The Faith of Our Fathers
by James Cardinal Gibbons
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Third—The world has hitherto been converted by unmarried clergymen, and only by them will it continue to be converted. St. Francis Xavier and St. Francis de Sales could not have planted the faith in so many thousands of souls if they were accompanied on their journeys by their wives and children. Of all the gems that adorn the priestly diadem, none is so precious and indispensable in the eyes of the people as the peerless jewel of chastity. Without this pearl the voice of a Hyacinthe "becomes as sounding brass and a tinkling cymbal;" with it, the humblest missioner gains the hearts of multitudes.

Everybody is aware of the numerous conversions to Christianity effected by St. Francis Xavier in Japan in the sixteenth century. After the lapse of many years from the death of St. Francis, when a French squadron was permitted to enter the Japanese ports, a native Christian, named Peter, having learned that French Priests were on board, put their faith to the test by proposing to them these three questions: "Are you followers of the great Father in Rome? Do you honor Mary, the Blessed Virgin? Have you wives?" The French priests having satisfied their interrogator on these points, and especially on the last, Peter and his companions fell at the missioners' feet, exclaiming with delight "Thanks, thanks! they are virgins and true disciples of our Apostle Francis."(531)

A contemporary writer has wittily remarked that "perhaps the most ardent admirer of hymeneal rites would cheerfully admit that he could not conceive St. Paul or St. John starting on a nuptial tour, accompanied by the latest fashions from Athens or Ephesus, and the graceful brides whom they were destined to adorn. They would feel that Christianity itself could not survive such a vision as that. Nor could the imagination, in its wildest moods, picture the majestic adversary of the Arian Emperor attended in his flight up the Nile by Mistress Athanasius, nor St. John Chrysostom escorted in his wanderings through Phrygia by the wife of his bosom arrayed in a wreath of orange-blossoms. Would Ethelbert have become a Christian if St. Augustine had introduced to him his lady and her bridesmaids?"(532)

We frequently hear of unmarried Bishops and Priests laying down their lives for the faith in China and Corea and imprisoned in Germany. Heroic sacrifices such as these are, however, too much to be expected from men enjoying the domestic luxury and engrossed by the responsibility of a wife and children.

But does not St. Paul authorize the marriage of the clergy when he says: "Have we not power to carry about a woman, a sister, as well as the rest of the Apostles?"(533) The Protestant text mis-translates this passage by substituting the word wife for woman. It is evident that St. Paul does not speak here of his wife, since he had none; but he alludes to those pious women who voluntarily waited on the Apostles, and ministered to them in their missionary journeys.

It is also objected that the Apostle seems to require that a Bishop be "the husband of one wife."(534) The context certainly cannot mean that a Bishop must be a married man, for the reason already given, that St. Paul himself was never married. The sense of the text, as all tradition testifies, is that no candidate should be elected to the office of Bishop who had been married more than once. It was not possible in those days always to select single men for the Episcopal office. Hence the Church was often compelled to choose married persons, but always with this restriction, that they had never contracted nuptials a second time. They were obliged, moreover, if not widowers, to live separated from their wives.

Others adduce against clerical celibacy these words of St. Paul: "In the last times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to spirits of error, ... forbidding to marry."(535) This passage, however, alludes to the Ebionites, Gnostics and Manicheans, who positively taught that marriage is sinful. The Catholic Church, on the contrary, holds that matrimony is not only a lawful state, for those who are called to embrace it, but that it is also a Sacrament, and that the highest degree of holiness is attainable in conjugal life.

Some go so far as to declare continency impracticable. Our dissenting brethren in the ministry are so uxoriously inclined that, perhaps, for this reason they dispute the possibility, as well as the privilege, of Priests to remain single. But in making this assertion they impugn the wisdom of Jesus Christ and His Apostle, who lived in this state and recommended it to others; they slander consecrated Priests and nuns, and they unwittingly question the purity of their own unmarried sisters, daughters and sons. How many men and women are there in the world who spend years, nay, their whole lives, in the single state? And who shall dare to accuse such a multitude of incontinency?

Nor should any one complain of the severity of the law of clerical celibacy, since the candidate voluntarily accepts the obligations after mature consideration.

Finally, it cannot be urged against celibacy that it violates the Divine precept to "increase and multiply;" for this command surely cannot require all marriageable persons to be united in wedlock. Otherwise, bachelors and spinsters would also be guilty of violating the law. The number of men and women consecrated to God by vows of chastity forms but an imperceptible fraction of the human family, their proportion in the United States, for instance, being only one individual to about every four thousand. Moreover, it is an incontrovertible fact that the population increases most in those countries in which the Catholic clergy exercise the strongest influence; for there married people are impressed with the idea that marriage was instituted not for the gratification of the flesh, but for the procreation and Christian education of children.

Chapter XXXI.


Matrimony is not only a natural contract between husband and wife, but it has been elevated for Christians, by Jesus Christ, to the dignity of a Sacrament: "Husbands," says the Apostle, "love your wives, as Christ also loved the Church and delivered Himself up for it, ... so also ought men to love their wives as their own bodies.... For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall adhere to his wife and they shall be one flesh. This is a great sacrament: but I speak in Christ and in the Church."(536)

In these words the Apostle declares that the union of Christ with His Church is the type or model of the bond subsisting between man and wife. Now the union between Christ and His Church is supernatural and sealed by Divine grace. Hence, also, is the fellowship of a Christian husband and wife cemented by the grace of God. The wedded couple are bound to love one another during their whole lives, as Christ has loved His Church, and to discharge the virtues proper to the married state. In order to fulfil these duties special graces of our Savior are required.

The Fathers, Councils and Liturgies of the Western and the Oriental Churches, including the Coptic, Jacobite, Syriac, Nestorian and other schismatic bodies, which for upwards of fourteen centuries have been separated from the Catholic communion, all agree in recognizing Christian marriage as a Sacrament.

Hence the Council of Trent, speaking of Matrimony, says: "Christ Himself, the Institutor and Perfector of the venerable sacraments, merited for us by His passion the grace which might perfect that natural love, and confirm that indissoluble union, and sanctify the married; as the Apostle Paul intimates, saying: 'Husbands, love your wives, as Christ also loved the Church, and delivered Himself for it;' adding shortly after: 'This is a great sacrament, but I speak in Christ and in the Church.' (Ephes. v.) Whereas, therefore matrimony, in the evangelical law, excels in grace, through Christ, the ancient marriages; with reason have our holy Fathers and Councils and the tradition of the universal Church always taught that it is to be numbered among the sacraments of the new law."(537)

The Gospel forbids a man to have more than one wife, and a wife to have more than one husband. "Have you not read," says our Savior, "that He who made man in the beginning made them male and female? And He said, for this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they two shall be in one flesh. Wherefore they are no more two, but one flesh."(538) Our Lord recalls marriage to its primitive institution as it was ordained by Almighty God. (Gen. ii.) Now, marriage in its primitive ordinance was the union of one man with one woman, for Jehovah created but one helpmate to Adam. He would have created more, if His design had been to establish polygamy. The Scripture says that "man shall adhere to his wife,"—not his wives. It does not declare that they shall be three or more, but that "they shall be two in one flesh."

Hence Mormonism, unhappily so prevalent in the United States, is at variance with the plain teachings of the Gospel, and is consequently condemned by the Catholic Church. Polygamy, wherever it exists, cannot fail to be a perpetual source of family discord and feuds. It fosters deadly jealousy and hate among the wives of the same household; it deranges the laws of succession and primogeniture and breeds rivalry among the children, each endeavoring to supplant the other in the affections and the inheritance of their common father.

Marriage is the most inviolable and irrevocable of all contracts that were ever formed. Every human compact may be lawfully dissolved but this. Nations may be justified in abrogating treaties with each other; merchants may dissolve partnerships; brothers will eventually leave the paternal roof, and, like Jacob and Esau, separate from one another. Friends, like Abraham and Lot, may be obliged to part company. But by the law of God the bond uniting husband and wife can be dissolved only by death. No earthly sword can sever the nuptial knot which the Lord has tied; for, "what God hath joined together, let no man put asunder."

It is worthy of remark that three of the Evangelists, as well as the Apostle of the Gentiles, proclaim the indissolubility of marriage and forbid a wedded person to engage in second wedlock during the life of his spouse. There is, indeed, scarcely a moral precept more strongly enforced in the Gospel than the indissoluble character of marriage validly contracted.

"The Pharisees came to Jesus, tempting Him and saying: Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? Who, answering, said to them: Have ye not read that He who made man from the beginning made them male and female? And He said: For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they two shall be one flesh. Therefore now they are not two, but one flesh. What, therefore, God hath joined together let no man put asunder. They say to Him: Why, then, did Moses command to give a bill of divorce and to put away? He said to them: Because Moses, by reason of the hardness of your heart, permitted you to put away your wives; but from the beginning it was not so. And I say to you, that whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another committeth adultery: and he that shall marry her that is put away committeth adultery."(539) Our Savior here emphatically declares that the nuptial bond is ratified by God Himself, and hence that no man, nor any legislation framed by men, can validly dissolve the contract.

To the Pharisees interposing this objection, if marriage is not to be dissolved, why then did Moses command to give a divorce, our Lord replies that Moses did not command, but simply permitted the separation, and that in tolerating this indulgence the great lawgiver had regard to the violent passion of the Jewish people, who would fall into a greater excess if their desire to be divorced and to form a new alliance were refused. But our Savior reminded them that in the primitive times no such license was granted.

He then plainly affirms that such a privilege would not be conceded in the New Dispensation, for He adds: "I say to you: whosoever shall put away his wife and shall marry another committeth adultery." Protestant commentators erroneously assert that the text justifies an injured husband in separating from his adulterous wife and in marrying again. But the Catholic Church explains the Gospel in the sense that, while the offended consort may obtain a divorce from bed and board from his unfaithful wife, he is not allowed a divorce a vinculo matrimonii, so as to have the privilege of marrying another.

This interpretation is confirmed by the concurrent testimony of the Evangelists Mark and Luke and by St. Paul, all of whom prohibit divorce a vinculo without any qualification whatever.

In St. Mark we read: "Whosoever shall put away his wife and marry another committeth adultery against her. And if the wife shall put away her husband and be married to another she committeth adultery."(540)

The same unqualified declaration is made by St. Luke: "Every one that putteth away his wife and marrieth another committeth adultery; and he that marrieth her that is put away from her husband committeth adultery."(541) Both of these Evangelists forbid either husband or wife to enter into second wedlock, how aggravating soever may be the cause of their separation. And surely, if the case of adultery authorized the aggrieved husband to marry another wife, those inspired penmen would not have failed to mention that qualifying circumstance.

Passing from the Gospels to the Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians, we find there also an absolute prohibition of divorce. The Apostle is writing to a city newly converted to the Christian religion. Among other topics he inculcates the doctrine of the Church respecting Matrimony. We must suppose that as an inspired writer and a faithful minister of the Word he discharges his duty conscientiously, without suppressing or extenuating one iota of the law. He addresses the Corinthians as follows: "To them that are married not I, but the Lord, commandeth that the wife depart not from her husband. And if she depart that she remain unmarried, or be reconciled to her husband. And let not the husband put away his wife."(542) Here we find the Apostle, in his Master's name, commanding the separated couple to remain unmarried, without any reference to the case of adultery. If so important an exception existed, St. Paul would not have omitted to mention it; otherwise he would have rendered the Gospel yoke more grievous than its Founder intended.

We must, therefore, admit that, according to the religion of Jesus Christ, conjugal infidelity does not warrant either party to marry again, or we are forced to the conclusion that the vast number of Christians whose knowledge of Christianity was derived solely from the teachings of Saints Mark, Luke and Paul were imperfectly instructed in their faith.

Nor can we suppose that St. Matthew gave to the married Christians of Palestine a privilege which St. Paul withheld from the Corinthians; for then the early Christian Church might have witnessed the disedifying spectacle of aggrieved husbands seeking in Judea for a divorce from their adulterous wives which they could not obtain in Corinth, just as discontented spouses, in our times, sue in a neighboring State for a legal separation which is denied them in their own. Christ is not divided, nor do the Apostles contradict one another.

The Catholic Church, following the light of the Gospel, forbids a divorced man to enter into second espousals during the life of his former partner. This is the inflexible law she first proclaimed in the face of Pagan Emperors and people and which she has ever upheld, in spite of the passions and voluptuousness of her own rebellious children.

Henry VIII., once an obedient son and defender of the Church, conceived in an evil hour, a criminal attachment for Anne Boleyn, a lady of the queen's household, whom he desired to marry after being divorced from his lawful consort, Catherine of Arragon. But Pope Clement VII., whose sanction he solicited, sternly refused to ratify the separation, though the Pontiff could have easily forseen that his determined action would involve the Church in persecution, and a whole nation in the unhappy schism of its ruler. Had the Pope acquiesced in the repudiation of Catherine, and in the marriage of Anne Boleyn, England would, indeed, have been spared to the Church, but the Church herself would have surrendered her peerless title of Mistress of Truth.

When Napoleon I. repudiated his devoted wife, Josephine, and married Marie Louise, of Austria, so well assured was he of the fruitlessness of his attempt to obtain from the Holy See the sanction of his divorce and subsequent marriage that he did not even consult the Holy Father on the subject.

A few years previously Napoleon appealed to Pius VII. to annul the marriage which his brother Jerome had contracted with Miss Patterson of Baltimore. The Pope sent the following reply to the Emperor: "Your majesty will understand that upon the information thus far received by us it is not in our power to pronounce a sentence of nullity. We cannot utter a judgment in opposition to the rules of the Church, and we could not, without laying aside those rules, decree the invalidity of a union which, according to the Word of God, no human power can sunder."

Christian wives and mothers, what gratitude you owe to the Catholic Church for the honorable position you now hold in society! If you are no longer regarded as the slave, but the equal of your husband; if you are no longer the toy of his caprice and liable to be discarded at any moment, like the women of Turkey and the Mormon wives of Utah; but if you are recognized as the mistress and queen of your household, you owe your emancipation to the Church. You are especially indebted for your liberty to the Popes who rose up in all the majesty of their spiritual power to vindicate the rights of injured wives against the lustful tyranny of their husbands.

How opposite is the conduct of the fathers of the so-called Reformation, who, with the cry of religious reform on their lips, deformed religion and society by sanctioning divorce.

Henry VIII. was divorced from his wife, Catherine, by Cranmer, the first Reformed Primate of England.

Luther and his colleagues, Melanchthon and Bucer, permitted Philip, Landgrave of Hesse, to have two wives at the same time.(543) Karlstadt, another German Reformer, justified polygamy.(544)

Modern Prussia is now reaping the bitter fruits of the seeds that were then sown within its borders. Seventy-five per cent. of the marriages now contracted outside of the Catholic Church in Berlin are performed without any religious ceremony whatever. A union not bound by the strong ties of religion is easily dissolved.

This subject excites a painful interest in our own country, in consequence of the facility with which divorce from the marriage bond is obtained in many of our States. We have here another exemplification of the dangerous consequences attending a private interpretation of the sacred text. When Luther and Calvin proclaimed to the world that "it was not wise to prohibit the divorced adulterer from marrying again,"(545) they little dreamed of the fruitful progeny which was destined before long to spring from this isolated monster of their creation. There are already about thirty causes which allow the conjugal tie to be broken, some of which are of so trifling a nature as to provoke merriment were it not for the gravity of the subject, which is well calculated to excite alarm for the moral and social welfare of our country.

Persons are divorced by the courts not only for infidelity, but also without even the shadow of Scripture authority—for alleged cruelty, intemperance, desertion, prolonged absence, mental incapacity, sentence to the penitentiary, incompatibility of temper and such other causes as the court, in its discretion, may deem sufficient.

For the year ending June, 1874, seventeen hundred and forty-two applications for divorce were presented in the State of Ohio. If such is Ohio's record, what must be the matrimonial condition of Indiana, which is called the paradise of discontented spouses.

In Connecticut there were, in 1875, four thousand three hundred and eighty-five marriages, and four hundred and sixty-six divorces from the marriage bond. The number of divorces obtained in the same State during the last fifteen years has reached five thousand three hundred and ninety-one. This is the record of a State whose public school system is considered the most thorough and perfect in the country. The statistics given of Ohio and Connecticut will enable us to form some idea of the fearful catalogue of divorces annually obtained in the United States.

There are some who regard the Catholic Church as too severe in proclaiming the absolute indissolubility of marriage. But it should be borne in mind that it is not the Church, but the Divine Founder of the Christian religion, that has given us the law. She merely enforces its observance.

The law, how rigorous soever, is mercy itself, when compared with the cruel consequences which follow from the easy concession of divorce.

The facility with which marriage is annulled is most injurious to the morals of individuals, of the family and of society. It leads to ill-assorted and hasty marriages, because persons are less circumspect in making a compact which may be afterwards dissolved almost at will. It stimulates a discontented and unprincipled husband or wife to lawlessness, quarrels and even adultery, well knowing that the very crime will afford a pretext and legal grounds for a separation. It engenders between husband and wife fierce litigations about the custody of their offspring. It deprives the children of the protecting arm of a father, or of the gentle care of a mother, and too frequently consigns them to the cold charity of the world; for the married couple who are wanting in conjugal love for one another are too often destitute also of parental affection. In a word, it brings into the household a blight and desolation which neither wealth nor luxury can repair.

There is but one remedy to this social distemper, and that is an absolute prohibition of divorce a vinculo, in accordance with the inflexible rule of the Gospel and of the ancient Church. In Catholic countries divorces are exceedingly rare, and are obtained only by such as have thrown off the yoke of the Church. If the sacred laws of Matrimony are still happily observed by so large a portion of the Protestant community, the purity of morals is in no small measure due to the presence among them of the Catholic religion, which exercises a beneficial influence even over those who are outside the pale of her communion, like the sun, whose benignant light and heat are felt even in those secluded spots which his rays can but obliquely and dimly penetrate.


Abraham, dear to Jehovah, 37.

Abstinence on Friday explained, 2.

Adoration and reverence compared, 202.

A'Kempis compared with Bunyan, 20.

A'Kempis' "Following of Christ" recommended, 20; Protestant edition mutilated, 20.

Albertus Magnus on Faith quoted, 15.

American Independence and Catholic Church, 240.

Angel Raphael and young Tobias, 155.

Angels labor for man's salvation, 160.

Anglican Church began with Henry VIII., 44.

Anne, Queen, praised by Thomas Arundel, 92.

Apostolate of Sisterhoods—Consecrated Virgins, 23.

Appeals, a proof of Papal Supremacy, 109.

Apostles commissioned to teach, 29; transmit infallibility to successors, 65; not commanded to write, 80; ordered to teach and to preach, 81; received power to forgive sins, 342.

Apostolic teaching was infallible, 65; weapons, 26; missionaries sent by Popes, 115.

Apostolicity defined, 38; a note of the true Church, 39; claims of tested, 40, et seq.

Articles of Faith—consequences of denial of, 10.

Arian heresy and the Church, 53, et seq.

Arianism and Protestantism paralleled, 55, et seq.

Astolphus, King, threatens Rome, 140.

Attila and Pope Leo the Great, 139.

Attributes of Christ—objects of Church's teaching, 16.

Attributes or Notes of the Church imply infallibility, 65.

Authority of the Church derived from God, 65; absence of, causes dissensions, 97; authorized versus private interpretation, 81; of the Book of Machabees, 214.

Barbarians attack Rome, 139.

Bancroft's History cited, 233.

Baptism essential for remission of original sin, 268; necessary for all, 268; must not be delayed, 273; effects, 21; remits all sin, 275; makes us heirs of heaven, 276.

Baptism of desire or martyrdom substitutes for Baptism, 272.

Baptizing, modes of, 277.

Bartholomew, Archbishop of Braga, directs crusade, 27.

Becanus teaches value of religious liberty, 230.

Bede, Venerable, translated Bible into Saxon, 91.

Bible, venerated by the Jews, 77; requires the living authority of the Church, 77; interpreted by the Sanhedrim, 77; expounded by the priests, 78; a babel among reformers, 86; itself unchanging, it causes ever-changing tenets, 87; guardian and depository of, is the Catholic Church, 90; translated into Saxon by Venerable Bede, 91; in English, Sir Thomas More on, 92; editions prior to Luther, 92; early editions in English, 92; use of, recommended by Pope Pius VI, 93; in seminary, 93, et seq.; basis of Papal Infallibility, 125, et seq.; infallible, not sufficient, 133, et seq.; not ordered to be multiplied, 78.

Biblical interpretation on Deuteronomy, quoted, 78; associations never converted nation, 80; authorization claimed by Mormons, 88; restrictions as to garbled versions, 92.

Bishops, priests and deacons among Protestants, 10; first bishop of Rome, was St. Peter, 106; of Rome, heirs to St. Peter's supremacy, 108; convoked councils, 114; presided at councils, 114.

Bishop Short on Anglicanism, 44.

Bond of Union—Catholic, compared to that of secret orders, 36.

Bond—Nuptial, ratified by God, 411.

Books of Piety adapted to wants, 19; of Machabees, same authority as other Scriptures, 214.

Bride or Spouse of Christ, applied to the Church, 8.

Brownson, Dr., appreciates stand of Church on civil liberty, 231.

Bunyan compared with A'Kempis, 20.

Butler's "Lives of the Saints" and Foxe's "Book of Martyrs" compared, 20.

Byron, Lord, lauds St. Peter's Church in Rome, 381.

Caranza Bartholomew arrested by the Inquisition, 257.

Carroll, Charles, in American Independence, 240.

Carroll, Rev. John, in American Independence, 240.

Catacombs abound in sacred images, 196; earliest churches, 137.

Catechism, Episcopal, treats of Absolution, 354, et seq.

Catholic bond of union and that of the secret orders compared, 36; barons and Archbishop Langton, 233; idea of infallibility reasonable and satisfactory, 135; priest obliged to read Scriptures, 94; priest preaches Christ and Him crucified, 18; literature favored by Episcopal clergyman, 20; missionaries wherever English is spoken, 35; churches burned by Protestants, 251.

Catholics number three hundred millions, 10; exhorted to study the Word of God in their homes, 19; not all holy, 23; sometimes are sources of scandal, 23; and free will, 23; consciences not forced, 23; Washington addresses, 241; persecuted by Henry VIII. and Elizabeth, 250, by the Puritans, 251.

Catholicity—prominent attribute of the Church, 29; evidences of, in Apostles' Creed, 29; defined, 29; foreshadowed by the Psalmist, 29; foreseen by Prophet Malachy, 29; not found in the separate sects, 32.

Ceremonial of the Mass, 328, et seq.

Ceremonies—religious, defined, 320; described, 327; prescribed by God, 332; necessary, 322.

Christ's life portrayed, 17, et seq.; teachings versus Book of Homilies, 67, et seq; words and private interpretation, 79; divinity not proved solely by Scripture, 79, et seq.; honored virgins in a special manner, 400; instituted matrimony, 409; contained entire under each form, 300.

Christian—a title of nobility, 17; obligations it imposes, 17; defined as another Christ, 17; communions claim perpetuity, 51; unity endorsed, 119.

Church teaches one God, 1; unity of, 5; government requires unity, 6; needs visible head, 6; a kingdom, 6; Christ founded only one, 6; Christ's spiritual kingdom, 7; government compared to that of state, 7; of Christ, a sheepfold, 7; likened to the sheepfold, 7; one chief pastor, one chief shepherd, 7; likened to human body, 7; compared to a vine, 8; bride or spouse of Christ, 8; unity as taught by common sense, 8; harmony, 8; needs common doctrine, 9; uniform government, 9; of England ruled by sovereign, 9; alone possesses unity, 10; temple of faith, 10; her creed identical with past ages, 11; faith and government similar, 11; does not meddle with political tenets, 10; teaches one faith everywhere, 10; explains and declares truths implicitly believed, 15; authority to decide disputes, 15; holiness an attribute of, 16; a society, 16; established for man's sanctification, 16; only one founded by Christ, 6; inculcates valuable lessons of divine perfection, 16; invites to a holy life, 17; enforces the inculcation of divine precepts, 18; affords motives and means of sanctification, 20; encourages communion with God, 20; a watchful mother—supplies us at each step, 21; fruitful in saints, 22; still produces saints and apostles, 22; has her martyrs in our day, 22; still numbers confessors in her ranks, 22; saves sinners, 24; refuge of the poor, 24; her inheritance—the afflicted, 25; possesses means of reform, 27; cosmopolitan, 30; Catholic in name and reality, 34; gaining numerically at present, 35; apostolical, 38; built upon foundation of the Apostles, 38; derives her origin from the Apostles, 48; indestructible, 51; and the barbarous hordes, 53; and Mohammedanism, 53; and the Arian heresy, 53, et seq.; and the Irish people, 54; and state, 57; her relation to other religious bodies, 58; does not need temporal power for preservation, 58; and modern progress, 59; benefited by scientific appliances and inventions, 59; fosters intellectual progress, 60; encourages scientific investigation, 60; science indebted to her—has no fear from human liberty, 61; outlasts all other governments, 61, et seq.; authority comes from God, 65; her teaching directed by the Holy Ghost, 65; her infallibility proved from Scripture, 66, et seq.; Christ's promise in favor of the, 70, 73; her doctrines incapable of reform, 73; her doctrinal decrees irrevocable, 76; divinely appointed teacher of revelation, 76, 77; guardian and depository of the Bible, 90; requires a head, 97; unity maintained by supreme head, 77; only one founded by Christ, 100; built on Peter, 100; revealed Word of God her Magna Charta, 124; exhorts all to honor Mary, 187; her practice proves existence of purgatory, 214, et seq.; Fathers of the—unanimous in praying for the dead, 217; has always promoted civil liberty, 226; defends civil rights and liberties, 231; conflict with state, 231; and American Independence, 240; desires no governmental aid, 246; does not sanction persecution or bloodshed, 249; disavows the excesses of the Spanish Inquisition, 258; her practice and the procedure of the Supreme Court compared, 130; organization—American system of, 246; her doctrine on unbaptized infants, 273; perpetuates Christ's work, 341; grants indulgences, 376.

Churches—earliest Christian were Catacombs, 137; fallible—consequences, 70.

Clement of Alexandria bears witness to spread of Christianity, 31.

Clerical celibacy—necessity, 399; propriety and advantages of, 402.

Clement VII, Pope, refused to sanction divorce of Henry VIII, 414.

Communion with God encouraged by Church, 20.

Communion under both forms given by Christ, 300.

Communion under form of bread, 303, et seq.

Communion of Saints—a comforting thought, 160.

Confession of sins obligatory, 345; various views, 366; sacramental, of divine institution, 346, et seq.

Confirmation—graces of, 21; defined, 280; signs that follow, 282; described by St. Augustine, 282; abolished by the Protestants, 285.

Constantine gives peace to the Church, 137.

Continence—voluntary, superior to matrimony, 399.

Cross—held in reverence, 3; instrument of the crucifixion, 3; adorns our sanctuaries, 3; surmounts our Churches, 3; emblem of salvation, 3.

Cross—sign of the, ancient and pious practice, 3; how made, 3; taught by tradition, 3; profession of faith, 3; salutary act of religion, 3.

D'Aubigne on Protestant Reformation, 264—comments on divorce of Henry VIII.

David and Nathan, 376.

Deacons, priests and bishops in Protestant sects, 10.

Death does not dissever love among friends, 161.

Decrees in doctrinal matters irrevocable, 77.

De Maistre quoted on name Protestant, 55.

Deuteronomy quoted on Biblical interpretation, 78.

Devotion—true, is interior, 320; manuals of, criticised, 366.

Divine perfections sources of valuable lessons, 16.

Divine power manifested on Easter Sunday, 3.

Divinity of Christ not proved solely by Scripture, 79, et seq.

Divorce never allowed—separation sometimes, 412.

Divorce prohibited by St. Paul, 413.

Divorced man may not marry during wife's lifetime, 414.

Divorce—legal, causes, 416; cruel consequences of, 417.

Doctrinal decrees of the Church are irrevocable, 76.

Doctrines of the Church cannot be reformed, 73; the same everywhere, 10; new definitions do not impair unity of faith, 11, et seq.

Dogma of the Immaculate Conception formulated, 171.

Doellinger, Dr., anathematized, 10.

Duties to God—first lessons taught us, 18.

Eastern churches allow a married clergy, 402.

Ecumenical councils vindicate papal supremacy, 113; defined, 114.

Elias dear to Jehovah, 37.

Elizabeth, Queen, and Henry VIII. persecuted Catholics, 250.

Elizabethan and Marian persecutions compared, 262, et seq.

Episcopal clergyman favors Catholic books, 20.

Evangelical Alliance failed—had no common platform, 119.

Exodus, Book of, and sacred images, 200.

Extreme Unction defined, 384; effects, 21; supported by ancient authority, 386.

Faith, hope and charity necessary for Catholics, 37.

Faith, temple of, the Church, 10; Albertus Magnus quoted, 15.

Faith, unity of, required, 5; progress in, does not change truth, 15.

Fathers of the Church on Confirmation, 283; echo the words of St. Paul on the Eucharist, 297; they are unanimous on praying for the dead, 217.

Fenelon favors liberty of conscience, 228.

Founders of various religious denominations, 46.

Foxe's Book of Martyrs and the Lives of the Saints contrasted, 20.

Free-will—Catholics enjoy, 23.

Garbled versions of the Bible restricted, 92.

Gibbon quoted on triumphs of the Church, 53.

God—infinite in knowledge, power and goodness, 1; governs by His Providence, 1; created all things by His Omnipotence, 1; three persons in One, 1; persons equal, 1.

God commands the making of images, 301.

God requires that His ministers be respected, 388.

God works through his representatives, 341, et seq.

God's judgment impressed on the child mind, 19.

Gospel ministers are ordained and commissioned, 39.

Government—state and church compared, 7.

Governmental aid not desired for Church, 246.

Grace defined, 265; necessary for sanctification, 265.

Graces imparted by Holy Orders and Matrimony, 21.

Graces needed by married couple, special, 408.

Great Spirit worshiped by American Indians, 309.

Gregory II, Pope, writes about images, 140.

Habeas Corpus, 223.

Hail Mary explained, 174, et seq.

Hamlet, Shakespeare's, advised by the dead, 221.

Hebrews believed in intercessory prayer, 159.

Henry VIII. excommunicated, 10; divorce refused, 44.

Henry VIII and Elizabeth persecuted Catholics, 250.

Heresy and schism opposed to unity, 5; likened to murder and idolatry, 5; heresy defined, 5; and the Church, 54; a crime against church and state, 255.

Holy Eucharist—St. Paul's testimony on, 295.

Holiness a mark of the Church, 16.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, praises Mary, 179.

Holy Ghost sent by Christ, 3; on Pentecost, 3; guides the Church's teaching, 65.

Holy Scripture—depository of God's Word, 77.

Holy Orders and Matrimony—graces of, 21.

Image—Making commanded by God, 201.

Images, Sacred—advantages of, 204, et seq.; and the Reformers, 198; and the Council of Trent, 198, et seq.; and the Book of Exodus, 200; veneration of, 196; Catacombs abound in, 196.

Immaculate Conception implied in Scripture, 171; in our earliest history, 173; dogma formulated in 1854, 171.

Indestructibility of the Church due to finger of God, 57.

Infallible Bible not sufficient 133, et seq.

Infallibility a special guidance of the Holy Ghost, 65; implied in the attributes of the Church, 65; of Apostolic teaching, 65; proved from Scripture, 66, et seq.; transmitted by Apostles to successors, 65; blessings attendant on—for the faithful, 72; Catholic idea of, reasonable and satisfactory, 135; misapprehended, 121; what it does not mean, 121, et seq.; what it is, 123; founded on Bible, 125, et seq.; not a new doctrine, 130.

Incense, its use, 334.

Indians, American—worshiped the Great Spirit, 309.

Indulgence defined, 375; granted by the Church, 376; elements required, 377; classes, 378; does not exempt from doing penance, 379; abused, 380.

Infant Baptism proved from early Doctors, 270; and the Council of Carthage, 270; not to be delayed, 273.

Inquisition, Spanish—cruelties, 248; its true character, 254; explained, 254; excesses disavowed by the Church, 258.

Inventions and scientific appliances beneficial to Church, 59.

Invocation of the Saints defined, 152.

Ireland and the Ancient Church, 54.

Irish clergy persecuted by Cromwell, 250.

Jeremiah, after death, prays for Jewish people, 159.

Jesus Christ, second person of Blessed Trinity, 1; perfect God and perfect man, 1; assumes human nature, 1; born on Christmas Day, 1; led a life of obscurity at Nazareth, 1; commences public career, 1; associates with his Apostles, 2; doing good, 2; preaches new gospel, 2; crucified on Mount Calvary, 2; purchases our redemption, 2; is our Saviour and Redeemer, 2; example to be imitated, 2; manifested Divine power on Easter Sunday, 3; raised Himself to life, 3; ascended into heaven, 3; spends forty days on earth, 3; sends Holy Ghost, 3; requires unity of faith, 5; prays for unity, 5; mission evidenced in unity of Church, 5; speaks of His Church, not churches, 6; our model, 17; wrote no line of Scripture, 80; established supreme head of the Church, 98, et seq.; founded but one Church, 100; the one Mediator, 161; came on earth to wash away sins, 268; our Victim in the Mass, 317; a Physician and Savior, 340.

Jesus' prayer is always heard, 126; name implies His mission, 339; example a means of sanctification, 16; moral lessons tend to sanctification, 16.

Jews ordered by Christ to obey constituted teachers, 79; pray for their dead, 220; venerate the Bible, 77; were released from religious persecution by St. Bernard, 228; appealed to the Sanhedrim for the settlement of disputes, 77; their priests expounded Bible, 78; their High Priest and the Roman Pontiff compared, 95.

Job intercedes for his friends, 157.

John, Abbot of Constantinople, appeals to Pope Gregory I, 112.

Judea a hallowed soil, 164.

Jurisdiction of God's ministers unlimited, 388.

Laity contain many Saints, 23.

Langton, Archbishop, and Catholic barons, 233.

Leibnitz taught that Christ is entire under each species, 302.

Leo the Great, Pope, and Attila, 139.

Leo the Isaurian desires spiritual jurisdiction, 139; destroys paintings, 140; wars on images, 197.

Lepanto—victory of 1571, 53.

Liberty, religious, explained, 226; ever promoted by the Catholic Church, 226; taught by Becanus, 230; favored by Fenelon, 228; and civil rights defended by the Church, 231; human not feared, 61.

Lights on the altar—meaning, 333.

Literature, Catholic, favored by Episcopal clergyman, 20.

Llorente, historian of Spanish Inquisition, 253; who he was, 253, et seq.

Longfellow refers to Mary's influence and intercession, 189.

Loyalty to Christ implies veneration of His representative, 106.

Luther advocated Communion under one form, 301; accused John Tetzel, 382.

Lutheranism founded by Luther, 44; rise and progress of, 54.

Magna Charta—great bulwark of liberty, 233.

Magna Charta, the Church's—the revealed Word of God, 124.

Marriage law violated by Henry VIII, 10; indissoluble, 410; contract—most inviolable and irrevocable, 410; forbidden to priests after ordination, 400.

Married couple need special graces, 408.

Mary singularly honored by Jesus Christ, 165; Mother of God—meaning, 166; not mother of divinity—Mother of God, 167; truly and really Mother of God, 167; of surpassing dignity and excellence, 168; always a virgin, 168; loves men, 190; exempted from original sin, 267.

Mary's soul never subject to sin, 171; her soul needed a redeemer, 171; prerogatives, 174; honor redounds to God, 181; honor founded on Scriptural sanction, 186; honor encouraged by the Church, 187; intercession superior to that of the Angels and the Saints, 188; influence and intercession referred to by Longfellow, 189-193; invoked by Edgar Allan Poe, 191.

Mary Magdalen experienced the mercy of Jesus, 340.

Maryland—cradle of civil and religious liberty, 233; land of the Sanctuary, 233; religious toleration explained, 234, et seq.; changes effected by Puritans, 237; tolerations—three, 238, et seq.

Mass is identical with the Sacrifice of the Cross, 311; instituted, 312; a perpetual oblation, 313, et seq.; of Apostolic origin, 314; its ceremonial, 328, et seq.; why said in Latin, 329, et seq.

Matrimony defined, 408; instituted by Christ, 409; imparts ample and suitable graces, 21.

Missionaries, Catholic, wherever English is spoken, 35; Apostolic—sent by Popes, 115.

Mohammedanism, rise and conquests, 53; and the Church, 53.

Monica, St., requests prayers for the repose of her soul, 216.

Morality of Catholic and Protestant countries contrasted, 369; lax among Catholics—accusation answered, 364; Christ's lessons tend to sanctification, 16; inculcated by the Church, 18; moral law standard of perfection, 18.

More, Sir Thomas, quoted on Bible in English, 92.

Mormons claim Biblical authorization for polygamy, 88.

Mormonism at variance with Gospel, 410.

Mysteries, principal, incentive to holiness, 17; proposed by the Church, 17; surround us everywhere, 293.

Naaman the Syrian cured, 361.

Napoleon's demands on Pope Pius VII, 242, et seq.

Nathan and David, 376.

Nuptial bond ratified by God, 411.

Onias, after death, prays for the people of God, 159.

Oracles, rashness of following discordant, 72.

Origen bears witness to the spread of Christianity, 31.

Original sin, all men born in, 267; Blessed Virgin alone exempted, 267; universal, 272.

Pagans retained primitive traditions about sacrifices, 309.

Papal Jurisdiction—examples, 109, et seq.

Papal states a convenience for the Holy Father, 145.

Paul, St. on heresy and schism, 5, et seq.; asks intercession, 158.

Penance—effects of Sacrament, 21.

Pentecost—Christ sends Holy Ghost, 3.

Perpetuity of the Church, 50; defined, 50; foretold in the Scriptures, 50.

Persecutions lasted 280 years, 52.

Persecution and bloodshed not sanctioned by the Church, 249.

Persecutions by Queen Mary of England, 261; compared with those under Elizabeth, 262, et seq.

Pepin, King of the Franks, defeats Lombards, 141.

Peter, St., primacy of, 95; foundation of the Church, 100; first Bishop of Rome, 106; supremacy handed down, 108; and Washington compared, 108; oracle of the Apostles, 126, et seq.

Photius appeals to Pope Nicholas I to confirm his election to the Patriarchate of Constantinople, 112.

Plebescitum, Roman, explained, 146.

Plutarch declares: "No nations without priests and altars," 309.

Poe, Edgar Allan, invokes Mary, 191.

Pontiff, Supreme, is commander-in-chief of the Church, 117.

Pope is Vicar of Christ, 129; father and doctor of Christians, chief pastor of the Church, 130; confirms or rejects decrees of councils, 131; a prisoner in his own house, 145.

Popes succeed to Peter's supremacy, 108; send Apostolic missionaries, 115; go to confession regularly, 122; oracles of the early Church, 128, et seq., recognized in all ages as infallible teachers, 132.

Prayer for unity, 5; and Sacraments—means of sanctification, 20; a duty binding in conscience 20; of Jesus Christ, always heard 126; for the dead, consoling, 225.

Priest, Catholic obliged to read word of God, 94; ambassador of God, 387; dispenser of God's graces, 390; titles, 391; physician of souls, 396; must be man of prayer, 398.

Priestly obligations, 395; stands before God, intercessor for his people, 396; experience in sacred ministry, 367, et seq.

Primacy of St. Peter, 95; promised, 98, et seq.; and supremacy similarly demonstrated, 109.

Progress, Modern, and the Church, 59; intellectual fostered by the Church, 60; cannot destroy the Church, 59.

Prophecies of Christ fulfilled by spread of Christianity, 30.

Protestant sects make no claim to Catholicity, 32; Episcopalians sometimes usurp the title of Catholic, 33; inconsistency between teaching and practice, 82, et seq.

Protestantism not traceable to Apostolic times, 47; and Arianism paralleled, 55, et seq.

Protestants differ in belief among themselves, 9; sects do not possess unity, 9; combat the perpetual virginity of Mary, 169, et seq.; their objections answered, 169, et seq.; burned Catholic churches, 251; abolished confirmation, 285.

Puritans effected changes in Maryland, 237; persecuted others for conscience's sake, 251.

Ranke quoted on Spanish Inquisition, 256.

Raphael Archangel and young Tobias, 155.

Real presence founded on scripture, 288; proved from the New Testament, 288, et seq.

Reformation of morals effected, 26.

Reformers made a babel of the Bible, 86; and sacred images, 198; guilty of violence towards others, 250.

Regeneration, necessary to all, 272.

Religious denominations and their founders, 46.

Repentance—Catholic and Protestant systems contrasted, 362.

Revelation—church divinely appointed teacher of, 76.

Reverence for the Cross, 3; and adoration compared, 202.

Rites and ceremonies prescribed by God, 322.

Ritual described in Revelation, 324.

Rodriguez, "Christian Perfection" recommended, 20.

Roman Pontiff and Jewish High Priest, compared, 95.

Roman Plebescitum explained, 146.

Rome, St. Peter, first Bishop of, 106.

Rome, St. Peter's residence in, proved, 107; testified by eminent writers, 107.

Sacramental confession of divine institution, 346, et seq.

Sacraments and prayers are means of grace, 265; defined, 265; constituent elements, 265; seven, instituted by Christ, 266.

Sacred images—advantages, 204, et seq.; and the Reformers, 198; and the council of Trent, 198, et seq.

Sacrifices, defined, 307; offered by all peoples, 307; early, 307, et seq.; various, in Old Law, 317.

St. Alphonsus, a distinguished reformer, 27.

St. Ambrose describes Mary's life, 194; confronts the Emperor Theodosius, the Great, 232; on the sevenfold gifts of the Holy Ghost, 284.

St. Athanasius appeals to Pope Julius I against a Decree of the Eastern Bishops, 111.

St. Augustine quoted about truth, 12; on false claims to Catholicity, 33; on Apostolicity, 49, 56; describes confirmation, 282; on Chrism ointment, 285; on secret confession, 360.

St. Basil of Caeserea has recourse to Pope Damasus, 111.

St. Bartholomew's Day—massacre, 259; church not interested in, 259; facts stated, 259, et seq.

St. Bernard released Jews from religious persecution, 228.

St. Charles Borromeo, the reformer, 27.

St. Cyril appeals to Pope Celestine, 111.

St. Francis de Sales' writings recommended, 20.

St. Hilary of Arles and papal supremacy, 111.

St. Ignatius Loyola, conspicuous reformer, 27.

St. Irenaeus bears witness to the spread of Christianity, 31.

St. Jerome's edition of the Scriptures, 91; edits the vulgate, 91.

St. John Chrysostom appeals to Pope Innocent I, 111.

St. Justin, martyr, witness of Catholicity in second century, 31.

St. Paul invokes intercession of the Ephesians, 158; testimony on the Holy Eucharist, 295; granted indulgences, 376; prohibited divorce, 413.

St. Peter's primacy, 95; first bishop of Rome, 106; residence in Rome proved, 107; supremacy handed down, 108; Oracle of the Apostles, 126, et seq.

St. Philip Neri, apostle of modern Rome, 27.

St. Vincent of Lerins on doctrine and practice, 15.

Saints—many among laity, 23.

Sanctity—examples witnessed, 23.

Sanhedrim settled disputes for the Jews, 77; explained Bible, 77.

Scandals do not invalidate Church's claims to sanctify, 26.

Schism and heresy oppose unity, 5; schism defined, 5.

Schismatic Churches have no claims to Catholicity, 32.

Scripture, Holy, depository of, God's Word, 77; no line of, written by Christ, 80; does not contain all truth, 89; alone, not sufficient guide and rule of faith, 89; perpetuated by the Church, 91, et seq.; St. Jerome translates, 91.

Sects—conflicting in North Carolina, 9; Protestant do not possess unity, 9.

Sign of the Cross—ancient and pious practice, 3; how made, 3; Tertullian quoted on, 3; taught by tradition, 3; profession of faith, 3; salutary act of religion, 3.

Signs following confirmation, 17.

Sin includes guilt and punishment, 375; original—all men born in, 267; Most Blessed Virgin alone excepted, 267.

Smithfield and Tyburn compared, 264.

Socrates quoted on papal supremacy, 111.

Solomon and Judas as warnings, 19.

Spain—condition of, during the Inquisition, 255.

Spanish Inquisition—cruelties, 248; Llorente, historian, 253; excesses disavowed by the Church, 258.

"Spiritual Combat" recommended, 20.

Supremacy of St. Peter—Popes succeed to, 108; Socrates quoted on, 111; and Primacy similarly demonstrated, 109.

Supreme Court procedure and Church practice compared, 130.

Supreme Head of the Church maintains unity, 98; established by Christ, 98; is commander-in-chief of the Church, 117.

Teachers—constituted, to be obeyed, 79.

Teaching of Christ versus Book of Homilies, 67, et seq.

Teaching of Apostles infallible, 65.

Teaching of the Church guided by the Holy Ghost, 65.

Temporal power—end and aim, 144; not necessary to Church's preservation, 58.

Tennyson's Sir Belvidere asks prayers for his soul, 225.

Testament, Old—teaches existence of Purgatory, 211, et seq.

Testimony of St. Paul on the Holy Eucharist, 295.

Tertullian bears witness to the spread of Christianity, 31; treats of the Apostolicity of the Church, 49.

Tetzel, John, accused by Luther, 382.

Theodoret appeals to St. Leo, Pope, 112.

Theodosius the Great confronted by St. Ambrose, 232.

Thomas Arundel praised Queen Anne, 92.

Titles of the Catholic priest, 391.

Tobias, Young, and the Archangel Raphael, 155.

Toleration, Religious, in Maryland, 234, et seq.

Transubstantiation a mystery, 292.

Triumphs of the Church according to Gibbon, 53.

Trent, Council of—great reformatory tribunal, 27; on sacred images, 198, et seq.; asserts doctrine of Purgatory, 210.

Truth unchangeable, 12.

Tyburn and Smithfield compared, 264.

Tyndall on debt of science to the Church, 60.

Unity of the Church, 5; heresy and schism opposed to, 5; required by Jesus Christ, 5; of faith required, 5; Jesus Christ prays for it, 5; prayer of Christ for, 5; an evidence of Christ's mission, 5; in government it is essential, 6; not found in Protestant sects, 9; found in Catholic Church alone, 10; Catholic, in what it consists, 10; of government and faith, 11; safeguard of government, 11; of faith not impaired by new doctrinal definitions, 11; of the Church maintained by supreme head, 98; Christian, endorsed, 119; implies recognition of pope's headship, 119.

Unbaptized Infants—Church's teaching regarding, 273.

Validity of the Pope's title to the papal states, 141.

Variation in Biblical interpretation, 87.

Vatican Council assembled from all nations, 332; Ecumenical, 34; all countries represented, 34; all systems represented, 34.

Veneration of images, 196.

Vestments—their meaning, 335; their colors symbolical, 337.

Vicar of Christ is the Pope, 129.

Victim in the Mass is Jesus Christ, 317.

Victor Emmanuel, the modern Achab, 144.

Virgins, Consecrated—Apostolate of Sisterhoods, 23.

Virgins especially honored by Christ, 400.

Virginity, Perpetual—of Mary, combated by Protestants, 169, et seq.

Voltaire bears testimony to the good use of Church temporalities, 138.

Vulgate—edited by St. Jerome, 91.

Warfare on Church—foreign and domestic, 51.

Washington and St. Peter compared, 108.

Washington's Address to the Catholics, 241.

Wesley, John, founds Methodist Church, 44.

Westminster Abbey has many statues of heroes, 201.

Wordsworth on "Mother's Love and Maiden Purity," 168, 180; tribute to Mary, 175.


1 Dryden, Hind and Panther.

2 Matt. xvi. 26.

3 II. Cor. iv. 17.

4 Rom. ix. 5.

5 Athanasian Creed.

6 Matt. xi.

7 Acts iv. 12.

8 Isaiah liii. 5.

9 Luke ix. 23.

10 II. Cor. iv. 10.

11 Gal. vi. 14.

12 De Corona, C. iii.

13 Mark xvi. 15.

14 Luke x. 16.

15 Symb. Constantinop.

16 John xvii. 20, 21.

17 Gal. v. 20, 21.

18 Ephes. iv. 3-6.

19 Matt. xvi. 18.

20 Luke i. 32, 33.

21 Matt. xii. 25.

22 John x. 16.

23 Rom. xii. 4, 5.

24 John xv. 5.

25 Apoc. xxi. 9.

26 I. Cor. xiv. 33.

27 Job xxxviii. 11.

28 Heb. xiii. 8.

29 De Civitate Dei, Lib. 16, Cap. ii., No. 1.

30 I. Pet. ii. 9.

31 Heb. i. 3.

32 Exod. xxv. 40.

33 Lev. xix. 2.

34 Matt. v. 48.

35 Eph. v. 1.

36 Ephes. iv. 11, 13.

37 Deut. vi. 6, 7.

38 Apoc. iii. 7.

39 Matt. xvi. 26.

40 Gal. iii. 27.

41 Eph. v. 25-27.

42 Heb. xi. 37.

43 Coloss. iii. 3.

44 I. Tim. i. 15.

45 Matt. xi. 5.

46 Matt. xiii. 24-37.

47 Ibid. xiii. 47.

48 II. Tim. ii. 20.

49 Dial. contra Lucif.

50 Hom. 12, in Evang.

51 In Ps. viii., ii. 13.

52 Cant. vi. 9.

53 I. Cor. i.

54 I. Cor. v.

55 Luther, Zuinglius, and Knox had been ordained priests. Calvin had studied for the priesthood, but did not receive Orders.

56 Ps. xii.

57 Mal. i. 11.

58 Matt. xxviii. 19.

59 Mark xvi. 15.

60 Acts i. 8.

61 Rom. x. 18.

62 Rom. i. 18.

63 Adv. Haer., i. 1.

64 Apologet. c. 37.

65 St. Aug. de Ver. Rel., c. 7. n. 12.

66 Does not this fact conclusively demonstrate the truth that the Catholic Church can subsist under every form of government? And is it not an eloquent refutation of the oft repeated calumny that a republic is not a favorable soil for her development?

67 Apoc. v. 9.

68 Malachy i. 11.

69 Ps. lxxxiii.

70 Eph. ii. 20.

71 Gal. i. 8.

72 II. Tim. ii. 2.

73 Heb. v. 4.

74 Rom. x. 15.

75 Acts xiv. 22.

76 Tit. i. 5.

77 Acts xiii. 2, 3.

78 Matt. xvi. 18.

79 Luke xxii. 32.

80 John xxi. 15.

81 Thess. ii. 13.

82 Acts xv. 28.

83 Gal. i. 8.

84 Matt. vi. 17.

85 Acts xiii. 2.

86 Acts xiv. 22.

87 I. Cor. xiv. 34, 35.

88 Acts viii. 17.

89 Matt. xxvi. 26-28.

90 I. Cor. x. 16.

91 John xx. 28.

92 II. Cor. v. 18.

93 James v. 14.

94 Mark x. 11, 12.

95 I. Cor. vii, 10, 11.

96 I. Cor. vii.

97 History of the Church of England, by Thomas. V. Short, Bishop of St. Asaph's, p. 44.

98 Book of Homilies.

99 Lib. de Praescrip., c. 32.

100 Psal. contra part Donati.

101 Luke i. 32, 33.

102 Matt. xvi. 18.

103 Matt. xxviii. 20.

104 Except some Oriental sects dating back to the fifth and ninth centuries.

105 Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ch. xxxvii, p. 450.

106 Du Pape, 1, 2, c. 5.

107 Psalm cii. 5.

108 Psalm ii. 1-4.

109 Daniel, iii.

110 Tyndall, Study of Physics.

111 Psalm ci. 27-29.

112 Eph. ii. 19, 20.

113 Matt. xxviii. 20.

114 See Gal. iv. 14; 1 Thess. ii. 13.

115 Matt. xvi. 18.

116 Matt. vii. 24, et seq.

117 John xx. 21.

118 Matt. xxviii. 19, 20.

119 Mark xvi. 15.

120 Acts i. 8.

121 Matt. x. 14, 15.

122 Matt. xviii. 17.

123 Mark xvi. 16.

124 Luke x. 16.

125 John xiv. 16; xvi. 13.

126 Matt. xxviii. 18-20.

127 Ex. iii. 12; Jer. xv. 20, etc.

128 Eph. iv. 11-14.

129 Heb. xi. 6.

130 Tim. iii. 7.

131 Isaiah xxxv. 8.

132 Ps. cxxxii.

133 Matt. xviii. 3.

134 Pet. ii. 2.

135 Deut. xvii. 8, et seq.

136 Mal. ii. 7.

137 Matt. xxiii. 2, 3.

138 John v. 39.

139 Except when He directed St. John to write the Apocalypse, i. 11.

140 Matt. xxviii. 19.

141 Mark xvi. 15.

142 Luke x. 16.

143 Mark xvi. 20.

144 I. Tim., ii. 4.

145 Martinet, Religion in Society, Vol. II., c. 10.

146 II. Pet., iii. 16.

147 Ibid., i. 20.

148 Acts, viii. 31.

149 Except, perhaps, Rev. H. W. Beecher. who thinks that God is glorified by the variety of sects.

150 See John xxi. 25; II. Thess. ii. 14.

151 III. Kings xiv. 19.

152 Dialog. 3, 14.

153 Deut. xvii.

154 I. Cor. x. 11.

155 Prov. viii. 15.

156 Matt. xvi. 13-19.

157 Rev. i. 18.

158 John xxi. 15-17.

159 Matt. x. 2; Mark iii. 16; Luke vi. 14; Acts i. 14.

160 Acts iii.

161 Acts ii.

162 Acts x.

163 Acts i.

164 Acts xv.

165 Acts xii.

166 Gal. ii. 11.

167 Gal. i. 18.

168 Socrates' Ecclesiastical History, B. II., c. xv.

169 Epist. 113.

170 See Butler's Lives of the Saints—St. Olave, July 29th.

171 Ps. lii.

172 Gen. xi. 4.

173 Numb. xxiv. 5.

174 Conc. Vat. Const. Pastor AEternus, c. 4.

175 Conc. Vat. Const. Dei Filius, cap. 4; Coloss. ii. 8.

176 Matt. xvi.

177 Matt. xvi.

178 Ibid.

179 Luke xxii. 31, 32.

180 John xxi. 16, 17.

181 Matt. viii. 20.

182 Acts iv. 34, 35.

183 Sometimes called Stephen II., as Stephen, his predecessor, died three days after his election, whose name is omitted in some calendars.

184 III. Kings xxi. 3.

185 II. Kings xii.

186 I dare say you could have found, a few years since, some persons in the United States who entertained a holy fear lest the Pope should one morning land upon our shores, and take forcible possession of our country. A venerable clergyman once informed me that when he went to pay his respects to President Pierce, who then occupied the White House, his Excellency remarked to him: "I had a visit from a nervous gentleman, who asked me whether I was making any preparations to resist the approach of the Pope. I replied that so far I had taken no steps, but that no doubt I would be prepared to meet the enemy when he arrived. The man retired more composed, though not fully satisfied."

187 Some of the evils that were predicted to follow from the occupation of Rome by a foreign power have been too speedily realized. Already several convents and other ecclesiastical institutions have been seized and sold, and their inmates sent adrift. A number of colleges founded and endowed by the piety of foreign Catholics have been confiscated. Public religious processions through the streets of Rome have been prohibited. These and other outrages are perpetrated by a government which solemnly pledged itself to maintain inviolate the sovereign rights of the Holy Father when it took forcible possession of his city in 1870. From the events that have already transpired, we shall not be surprised to see the Pope still more seriously hampered by a monarch who has unscrupulously violated his former guarantees.

188 Memoir of Pope Sixtus V., by Baron Huebner, Vol. II., ch. 1.

189 When these lines were written, Pius IX. was the reigning Pontiff. He died February 7, 1878.

190 Some time ago, my attention was called to a certain excommunication or "curse," then widely circulated by the press of North Carolina. The "curse" is attributed to the Holy Father, and is fulminated against Victor Emmanuel. In this anathema, cursing and damning are heaped up in wild confusion. When this base forgery appeared, an article exposing the falsehood of the production was published. We fear, however, that many who read the slanderous charge did not read its refutation.

191 Matt. xvi. 18.

192 I. Cor. xiii. 12.

193 Gen. xlviii. 16.

194 Tobias xii. 12.

195 Luke xv. 10.

196 I. Cor. iv. 9.

197 Matt. xxii. 30.

198 Gen. xxviii.

199 Exod. xvii.

200 Baruch i. 13.

201 Job xlii.

202 Ibid.

203 II. Paralip. vii. 15.

204 II. Mac. xv. 14.

205 Revel. v. 8.

206 Zach. i. 12, 13.

207 I. Tim. ii. 5.

208 Council of Trent, Sess. xxv.

209 Prov. xv. 20.

210 Luke vi. 19.

211 Matt. ix. 20.

212 Exod. iv. 12.

213 Jer. i. 5.

214 Luke i. 41.

215 Ibid. i. 15.

216 John v. 35.

217 Acts ii.

218 II Cor. iii. 6.

219 Acts iii. 15.

220 Isaiah iii. 11.

221 Luke i. 26, 27.

222 Matt. i. 25.

223 Matt. i. 25.

224 Book V., ch. xlv.

225 Gen. viii. 7.

226 Kings xv. 35.

227 Ps. cix.

228 Josue xvii. 1.

229 Matt. xii. 46; xiii. 55, 56.

230 Ibid.

231 Matt xxvii.; Mark xv.

232 John xix. 25.

233 Gen. xiii. 8.

234 Bulla Dogmat. Pii Papae IX.

235 Ibid.

236 Gen. iii. 15.

237 I. Cor. xv. 45.

238 Bibliotheca Max. Patrum, t. 2, p. 3.

239 De sac. ordinat., p. 313.

240 Renaudot. Lit. Orient.

241 Luke i. 26-35.

242 I. Cor. xv. 41.

243 St. Bernard.

244 Judges, v.

245 Judith, xiii.

246 Luke i. 39-45.

247 Luke i. 46-48.

248 Oliver W. Holmes.

249 Luke xi. 27.

250 Esther vi. 11.

251 Ps. cxxxviii. (In Protestant version, Ps. cxxxix.)

252 John xv. 14.

253 John xii. 26.

254 Ps. lxxxvi.

255 Judith xiii.

256 Eccles. xliii. et seq.

257 Luke i.

258 Ibid.

259 Luke i. 49.

260 Gen. xlviii. 16; Tobias xii. 12; Luke xv. 10; Zach. i. 12, 13.

261 Acts vii. 55.

262 II. Cor. xii. 4.

263 Luke ii. 51.

264 Longfellow's "Golden Legend."

265 Isaiah xlix. 15.

266 Heb. ii 11.

267 Luke xv. 7.

268 Luke xxii. 29, 30.

269 I. Cor. vi.

270 Longfellow's "Golden Legend."

271 Luke ii. 51.

272 Heb. i. 3.

273 Rom. viii. 29.

274 Sess. xxv.

275 Chap. xx.

276 Apoc. xxi.

277 III. Kings vi.

278 II. Kings vii. 2.

279 At the Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va., in the sanctuary of the chapel, the portrait of an opulent benefactor holds a conspicuous place.

280 Exod. xxv. 40.

281 Sess. xxv.

282 II. Mach. xii. 43-46.

283 Matt. xii. 32.

284 I. Cor. iii. 13-15.

285 De Monogam., n. x.

286 Euseb., B. iv., c. 71.

287 Catech., n. 9, 10, p. 328.

288 Apud Faith of Catholics, Vol. III., p. 162 and seq.

289 See Faith of Catholics, Vol. III., p. 176.

290 Ibid., p. 177.

291 Ibid., Vol. II.

292 Confessions, Book ix.

293 Jewish Prayer Book. Edited by Isaac Leeser, published by Slote & Mooney, Philadelphia.

294 Act. I.

295 See Path of Holiness, Rivington's, London. Treasury of Devotion, Ibid. Catechism of Theology, Masten, London.

296 Mark xii. 26, 27.

297 Apoc. xxi. 27.

298 Morte D'Arthur.

299 Eccles. xi. 1.

300 Vie de Fenelon.

301 Becanus, de Virtutibus Theologicis, c. 16, quaest. 4, No. 2.

302 Dr. Brownson, who was then a Protestant.

303 Bancroft's "History of the United States," Vol. I., ch. vii. 20th Edition, 1864.

304 Bancroft's "History of the United States," Vol. I., ch. vii.

305 Bancroft's "History of the United States," Vol. I., ch. vii. Vide Bacon's Laws.

306 Ibid.

307 Bancroft's "History of the United States," Vol. I., ch. vii. Vide Bacon's Laws.

308 Boston, Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1884.

309 Ibid., Chapter iii.

310 Ibid., Chap. v.

311 Ibid., Chap. xi.

312 Ibid. Chap. xi.

313 James Walter Thomas.

314 The original of Washington's reply is still preserved in the Archives of the Baltimore Cathedral.

315 Ps. ii.

316 II. Tim. ii. 9.

317 II. Tim. iv. 2.

318 "Ferdinand and Isabella," Vol. III., p. 202.

319 Blue Laws.

320 For an impartial account of the Inquisition, the reader is referred to the "Letters on the Spanish Inquisition," by the Count de Maistre.

321 "The Ottoman and Spanish Empires," by Leopold Ranke.

322 Constitutional History; Elizabeth, Chap. III.

323 See Lingard, Vol. VII., pp. 244-5.

324 Macaulay's Essays, "Review of Nares' Memoirs of Lord Burleigh."

325 II. Cor. iii. 5.

326 Phil. ii. 13.

327 John xv. 5.

328 Acts ii. 38.

329 Matt. xxviii. 19.

330 See Wisdom ii. 23.

331 Rom. v. 12.

332 Eph. ii. 3.

333 Job xiv. 4.

334 Ps. l. 7.

335 Gen. iii. 15.

336 Gal. iv. 4, 5.

337 John iii. 5.

338 Acts xvi. 15.

339 Ibid. xvi. 33.

340 I. Cor. i. 16.

341 Lib. II. adr. Haer.

342 In Ep. ad Rom.

343 Epis. ad Fidum.

344 Apoc. xxi. 27.

345 Rom. xi. 33, 34.

346 Ezech. xxxvi. 25, 26.

347 Acts ii. 38.

348 Ibid. xxii. 16.

349 Gal. iii. 26, 27.

350 I. Cor. vi. 11.

351 Tit. iii. 3-7.

352 John v.

353 Acts ii. 41.

354 Acts viii. 14-17.

355 Acts xix. 5, 6.

356 Heb. vi. 1, 2.

357 II. Cor. i. 21.

358 Tract VI. in Ep. Joan.

359 De Resur. car.

360 Epist. lxxiii.

361 Cat. xxi. Mys. iii. De S. Chrism.

362 De Myst. cvii. n. 42.

363 Dial. adv. Lucifer.

364 L. II., contra lit. Petil.

365 Roman Pontifical.

366 II. Cor. x. 5.

367 John vi. 48-56.

368 John vi. 61.

369 Ibid. vi. 67.

370 John iii.

371 Matt. xvi.

372 John vi. 68, 69.

373 Matt. xxvi. 26-28.

374 Luke xxii. 19.

375 I. Cor. x. 16, and xi. 23-29.

376 See "Faith of Catholics." Vol. II.

377 John vi. 51, and seq.

378 Rom. vi. 9.

379 I. Cor. xi. 27.

380 Aug. De consec. dist.

381 De formula Missae.

382 Systema Theol., p. 250.

383 Acts ii. 42.

384 Ibid. xx. 7.

385 Alzog's Hist., Vol. I., p. 721.

386 Denziger, Rit. Orientales.

387 While Protestants consider the cup as an indispensable part of the communion service, they do not seem, in many instances, to be very particular as to what the cup will contain. And the New York Independent, of September 21, 1876, relates the following incident: "A late English traveler found a Baptist mission church, in far-off Burmah, using for the communion service Bass's pale ale instead of wine. The opening of the frothing bottle on the communion table seemed not quite decorous to the visitor, who presented the pastor with a half-dozen bottles of claret for sacramental use."

388 Gen. iv.

389 Gen. viii.

390 Ibid. xv.

391 Job. i.

392 Numb. xxviii.

393 II. Mac. xii. 43-46.

394 Heb. x. 4, 7.

395 Isaiah i. 11-13.

396 Mal. i. 10, 11.

397 I. Cor. xi. 23-26.

398 Heb. xiii. 10.

399 Ibid. vii. 12.

400 Ps. cix. 4; Heb. v. 6.

401 Gen. xiv. 18.

402 Heb. ix. 25.

403 Ibid. x. 11, 12.

404 I. John ii. 1, 2.

405 Heb. ix. 13, 14.

406 Heb. iv. 16.

407 John iv. 23, 24.

408 Dan. iii. 62, 63. Though this passage is omitted in the Protestant Bible, it is retained in the Book of Common Prayer.

409 Psalm. xviii. 1.

410 Rom. xii. 1.

411 Matt. xxvi.

412 Ibid. xxi.

413 Ibid. xxvi.

414 Mark vii.

415 John xx.

416 Acts viii.

417 James v.

418 Apocalypse, passim.

419 II. Cor. iii. 9.

420 Isaiah xxix. 13.

421 Ibid. i. 72.

422 Ps. cl.

423 Joel ii. 13.

424 Ibid. ii. 15-17.

425 I. Cor. xiii.

426 Phil. ii. 10.

427 I. Tim. iv. 4.

428 Exod. xxv. 31, and seq.

429 Ps. cxl.

430 Exod. xxx. 7.

431 Luke i. 9, 10.

432 John xii. 6.

433 Exod. xxviii. 4.

434 Apoc. vii. 9, 10.

435 Matt. i. 21.

436 Matt. ix. 2.

437 John v. 14.

438 II. Cor. v. 18-20.

439 Matt. xvi. 18, 19.

440 Matt. xviii. 18.

441 John xx. 21-23.

442 Isaiah i. 18.

443 Acts xix. 18.

444 I. John i. 9.

445 In Reg. Brev., quaest, ccxxix., T. II., p. 492.

446 Ibid., cclxxxviii., p. 516.

447 See Faith of Catholics, Vol. III., p. 74 and seq.

448 Apud Wiseman's Doctrines of the Church.

449 Hom. xx.

450 Sermo cccxcii.

451 Tom. vii. Comm. in Matt.

452 Lib. iii., De Sacerdotio.

453 Ibid., Hom. xx.

454 Comment in Eccles.

455 Comm. in Matt.

456 Lib. de Capt. Babyl. cap de Poenit.

457 See "A Catechism on the Church." By the Rev. C. S. Grueber, Hambridge, Diocese of Bath and Wells. London: Palmer, 1870.

458 The Protestant Episcopal Bishop of North Carolina.

459 Ps. cxxxii.

460 The Ordering of Priests.

461 Mark ii. 7.

462 Matt. ix. 8.

463 John xx.

464 IV. Kings v.

465 Systema Theol.

466 Remarques sur l'Olympe.

467 Emile.

468 Heb. v. 2.

469 Luke xv. 32.

470 Num. xii.

471 II. Kings xii.

472 Matt. xvi. 19.

473 Ibid., xviii. 18.

474 I. Cor. v. 5.

475 II. Cor. ii. 6-10.

476 Articuli pro Clero, A.D. 1584. Sparrow, 194. I admit, indeed, that Protestant canons have but a fleeting and ephemeral authority even among themselves, and that the canons must yield to the spirit of the times, not the times to the canons. I dare say that even few Protestant theologians are familiar with the canons to which I have referred. Some people have a convenient faculty of forgetting unpleasant traditions.

477 Vol. I. p. 214.

478 Ibid.

479 Byron.

480 Daniel iv. 24.

481 Acts x. 31.

482 Sess. xxv. Dec. de Indulgentia.

483 James v. 14, 15.

484 Homil. ii. in Levit.

485 Lib. iii. de Sacred.

486 Epist. xxv. ad Decentum.

487 Comment in locum.

488 Systema Theol., p. 280.

489 Lib. de Captiv. Babyl.

490 II. Cor. v. 20.

491 John xx. 21.

492 Matt. xxviii. 19, 20.

493 Mark xvi. 15.

494 Matt. x. 14, 15.

495 Luke x. 16.

496 Paralip, xvi. 22.

497 John xv. 15.

498 Isaiah lii. 7.

499 I. Cor. iv. 1.

500 James v. 14.

501 I. Cor. iv. 15.

502 Apoc. xxi. 2.

503 Eph. iv. 11, 12.

504 Ps. cxlvii. 20.

505 Matt. xix. 27-29.

506 Luke x. 18, 20.

507 Wisd. vi. 6.

508 I. Pet. iv. 17.

509 I. Cor. iv. 7.

510 Cor. iii. 6, 7.

511 Malach. ii. 7.

512 Osee. iv. 6.

513 Isaiah lii. 11.

514 Rom. xii. 1.

515 Matt. xix. 12.

516 I. Cor. vii. 32, 33.

517 I. Cor. vii. 8.

518 Matt. xix. 27.

519 Ibid., xix. 29.

520 Tit. i. 8.

521 I. Tim. iv. 12.

522 II. Cor. vi. 46.

523 Ep. ad Pammach.

524 Adv. Jovin., lib. 1.

525 Adv. Vigilantium.

526 Haeres. 59, c. 4.

527 I. Kings xxi.

528 Exod. xix.

529 Page 239.

530 Essays, p. 17.

531 Annals of the Propagation of the Faith, March, 1868.

532 Marshall, Comedy of Convocation.

533 I. Cor. ix. 5.

534 I. Tim. iii. 2.

535 I. Tim. iv. 1-3.

536 Ephes. v. 25-32.

537 Sess. xxiv.

538 Matt. xix. 4-6.

539 Matt. xix. 3-9.

540 Mark x. 11, 12.

541 Luke xvi. 18.

542 I. Cor. vii. 10, 11.

543 Bossuet, Variations, Vol. 1.

544 Audin, p. 339.

545 American Cyclop., art Divorce. Our Savior declares that he who marrieth an adulteress committeth adultery. Yet Luther and Calvin declare that it is unwise to oppose such a marriage. But "the foolishness of God is wiser than men." And Wisdom has said: "I will destroy the wisdom of the wise." (I. Cor. i.)


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