsible only to God, and the constitutional tribunals of my country; inasmuch as they are not touched by the Charter of the college, or any express statutes or stipulations. And, while my unswerving loyalty to the government of my fathers, proved and tested by more than seventy years of devotion to its true and fundamental principles, cannot be permanently discredited by excited passions of the hour, I do not feel obliged when its exercise is called in question, to surrender my moral and constitutional right and Christian liberty, in this respect, nor to submit to any censure, nor consent to any conditions such as are implied in the aforesaid action of the Board; which action is made more impressive upon me, in view of the private communications of some of its members.
"'But not choosing to place myself in any unkind relations to a body having the responsible guardianship of the college, a body from which I have received so many tokens of confidence and regard, and believing it to be inconsistent with Christian charity and propriety to carry on my administration, while holding and expressing opinions injurious, as they imagine, to the interests of the college, and offensive to that party in the country which they [the majority] professedly represent, I hereby resign my office as president.
"'I also resign my office as Trustee. In taking leave of the college with which I have been connected, as Trustee or President, more than forty years, very happily to myself, and, as the Trustees have often given me to understand, not without benefit to the college, I beg leave to assure them that I shall ever entertain a grateful sense of the favorable consideration shown to me by themselves and their predecessors in office; and that I shall never cease to desire the peace and prosperity of the college, and that it may be kept true to the principles of its foundation.
I am very respectfully, "'Your ob't serv't, "'N. Lord.'"
"'Adjourned Meeting, September 21, 1863. Resolved, 'that in accepting the resignation of President Lord, we place on record a grateful sense of his services during the long period of his administration; and his kind and courteous treatment of the Board in all their intercourse.'"
Dr. Lord continued to reside at Hanover, cordially co-operating with his successor in office, till his death, September 9, 1870. His wife, Mrs. Elisabeth King (Leland) Lord, died a few months previous to her husband.
ADMINISTRATION OF PRESIDENT SMITH.
Rev. Asa D. Smith, D.D., of New York city, of the class of 1830, was elected the seventh president of the college. His thorough understanding of the field upon which he was to enter is indicated by the following extracts from his inaugural address:
"There are four chief organic forces, by which, under the providence of God, humanity has its normal development. These, generalizing broadly, are the family, the school, the State, and the Church. Wherever you find, even in its lowest measure, a true civilization, these exist; and as it rises they rise, sustaining to it the relation both of cause and effect. Concerning, as they do, one and the same complex nature, they have, in different degrees and combinations, the same underlying elements of power. In the family, we have, in its rudimental form, both teaching and government. It is a patriarchate—a little commonwealth; and to its head—a priest as well as a patriarch—that Scripture should ever be relevant, 'the church that is in thy house.' In the school, the simplest offshoot, perhaps, from a congeries of families, we have, or ought to have, the parental element; we have magistracy also, and a certain statehood; we have, or should have, worship. The state, properly apprehended, is not only governmental but didactic—it is a teaching power; and though not, at this age of the world, theocratic, it should be, in a large view, religious. In the church, having specially and predominantly the last-named characteristic,—being of divine appointment, and as ministering to our imperative needs, the foster-mother of devotion,—we have, also, as essential to its purpose, both rule and instruction. And in the influence they wield, these great moulding agencies are perpetually interpenetrating and modifying each other.
"It is of the second of these, the school, that we are now called to speak. The service we essay is connected with an educational institution, using the term in the specific sense; a fact, it may be said at the outset, which of itself dignifies the occasion. Not to insist on those affinities and mutual influences just adverted to, and of which there will be further occasion to speak, there is a view of education, a large and comprehensive one, which gives to it the very grandest elevation. It is the end, next to that which the good old Catechism makes chief, and subordinate to that, of all the divine provisions and arrangements. God is the great Educator of the universe. More glorious in his didactic offices is He than even in creation; nay, creation was for these. Earth is our training place—time is our curriculum; eternity will but furnish to the true pupil the higher forms of his limitless advancement. We have our lessons in all providence, in all beings and things, God teaching us in and through all. No mean vocation, then, is that of the earthly educator; no unimportant theme that now in hand. Yet even of the school in the more technical sense of the term, we cannot speak at large, except as in touching on any one department we more or less affect every other. Our thought may be fitly limited to that class of institutions which these ancient halls of learning and these inauguration solemnities naturally bring before us. The college is my subject, considered in its proper functions and characteristics.