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The Framework of Home Rule
by Erskine Childers
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Education, Ireland, 71, 170, 174-176, 285; finance of, 268-269; England, 269; Scotland, 269 Egerton, H.E., 31, 330 Elgin, Lord, 93, 102-103, 105 Emancipation, Catholic, 52-53, 57, 62-63, 88 Emigration, from Ireland, 19-20, 31, 87, 111, 148, 156, 186 Emmett, Robert, 83, 86, 135, 171 Encumbered Estates Act, 1849, 69, 111 Equalization of taxes, in Ireland and Great Britain, 234-235, 246 Estate duties, assessment to, as test of taxable capacity, 240, 238; yield of, in Ireland, 275-276 Estates Commissioners. See Land Purchase Eureka Stockade, 1854, 112-113 Evicted tenants, 177 Executive authority, in Colonies, 221-222, 323-328; in Ireland, under Home Rule, 221-222, 323-328 Executive Council, in Upper Canada, 79, 81, 100; in Lower Canada, 79, 84, 100 Extradition, Colonial powers over, 219 (and footnote); Irish powers over, 219, 329

"Family Compact," in Upper Canada, 81; in the Maritime Provinces, 88 Famine, Irish, 1847, 69, 103, 236 Farrer, Lord, 249, 252-256 "Federal" Home Rule, 188, 192-206, 226-227, 294-300 Federal systems, in general, 192-197; Upper Chamber in, 212-213, 229, 300, 331-332; division of powers, as in Home Rule Bill, 223, 330; Amendment of Constitution, 225-227; finance, 227-229, 242-246, 294-300; judiciary, 334-336; settlement of constitutional questions, 335. See also Canada, Australian Colonies, South Africa, United States, Switzerland, Germany, Constitutions Fenianism, 70 Financial relations of Ireland and Great Britain (see Chapters XI., XII., XIII.); before the Union, 230-231, 290; from the Union to 1896, 232-57; Royal Commission on, 1894-1896, 239-57; present situation, 178-181, and Chapters XII. and XIII. Finance, of the Home Rule Bill, Chapter XIII., and summary, 337 Finance, Colonial. See Federal Systems, and under names of Colonies Finance Act, 1894, 222 (footnote) Finance Act, 1909, 259, 301 Finlay, Father T.A., 165 Fiscal amalgamation, 1817, 233, 289 Fisher, J., author of "The End of the Irish Parliament," 13, 54 Fitzgibbon, Earl of Clare, Introduction, xi, and 49, 58-9, 60, 62, 65, 97, 126, 131, 134, 146 Fitzgibbon, James, 81 Fitzwilliam, Lord, 53-54 Flood, Henry, 46-47 Ford, Patrick, 149 Fortescue, Hon. J.W., 39-40 Foster's Corn Law, 51, 236 (footnote) Fox, Charles James, on Canada, 78-79; on Ireland, 91 France, Seven Years' War with, 26; in Canada, 72-73; in American War of Independence, 35; effect of, on Ireland, 35; effect of French Revolution on Ireland, 54-55; invasions of Ireland, 56 Franklin, Benjamin, 31, 33-34 Free Trade, opinion in Ireland on, 170, 290; influence of, on Ireland, 235-237. See also Tariff Reform, Customs and Excise French-Canadians. See Chapter V., especially pages 72-78, 83-87, 96-97; also 121 Frere, Sir Bartle, 124

Gaelic League, 166-168 Geelong, 114 Georgia, 9, 21 Germany, 147; Federal Constitution of, 195, 228 (Zollverein) Gladstone, W.E., Irish land reform, 68, 70, 99; on colonial liberty, 109-111; his Transvaal and Irish policies, 125, 128; on representation of Ireland at Westminster, 203-211; taxation of Ireland, 234-235; on Irish expenditure, 282; financial schemes in the Home Rule Bills of 1886 and 1893, 300-303, and Appendix; for details of the Bills generally, see Appendix and in the text passim Gourlay, William, in Upper Canada, 82 Governors, in American Colonies, 23, 33; in the Canadas, 79, 102; in the Dominion of Canada, 195, 199; in the Commonwealth of Australia, 195 (footnote), 196, 221 Grattan, Henry, 44, 45, 46, 50, 53 Grattan's Parliament, Chapter III. Greene, General, 40 Greville's "Memoirs," 94, 103 Grey, Sir George, in Australasia, 115-117; in South Africa, 123-124, 194 Grote, George, 89, 92 Guarantee Fund, 267. See also Land Purchase Guaranteed Loans, to Ireland (see Land Purchase); to the Transvaal and Canada, 318; to Crown Colonies and Foreign Powers, 318-319

Habeas Corpus Act, 330 Hamilton, Sir Edward, 238 Hancock, John, 35 Henderson, Professor G.C., 116 Henry VIII., Ireland in the reign of, 8 Hewins, Professor W.A.S., 293-294 Holland, Bernard, 33 Home Rule Bills of 1886 and 1893. For details, see Appendix, allusions in text passim "Home Rule Problems," edited by Basil Williams, Introduction, xiv, and pp. 178, 203, 307, 333 House of Lords: under the Union, 64; after Home Rule, 212, 229, 300 Howe, Joseph, in Nova Scotia, 88 Hume, philosophy of, 59 Hume, Joseph, 89, 90, 109 Hyde, Dr. Douglas, 166

Imperial Federation, 204-205 "In and Out" Clause, 209 Income Tax, first imposition of, in Ireland, 234-235; assessment to, as test of taxable capacity, 240, 258; yield of, in Ireland, 275-276; errors in computing Irish yield, 278 (footnote) India, 12 Indians, in America, 10 Industrial Development Associations, 165, 168, 290, 292 Insurance, National, 178, 274, 306 International Copyright Act, 1886, 220 (footnote) Ireland Development Grant, 311 Irish Agricultural Organization Society, 162-165 Irish Council Bill, 1907, 192, 304 Irish Homestead, 165 Irish Members at Westminster. See Representation at Westminster Irish Universities Act, 1908, 153, 173 Isle of Man, finance of, 255, 288 Jamaica, 1, 284 James, Sir Henry, 330 Jebb, Richard, 117-118 Johannesburg, 131, 133 Judges, Irish, under Home Rule, 334-5; Exchequer Judges, 336 Judicial salaries, Ireland, 273

Kilmore, 114 Kitchener, Lord, 129 Kruger, President Paul, 124 Kyte, Ambrose, 114

Labourers (Ireland) Act, 1906, 153, 320 Labour questions, in Ireland, 170, 178 Lafontaine, Sir Louis, 103 Laing's Nek, 125 Lalor, Peter, 112-113 Land Acts, Irish, of 1870, 16-17, 68, 70-71, 151, 309; 1881, 16-17, 70, 103, 151, 309; 1885, 309; 1887, 70, 151; 1891, 70, 152, 309-310; 1896, 70, 152, 309; 1903, 71, 103, 152-153, 155, 310-321; 1909, 153, 311-321. See also Land Tenure, Land Purchase Land Commission, 70; cost and control of, 273, 303, 317-319 Land League, 70 Land Purchase in Ireland, Chapter XIV., 71, 151, 152-153, 177, 243, 285, 337; in Prince Edward Island, 75, 318 Land Tenure, in Ireland, 11-17, 51, 55-57, 65, 66-70, 143, 151-152, 177, 236-237; in America, 10, 15; in Prince Edward Island, 13, 75-76, 115, 143; in Upper Canada, 80; in Lower Canada, 84-85; in Australia, 115-116; in New Zealand, 116. See also Land Acts, Land Purchase Lanyon, Sir Owen, 124, 127 Law, Bonar, 293 Law Courts, Ireland, 334-335 Lecky, Professor W.H., Introduction, vi and ix, and 6, 13, 16, 19, 29, 49, 57, 183 Legislative Councils, in America, 23; in Upper Canada, 79, 81, 100-102; in Lower Canada, 79, 84, 100 Legislature, Irish, powers of, general, 213-229, 328-330; financial powers, Chapter XIII., and 317-321, 337; composition of, 330-334. For restrictions on, see also Safeguards for Minorities Legislatures, Colonial, powers and limitations of, general, 215-229. See also Constitutions, Federal Systems, and under names of Colonies Leinster, plantations in, 9 Lieutenant-Governors, in Dominion of Canada, 195, 221 Limerick, Treaty of, 12, 63 Local Government Board, cost of, 272 Local Government, working of, in Ireland, 103, 172-174 Local Government (Ireland) Act, 1898, 103, 154, 158 Local taxation, Ireland, 266; grants in aid of, 266-267, 311 Locker-Lampson, G., Introduction, vi, and 65 Londonderry, Lord, 61 Long, Walter, Introduction, x, xi, and 142, 152 Lord-Lieutenant, before the Union, 22-23, 32-33; under the Union, 64; under Home Rule, 192, 199, 219, 221, 266, 324-327, 328, 335 Louisburg, capture of, 73 Lyttelton, Mr. Alfred, 131-132, 135

MacDonnell, Lord, 61, 152, 304 Mackenzie, W.L., in Upper Canada, 74, 82, 86-87, 94, 105 McKenna, Sir J., 238 McManus, T.B., 115 Maine, 8 Majuba, 125, 128 Malta, 1 Manitoba, 331 Maritime Provinces, 72, 75, 88, 95, and Chapter V. See also Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island Maryland, 8-9, 21 Massachusetts, 8, 10, 22-23 (and footnote), 35 Meagher, T.F., 113-114 Melbourne, Lord, 94 Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, 220, 222 Mill, John Stuart, 67, 69, 89, 95 Milner, Lord, 129, 131, 138-139, 142 Miscellaneous revenue, Imperial, Ireland's share of, 286-287 Mitchel, John, 113-114 Molesworth, Sir William, 89, 93-94, 109 Molyneux, on Irish liberty, 31 Montreal, 74-75, 103 Montgomery, General, 35, 75 Moore, W. Harrison, author of "The Commonwealth of Australia," 219 Morgan's Riflemen, 73 Morley, Lord, his "Life of Gladstone," Introduction, x, and 109, 125; on Irish Members at Westminster, 209; on Clause 7 of the Bill of 1886, 326 Municipal Technical Institute, Belfast, 162, 175 Municipal Reform Act, 1840, 103 Munster, plantations in, 9 Murray, Miss A.E., 17, 235, 293

Natal, 140, 196 National Debt, Ireland's contribution to, 286-287, 337 Naturalization, 219, 220 (footnote), 329 Naval Agreement, 1911, 218 Navigation Acts, 17-18 Navies, Colonial. See Colonial Defence Forces Neilson, John, in Lower Canada, 85 Nelson, Wilfred, in Lower Canada, 85 Netherlands Government, 121 Neutrality, 219, 329 New Brunswick, Chapter V., and 72, 75-76, 88, 97, 194 New England, 9, 21, 120 Newfoundland, 73, 193-197, 288 New Haven, 8 New Netherlands, plantation of, 9 New South Wales, 106-107, 114, 117, 120, 194, 196; finance in, 297-298, 300 New Zealand, 106, 108, 115-117, 147, 193, 197, 217, 288 Ninety-two Resolutions, Lower Canada, 86 Nixon, Captain John, 35 North Carolina, 21 (footnote) Nova Scotia, Chapter V., and 72, 76, 88, 97, 102, 194

Oakboys, in Ulster, 16 O'Brien, Barry, 178, 213 O'Brien, Murrough, 253 O'Brien, Smith, 83, 103, 114, 171 O'Brien, William, 177, 181 O'Callaghan, Dr., in Lower Canada, 85 O'Connell, Daniel, 70-71, 85, 86, 89, 90, 91, 99, 123 O'Conor Don, the, 249 Octennial Act, 168, 357 O'Hara, James, 81 Old Age Pensions, 153, 178-179, 181, 273, 285, 291, 303 Oldham, Professor C.H., on Irish finance, 234, 262, 270 O'Loughlen, Sir Brian, in Victoria, 114 "Omnes Omnia" Clause, 209 Ontario, Province of, prior to 1867, See Canada; after 1867, see Canada, Confederation of, and 194, 196, 331 Orange Free State, 120, 123-124, 126, 135, 196, 285 Orange Society, in Ireland, 55, 137, 155, 184, 187; in Canada, 87, 103, 184; in Australia, 114, 184 O'Shanassy, Sir John, in Victoria, 114

Paley, Dr., Philosophy of, 59 Papineau, Louis, in Lower Canada, 47, 85-87, 94, 105 Parliamentary parties, Irish, 181-182 Parliament, Irish (pre-Union), 24, 43, 50-58, 61, 62; finance under, 230-231, 290 Parnell, Charles Stewart, 135, 151, 171 Patents, 219 Peace of Paris, 26 Peel, Sir Robert, on the Repeal of the Union, 91-92, 99, 236 Peep o' Day Boys, 55 Penal Code, 12-14, 26, 36, 55, 57, 65, 72, 156, 183, 308 Penn, William, 9 Pennsylvania, 9, 21 Pilkington, Mrs., 165 Pitt, William, 50, 53, 54, 62, 74, 96, 106, 135, 232 Plantations, of Ireland and America, 8-9 Plunkett House, 164 Plunkett, Sir Horace, 155, 159 (footnote), 160, 165 Police, Irish, present position and cost of, 253, 273; under Home Rule, 180, 219, 285, 334 Poor Law (Ireland), 71, 174 Port Phillip. See Victoria Postal Services, Irish, powers over, 220; loss on, 243, 275, 286 Poynings' Act, 24, 45 Preamble, Home Rule Bill, 323 Prince Edward Island, 13, 72, 74, 88, 97, 115. See also Land Tenure, Land Purchase Prize and Booty of War, 219, 329 Proportional Representation, 333 Proprietary Colonies of America, 10, 23 Public Works, Commissioners of, Ireland, 319-321, 337

Quakers, 9, 21 Quarterly Review, 99 Quebec, town of, 74 Quebec, Province of, prior to 1791, 72-78; from 1791 to 1867, see under names of Lower Canada and Canada; after 1867, see Canada, Confederation of, and 194, 196, 198-200, 208; present Constitution of, compared with Irish Home Rule, 198-200, 206, 209 Quebec Act, 1774, 73-74 Queensland, 109, 196; finance in, 297

Railways, Ireland, 71, 174 Raleigh, Sir Walter, 8 Rebellions, Irish, of 1798, 55, 56; of 1848, 83, 103 Recess Committee, action and report of, 155-162 Reciprocity Agreement, 293 Redmond, John, 141, 148, 156, 181, 341 Reform, Parliamentary (Ireland), 45-46, 50-58; Great Britain, 48, 53, 59, 88 Repeal of the Union, 70, 91 Representation at Westminster, of Ireland, 203-229, 284, 337; of American Colonies (proposals for), 34, 205; of Canada (proposals for), 77 Residuary powers, under Home Rule, 223. See also Federal Systems Retief, Piet, 122 Revenue, from Ireland. See Financial Relations, Estate Duties, Income Tax, Customs and Excise Revenue, "true" and "collected," method of estimating in United Kingdom, 242-246, 275-278 (and footnotes); in Australia, 242-246, 296 Revolution, Irish, 1780-2, Chapter II.; American, 1775, Chapter II Rhode Island, 8, 23 (footnote) Road Board, grants to Ireland, 274 Roebuck, J.A., 89, 90, 94 Rose, Holland, 75 Royal Assent, 221, 326-327 Ruskin, John, 106 Russell, George W., 165 Russell, Lord John, on Canada, 87, 90, 91, 92, 99, 100, 102, 221; on Australia, 109-110 Russell, T.W., 159 (and footnote) Rutland, Lord, 54, 77

Safeguards for Minorities, Ireland, 191, 223-225, 329-330; United States, 224, 329-330; Canada, 225; Australia, 225 St. Lawrence, River, 75 Salaberry, Colonel, 83 Sand River Convention, 1852, 123 Saunderson, Colonel, 156 (footnote), 215 (and footnote) Scotland, 104, 159 (footnote); Home Rule for, 200-203; revenue from, and expenditure on, 238, 242; police in, 253; education in, 269 Selborne, Lord, 142 Seventh Report of Grievances (Upper Canada), 82, 86 Seven Years' War, 26, 72 Sexton, T., 249 Shepstone, Sir T., 124 Sinn Fein, 168 Smith, Adam, 51 Smith, Sir Harry, 123 Socialism, in Ireland, Introduction, xiv, 144, 170 South Africa Act, 1909, citations from, 140-141, 323, 326, 332, 338 South African Colonies, history of, see Chapter VII., and under Cape of Good Hope, Transvaal, Orange Free State, Natal; Federal Union, proposed (1859), 117, 123; Conference for Closer Union (1908), 140, 156-157; Union of 1909, 140-143, 196-197; see also South Africa Act, 1900, Constitutions, Federal Systems South Australia, 106-107, 116, 196; finance in, 297 Spanish Colonies, 25 Spirit duty, 234-235, 237-238, 244 Stamp Act (1765), and Revenue Duties (America), 27, 34-35, 72 Stanley, Lord, 90-92 Steelboys, in Ulster, 16 Subsidies, to Ireland, under Home Rule, 281-286, 337; to Colonies, 284-285; by Federal Governments to subordinate States or Provinces, 296-300, 304 Suez Canal shares, revenue from, 287 Supremacy of the Imperial Parliament, 204, 221-225, 323, 328 Supreme Court, of Australia, 196, 334-335; of South Africa, 197, 334-335; of Canada, 195, 334-335 Sutherland, Sir T., 249 Swift, Dean, 32 Switzerland, Federal Constitution of, 195, 331 Sydney Bulletin, 117, 143

Tariff Reform, opinion in Ireland on, 170; effect of, on Ireland, 289, 292-293; opinion of Professor Hewins on, for Ireland, 293-294 Tariffs. See Customs and Excise, Free Trade, Tariff Reform Tasmania, 106-107, 113, 196; finance in, 297-298, 300 Taxable capacity of Ireland: in 1800, 232; in 1894, 238-257; in 1911, 258-260 Technical Instruction, Ireland, 161, 175 Temperance Reform, Ireland, 177-178, 292 Tenant League, 70 Ten Resolutions (1837), 87 Territorials, Ireland, 118, 218 Thompson, Poulett, Lord Sydenham, 102 Titles, power of conferring, 219, 329 Tone, Wolfe, 54, 56, 57, 62, 73, 76, 86, 135 Toronto, 81 Townshend, Lord, 25, 32 Townshend, Charles, 27 Town Tenants Act, 153 Trade, external, of Ireland, 147-148, 291 Trade and Navigation, Colonial and Irish powers over, 220, 329 Trade-mark, Irish, 165; Colonial and Irish powers over, 219 Transvaal, Introduction, xiv, 120, 123-143, 196, 318, 336, and whole of Chapter VII. See also South African Colonies, Constitutions Treason, 219, 329 Treasury, Committee on Land Purchase, 1908, 311; Returns (Financial Relations), 242-246, 259-260, 264-279 Treaties, power of making, 219, 329 Trek, the Great, 120-123, 128, 133 Trimleston, Lord, 25

Ulster, plantation of, 8, 9; land tenure in, 15, 52, 55-7; emigration from, 15, 19-20, 31, 186; Orange Society in (see Orange Society); comparison with Canadian minorities, 92, 97-9, 100-2, 214; with Transvaal minority, 139, 186, 214; views of, with regard to representation at Westminster, 214-215; under Home Rule, Introduction, x, xii, 170, 182-187, 302, 333 Ulster Custom. See Ulster, Land Tenure in "Umpirage," of Great Britain, in Canada, 101, 155; in Ireland, 155, 208 "Undertakers," 25, 81 Union, of Ireland and Great Britain, Chapter IV.; compared with that of the two Canadas, Introduction, viii, 77-78, 96-104, 106, 192, 194, 198, 200-201; of the Canadas (see Canada) United Empire Loyalists, 74-75, 80 United Irishmen, 54, 56, 76 United States, relations with Canada, 80, 87, 92, 101; emigration to, from Ireland, 111, 148; feeling towards Ireland, 148-149; Constitution of, 193-195. See also Federal Systems, Constitutions, Safeguards for Minorities, Customs, and Excise Universities, Irish, 153, 273, 329 Upper Chamber, Irish, under Home Rule, 331-332. See also Federal Systems

Van Diemen's Land. See Tasmania Vereeniging, Peace of, 129 Victoria, Chapter V., and 106-107, 114-115, 194, 196, 198, 208; finance in, 297 Virginia, 8, 22 Volksraad, 124 Volunteers, Ireland (1778-1783), 37, 44-45, 52, 54, 60-61, 73, 103, 135, 187, 230. See also Territorials

Wakefield, Edward Gibbon, in Canada, 89, 94-95, 104; in Australia, 108-109, 116 Wakefield, Vicar of, 107 Wales, Home Rule for, 199-200 War and Peace, power of making, 219, 329 Washington, General George, 40 Welby, Lord, on Anglo-Irish finance, 249-256, 280-281, 282, 293 Wellington, Duke of, on Ireland and Canada, 70, 88, 90, 126 Wentworth, William, in Australia, 107, 114, 120 Western Australia, 106-108, 115, 196, and Chapter V. West Indies, banishment of Irish to, 9; grants-in-aid to, 284 Whiteboys, 16, 51, 56, 67, 107 Willcocks, Stephen, in Upper Canada, 82 William IV., on Canada, 99 Williams, Basil, Editor of "Home Rule Problems," Introduction, xiv, 203 Wills Act, 1861, 222 (footnote) Wilmot, Samuel, in New Brunswick, 88 Wyndham, George, 152; his Land Act of 1903, 71, 152, 310, etc.

Young, Arthur, on Ireland, 14, 32, 69 Young Ireland movement, 71, 114, 135

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