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The Fair Play Settlers of the West Branch Valley, 1769-1784 - A Study of Frontier Ethnography
by George D. Wolf
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Theiss, Lewis E. "Early Agriculture," Susquehanna Tales (Sunbury, 1955), 88-89.

Tome, Philip. Pioneer Life; or Thirty Years a Hunter. Harrisburg, 1928.

Trinterud, Leonard J. The Forming of an American Tradition: A Re-Examination of Colonial Presbyterianism. Philadelphia, 1949.

Turner, Frederick Jackson. Frontier and Section: Selected Essays of Frederick Jackson Turner. Intro. by Ray Allen Billington. Englewood, Cliffs, N. J., 1961.

——. The Frontier in American History. New York, 1963.

Volwiler, Albert T. George Croghan and the Westward Movement 1741-1783. Cleveland, 1926.

Wallace, Paul A. W. Conrad Weiser. Philadelphia, 1945.

——. Indians in Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, 1961.

——. Pennsylvania: Seed of a Nation. New York, 1962.

Webb, Walter Prescott. The Great Plains. New York, 1931.

Wertenbaker, Thomas J. The First Americans 1607-1690. New York, 1962.

——. The Founding of American Civilization: The Middle Colonies. New York, 1949.

Wittke, Carl. We Who Built America. 1963.

Wright, J. E., and Doris S. Corbett. Pioneer Life In Western Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh, 1940.

Wright, Louis B. Culture on the Moving Frontier. Bloomington, Ind., 1955.

——. The Atlantic Frontier. New York, 1947.

——. The Cultural Life of the American Colonies, 1607-1763. New York, 1957.

Yeates, Jasper. Pennsylvania Reports, I. Philadelphia and St. Louis, 1871.

PUBLIC DOCUMENTS

Appearance Docket Commencing 1797, No. 2. Lycoming County, Office of the Prothonotor, Williamsport.

Colonial Records, IX. Harrisburg, 1852.

Colonial Records, X. Harrisburg, 1852.

Colonial Records, XI. Harrisburg, 1852.

Colonial Records, XII. Harrisburg, 1852.

Colonial Records, XX. Harrisburg, 1852.

Pennsylvania Archives, [First Series], XI. Philadelphia, 1855.

——, [First Series], XII. Philadelphia, 1856.

——, Second Series, II. Harrisburg, 1876.

——, Second Series, III. Harrisburg, 1875.

——, Second Series, XVII. Harrisburg, 1890.

——, Third Series, XI-XXII. Harrisburg, 1897.

New Purchase Applications, Nos. 1823 and 2611, April 3, 1769. Bureau of Land Records, Harrisburg.

Report of the Commission to Locate the Site of the Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, 1916.

ARTICLES AND ESSAYS

Baelyn, Bernard. "Political Experiences and Enlightenment Ideas in Eighteenth-Century America," American Historical Review, LXVII (January, 1962), 339-351.

Beck, Herbert H. "Martin Meylin, A Progenitor of the Pennsylvania Rifle," Papers Read Before the Lancaster County Historical Society, LIII (1949), 33-61.

Berger, Robert. "The Story of Baptist Beginnings in Lycoming County," Now and Then, XII (July, 1960), 274-280.

Bertin, Eugene P. "Primary Streams of Lycoming County," Now and Then, VIII (October, 1947), 258-259.

Carter, John H. "The Committee of Safety of Northumberland County," The Northumberland County Historical Society Proceedings and Addresses, XVIII (1950), 33-54.

Champagne, Roger. "Family Politics Versus Constitutional Principles: The New York Assembly Elections of 1768 and 1769," William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, XX (January, 1963), 57-79.

Clark, Chester. "Pioneer Life in the New Purchase," Northumberland County Historical Society Proceedings and Addresses, VII (1935), 16-44.

Deans, John Bacon. "The Migration of the Connecticut Yankees to the West Branch of the Susquehanna River," Proceedings of the Northumberland County Historical Society (1954), 34-55.

"Diary of the Unknown Traveler," Now and Then, X (January, 1954), 307-313.

"Eleanor Coldren's Depositions," Now and Then, XII (October, 1959), 220-222.

Everett, F. B. "Early Presbyterianism along the West Branch of the Susquehanna River," Journal Presbyterian Historical Society, XII (October, 1927), 481-485.

Garrison, Hazel Shields. "Cartography of Pennsylvania Before 1800," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, LIX (July, 1935), 255-283.

Gross, Rebecca F. "Postscript to the Week," Lock Haven Express (August 3, 1963), 4.

Hofstadter, Richard. "The Myth of the Happy Yeoman," American Heritage, VII (April, 1956), 43-53.

Johns, John O. "July 4, 1776—Rediscovered." Commonwealth: The Magazine for Pennsylvania, II (July, 1948), 2-16.

Jordan, John W. (contributor), "Spangenberg's Notes of Travel to Onondaga in 1745," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, II (No. 4, 1878), 424-432.

Klett, Guy S. "Scotch-Irish Presbyterian Pioneering Along The Susquehanna River," Pennsylvania History, XX (April, 1953), 165-179.

Linn, John Blair. "Indian Land and Its Fair Play Settlers, 1773-1785," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, VII (No. 4, 1883), 420-425.

"Map Drawn by John Adlum, District Surveyor, 1792, Found Among the Bingham Papers," Now & Then, X. (July, 1952), 148-150.

Meginness, John F. "The Scotch-Irish of the Upper Susquehanna Valley," Scotch-Irish Society of America Proceedings and Addresses, VIII (1897), 159-169.

Neal, Don. "Freedom Outpost," Pennsylvania Game News, XXXI (July, 1960), 6-10.

Russell, Helen Herritt. "The Documented Story of the Fair Play Men and Their Government," Proceedings of the Northumberland County Historical Society, XXII (1958), 16-43.

——. "The Great Runaway of 1778," The Journal of the Lycoming Historical Society, II (No. 4, 1961), 3-10.

——. "The Great Runaway of 1778," The Northumberland County Historical Society Proceedings and Addresses, XXIII (1960), 1-16.

——. "Signers of the Pine Creek Declaration of Independence," Proceedings of the Northumberland County Historical Society, XXII (1958), 1-15.

Silver, James W. (ed.). "An Autobiographical Sketch of Chauncey Brockway," Pennsylvania History, XXV (April, 1958), 137-161.

Stille, C. J. "Pennsylvania and the Declaration of Independence," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, XIII (No. 4, 1889), 385-429.

Wallace, Paul A. W., Excerpt from letter, Sept. 2, 1952, Now and Then, X (October, 1952), 184.

Wilkinson, Norman B. (ed.). "Mr. Davy's Diary," Now and Then, X (April, 1954), 336-343.

Williams, E. Melvin. "The Scotch-Irish in Pennsylvania," Americana XVII (1923), 374-387.

Williams, Richmond D. "Col. Thomas Hartley's Expedition of 1778," Now and Then, XII (April, 1960), 258-259.

Wolf, George D. "The Tiadaghton Question," The Lock Haven Review, Series I, No. 5 (1963), 61-71.

Wood, T. Kenneth (ed.). "Journal of an English Emigrant Farmer," Lycoming Historical Society Proceedings and Papers, No. 6 (1928).

——. Now and Then, X (July, 1952), 148-150.

—— (ed.). "Observations Made By John Bartram In His Travels From Pennsylvania to Onondaga, Oswego and the Lake Ontario in 1743," Now and Then, V (1936), 90.

UNPUBLISHED STUDIES

Turner, Morris K. "The Commercial Relations of the Susquehanna Valley During the Colonial Period." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1916.

MANUSCRIPTS

MANUSCRIPT COLLECTIONS

Zebulon Butler Papers, Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.

Rev. John Cuthbertson's Diary, 1716-1791 (microfilm, 2 reels). The Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg.

Journal of William Colbert (typescript). Property of the Rev. Charles F. Berkheimer of Williamsport, Pa. Original (1792-1794) at the Garrett Biblical Seminary, Chicago. (Copy also at Lycoming College, Williamsport.)

Revolutionary War Pension Claims (typescript). Wagner Collection, Muncy Historical Society and Museum of History, Muncy, Pa.

PERSONAL CORRESPONDENCE

Mrs. Solon J. Buck, Washington, D. C, June 22, 1963, to the author.

Alfred P. James, Pittsburgh, July 16, 1963, to the author.

Peter Marshall, Berkeley, Calif., May 19, 1962, to the author.

Mrs. Phyllis V. Parsons, Collegeville, Pa., October 21, 1962, to the author.

Paul A. W. Wallace, Harrisburg, February 16, 1961, July 30, August 24, and December 17, 1962, to the author.



Index

Adlum, John, 9, 10, 13

Alexander, James, 26

Allegheny Mountains, 1, 2, 47, 102

Allison, Rev. Francis, 67

American Revolution, 23, 33, 34, 44, 49, 54, 68, 71, 84, 86, 103, 104, 110

Antes, Frederick, 77-82, 87

Antes, Henry, Jr., 40, 42, 76-83, 101

Antes, Henry, Sr., 78

Antes, Joseph, 42

Antes, Philip, 42

Antes, William, 78

Antes Mill, 79, 80, 82

Art, 70

Arthur, Robert, 41

Atlee, Samuel J., 5

Bald Eagle Creek, 22, 48, 67, 79

Bald Eagle Mountains, 14

Bald Eagle Township, 45, 46, 84

Bald Eagle's Nest, 48

Baptists, 68

Barn-raisings, 60, 95, 97

Bartram, John, 9-11, 13

Bertin, Eugene P., 7

"Beulah Land," 71

Bingham, William, 11

Blackwell, 71

Bonner, Barnabas, 40

Books, 69, 70

Brainerd, Rev. David, 67

Bryce, James, 89, 90

Bucks County, 19

Burnet's Hills, 6

"Cabin right," 37

Cabin-raisings, 48, 51, 60, 74, 95, 97

Caldwell, Bratton, 40, 41

Calhoune, George, 26

Cammal, 71

Campbell, Cleary, 26, 62

Campbell, William, Jr., 26

Carlisle Presbytery, 67

Charter of Privileges, 96

Chester County, 19, 20

Children, 55

Clark, Francis, 42

Clark, John, 26

Colbert, William, 61-63, 65, 70

Coldren, Eleanor, 40, 83, 92, 96

Commerce, 56

Committee of Safety, 34, 44, 45, 48, 54, 77, 81-83, 88, 106

Connecticut, 20, 21, 23, 31

Constitutional Convention, Pennsylvania (1776), 80, 83, 87

Continental Congress, 85, 103

Cooke, William, 26

"Corn right," 37

Council of Safety, 34, 44

Covenhoven, Robert, 22

Crawford, James, 77, 82, 83

Cruger, Daniel, 96

Culbertson, Mr., 67

Cumberland County, 19, 20

Cumberland Valley, 47, 105

Curti, Merle, 76, 100

Dauphin County, 19, 20

Davy, Mr., 56, 63

Declaration of Independence, 42, 43, 71, 74, 106

"Declaration of Independence" of Fair Play Settlers, 42-44, 61, 62, 71, 74, 83, 106, 107

Defense, 84, 103, 108

Demography, 16-29, 100, 104-107

DeSchweinitz, Edmund A., 8, 10

Dewitt, Abraham, 40

Dewitt, Peter, 95, 96

Dickinson, John, 43, 78, 81

Donegal Presbytery, 67

Dougherty, Samuel, 40

Drinking, 71, 72, 74, 75, 98

Duncan, Mr., 38

Dunn, William, 96

Economic institutions, 89-91, 97, 99-102, 104, 107, 109; see also Farming

Education, 17, 58, 65, 69

Ejectment, 35-39, 41, 106

English, 16-20, 24-26, 28, 54, 57, 58, 83, 84, 93, 95, 102

Ettwein, Bishop John, 9, 10, 13

Evans, Lewis, 9-11, 13

Fair Play men, 3, 31, 35-36, 38, 40, 41, 45, 73, 77, 81-83, 92, 94, 95, 97, 102, 109; see also Tribunal, Fair Play

Faith, 17, 68, 73, 75, 98, 99

Family life, 17, 58, 64, 65, 68, 100, 110

Ferguson, Thomas, 40

Fithian, Philip Vickers, 9, 10, 13, 43, 53, 61, 66, 67, 69, 79, 82

Fleming, Betsey, 53

Fleming, John, 43, 66, 67, 69, 77, 81, 82, 85

Fleming, Robert, 77, 79, 81, 83, 85, 87

Forster, Thomas, 26

Fort Antes, 34, 78, 80, 81, 86, 93

Fort Augusta, 22, 71, 79, 85

Fort Fleming, 81

Fort Horn, 34, 82-84, 86, 93

Fort Muncy, 34

Fort Reed, 34, 81, 83, 86

Fort Stanwix, Treaties of, 2, 3, 5-9, 12, 13, 21, 25, 29, 33, 34, 36, 67, 81, 86, 103

Forts, 64, 77, 81-83

Franklin, Benjamin, 52, 81

French, 2, 16-18, 58, 86, 95, 102

French and Indian War, 2, 16, 21

Galbreath, Robert, 9, 11

General Assembly, 9, 11, 79, 80, 81, 84, 86, 87, 96

George III, 84

Germans, 16-20, 24-26, 28, 54, 57, 58, 82-84, 93, 95, 102

Germantown, 78, 83

Great Island, 3, 12, 14, 34, 35, 40, 48, 67, 79, 81, 105

Great Runaway 21-23, 29, 33, 34, 71, 80, 84, 85, 88, 106

Great Shamokin Path, 47, 48

Greene County, 100, 101, 105

Grier, Rev. Isaac, 67

Grier, James, 40, 41

Grier vs. Tharpe, 40

Gristmills, 54, 64

Haines, Joseph, 40

Hamilton, Alexander, 43, 77, 82, 85, 86

Hamilton, Anna Jackson, 43, 44, 62, 66, 71, 107

Hamilton, John, 44

Hartley, Col. Thomas, 22, 23

Harvest, 53, 74, 95, 98, 107

Hill, Aaron, 6

Homes, 51, 52, 59, 104

Horn, Samuel, 77, 82, 83, 85

Hospitality, 60, 73

Huff, Edmund, 40, 41

Huff-Latcha (Satcha) case, 40, 41, 92

Huggins, Mr., 95

Hughes, James, 38, 39

Hughes, Thomas, 38, 39, 77, 83

Hughes vs. Dougherty, 36-40

Hunter, Col. Samuel, 21, 22, 84, 85

Immigration, 19-21, 24, 25, 28, 29

"Improvements," 37-39, 41, 58, 64, 72, 97

Indentured servitude, 64, 95

Independence, 68, 95, 103; see also Declaration of Independence

Indians, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 13, 21-24, 29, 41, 42, 63, 67, 84, 86, 88, 94, 109

Individualism, 17, 72, 74, 98, 104, 107, 109, 110

Industry, 54, 55

Intermarriage, 58, 60

Irish, 16-18, 58, 83, 95, 102

Irwin (Irvin), James, 26, 40

Jamison, John, 26

Jersey Shore, 15, 19, 34, 42, 79, 84

Johnson, Sir William, 2, 21

Jones, Isaiah, 26

Juniata Valley, 20, 48

Kemplen, Thomas, 40, 41

Kendall, Willmoore, 91

Kincaid, Mr., 42

King, Robert, 26

King, William, 40, 41

Labor, 95, 99, 107

Lancaster, 70

Lancaster County, 19, 20, 38

Land claims, 32, 33, 35, 36, 38-40, 45, 62, 73, 80, 86, 92-94, 106

Land Office, 12, 21, 24, 86

Larrys Creek, 14, 15

Latcha, Jacob, 40

Law, unwritten, 37-39

Leadership, 36, 76-88, 104, 107, 108

Lewisburg, 67

Leyburn, James G., 37, 53

"Limping Messenger," 4, 8, 10

Linn, John Blair, 5-7, 20, 101

Lock Haven, 2, 14, 15, 34, 61, 81, 84, 105

Locke, John, 31

Logan, James, 16

Long, Cookson, 40, 77, 83

Love, Robert, 67

Lycoming Church, 67

Lycoming County courts, 33, 35, 36, 62, 65, 72, 94

Lycoming Creek 2-6, 9-15, 21, 24, 30, 35, 48, 67, 79, 105

Lycoming Gazette, 49

Lycoming Township, 28

Lydius, John Henry, 23

McElhattan, Pa., 84

McElhattan, William, 95, 96

McKean, Thomas, 22, 36, 37

McMeans, William, 40

MacMinn, Edwin, 78, 101

Manning, Richard, 70

Marshall, Peter, 12

Martin, John, 41

Maynard, D. S., 6, 7

Medical practices, 70, 71

Meginness, John, 4-7, 10, 20, 41, 42, 101

Methodists, 61, 62, 65, 66, 68, 97, 98

Milesburg, 48

Military service, 38-41, 45, 77, 78, 80, 81, 83, 94

Milton, 62

Ministers, itinerant, 66, 69, 71, 73

Missionaries, 67

Montgomery County, 78

Montour, Andrew, 10

Montoursville; see Ostonwaken

Moravians, 78

Muhlenberg, Henry, 78

Muhlenberg, Hiester H., 9

Muncy, 14, 20, 34, 64

Muncy Creek, 20

Muncy Hills, 50

Music, 70, 100

National origins, 16-18, 26, 33, 36, 57, 58, 61, 64, 73, 76, 82, 83, 91, 93, 97, 99, 102, 105, 107

Nationalism, 99, 102, 103, 108

New Hampshire, 31

New Jersey, 19, 20

"New Purchase," 8, 11, 12, 20, 21, 24, 29, 64

New York, 19, 20, 84

Newspapers, 49

Niagara, N. Y., 8

Nippenose Valley, 42, 80

Nittany Valley, 48

Northumberland County, 24-26, 35, 38, 56, 77, 79, 80, 83, 84, 87, 106

Northumberland County courts, 33, 36, 39, 41, 48, 62, 65, 72, 94

Northumberland Gazette, 49

Northumberland Presbytery, 67

Office holding, 76, 77, 79, 87, 88, 92, 108

"Old Purchase," 11

Onondaga (Syracuse), N. Y., 8, 9

Orange County, N. Y., 20

Ostonwaken (Montoursville), 4, 8

Paine, Thomas, 43

Parr, James, 40

Patriotism, 71, 73-75, 98, 99, 103

Paul, William, 41

Pennamite Wars, 20

Petitions, 28, 33, 76, 86, 87, 93, 94, 103

Philadelphia, 52, 80, 81

Philadelphia County, 19, 79

Pine Creek, 2-15, 19, 30, 35, 43, 44, 48, 62, 67, 71, 79, 80, 105, 107

Pine Creek Church, 67

Pine Creek Township, 24, 28

Plymouth Colony, 31

Political equality, 17, 69, 73, 75, 91, 92, 95, 99

Pottstown, 78

Pragmatism, 99, 102, 104

"Praying societies," 66

Pre-emption, 27-29, 33, 38, 39, 58, 84, 86, 94, 97, 103

Presbyterianism, 17, 29, 33, 61-63, 65-69, 74, 97, 98, 101

Price, John, 26

Proclamation of 1763, 2, 3, 21

Property right, 35, 72

Quilting, 49, 60, 70, 74

Ranney, Austin, 91

Read, Mr., 38

Recreation, 71, 100

Reed, William, 45, 77, 82, 83

Religion, 33, 58, 61, 62, 65, 66, 68, 73, 74, 91-93, 96, 97, 99, 100, 103, 107

Revolution; see American Revolution

Rhode Island, 31, 96

Roads, 48

Rodey, Peter, 36, 37

Schebosh, John, 4

Scotch-Irish, 16-21, 24, 25, 28-30, 33, 36, 37, 47, 53, 54, 57-60, 63-65, 70-72, 74, 82-84, 93, 95, 97, 101, 102, 105, 106

Scots, 16-18, 28, 58, 83, 95, 102

Self-determination, 89-91, 94, 97-99, 109

Self-reliance, 102, 103, 107

Self-sufficiency, 54, 56-58

Sergeant, Thomas, 6

Settlement, 35-37, 39, 72, 73, 90, 106

Sheshequin Path, 8-10, 48

Shickellamy, 9, 10

Shippen, Justice Edward, 39

Singmaster, Elsie, 8

Slavery, 64, 95

Smith, Charles, 38

Smith, Daniel, 38

Social compact, 31, 90

Social structure, 53, 58, 59, 64, 73, 75, 91, 97, 99-101, 103, 104, 107, 109

Sour's ferry, 69

Spangenburg, Bishop Augustus, 4, 8-10, 13, 78

Squatters' rights, 24, 72, 107

Stover, Martin, 9, 11

Suffrage, 33, 34, 92, 93, 96

Sunbury, 22, 47-49

Supreme Court, Pennsylvania, 36, 39

Supreme Executive Council, 44, 45, 86, 93, 94

Sweeney, Morgan, 41

Syracuse, N. Y.; see Onondaga, N. Y.

Tax lists, 25-27, 34, 56, 59, 76, 77, 101

Temperance, 73-75, 98, 99

Tenancy, 64, 95-97

Tenure, land, 37-40, 106

Tiadaghton Creek, 2-14, 24, 105

"Tiadaghton Elm," 13, 14, 43, 71

Tilghman, James, 12

"Tomahawk right," 37

Toner, John, 41

Tools, 49, 50, 52, 53, 70, 104

Tribunal, Fair Play, 32-36, 42, 48, 50, 58, 61, 72, 73, 82, 83, 88, 90, 92, 94, 102, 106, 109; see also Fair Play men

Turner, Frederick Jackson, 1, 19, 99-102, 104, 108, 109

Values, 58, 65, 68, 72, 91, 97-100, 104, 107

Virginia, 72, 105

Voluntary associations, 58, 60-62

Walker, John, 77, 83, 86

Wallace, Paul A. W., 13, 23

Weiser, Conrad, 4, 9-11, 13

Welsh, 16-18, 26, 28, 58, 95, 102

Whitefield, George, 78

Williamsport, 2, 49

Wills, 65, 69, 72, 73, 75, 101

Winters Massacre, 23

Women, 55, 59, 60, 65

Wyoming Massacre, 21-23

Wyoming Valley, 20

York County, 19

Zeisberger, David, 4, 8, 10

Zinzendorf, Nicholas von, 78



Transcriber's Endnotes

Minor typographical errors have been corrected without note.

Archaic spellings in quoted material have been retained.

The following discrepancies have been noted and corrected where possible:

Page 26, Chart 4. The data in column headed '1774' does not tally with the total below. With no obvious solution, the table remains as originally published.

Footnote 18, Chapter 3. 'See nn. 6 and 7, p. 4.' Corrected to See nn. 6 and 7, p. 33.

Footnote 20, Chapter 3. 'Supra, p. 4.' Corrected to Supra, p. 33.

Index entry 'Economic institutions'. There is no index entry for 'Farming', however the main references to farming can found in Chapter Four.

THE END

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