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The Facts About Shakespeare
by William Allan Nielson
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[Page Heading: The Sonnets]

To understand a man's surroundings does not, however, reveal the man; and to measure the growth of genius does not interpret its quality. Lovers of the plays are likely always to query: What manner of man was this? Taken out of his London, at any time in his career, how would he seem if we could know him as a man? Of what nature is this companion and friend whose presence we have felt through all his verses and in all of his characters? The few clues offered by records or tradition, and the difficulties in separating the creator from the thousand men and women of his creation, have driven many to seek answers to these questions in the sonnets. There he speaks in the first person, and there are revealed not merely some dubious hints of actual incidents, but the surer indications of emotional conflicts that went to the heart of the man's nature. At their worst, the sonnets may have been only literary exercises on conventional themes, but at their best they are surely both superb poetry and the result of genuine emotion. Can we doubt that the poet knew the pitfalls that beset the course of human passion or that he had faith in the triumphant beauty of love and friendship? Yet the most splendid of these lyrical declarations of faith add little to what we knew of the creator of the lovers and friends of the dramas. The trivialities and the sublimities, the sin and the idealism of the sonnets coalesce with the emotional effects of the comedies and tragedies. In forming our impression of the man, whatever we may derive from the sonnets does not contradict and does not largely affect the impressions made by the poetry and humanity of the plays. For the conception which each one forms of Shakespeare the man must be derived in the main from the impressions of personality implied by the plays. Such a conception is bound to be individual and without validity that can rest on proofs, but in the main it has not varied greatly from individual to individual or from generation to generation. From Jonson and Dryden to Goethe and Tennyson, there has been no great difference in the essentials of this estimate of the man.

[Page Heading: Personality of Shakespeare]

If the plays do not throw a clear light on matters of conduct and exercise of the will, they certainly tell of no lack of self-control and no weakness or feverishness of action. The traditions of conviviality and the records of a life of constant industry that secured wealth and social position are both in accord with the impressions derived from the plays of an eagerness for experience controlled by a self-mastery and a serenity of purpose. If one were to search for a modern writer most like Shakespeare, one would select Scott, rather than Shelley, or Byron, or Wordsworth. As to the intellectual quality of the author of the plays, it is clear that he was not a Galileo or a Bacon. If we judge intellectual power by its creation of system or synthesis, we shall probably estimate Shakespeare less highly than if we remember that intellect of the highest order is often displayed by maintaining openness and largeness of view in face of the solicitations of theory or prejudice. No one can read the plays in connection with the literature of the time, or of any time, without marveling at their freedom from vulgarity, pettiness, or narrowness of mental attitude. If they do not afford evidences of a profound culture in philosophy, letters, or science, they offer no trace of intellectual blindness or conceit, and they leave no doubt that their author had thought greatly and freely. Even more certain is their assurance of the range and intensity of his emotional life. In these respects again, no one can compare his work with that of other writers without feeling the effect of his personality. Fletcher, perhaps next to him among the Elizabethans in a versatile expression of a wide range of emotions, gives no sign of the sincere, profound, and searching interest in humankind which we are sure was Shakespeare's. Bacon, surpassing him perhaps in intellectual curiosity and thoroughness, manifestly gives no evidence in his writings of the warmth of sympathy, the quickness of emotional response, the fire of passion which we find in the author of Shakespeare's plays. It is difficult to disbelieve that their imaginative participation in the height and breadth of human feeling was the creation of a man who united intellectual greatness with an emotional susceptibility of extraordinary range and delicacy, and with a sympathy, genial, wide, tolerant, but also heartfelt, deep, and passionate. Such is the ineffaceable impression of the man which has been shared by many generations of readers, and which found expression two hundred and fifty years ago in Dryden's carefully considered estimate, "The man who of all Moderns, and perhaps Ancient Poets, had the largest and most comprehensive soul."

What of the plays themselves? Is there any fixed and universal estimate of their quality and significance as literature? In this volume we have been concerned in reviewing our knowledge about them rather than in their interpretation or evaluation. We have noted the sources from which their plots were drawn, the conditions under which they were produced in the playhouses, the influences at work in the contemporary drama which determined in some measure their subjects and treatment. Starting with the probable dates of their composition, we have traced them from the theater to the printer, through the hands of many editors, and through the long history of their effects on theatergoers and readers. In their history they have played a part in the changes of taste and opinion of three centuries, and if they have grown greatly in men's estimation, this has not been without much variability of appreciation and uncertainty as to their value. What, then, are the qualities of the plays that raised them at once above the measure of contemporary influence and rivalry? Are these the qualities that have continued to win the most general appreciation? Despite all the stress we are to-day taught to place on change, growth, evolution, are there qualities in these plays which insure them a continued preeminence in literature?

[Page Heading: Qualities of the Plays]

Differences of opinion testify, indeed, to the comprehensive appeal of the plays to different minds, nations, or epochs, but they have not greatly affected the essential elements in men's admiration. If some critic brings into new prominence a quality that has partly escaped attention, his discovery is not likely to affect the more permanent elements of their reputation. If for a time attention is turned to the plays as plays rather than as poems and to the merits of Shakespeare as a dramatist, this criticism does not lead to any lasting disregard of their poetic quality or to the permanent acceptance of skill in dramatic structure as a chief element in their literary preeminence. Nor is such an element discoverable in their philosophical synthesis or their incidental wisdom, although some of the most brilliant criticism has exalted that wisdom or sought to formulate and expound their view of life. Concerning the essential elements of their greatness no real difference of opinion has arisen from the time they were written down to the present day. They were lifted at once above the level of contemporary endeavor, and they have continued to grow in reputation chiefly because of their poetry and their characterization.

Concerning the nature and quality of these there is little difference of opinion, though critics may vary in estimating their beauty or value. One may prefer the verse of Homer or of Milton, but he will not deny the traits that distinguish Shakespeare's. Another may prefer the well-ordered study of human motives in Sophocles, or the realistic analysis of a modern realist like Turgenieff, but he will recognize the qualities in Shakespeare's characterization that are the basis of general admiration. Still another may condemn that admiration, but he will not differ from us as to the chief sources of its existence.

These two sources are hardly to be separated, for the persons are revealed through the beauty of the verse, and the poetry is ever adapted to the speakers. In the early plays the poet's fancy often refuses to be bound by the requirements of his characters and escapes in lyric or descriptive excursions; but as his art becomes more masterly, the poetry adapts itself with increasing devotion to the dramatic task, discarding the limitations of the verse form and even at times sacrificing clarity and harmony of expression in its effort to make a few lines significant of the thought and emotion of some individual. An enormous vocabulary is treated with daring freedom; words are coined, changed, or restamped in order to let nothing of significance escape. The effect is not primarily that of finished workmanship or elaborate harmony, though these may be found in many passages and notably in the greatest of the sonnets. Broken rather than completed images, richness of suggestion rather than unity of impressiveness, surprise and novelty in words rather than their delicate adjustment, make up an effect of bewildering enchantment rather than of perfected form. This is true even in an early play like Romeo and Juliet, where the verse becomes undramatic in order to make the most of every opportunity for fancy or melody, and it is true also in Othello, where poetry and characterization are wedded with consummate art. The reader's pleasure is not in finding each idea finally developed or each motive given full elaboration. It is rather in the flow of words which endow each person and moment with their wealth of color and suggestion, and somehow carry on to the reader both their impression of life and the transforming power of their dignity and splendor.

[Page Heading: Poetry of the Plays]

In a last analysis the quality of the poetry is less dependent on the music of line or passage than on the imagery of the words themselves. It seems as if the imagination had hurried on Ariel's wing around the universe in order to freight each phrase with a fresh trope and an unexpected meaning. Sometimes, to be sure, there results an excess or mixture of figures; but restrained to character and situation, bound by the measure of the pentameter, the carnival of words becomes a gorgeous yet ordered pageant, the very spectacle of beauty.

Let us take but one passage, not from the great crises of passion, nor from those unsurpassable revelations of the tortured spirit, but from the opening of a play where the purpose is chiefly expository, and where indeed the language is not free from that mixture of figures which some condemn. The wonderful first scene of Antony and Cleopatra, which within the compass of its sixty-two lines presents the two protagonists and their background of empire and war, opens thus in the speech of a subordinate.

Nay, but this dotage of our general's O'erflows the measure. Those his goodly eyes, That o'er the files and musters of the war Have glow'd like plated Mars, now bend, now turn The office and devotion of their view Upon a tawny front; his captain's heart, Which in the scuffles of great fights hath burst The buckles on his breast, reneges all temper, And is become the bellows and the fan To cool a gipsy's lust.

[Page Heading: Characterization]

A few lines further on Antony speaks thus, as he embraces Cleopatra.

Let Rome in Tiber melt, and the wide arch Of the rang'd Empire fall! Here is my space. Kingdoms are clay; our dungy earth alike Feeds beast as man; the nobleness of life Is to do thus, when such a mutual pair And such a twain can do't, in which I bind, On pain of punishment, the world to wit We stand up peerless.

No other man ever wrote verse like this; and it is hard to believe that words will ever again respond to such a magician.

This poetry is the fitting accompaniment of a characterization, the range and vitality of which, the world to wit, stand up peerless. While these are in general qualities of the Elizabethan drama, it is noteworthy that almost from the beginning Shakespeare outstripped his rivals. Launce, Richard III, Shylock, Juliet, were enough to establish a supremacy. The years that followed with their maturing thought and experience gave an amazing development to what was manifestly the native bent of his genius. Whatever else one may find in the plays, indeed whatever one finds there of wisdom or beauty, truth or art, it cannot be separated from their revelation of human nature.

It is this primarily that makes the dramas great and lasting. The histories, with all their pomp and movement and patriotism, reveal kings and lords and peasants as alike the subjects of changing fortune, alike human beings for our pity, admiration, or laughter. The comedies with their fancy and sentiment and fun, and their perennial sunshine on the self-deceived and selfish, are ruled by the most charming and refined of womankind. The tragedies with their presentation of the waste and suffering of life, though here depravity may seem to fill the scene and innocence share in the punishment and ruin, yet redeem us from the terror of their devastation by their assurances of both the majesty and the loveliness of men and women.

Shakespeare's methods in characterization have seemed to some haphazard and bewildering. He does not fit his men and women into an analysis of the constitution of society or into an obvious view of man's relations in the universe. Nor does he use his characters to illustrate fixed conceptions or processes of cause and effect. He usually started with an old story, with certain types of character, and he was not forgetful of theatrical necessities or dramatic construction. But as he went on he brought all his astounding interest in human nature to focus on the old plot and the stock type. Hamlet, the hesitating avenger, becomes the sentimentalist, the idealist, the thinker at war with himself, the embodiment of that conflict between circumstance and a nature unfitted to its task, which in some measure we have all encountered in life. An arrogant and doting old man, by the force of creative imagination, transcends the nursery tale from which he came, and carries to us all the implications of suffering and love that surround the aging of parents and the growth of children. Cleopatra is a wanton, but no analysis can explain the subtleties with which the idealism and animalism, the sacrifice and frivolity—and how much else—of human passion are bound together in the few hundred lines which she speaks. It is impossible to affirm that each of the great characters is thoroughly consistent or offers a strictly accurate motivation. Rather, they are magnificent portraits—like the Mona Lisa—crowded with a penetrating but question-provoking psychology. Into such parts and situations as the drama could afford are impressed every possible revelation of our motives; but his model was always reality and he never yielded truth to whim or prepossession.

[Page Heading: Human Nature]

Human nature, at its best or worst, droll or tragic, is thus given magnitude and potency. This idealization, rendered still more effective by the verse, persuades us as we read that here are our own attributes and conflicts exalted, now into serene beauty, again into torment and horror, and again into the Olympic warfare of unknown supermen. No doubt there is confusion because of the complexity of motives depicted and the multiplicity of impressions created, but there is also a final message of the greatness and comprehensiveness of human souls. In this world of sin and weakness and death, it is human beings, however mocked or maltreated by circumstance or by themselves, that are still triumphant and interesting. Out of his strifes and failures, the individual man yet emerges, the object of our contemplation and the assurance of our faith.

In periods or persons when interest in the individual gives way to thought about class or system or some form of organization, it is likely that admiration for Shakespeare's plays will suffer a decline. In periods or persons when the individual assumes a larger place in thought and his power to affect and dominate the world is emphasized, the plays are likely to acquire a new regard. As long, however, as the study of human nature is a chief occupation of mankind and as long as we believe that a great purpose of imaginative literature is to enlarge our knowledge and sympathy for our fellows, so long, we may be sure, these dramas will not lose their preeminence in literature.



APPENDICES



Appendix A

BIOGRAPHICAL DOCUMENTS AND AUTHORITIES

I. REPOSITORIES OF DOCUMENTS

L. refers to Lambert's Shakespeare Documents and H.-P. to Halliwell-Phillipps's Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare. 7th ed.

1

THE PARISH REGISTERS OF STRATFORD-ON-AVON are the authority for the baptisms of John Shakespeare's seven children (L. 1-7); for the burials of Anne and Edmund (L. 10); for the baptisms of William Shakespeare's daughter Susanna (L. 13) and the twins, Hamnet and Judith (L. 14); for the burials of Hamnet (L. 28), of the poet's father, John (L. 75), of his mother, Mary (L. 110), of the poet himself (L. 146), and of his widow (L. 159). These Registers have been edited for the Parish Registers Society, by R. Savage, 1898-9.

2

THE CORPORATION RECORDS OF STRATFORD-ON-AVON contain the Quiney-Sturley correspondence (L. 39, 43, 44; H.-P. II. 57-60); a return of the quantities of corn and malt held by the inhabitants of the ward in which New Place was situated, "Wm. Shackespere" being down for ten quarters (L. 53); a Bill of Complaint presented by R. Lane, T. Green, and William Shakespeare respecting the tithes of Stratford-upon-Avon (L. 125); the answer of William Combe to the foregoing Bill (L. 126).

[Page Heading: Biographical Documents]

3

THE PUBLIC RECORD OFFICE IN LONDON preserves the following: record of the purchase by John Shakespeare of two houses on Henley Street, Stratford-on-Avon (L. 8); record of a mortgage on an estate at "Awston Cawntlett" given to Edmund Lambert by John and Mary Shakespeare (L. 9); Bill of Complaint brought by John Shakespeare against John, son of Edmund Lambert, respecting an estate at Wilmecote, near Stratford (L. 15); Ms. accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber, "To Willm. Kempe, Willm. Shakespeare & Richarde Burbage, servaunts to the Lord Chamberleyne, upon the Councelles warrant dated at Whitehall xv^to Marcij 1594 for twoe severall Comedies or enterludes shewed by them before her Majestic in Christmas tyme laste paste, viz: upon St. Stephens daye and Innocentes daye xiij.li. vj.s. viijd., and by waye of her Majesties rewarde vj.li. xiii.s. iiijd. in all xx.li." (L. 25); record of the purchase of New Place by Shakespeare (L. 32); papers in a Chancery suit relating to the estate at Wilmecote mortgaged to Edmund Lambert, and consisting of a Bill of Complaint by John and Mary Shakespeare against John Lambert for his refusal to accept L40 and reconvey the property to the complainants, John Lambert's answer, and the replication of John and Mary Shakespeare to the answer (L. 35); a subsidy roll showing William Shakespeare as a defaulter in respect of a tax of five shillings, October, 1596, and of thirteen shillings and four pence, October, 1598, based on an assessment made about 1598 or 1594, when the poet was living in St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, and paid after he had moved to Southwark (Athenaeum, March 16, 1906, and L. 42); Royal Warrant for a Patent and the Patent itself (May 19, 1603) licensing the company of actors, "Laurence Fletcher, William Shakespeare, Richard Burbage, Augustine Phillippes, John Hemmings, Henrie Condell, William Sly, Robert Armyn, Richard Cowly and the rest of their associates" as the King's Servants (L. 87, 88); the Accounts of the Revels at Court in the reigns of Elizabeth and James, containing entries showing performances at Court of "The Moor of Venis," "The Merry Wives of Winsor," "Mesur for Mesur" by "Shaxberd," "the plaie of Errors" by "Shaxberd," "Loves Labours lost," "Henry the fift," and "the Martchant of Venis" by "Shaxberd" (twice, being "againe commanded by the Kings Ma^tie"), all in 1604 (O.S.), of "the Tempest" and "y^e winters nightes Tayle" in 1611, all by the King's men, and of the performance before the Court at Wilton, Dec. 2, 1603 (L. 96, 133, Notes in the History of the Revels Office under the Tudors, ed. by E. K. Chambers, and Supposed Shakespeare Forgeries, by Ernest Law); record of the purchase in 1610 of an estate in Old Stratford and Stratford-on-Avon by Shakespeare from William and John Combe (L. 127); three documents in a Chancery suit relating to the ownership of property in Blackfriars, April 26, May 15, May 22, 1615 (C. W. Wallace in Englische Studien, April, 1906, and Preface to New Edition of Lee's Life, xxii ff.); the grant for cloaks for the King's entry into London, March 15, 1604 (Ld. Chamberlain's Papers, No. 600); the documents in the law suit among the heirs of Richard Burbage (1635), relating to the ownership of the Globe and the Blackfriars theaters, and giving much information on the value of theatrical shares, actors' salaries, etc. (H.-P. i. 312-319); and the documents in the lawsuit of Bellots vs. Mountjoy (1612), including Shakespeare's deposition (New Shakespeare Discoveries, C. W. Wallace, Harper's Magazine, March, 1910).

4

THE SHAKESPEARE'S BIRTHPLACE MUSEUM IN STRATFORD-ON-AVON contains several documents of importance: record of the conveyance in 1602 of an estate in Old Stratford from William and John Combe to William Shakespeare (L. 79, H.-P. II, 17-19); extract from the Court Rolls of the Manor of Rowington, transferring from Walter Getley to William Shakespeare certain premises in Chapel Lane, Stratford-on-Avon (L. 81); the conveyance to Shakespeare from Ralph Hubande of the residue of a lease of a moiety of the tithes of Stratford-on-Avon, Old Stratford, Welcombe, and Bishopton (L. 99); the diary of one Thomas Greene, containing a reference to the dispute as to the inclosing of common lands (reproduced in facsimile in C. M. Ingleby's Shakespeare and the Enclosure of Common Fields at Welcombe, 1885).

5

THE BRITISH MUSEUM possesses the Ms. diary of John Manningham of the Middle Temple, which, under the date of Feb. 2, 1601, records a performance of Twelfth Night, and the anecdote recorded above, p. 44 (L. 77; Ms. Harl. 5353, ed. Camden Soc., p. 39); also the Mortgage Deed from Shakespeare to Henry Walker on the property in Blackfriars conveyed to Shakespeare and others on the day previous, March 10, 1612/13.

6

THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY AT OXFORD has the Ms. diary of Dr. Simon Forman describing performances of Winter's Tale, Cymbeline, and Macbeth in 1610 and 1611 (L. 128; Ms. Ashmol. 208, fol. 201b); and the Accounts of Lord Stanhope of Harrington, Treasurer of the Chamber to James I, containing the following entry: "1613, May 20. Item paid to John Heminges uppon the cowncells warrant dated att Whitehall xx^o die Maii 1613 for presentinge before the Princes highnes the La: Elizabeth and the Prince Pallatyne Elector fowerteene severall playes viz ... Much adoe abowte nothinge ... The Tempest ... The Winters Tale, S^r John Falstafe, The Moore of Venice ... Caesars Tragedye ... All w^ch Playes weare played within the tyme of this Accompte, viz p^d the some of iiij. (xx.) xiij.li. vj.s. viij.d.

[Page Heading: Biographical Documents]

"Item paid to the said John Heminges uppon the lyke warrant dated att Whitehall xx^o die Maij 1613 for presenting sixe severall playes viz. one playe called ... And one other called Benidicte and Betteris all played within the tyme of this Accompte viz p^d ffortie powndes And by waye of his Ma^tis rewarde twentie powndes In all ... lx li." (L. 138; Ms. Rawl. A. 239).

7

THE EPISCOPAL REGISTER OF THE DIOCESE OF WORCESTER contains the bond given by Sandells and others for the marriage of Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway (L. 12).

8

THE LIBRARY OF THE GUILDHALL IN LONDON has the indenture prepared for the purchaser in the sale of the house in Blackfriars on March 10, 1613, by Henry Walker to William Shakespeare and others (L. 136). The indenture held by the seller is in the library of Mr. Marsden J. Perry, Providence, R. I.

9

THE PRINCIPAL PROBATE REGISTRY, Somerset House, London, contains Shakespeare's Will, which runs as follows:

[Page Heading: Shakespeare's Will]

[10]VICESIMO quinto die [Januarii] Martii, anno regni domini nostri Jacobi, nunc regis Angliae, &c., decimo quarto, et Scotiae xlix^o, annoque Domini 1616.

—T. WMI. SHACKSPEARE

In the name of God, Amen! I William Shackspeare, of Stratford upon Avon in the countie of Warr., gent., in perfect health and memorie, God be praysed, doe make and ordayne this my last will and testament in manner and forme followeing, that ys to saye, ffirst, I comend my soule into the handes of God my Creator, hoping and assuredlie beleeving, through thonelie merittes, of Jesus Christe my Saviour, to be made partaker of lyfe everlastinge, and my bodye to the earth whereof yt ys made. Item, I gyve and bequeath unto my [sonne and][11] daughter Judyth one hundred and fyftie poundes of lawfull English money, to be paied unto her in the manner and forme foloweng, that ys to saye, one hundred poundes in discharge of her marriage porcion within one yeare after my deceas, with consideracion after the rate of twoe shillinges in the pound for soe long tyme as the same shalbe unpaied unto her after my deceas, and the fyftie poundes residwe thereof upon her surrendring of, or gyving of such sufficient securitie as the overseers of this my will shall like of, to surrender or graunte all her estate and right that shall discend or come unto her after my deceas, or that shee nowe hath, of, in, or to, one copiehold tenemente, with thappurtenaunces, lyeing and being in Stratford upon Avon aforesaied in the saied countye of Warr., being parcell or holden of the mannour of Rowington, unto my daughter Susanna Hall and her heires for ever. Item, I gyveand bequeath unto my saied daughter Judith one hundred and fyftie poundes more, if shee or anie issue of her bodie be lyvinge att thend of three yeares next ensueing the daie of the date of this my will, during which tyme my executours are to paie her consideracion from my deceas according to the rate aforesaied; and if she dye within the saied tearme without issue of her bodye, then my will ys, and I doe gyve and bequeath one hundred poundes thereof to my neece Elizabeth Hall, and the fiftie poundes to be sett fourth by my executours during the lief of my sister Johane Harte, and the use and proffitt thereof cominge shalbe payed to my saied sister Jone, and after her deceas the saied l.^li. shall remaine amongst the children of my saied sister, equallie to be divided amongst them; but if my saied daughter Judith be lyving att thend of the saied three yeares, or anie yssue of her bodye, then my will ys, and soe I devise and bequeath the saied hundred and fyftie poundes to be sett out by my executours and overseers for the best benefitt of her and her issue, and the stock not to be paied unto her soe long as she shalbe marryed and covert baron [by my executours and overseers]; but my will ys, that she shall have the consideracion yearelie paied unto her during her lief, and, after her deceas, the saied stock and consideracion to bee paied to her children, if she have anie, and if not, to her executours or assignes, she lyving the saied terme after my deceas. Provided that yf suche husbond as she shall att thend of the saied three years be marryed unto, or att anie after (sic), doe sufficientlie assure unto her and thissue of her bodie landes awnswereable to the porcion by this my will gyven unto her, and to be adjudged soe by my executours and overseers, then my will ys, that the said cl.^li. shalbe paied to such husbond as shall make such assurance, to his owne use. Item, I gyve and bequeath unto my saied sister Jone xx.^li and all my wearing apparrell, to be paied and delivered within one yeare after my deceas; and I doe will and devise unto her the house with thappurtenaunces in Stratford, wherein she dwelleth, for her naturall lief, under the yearlie rent of xij.^d. Item, I gyve and bequeath unto her three sonnes, William Harte, ... Hart, and Michaell Harte, fyve pounds a peece, to be paied within one yeare after my deceas [to be sett out for her within one yeare after my deceas by my executours, with thadvise and direccions of my overseers, for her best profitt, untill her mariage, and then the same with the increase thereof to be paied unto her]. Item, I gyve and bequeath unto [her] the saied Elizabeth Hall, all my plate, except my brod silver and gilt bole, that I now have att the date of this my will. Item, I gyve and bequeath unto the poore of Stratford aforesaied tenn poundes; to Mr. Thomas Combe my sword; to Thomas Russell esquier fyve poundes; and to Frauncis Collins, of the borough of Warr. in the countie of Warr. gentleman, thirteene poundes, sixe shillinges, and eight pence, to be paied within one yeare after my deceas. Item, I gyve and bequeath to [Mr. Richard Tyler thelder] Hamlett Sadler xxvj.^s. viij.^d. to buy him a ringe; to William Raynoldes gent., xxvj.^s. viij.^d. to buy him a ringe; to my godson William Walker xx^s. in gold; to Anthonye Nashe gent., xxvj.^s. viij.^d.; and to Mr. John Nashe xxvj.^s. viij.^d. [in gold]; and to my fellowes John Hemynges, Richard Burbage, and Henry Cundell, xxvj.^s. viij.^d. a peece to buy them ringes. Item, I gyve, will, bequeath, and devise, unto my daughter Susanna Hall, for better enabling of her to performe this my will, and towards the performans thereof, all that capitall messuage or tenemente with thappurtenaunces, in Stratford aforesaid, called the New Place, wherein I nowe dwell, and two messuages or tenementes with thappurtenaunces, scituat, lyeing, and being in Henley streete, within the borough of Stratford aforesaied; and all my barnes, stables, orchardes, gardens, landes, tenementes, and hereditamentes, whatsoever, scituat, lyeing, and being, or to be had, receyved, perceyved, or taken, within the townes, hamletes, villages, fieldes, and groundes, of Stratford upon Avon, Oldstratford, Bushopton, and Welcombe, or in anie of them in the saied countie of Warr. And alsoe all that messuage or tenemente with thappurtenaunces, wherein one John Robinson dwelleth, scituat, lyeing and being, in the Blackfriers in London, nere the Wardrobe; and all my other landes, tenementes, and hereditamentes whatsoever, To have and to hold all and singuler the saied premisses, with theire appurtenaunces, unto the saied Susanna Hall, for and during the terme of her naturall lief, and after her deceas, to the first sonne of her bodie lawfullie yssueing, and to the heires males of the bodie of the saied first sonne lawfullie yssueinge; and for defalt of such issue, to the second sonne of her bodie, lawfullie issueinge, and [of] to the heires males of the bodie of the saied second sonne lawfullie yssueinge; and for defalt of such heires, to the third sonne of the bodie of the saied Susanna lawfullie yssueing, and of the heires males of the bodie of the saied third sonne lawfullie yssueing; and for defalt of such issue, the same soe to be and remaine to the ffourth [sonne], ffyfth, sixte, and seaventh sonnes of her bodie lawfullie issueing, one after another, and to the heires males of the bodies of the saied fourth, fifth, sixte, and seaventh sonnes lawfullie yssueing, in such manner as yt ys before lymitted to be and remaine to the first, second, and third sonns of her bodie, and to theire heires males; and for defalt of such issue, the said premisses to be and remaine to my sayed neece Hall, and the heires males of her bodie lawfullie yssueinge; and for defalt of such issue, to my daughter Judith, and the heires males of her bodie lawfullie issueinge; and for defalt of such issue, to the right heires of me the saied William Shakspeare for ever. Item, I gyve unto my wief my second best bed with the furniture. Item, I gyve and bequeath to my saied daughter Judith my broad silver gilt bole. All the rest of my goodes, chattels, leases, plate, jewels, and household stuffe whatsoever, after my dettes and legasies paied, and my funerall expenses dischardged, I give, devise, and bequeath to my sonne in lawe, John Hall gent., and my daughter Susanna, his wief, whom I ordaine and make executours of this my last will and testament. And I doe intreat and appoint the saied Thomas Russell esquier and Frauncis Collins gent, to be overseers hereof, and doe revoke all former wills, and publishe this to be my last will and testament. In witness whereof I have hereunto put my [seale] hand, the daie and yeare first abovewritten.

By me WILLIAM SHAKSPEARE.

Witnes to the publyshing hereof, FRA: COLLYNS,[12] JULYUS SHAWE, JOHN ROBINSON, HAMNET SADLER, ROBERT WHATTCOTT.

Probatum coram magistro Willielmo Byrde, legum doctore comiss. &c. xxij^do. die mensis Junii anno Domini 1616, juramento Johannis Hall, unius executorum, &c. cui &c. de bene &c. jurat. reservat. potestate &c. Susannae Hall, alteri executorum &c. cum venerit petitur, &c. (Inv. ex.)

[10] The words which have been erased are put between brackets; those which have been interlined are printed in italics.

[11] So Lambert, Halliwell-Phillipps reads "sonne in L."

[12] Francis Collyns was the lawyer at Warwick who prepared the will, of which the draft only was executed, no time being possible for an engrossed copy.—Note by Lambert.

[Page Heading: Biographical Documents]

10

THE HERALDS' COLLEGE has the two drafts of a grant of arms to John Shakespeare in 1596 (Ms. Vincent. Coll. Arm. 157, arts. 23, 24); and the confirmation of the grant in 1599 (L. 30, 55). For further details on the matter of the coat of arms, see Herald and Genealogist, i. 510, and for facsimiles, Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, 2d ser. 1886, i. 109. On the criticism of the herald's complaisance in the matter of the Shakespeare and similar grants, see Preface to New Edition (1909) of Lee's Life, pp. xi-xv.

11

THE STATIONERS' REGISTER, accessible in the Transcript edited by E. Arber, 5 vols. 1875-94, contains the records of the entries of those of Shakespeare's works which were registered either with or without his name. The Shakespearean entries are gathered out of the great mass contained in these volumes by Lambert, Fleay, Stokes, H. P., Chronological Order of Shakespeare's Plays, 1878, Appendix V, and others.

12. MISCELLANEOUS

The literary allusions to Shakespeare in the sixteenth and earlier seventeenth centuries have been collected in Shakespeare's Century of Praise, revised and reedited by J. Munro as The Shakespeare Allusion Books, London, 1909.

Greene's attack in Greenes Groatsworth will be found in its context in his works, ed. A. B. Grosart, 1881-1886, and Chettle's Apology in his Kind Hartes Dreame, Percy Society, 1874.

The Historical MSS. Commission's Report on the Historical MSS. of Belvoir Castle, IV. 494, contains the entry from the Belvoir Household Book as to Rutland's "impresa." See also Times, December 27, 1905, and Preface to New Edition of Lee's Life, pp. xvi-xxii.

13. EXTRACTS FROM MERES'S PALLADIS TAMIA, 1598

As the Greeke tongue is made famous and eloquent by Homer, Hesiod, Euripedes, AEschilus, Sophocles, Pindarus, Phocylides and Aristophanes; and the Latine tongue by Virgill, Ovid, Horace, Silius Italicus, Lucanus, Lucretius, Ausonius and Claudianus: so the English tongue is mightily enriched, and gorgeouslie invested in rare ornaments and resplendent abiliments by sir Philip Sidney, Spencer, Daniel, Drayton, Warner, Shakespeare, Marlow and Chapman.

* * * * *

As the soule of Euphorbus was thought to live in Pythagoras: so the sweete wittie soule of Ovid lives in mellifluous & hony-tongued Shakespeare, witnes his Venus and Adonis, his Lucrece, his sugred Sonnets among his private friends, &c.

As Plautus and Seneca are accounted the best for Comedy and Tragedy among the Latines, so Shakespeare among y^e English is the most excellent in both kinds for the stage; for Comedy, witnes his Gẽtlemẽ of Verona, his Errors, his Love labors lost, his Love labours wonne, his Midsummers night dreame, & his Merchant of Venice: for Tragedy, his Richard the 2, Richard the 3, Henry the 4, King Iohn, Titus Andronicus, and his Romeo and Iuliet.

As Epius Stolo said, that the Muses would speake with Plautus tongue, if they would speak Latin: so I say that the Muses would speak with Shakespeares fine filed phrase, if they would speake English.

As Ovid saith of his worke:

Iamque opus exegi, quod nec Iovis ira, nec ignis, Nec poterit ferrum, nec edax abolere vetustas.

[Page Heading: Extracts from Meres]

And as Horace saith of his; Exegi monumentum aere perennius; Regalique; situ pyramidum altius; Quod non imber edax; Non Aquilo impotens possit diruere; aut innumerabilis annorum feries &c fuga temporum: so say I severally of sir Philip Sidneys, Spencers, Daniels, Draytons, Shakespeares, and Warners workes;

As Pindarus, Anacreon and Callimachus among the Greekes; and Horace and Catullus among the Latines are the best Lyrick Poets: so in this faculty the best among our Poets are Spencer (who excelleth in all kinds) Daniel, Drayton, Shakespeare, Bretton.

As ... so these are our best for Tragedie, the Lorde Buckhurst, Doctor Leg of Cambridge, Doctor Edes of Oxforde, maister Edward Ferris, the Authour of the Mirrour for Magistrates, Marlow, Peele, Watson, Kid, Shakespeare, Drayton, Chapman, Decker, and Benjamin Johnson.

... so the best for Comedy amongst us bee, Edward Earle of Oxforde, Doctor Gager of Oxforde, Maister Rowley once a rare Scholler of learned Pembroke Hall in Cambridge, Maister Edwardes one of her Maiesties Chappell, eloquent and wittie John Lilly, Lodge, Gascoyne, Greene, Shakespeare, Thomas Nash, Thomas Heywood, Anthony Mundye our best plotter, Chapman, Porter, Wilson, Hathway, and Henry Chettle.

... so these are the most passionate among us to bewaile and bemoane the perplexities of Love, Henrie Howard Earle of Surrey, sir Thomas Wyat the elder, sir Francis Brian, sir Philip Sidney, sir Walter Rawley, sir Edward Dyer, Spencer, Daniel, Drayton, Shakespeare, Whetstone, Gascoyne, Samuell Page sometimes fellowe of Corpus Christi Colledge in Oxford, Churchyard, Bretton.

14. THE INSCRIPTION ON SHAKESPEARE'S MONUMENT IN THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY TRINITY, STRATFORD-ON-AVON

Judicio Pylium, genio Socratem, arte Maronem Terra tegit, populus maeret, Olympus habet.

Stay, passenger, why goest thou by so fast? Read, if thou canst, whom envious death hath plast Within this monument: Shakespeare with whome Quick nature dide; whose name doth deck ys tombe Far more than cost; sith all yt he hath writt Leaves living art but page to serve his witt.

Obiit ano. doi 1616. AEtatis 53. Die 23 Ap.

[Page Heading: The First Folio]

15. THE INTRODUCTORY MATTER IN THE FIRST FOLIO

TO THE MOST NOBLE AND INCOMPARABLE PAIRE OF BRETHREN. WILLIAM Earle of Pembroke, &c. Lord Chamberlaine to the Kings most Excellent Maiesty. AND PHILIP Earle of Montgomery, &c. Gentleman of his Maiesties Bed-Chamber. Both Knights of the most Noble Order of the Garter, and our singular good LORDS.

Right Honourable,

Whilst we studie to be thankful in our particular, for the many fauors we haue receiued from your L. L. we are falne vpon the ill fortune, to mingle two the most diuerse things that can bee, feare, and rashnesse; rashnesse in the enterprize, and feare of the successe. For, when we valew the places your H. H. sustaine, we cannot but know their dignity greater, then to descend to the reading of these trifles: and, while we name them trifles, we haue depriu'd our selues of the defence of our Dedication. But since your L. L. haue beene pleas'd to thinke these trifles some-thing, heeretofore; and haue prosequuted both them, and their Authour liuing, with so much fauour: we hope, that (they out-liuing him, and he not hauing the fate, common with some, to be exequutor to his owne writings) you will vse the like indulgence toward them, you haue done vnto their parent. There is a great difference, whether any Booke choose his Patrones, or finde them: This hath done both. For, so much were your L. L. likings of the seuerall parts, when they were acted, as before they were published, the Volume ask'd to be yours. We haue but collected them, and done an office to the dead, to procure his Orphanes, Guardians: without ambition either of selfe-profit, or fame: onely to keepe the memory of so worthy a Friend, & Fellow aliue, as was our SHAKESPEARE, by humble offer of his playes, to your most noble patronage. Wherein, as we haue iustly obserued, no man to come neere your L. L. but with a kind of religious addresse; it hath bin the height of our care, who are the Presenters, to make the present worthy of your H. H. by the perfection. But, there we must also craue our abilities to be considerd, my Lords. We cannot go beyond our owne powers. Country hands reach foorth milke, creame, fruites, or what they haue: and many Nations (we haue heard) that had not gummes & incense, obtained their requests with a leauened Cake. It was no fault to approch their Gods, by what meanes they could: And the most, though meanest, of things are made more precious, when they are dedicated to Temples. In that name therefore, we most humbly consecrate to your H. H. these remaines of your seruant SHAKESPEARE; that what delight is in them, may be euer your L. L. the reputation his, & the faults ours, if any be committed, by a payre so carefull to shew their gratitude both to the liuing, and the dead, as is

Your Lordshippes most bounden, IOHN HEMINGE. HENRY CONDELL.

To the Great Variety of Readers.—From the most able to him that can but spell;—there you are number'd. We had rather you were weighd, especially when the fate of all bookes depends upon your capacities, and not of your heads alone, but of your purses. Well! It is now publique, and you will stand for your privileges wee know; to read and censure. Do so, but buy it first. That doth best commend a booke, the stationer saies. Then, how odde soever your braines be, or your wisedomes, make your licence the same and spare not. Judge your sixe-pen'orth, your shillings worth, your five shillings worth at a time, or higher, so you rise to the just rates, and welcome. But, whatever you do, buy. Censure will not drive a trade or make the jacke go. And though you be a magistrate of wit, and sit on the stage at Black-Friers or the Cock-pit to arraigne playes dailie, know, these playes have had their triall alreadie, and stood out all appeales, and do now come forth quitted rather by a Decree of Court than any purchas'd letters of commendation.

It had bene a thing, we confesse, worthie to have bene wished, that the author himselfe had liv'd to have set forth and overseen his owne writings; but since it hath bin ordain'd otherwise, and he by death departed from that right, we pray you do not envie his friends the office of their care and paine to have collected and publish'd them; and so to have publish'd them, as where (before) you were abus'd with diverse stolne and surreptitious copies, maimed and deformed by the frauds and stealthes of injurious impostors that expos'd them; even those are now offer'd to your view cur'd and perfect of their limbes, and all the rest absolute in their numbers as he conceived them; who, as he was a happie imitator of Nature, was a most gentle expresser of it. His mind and hand went together; and what he thought, he uttered with that easinesse that wee have scarse received from him a blot in his papers. But it is not our province, who onely gather his works and give them you, to praise him. It is yours that reade him. And there we hope, to your divers capacities, you will finde enough both to draw and hold you; for his wit can no more lie hid then it could be lost. Reade him, therefore; and againe and againe; and if then you doe not like him, surely you are in some manifest danger not to understand him. And so we leave you to other of his friends, whom, if you need, can bee your guides. If you neede them not, you can leade yourselves and others; and such readers we wish him.—Iohn Heminge.Henrie Condell.

[Page Heading: Ben Jonson's Eulogy]

TO THE MEMORY OF MY BELOUED,

THE AVTHOR

MR. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE: AND what he hath left vs.

To draw no enuy (Shakespeare) on thy name, Am I thus ample to thy Booke, and Fame: While I confesse thy writings to be such, As neither Man, nor Muse, can praise too much. 'Tis true, and all mens suffrage. But these wayes Were not the paths I meant vnto thy praise: For seeliest Ignorance on these may light, Which, when it sounds at best, but eccho's right; Or blinde Affection, which doth ne're aduance The truth, but gropes, and vrgeth all by chance; Or crafty Malice, might pretend this praise, And thinke to ruine, where it seem'd to raise. These are, as some infamous Baud, or Whore, Should praise a Matron. What could hurt her more? But thou art proofe against them, and indeed Aboue th' ill fortune of them, or the need. I, therefore will begin. Soule of the Age! The applause! delight! the wonder of our Stage! My Shakespeare, rise; I will not lodge thee by Chaucer, or Spenser, or bid Beaumont lye A little further, to make thee a roome: Thou art a Moniment, without a tombe, And art aliue still, while thy Booke doth liue, And we haue wits to read, and praise to giue. That I not mixe thee so, my braine excuses; I meane with great, but disproportion'd Muses: For, if I thought my iudgement were of yeeres, I should commit thee surely with thy peeres, And tell, how farre thou didstst our Lily out-shine, Or sporting Kid, or Marlowes mighty line. And though thou hadst small Latine, and lesse Greeke, From thence to honour thee, I would not seeke For names; but call forth thund'ring AEschilus, Euripides, and Sophocles to vs, Paccuuius, Accius, him of Cordoua dead, To life againe, to heare thy Buskin tread, And shake a Stage: Or, when thy Sockes were on, Leaue thee alone, for the comparison Of all, that insolent Greece, or haughtie Rome Sent forth, or since did from their ashes come. Triumph, my Britaine, thou hast one to showe, To whom all Scenes of Europe homage owe. He was not of an age, but for all time! And all the Muses still were in their prime, When like Apollo he came forth to warme Our eares, or like a Mercury to charme! Nature her selfe was proud of his designes, And ioy'd to weare the dressing of his lines! Which were so richly spun, and wouen so fit, As, since, she will vouchsafe no other Wit. The merry Greeke, tart Aristophanes, Neat Terence, witty Plautus, now not please; But antiquated, and deserted lye As they were not of Natures family. Yet must I not giue Nature all: Thy Art, My gentle Shakespeare, must enioy a part. For though the Poets matter, Nature be, His Art doth giue the fashion. And, that he, Who casts to write a liuing line, must sweat, (Such as thine are) and strike the second heat Vpon the Muses anuile: turne the same, (And himselfe with it) that he thinkes to frame; Or for the lawrell, he may gaine a scorne, For a good Poet's made, as well as borne. And such wert thou. Looke how the fathers face Liues in his issue, euen so, the race Of Shakespeares minde, and manners brightly shines In his well torned, and true-filed lines: In each of which, he seemes to shake a Lance, As brandish't at the eyes of Ignorance. Sweet Swan of Auon! what a sight it were To see thee in our waters yet appeare, And make those flights vpon the bankes of Thames, That so did take Eliza, and our Iames! But stay, I see thee in the Hemisphere Aduanc'd, and made a Constellation there! Shine forth, thou Starre of Poets, and with rage, Or influence, chide, or cheere the drooping Stage; Which, since thy flight fro hence, hath mourn'd like night, And despaires day, but for thy Volumes light.

BEN: IONSON.

VPON THE LINES AND LIFE OF THE FAMOUS

Scenicke Poet, Master WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

Those hands, which you so clapt, go now, and wring You Britaines braue; for done are Shakespeares dayes: His dayes are done, that made the dainty Playes, Which made the Globe of heau'n and earth to ring. Dry'de is that veine, dry'd is the Thespian Spring, Turn'd all to teares, and Ph[oe]bus clouds his rayes: That corp's, that coffin now besticke those bayes, Which crown'd him Poet first, then Poets King. If Tragedies might any Prologue haue, All those he made, would scarse make one to this: Where Fame, now that he gone is to the graue (Deaths publique tyring-house) the Nuncius is. For though his line of life went soone about, The life yet of his lines shall neuer out.

HVGH HOLLAND.

[Page Heading: The First Folio]

TO THE MEMORIE

of the deceased Authour Maister

W. SHAKESPEARE

Shake-speare, at length thy pious fellowes giue The world thy Workes: thy Workes, by which, out-liue Thy Tombe, thy name must: when that stone is rent, And Time dissolues thy Stratford Moniment, Here we aliue shall view thee still. This Booke, When Brasse and Marble fade, shall make thee looke Fresh to all Ages: when Posteritie Shall loath what's new, thinke all is prodegie That is not Shake-speares eu'ry Line, each Verse Here shall reuiue, redeeme thee from thy Herse. Nor Fire, nor cankring Age, as Naso said, Of his, thy wit-fraught Booke shall once inuade. Nor shall I e're beleeue, or thinke thee dead (Though mist) vntill our bankrout Stage be sped (Jmpossible) with some new straine t'out-do Passions of Iuliet, and her Romeo; Or till J heare a Scene more nobly take, Then when thy half-Sword parlying Romans spake. Till these, till any of thy Volumes rest Shall with more fire, more feeling be exprest, Be sure, our Shake-speare, thou canst neuer dye, But crown'd with Lawrell, liue eternally.

L. DIGGES.

To the memorie of M. W. Shake-speare.

WEE wondred (Shake-speare) that thou went'st so soone From the Worlds-Stage, to the Graues-Tyring-roome. Wee thought thee dead, but this thy printed worth, Tels thy Spectators, that thou went'st but forth To enter with applause. An Actors Art, Can dye, and liue, to acte a second part. That's but an Exit of Mortalitie; This, a Re-entrance to a Plaudite.

I. M.

The Workes of William Shakespeare, containing all his Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies; truely set forth according to their first Originall.The names of the Principall Actors in all these playes.—William Shakespeare; Richard Burbadge; John Hemmings; Augustine Phillips; William Kempt; Thomas Poope; George Bryan; Henry Condell; William Slye; Richard Cowly; John Lowine; Samuell Crosse; Alexander Cooke; Samuel Gilburne; Robert Armin; William Ostler; Nathan Field; John Underwood; Nicholas Tooley; William Ecclestone; Joseph Taylor; Robert Benfeld; Robert Goughe; Richard Robinson; John Shancke; John Rice.

A Catalogue of the severall Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies contained in this Volume.—COMEDIES. The Tempest, folio 1; The Two Gentlemen of Verona, 20; The Merry Wives of Windsor, 38; Measure for Measure, 61; The Comedy of Errours, 85; Much adoo about Nothing, 101; Loves Labour lost, 122; Midsommer Nights Dreame, 145; The Merchant of Venice, 163; As You Like it, 185; The Taming of the Shrew, 208; All is well that Ends well, 230; Twelfe-Night, or what you will, 255; The Winters Tale, 304.—HISTORIES. The Life and Death of King John, fol. 1; The Life and Death of Richard the Second, 23; The First Part of King Henry the Fourth, 46; The Second Part of K. Henry the fourth, 74; The Life of King Henry the Fift, 69; The First part of King Henry the Sixt, 96; The Second part of King Hen. the Sixt, 120; The Third part of King Henry the Sixt, 147; The Life and Death of Richard the Third, 173; The Life of King Henry the Eight, 205.—TRAGEDIES. The Tragedy of Coriolanus, fol. 1; Titus Andronicus, 31; Romeo and Juliet, 53; Timon of Athens, 80; The Life and death of Julius Caesar, 109; The Tragedy of Macbeth, 131; The Tragedy of Hamlet, 152; King Lear, 283; Othello, the Moore of Venice, 310; Anthony and Cleopater, 346; Cymbeline King of Britaine, 369.

[Page Heading: Traditional Material]

II. SOURCES OF TRADITIONAL MATERIAL

Fuller's Worthies of England. 1662.

Aubrey's Lives of Eminent Men, 2 vols. Ed. A. Clark. Oxford, 1895.

Diary of Rev. John Ward (1661-1663). Ed. C. A. Severn, 1839.

Rev. William Fulman's and Rev. Richard Davies's Mss. Corpus Christi College, Oxford.

John Dowdall's Travels in Warwickshire (1693). London, 1838.

William Hall (1694), Letter in Bodleian Mss. London, 1884.

William Oldys, Ms. Adversaria in British Museum, printed in Appendix to Yeowell's Memoir of Oldys, 1862.

Archdeacon Plume's Ms. memoranda at Maldon, Essex. See Lee, Nineteenth Century, May, 1906, and Preface to New Edition (1909) of Life.

For the anecdote of the Bidford Drinkers, see H.-P. and Greene's Legend of the Crab Tree, 1857.

Antony Wood. Athenae Oxonienses, 1692.



Appendix B

INDEX TO THE CHARACTERS IN SHAKESPEARE'S PLAYS

[Page Heading: Index to Characters]

This Index records the act and scene in which each character first speaks, not necessarily the same as that in which he first appears. Only persons who speak are included, except a few marked with asterisk.

Aaron. TA. II. i.

Abbess, Lady. CofE. V. i.

Abergavenny, Lord. H8. I. i.

Abhorson. Meas. IV. ii.

Abraham. R&J. I. i.

Achilles. T&C. II. i.

Adam. AYLI. I. i.

Adrian. Tmp. II. i.

Adriana. CofE. II. i.

AEdile, an. Cor. III. i.

AEgeon. CofE. I. i.

AEmilia. CofE. V. i.

AEmilius. TA. IV. iv.

AEneas. T&C. I. i.

Agamemnon. T&C. I. iii.

Agrippa. A&C. II. ii.

Aguecheek, Sir Andrew. TwN. I. iii.

Ajax. T&C. II. i.

Alarbus. TA.*

Albany, Duke of. Lear I. i.

Alcibiades. Tim. I. i.

Alencon, Duke of. 1H6. I. ii.

Alexander. T&C. I. ii.

Alexas. A&C. I. ii.

Alice. H5. III. iv.

Alonso. Tmp. I. i.

Ambassadors: Hml. V. ii; H5. I. ii; 1H6. V. i.

Amiens. AYLI. II. i. v.

Andromache. T&C. V. iii.

Andronicus. See Titus, Marcus.

Angelo. CofE. III. i.

Angelo. Meas. I. i.

Angus. Mcb. I. ii.

Anne Bullen, Queen. H8. I. iv.

Anne, Lady. R3. I. ii.

Anne Page. MWW. I. i.

Antigonus. WT. II. i.

Antiochus, King of Antioch. Per. I. i.

Antipholus of Ephesus. CofE. III. i.

Antipholus of Syracuse. CofE. I. ii.

Antonio. Merch. I. i.

Antonio. MAdo. I. ii.

Antonio. Tmp. I. i.

Antonio. TGV. I. iii.

Antonio. TwN. II. i.

Antony. JC. I. ii; A&C. I. i.

Apemantus. Tim. I. i.

Apothecary. R&J. V. i.

Apparitions. Mcb. IV. i.

Archbishop. See York, Canterbury.

Archidamus. WT. I. i.

Ariel. Tmp. I. ii.

Armado, Don. LLL. I. ii.

Arragon, Prince of. Merch. II. ix.

Artemidorus. JC. II. iii.

Arthur, Duke of Bretagne. John II. i.

Arviragus. Cym. III. iii.

Astringer, Gentle. AWEW. V. i.

Attendants. A&C. I. ii; Hml. IV. vi. See Servants.

Audrey. AYLI. III. iii.

Aufidius, Tullus. Cor. I. ii.

Aumerle, Duke of. R2. I. iii.

Austria, Archduke of. John II. i. See Lymoges.

Autolycus. WT. IV. iii.

Auvergne, Countess of. 1H6. II. iii.

Bagot. R2. II. ii.

Balthasar. MAdo. II. iii.

Balthazar. CofE. III. i.

Balthazar. Merch. III. iv.

Balthazar. R&J. I. i.

Banditti. Tim. IV. iii.

Banquo. Mcb. I. iii.

Baptista. TofS. I. i.

Bardolph. 1H4. II. ii; 2H4. II. i; H5. II. i; MWW. I. i.

Bardolph, Lord. 2H4. I. i.

Barnardine. Meas. IV. iii.

Bassanio. Merch. I. i.

Bassanius. TA. I. i.

Basset. 1H6. III. iv.

Bastard of Orleans. 1H6. I. ii.

Bastard. See Edmund, Faulconbridge, and Margarelon.

Bates. H5. IV. i.

Bawd. Per. IV. ii. See Overdone.

Beadles. 2H4. V. iv; 2H6. II. i.

Beatrice. MAdo. I. i.

Beaufort, Henry, Bishop of Winchester, and Cardinal. 1H6. I. i; 2H6. I. i.

Beaufort, John, Duke of Somerset. 1H6. II. iv; 2H6. I. i.

Beaufort, Thomas, Duke of Exeter. H5. I. ii; 1H6. I. i.

Bedford, Duke of. H5. II. ii.

Bedford, Duke of. 1H6. I. i.

Belarius. Cym. III. iii.

Belch, Sir Toby. TwN. I. iii.

Benedick. MAdo. I. i.

Benvolio. R&J. I. i.

Berkeley. R3. I. iii.*

Berkeley, Lord. R2. II. iii.

Bernardo. Hml. I i.*

Bertram, Count of Rousillon. AWEW. I. i.

Bevis, George. 2H6. IV. ii.

Bianca. Oth. III. iv.

Bianca. TofS. I. i.

Bigot, Lord. John IV. iii.

Biondello. TofS. I. i.

Biron. LLL. I. i.

Blanche of Spain. John II. i.

Blunt, Sir James. R3. V. ii.

Blunt, Sir Walter. 1H4. I. iii.

Boatswain. Tmp. I. i.

Bolingbroke, Roger. 2H6. I. iv.

Bolingbroke, afterwards King Henry IV. R2. I. i.

Bona. 3H6. III. iii.

Borachio. MAdo. I. iii.

Bottom. MND. I. ii.

Boult. Per. IV. ii.

Bourbon, Duke of. H5. III. v.

Bourchier, Cardinal. R3. III. i.

Boyet. LLL. II. i.

Boys: H5. II. i; 1H6. I. iv; H8. V. i; Mcb. IV. ii; Meas. IV. i; MAdo. II. iii; R3. II. ii; T&C. I. ii. See Pages.

Brabantio. Oth. I. i.

Brakenbury, Sir Robert. R3. I. i.

Brandon. H8. I. i.

Brothers, to Posthumus, ghosts. Cym. V. iv.

Brutus, Decius. JC. II. i.

Brutus, Junius. Cor. I. i.

Brutus, Marcus. JC. I. ii.

Buckingham, Duke of. 2H6. I. i; R3. I. iii.

Buckingham, Duke of. H8. I. i.

Bullcalf. 2H4. III. ii.

Bullen, Anne. H8. I. iv.

Burgundy, Duke of. H5. V. ii.

Burgundy, Duke of. 1H6. II. i.

Burgundy, Duke of. Lear I. i.

Bushy. R2. I. iv.

Butts, Doctor. H8. V. ii.

Cade, John. 2H6. IV. ii.

Caesar. See Julius and Octavius.

Caithness. Mcb. V. ii.

Caius. TA.*

Caius, Doctor. MWW. I. iv.

Caius Ligarius. JC. II. i.

Caius Lucius. Cym. III. i.

Caius Marcius (Coriolanus). Cor. I. i.

Calchas. T&C. III. iii.

Caliban. Tmp. I. ii.

Calpurnia. JC. I. ii.

Cambridge, Earl of. H5. II. ii.

Camillo. WT. I. i.

Campeius, Cardinal. H8. II. ii.

Canidius. A&C. III. x.

Canterbury, Archbishop of. H5. I. i. See Bourchier, Cranmer.

Caphis. Tim. II. i.

Captains: A&C. IV. iv; Cym. IV. ii, V. iii; Hml. IV. iv; 1H6. II. ii; Lear V. iii; Mcb. I. ii; R2. II. iv; TA. I. i. See Sea Captain.

Capucius. H8. IV. ii.

Capulet. R&J. I. i.

Capulet, Lady. R&J. I. i.

Capulet, second. R&J. I. v.

Cardinal. See Bourchier, Winchester.

Carlisle, Bishop of. R2. III. ii.

Carpenter. JC. I. i.

Carriers. 1H4. II. i.

Casca. JC. I. ii.

Cassandra. T&C. II. ii.

Cassio. Oth. I. ii.

Cassius. JC. I. ii.

Catesby, Sir William. R3. I. iii.

Cato, young. JC. V. iii.

Celia. AYLI. I. ii.

Ceres. Tmp. IV. i.

Cerimon. Per. III. ii.

Chamberlain. 1H4. II. i.

Chamberlain, Lord. H8. I. iii.

Chancellor, Lord. H8. V. iii.

Charles, a wrestler. AYLI. I. i.

Charles, the dauphin, later King of France. 1H6. I. ii.

Charles VI, King of France. H5. II. iv.

Charmian. A&C. I. ii.

Chatillon, ambassador. John I. i.

Chief Justice. 2H4. I. ii.

Chiron. TA. I. i.

Chorus. H5; Per; R&J; WT.

Cicero. JC. I. iii.

Cimber, Metellus. JC. II. i.

Cinna, a conspirator. JC. I. iii.

Cinna, a poet. JC. III. iii.

Citizens. Cor. I. i; 2H6. IV. v; John II. i; R3. II. iii; R&J. III. i.

Clarence, George, Duke of. 3H6. II. ii; R3. I. i.

Clarence, Thomas, Duke of. 2H4. IV. iv.

Clarence, son and daughter of. R3. II. ii.

Claudio. Meas. I. ii.

Claudio. MAdo. I. i.

Claudius, King of Denmark. Hml. I. ii.

Claudius. JC. IV. iii.

Cleomenes. WT. III. i.

Cleon. Per. I. iv.

Cleopatra. A&C. I. i.

Clerk. 2H6. IV. ii.

Clifford, Lord. 2H6. IV. viii; 3H6. I. i.

Clifford, young, son of preceding. 2H6. V. i.

Clitus. JC. V. v.

Cloten. Cym. I. ii.

Clowns: A&C. V. ii; AWEW. I. iii; Hml. V. ii; LLL. I. ii; Oth. III. i; TA. IV. iii; WT. IV. iii. See Feste, Peter, Pompey, etc.

Cobbler. JC. I. i.

Cobweb. MND. III. i.

Colville, Sir John. 2H4. IV. iii.

Cominius. Cor. I. i.

Commons. 2H6. III. ii.

Conrade. MAdo. I. iii.

Conspirators. Cor. V. vi.

Constable (Dull). LLL. I. i.

Constable of France. H5. II. iv.

Constance. John II. i.

Cordelia. Lear I. i.

Corin. AYLI. II. iv.

Coriolanus. Cor. I. i.

Cornelius, a physician. Cym. I. v.

Cornelius. Hml. I. ii.

Cornwall, Duke of. Lear I. i.

Costard. LLL. I. i.

Court. H5. IV. i.

Courtesan. CofE. IV. iii.

Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury. H8. V. i.

Cressida. T&C. I. ii.

Crier. H8. II. iv.

Cromwell. H8. III. ii.

Cupid. Tim. I. ii.

Curan. Lear II. i.

Curio. TwN. I. i.

Curtis. TofS. IV. i.

Cymbeline, King. Cym. I. i.

Dancer, A. 2H4. Epi.

Dardanius. JC. V. v.

Daughter of Antiochus. Per. I. iv.

Dauphin. H5. II. iv.

Davy. 2H4. V. i.

Deiphobus. T&C. IV. i.

Demetrius. A&C. I. i.

Demetrius. MND. I. i.

Demetrius. TA. I. i.

Dennis. AYLI. I. i.

Denny, Sir Anthony. H8. V. i.

Derby, Earl of. R3. I. iii.

Dercetas. A&C. IV. xiv.

Desdemona. Oth. I. iii.

Diana. Per.*

Diana. AWEW. III. v.

Dick, butcher. 2H6. IV. ii.

Diomedes. T&C. II. iii.

Diomedes. A&C. IV. xiv.

Dion. WT. III. i.

Dionyza. Per. I. iv.

Doctor. Lear IV. iv.

Doctor, English Mcb. IV. iii.

Doctor, Scotch. Mcb. V. i.

Dogberry. MAdo. III. iii.

Dolabella. A&C. III. xii.

Doll Tearsheet. 2H4. II. iv.

Don Adriano de Armado. LLL. I. ii.

Donalbain. Mcb. II. iii.

Don John. MAdo. I. i.

Don Pedro. MAdo. I. i.

Dorcas. WT. IV. iv.

Dorset, Marquis of. R3. I. iii.

Douglas Archibald, Earl of. 1H4. IV. i.

Drawers. 2H4. II. iv.

Dromio of Ephesus. CofE. I. ii.

Dromio of Syracuse. CofE. I. ii.

Duke, in banishment. AYLI. II. i.

Duke Frederick. AYLI. I. ii.

Duke of Milan. TGV. II. iv.

Dull. LLL. I. i.

Dumain. LLL. I. i.

Duncan, King. Mcb. I. ii.

Edgar. Lear I. ii.

Edmund. Lear I. i.

Edmund, Earl of Rutland. 3H6. I. iii.

Edward, Earl of March, later Edward IV. 3H6. I. i; R3. II. i.

Edward IV, King. 3H6. I. i; R3. II. i.

Edward V, King. R3. III. i.

Edward, Prince of Wales, afterwards Edward V. R3. III. i.

Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales. 3H6. I. i.

Egeus. MND. I. i.

Eglamour. TGV. IV. iii.

Egyptian. A&C. V. i.

Elbow. Meas. II. i.

Eleanor, Duchess of Gloucester. 2H6. I. ii.

Eleanor, Queen. John I. i.

Elizabeth, Queen (as L. Grey). 3H6. III. ii; R3. I. iii.

Ely, Bishop of. H5. I. i.

Ely, Bishop of. R3. III. iv.

Emilia. Oth. II. ii.

Emilia. WT. II. ii.

Enobarbus. A&C. I. ii.

Eros. A&C. III. v.

Erpingham, Sir Thomas. H5. IV. i.

Escalus, Prince. R&J. I. i.

Escalus. Meas. I. i.

Escanes. Per. II. iv.

Essex, Earl of. John I. i.

Euphronius. A&C. III. xii.

Evans, Sir Hugh. MWW. I. i

Executioners. John IV. i.

Exeter (Beaufort), Duke of. H5. I. ii; 1H6. I. i.

Exeter, Duke of. 3H6. I. i.

Exton, Sir Pierce of. R2. V. iv.

Fabian. TwN. II. v.

Fairies. MND. II. i; MWW. V. iv.

Falstaff, Sir John. 1H4. I. ii; 2H4. I. ii; MWW. I. i.

Fang. 2H4. II. i.

Fastolfe, Sir John. 1H6. III. ii.

Father that hath killed his son. 3H6. II. v.

Faulconbridge, Lady. John I. i.

Faulconbridge, Philip the Bastard. John I. i.

Faulconbridge, Robert. John I. i.

Feeble. 2H4. III. ii.

Fenton. MWW. I. iv.

Ferdinand. Tmp. I. ii.

Ferdinand, King of Navarre. LLL. I. i.

Feste. TwN. I. v.

Fisherman. Per. II. i.

Fitzwater, Lord. R2. IV. i.

Flaminius. Tim. III. i.

Flavius. JC. I. i.

Flavius. Tim. I. ii.

Fleance. Mcb. II. i.

Florence, Duke of. AWEW. III. i.

Florizel. WT. IV. iv.

Fluellen. H5. III. ii.

Flute. MND. I. ii.

Fool. Lear I. iv; Tim. II. ii.

Ford. MWW. II. i.

Ford, Mistress. MWW. II. i.

Forester. AYLI. IV. ii; LLL. IV. i.

Fortinbras. Hml. IV. iv.

France, King of. AWEW. I. ii.

France, King of. Lear I. i.

France, Princess of. LLL. II. i.

Francis. 1H4. II. iv.

Francisca. Meas. I. iv.

Francisco. Hml. I. i.

Francisco. Tmp. II. i.

Frederick, Duke. AYLI. I. ii.

Frenchman, A. Cym. I. iv.

Friar Francis. MAdo. IV. i.

Friar John. R&J. V. 2.

Friar Lawrence. R&J. II. 3.

Friar Peter. Meas. IV. vi.

Friar Thomas. Meas. I. iii.

Froth. Meas. II. i.

Gadshill. 1H4. II. i.

Gaolers: CofE. I. i; Cym. V. iv; 1H6. II. v; Merch. III. iii; WT. II. ii.

Gallus. A&C. V. i.

Gardener. R2. III. iv.

Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester. H8. V. i.

Gargrave, Sir Thomas. 1H6. I. iv.

Gaunt, John, Duke of Lancaster. R2. I. i.

Gentleman Usher. H8. II. iv.

Gentlemen: AWEW. V. iii; Cym. I. i; Hml. IV. v; 2H6. IV. i; H8. II. i; Lear I. v; Meas. I. ii; Per. III. ii; Oth. II. i; WT. V. ii.

Gentlewomen. Cor. I. iii; Mcb. V. i.

George, Duke of Clarence. 3H6. II. ii; R3. I. i.

Gertrude, Queen of Denmark. Hml. I. ii.

Ghosts of: Caesar, JC. IV. iii; of Hamlet's father, Hml. I. v; Sicilius Leonatus, wife, two sons, Cym. V. iv; Banquo,* Mcb. III. iv; Prince Edward, Henry VI, Clarence, Rivers, Grey, Vaughan, Hastings, two young princes, Lady Anne, and Buckingham, R3. V. iii.

Glansdale, Sir William. 1H6. I. iv.

Glendower, Owen. 1H4. III.

Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke of. 2H4. IV. iv; H5. III. vii; 1H6. I. i; 2H6. I. i.

Gloucester, Richard, Duke of. 3H6. I. i; R3. I. i.

Gloucester, Duchess of. 2H6. I. ii.

Gloucester, Duchess of. R2. I. ii.

Gloucester, Earl of. Lear I. i.

Gobbo, Launcelot. Merch. II. ii.

Gobbo, Old, father of Launcelot. Merch. II. ii.

Goffe, Matthew. 2H6.*

Goneril. Lear I. i.

Gonzalo. Tmp. I. i.

Goths. TA. V. i.

Governor of Harfleur. H5. III. iii.

Governor of Paris. 1H6. IV. i.

Gower. 2H4. II. i; H5. III. ii.

Gower, chorus. Per.

Grandpre. H5. IV. ii.

Gratiano. Merch. I. i.

Gratiano. Oth. V. ii.

Gravediggers. Hml. V. i.

Green. R2. I. iv.

Gregory. R&J. I. i.

Gremio. TofS. I. i.

Grey, Lady, later Queen Elizabeth. 3H6. III. ii; R3. I. iii.

Grey, Lord. R3. I. iii.

Grey, Sir Thomas. H5. II. ii.

Griffith. H8. IV. ii.

Grooms. 2H4. V. v; R2. V. v.

Grumio. TofS. I. i.

Guard. A&C. IV. xiv.

Guiderius. Cym. III. iii.

Guildenstern. Hml. II. ii.

Guildford, Sir Henry. H8. I. iv.

Gurney, James. John I. i.

Haberdasher. TofS. IV. iii.

Hamlet. Hml. I. ii.

Harcourt. 2H4. IV. iv.

Hastings, Lord. 2H4. I. iii.

Hastings, Lord. 3H6. IV. i; R3. I. i.

Hecate. Mcb. III. v.

Hector. T&C. II. ii.

Helen, an attendant. Cym. II. ii.

Helen. T&C. III. i.

Helena. AWEW. I. i.

Helena. MND. I. i.

Helenus. T&C. II. ii.

Helicanus. Per. I. ii.

Henry IV, King (Bolingbroke). 1H4. I. i; 2H4. III. i; R2. I. i.

Henry V, King (first, Henry, Prince of Wales). 1H4. I. ii; 2H4. II. ii; H5. I. ii.

Henry, Prince. 1H4. I. ii; 2H4. II. ii.

Henry, Prince, son of King John. John V. vii.

Henry VI, King. 1H6. III. i; 2H6. I. i; 3H6. I. i.

Henry VII, King, first Earl of Richmond. 3H6.* R3. V. iii.

Henry VIII, King. H8. I. ii.

Heralds. Cor. II. i; H5. III. vi, IV. viii; 2H6. II. iv; John II. i; Lear V. iii; Oth. II. ii; R2. I. iii.

Herbert, Sir Walter. R3. V. ii.

Hereford, Duke of. See Henry IV. R2. I. i.

Hermia. MND. I. i.

Hermione. WT. I. ii.

Hero. MAdo. I. i.

Hippolyta. MND. I. i.

Holland, John. 2H6. IV. ii.

Holofernes. LLL. IV. ii.

Horatio. Hml. I. i.

Horner, Roger. 2H6. I. iii.

Hortensio. TofS. I. i.

Hortensius. Tim. III. iv.

Host. TGV. IV. ii.

Host of the Garter Inn. MWW. I. iii.

Hostess. H5. II. i. See Quickly.

Hostess. TofS. Ind.

Hotspur. 1H4. I. iii. See Percy.

Hubert de Burgh. John III. iii.

Hume, John. 2H6. I. ii.

Humphrey of Gloucester. 2H4. IV. iv; H5. III. vii; 1H6. I. i; 2H6. I. i.

Huntsmen. 3H6. IV. v; TofS. Ind.

Hymen. AYLI. V. iv.

Iachimo. Cym. I. iv.

Iago. Oth. I. i.

Iden, Alexander. 2H6. IV. x.

Imogen. Cym. I. i.

Interpreter. AWEW. IV. iii.

Iras. A&C. I. ii.

Iris. Tmp. IV. i.

Isabel, Queen of France. H5. V. ii.

Isabella. Meas. I. iv.

Isadore, servant. Tim. II. ii.

Jamy. H5. III. ii.

Jaquenetta. LLL. I. ii.

Jaques. AYLI. II. v.

Jaques, son of Sir Roland de Boys. AYLI.*

Jessica. Merch. II. iii.

Jeweller. Tim. I. i.

Joan la Pucelle (Joan of Arc). 1H6. I. ii.

John, King. John I. i.

John of Lancaster. 1H4. V. iv; 2H4. IV. ii.

Jordan, Margery. 2H6. I. iv.

Julia. TGV. I. ii.

Juliet. Meas. I. ii.

Juliet. R&J. I. iii.

Julius Caesar. JC. I. ii.

Juno. Tmp. IV. i.

Jupiter. Cym. V. iv.

Katherina. TofS. I. i.

Katherine. LLL. II. i.

Katherine, Princess of France. H5. III. iv.

Katherine, Queen. H8. I. ii.

Keepers: 3H6. III. i; H8. V. ii; R2. V. v; R3. I. iv. See Gaolers.

Kent, Earl of. Lear I. i.

Knights: Lear I. iv; Per. II. iii.

Ladies: Cor. II. i; Cym. I. v; R2. III. iv; Tim. I. ii; WT. II. i.

Laertes. Hml. I. ii.

Lafeu, Lord. AWEW. I. i.

Lamprius. A&C. I. ii.

Launce. TGV. II. iii.

Launcelot Gobbo. Merch. II. ii.

Lavache, a clown. AWEW. I. iii.

Lavinia. TA. I. i.

Lawyer, a. 1H6. II. iv.

Lear, King. Lear I. i.

Le Beau. AYLI. I. ii.

Legate. 1H6. V. i.

Lennox. Mcb. I. ii.

Leonardo. Merch. II. ii.

Leonato. MAdo. I. i.

Leonatus, Posthumus. Cym. I. i.

Leonine. Per. IV. i.

Leontes. WT. I. ii.

Lepidus. JC. IV. i; A&C. I. iv.

Lewis, the Dauphin. H5. II. iv.

Lewis, the Dauphin. John II. i.

Lewis XI, King of France. 3H6. III. iii.

Lieutenant: Cor. IV. vii; 2H6. IV. i; 3H6. IV. vi.

Ligarius. JC. II. i.

Lincoln, Bishop of. H8. II. iv.

Lion. MND. V. i.

Longaville. LLL. I. i.

Lords: AWEW. I. ii, III. i; AYLI. II. i; Cor. V. vi; Cym. I. ii; Hml. V. ii; LLL. II. i; Mcb. III. iv; Per. I. ii; R3. V. iii; TofS. Ind.; Tim. I. i; WT. II. ii.

Lorenzo. Merch. I. i.

Lovel, Lord. R3. III. iv.

Lovell, Sir Thomas. H8. I. iii.

Luce. CofE. III. i.

Lucentio. TofS. I. i.

Lucetta. TGV. I. ii.

Luciana. CofE. II. i.

Lucianus. Hml. III. ii.

Lucilius. JC. IV. ii.

Lucilius. Tim. I. i.

Lucio. Meas. I. ii.

Lucius, Caius. Cym. III. i.

Lucius. JC. II. i.

Lucius. TA. I. i.

Lucius, young. TA. III. ii.

Lucius. Tim. III. ii; servant. Tim. III. iv.

Lucullus. Tim. III. i.

Lucy, Sir William. 1H6. IV. iii.

Ludovico. Oth. IV. i.

Lychorida. Per. III. i.

Lymoges, Duke of Austria. John II. i.

Lysander. MND. I. i.

Lysimachus. Per. IV. vi.

Macbeth. Mcb. I. iii.

Macbeth, Lady. Mcb. I. v.

Macduff. Mcb. II. iii.

Macduff, Lady. Mcb. IV. ii.

Macduff's son. Mcb. IV. ii.

Macmorris. H5. III. ii.

Maecenas. A&C. II. ii.

Malcolm. Mcb. I. ii.

Malvolio. TwN. I. v.

Mamillius. WT. I. ii.

Marcellus. Hml. I. i.

Marcus Andronicus. TA. I. i.

Marcus Antonius (Antony). JC. I. ii; A&C. I. i.

Mardian. A&C. I. v.

Margarelon. T&C. V. vi.

Margaret. MAdo. II. i.

Margaret, Queen. 1H6. V. iii; 2H6. I. i; 3H6. I. i; R3. I. iii.

Margaret Plantagenet, daughter of Clarence. R3. II. ii.

Maria. LLL. II. i.

Maria. TwN. I. iii.

Mariana. AWEW. III. v.

Mariana. Meas. IV. i.

Marina. Per. IV. i.

Mariner. WT. III. iii; Tmp. I. i.

Marshal. Per. II. iii.

Marshal, Lord. R2. I. iii.

Martext, Sir Oliver. AYLI. III. iii.

Martius. TA. I. i.

Marullus. JC. I. i.

Master. 2H6. IV. i.

Master gunner. 1H6. I. iv.

Master, of a ship. Tmp. I. i; 2H6. IV. i.

Master's Mate. 2H6. IV. i.

Mayor of London. 1H6. III. i; R3. III. i.

Mayor of St. Albans. 2H6. II. i.

Mayor of York. 3H6. IV. vii.

Melun. John V. iv.

Menas. A&C. II. i.

Menecrates. A&C. II. i.

Menelaus. T&C. I. iii.

Menenius Agrippa. Cor. I. i.

Menteith. Mcb. V. ii.

Mercade. LLL. V. ii.

Merchants: CofE. I. ii; Tim. I. i.

Mercutio. R&J. I. iv.

Messala. JC. IV. iii.

Messengers: A&C. I. i; AWEW. IV. iii; CofE. V. i; Cor. I. i; Cym. V. iv; Hml. IV. v; 1H4. IV. i; 2H4. IV. i; H5. II. v; 1H6. I. i; 2H6. I. ii; 3H6. I. ii; H8. IV. ii; John IV. ii; JC. IV. iii; Lear IV. ii; LLL. V. ii; Mcb. I. v; Meas. IV. ii; Merch. II. ix; MAdo. I. i; Oth. I. iii; Per. I. i; R3. III. ii; TofS. III. i; Tim. I. i; TA. III. i.

Metellus Cimber. JC. II. i.

Michael. 2H6. IV. ii.

Michael, Sir. 1H4. IV. iv.

Milan, Duke of. TGV. II. iv.

Miranda. Tmp. I. ii.

Montague. R&J. I. i.

Montague, Lady. R&J. I. i.

Montague, Marquess of. 3H6. I. i.

Montano. Oth. II. i.

Montgomery, Sir John. 3H6. IV. vii.

Montjoy. H5. III. vi.

Moonshine. MND. V. i.

Mopsa. WT. IV. iv.

Morocco, Prince of. Merch. II. i.

Mortimer, Edmund, Earl of March. 1H4. III. i.

Mortimer, Edmund, Earl of March. 1H6. II. v.

Mortimer, Lady. 1H4. III. i.

Mortimer, Sir Hugh.* 3H6. I. ii.

Mortimer, Sir John. 3H6. I. ii.

Morton. 2H4. I. i.

Morton, John, Bishop of Ely. R3. III. iv.

Moth. LLL. I. ii.

Moth. MND. III. i.

Mother to Posthumus, a ghost. Cym. V. iv.

Mouldy. 2H4. III. ii.

Mowbray, Lord. 2H4. I. iii.

Mowbray, Thomas, Duke of Norfolk. R2. I. i.

Murderers: 2H6. III. ii; Mcb. III. i; R3. I. iii.

Musicians: Merch. V. i; Oth. III. i; R&J. IV. v; TGV. IV. ii.

Mustardseed. MND. III. i.

Mutius. TA. I. i.

Nathaniel, Sir. LLL. IV. ii.

Neighbors. 2H6. II. iii.

Nerissa. Merch. I. ii.

Nestor. T&C. I. iii.

Noble, a. Cor. III. ii.

Nobleman, a. 3H6. III. ii.

Norfolk, Duke of. 3H6. I. i; R3. V. iii.

Norfolk, Duke of, Thomas Mowbray. R2. I. i.

Norfolk, Duke of. H8. I. i.

Northumberland. See Percy.

Northumberland, Earl of. 3H6. I. i.

Northumberland, Lady. 2H4. II. iii.

Nurse. R&J. I. 3.

Nurse. TA. IV. ii.

Nym. H5. II. i; MWW. I. i.

Oberon. MND. II. i.

Octavia. A&C. III. ii.

Octavius Caesar (Augustus). JC. IV. i; A&C. I. iv.

Officers: CofE. IV. i; Cor. II. ii; Oth. I. iii; R&J. I. i; TwN. III. iv; WT. III. ii.

Old Athenian. Tim. I. i.

Old Lady. H8. II. iii.

Old Man. Lear IV. i; Mcb. II. iv.

Oliver. AYLI. I. i.

Oliver Martext, Sir. AYLI. III. iii.

Olivia. TwN. I. v.

Ophelia. Hml. I. iii.

Orlando. AYLI. I. i.

Orleans, bastard of. 1H6. I. ii.

Orleans, Duke of. H5. III. vii.

Orsino, Duke of Illyria. TwN. I. i.

Osric. Hml. V. ii.

Ostler. 1H4. II. i.

Oswald. Lear I. iii.

Othello. Oth. I. ii.

Outlaws. TGV. IV. i.

Overdone, Mrs. Meas. I. ii.

Oxford, Earl of. 3H6. III. iii.

Oxford, Earl of. R3. V. ii.

Page. MWW. I. i.

Page, Mistress. MWW. II. i.

Page, Mistress Anne, a daughter. MWW. I. i.

Page, William, a son. MWW. IV. i.

Pages: AWEW. I. i; AYLI. V. iii; 2H4. I. ii; H8. V. i; R3. IV. ii; R&J. V. ii; Tim. II. ii. See Boys.

Painter. Tim. I. i.

Pandar. Per. IV. ii.

Pandarus. T&C. I. i.

Pandulph, Cardinal. John III. i.

Panthino. TGV. I. iii.

Paris. R&J. I. ii.

Paris. T&C. II. ii.

Parolles. AWEW. I. i.

Patience. H8. IV. ii.

Patrician. Cor. III. i.

Patroclus. T&C. II. i.

Paulina. WT. II. ii.

Peaseblossom. MND. III. i.

Pedant. TofS. IV. ii.

Pedro, Don. MAdo. I. i.

Pembroke, Earl of. 3H6. IV. i.

Pembroke, Earl of. John IV. ii.

Percy, Henry, Earl of Northumberland. 1H4. I. iii; 2H4. I. i; R2. III. i.

Percy, Henry (Hotspur). 1H4. I. iii; R2. II. iii.

Percy, Lady (wife of Hotspur). 1H4. II. iii; 2H4. II. iii.

Percy, Thomas, Earl of Worcester. 1H4. I. iii.

Perdita. WT. IV. iv.

Pericles. Per. I. i.

Peter. 2H6. I. iii.

Peter. R&J. II. iv.

Peter of Pomfret. John IV. ii.

Petitioners. 2H6. I. iii.

Peto. 1H4. II. ii; 2H4. II. iv.

Petruchio. TofS. I. i.

Phebe. AYLI. III. v.

Philario. Cym. I. iv.

Philemon. Per. III. ii.

Philip, King of France. John II. i.

Philo. A&C. I. i.

Philostrate. MND. V. i.

Philotus. Tim. III. iv.

Phrynia. Tim. IV. iii.

Physicians: Cym. I. v; Lear IV. iv; Mcb. IV. iii.

Pierce, Sir, of Exton. R2. V. iv.

Pinch. CofE. IV. iv.

Pindarus. JC. IV. ii.

Pirates. Per. IV. i.

Pisanio. Cym. I. i.

Pistol. 2H4. II. iv; H5. II. i; MWW. I. i.

Plantagenet. See Richard.

Player King. Hml. III. ii.

Player Queen. Hml. III. ii.

Players. Hml. II. ii; TofS. Ind.

Plebeians. JC. III. ii. See Citizens.

Poet. Tim. I. i.

Poet. JC. IV. iii.

Poins. 1H4. I. ii; 2H4. II. ii.

Polixenes. WT. I. ii.

Polonius. Hml. I. ii.

Pompeius, Sextus. A&C. II. i.

Pompey. Meas. I. ii.

Popilius. JC. III. i.

Porters: 2H4. I. i; 1H6. II. iii; H8. V. iv; Mcb. II. iii.

Porter's Man. H8. V. iv.

Portia. JC. II. i.

Portia. Merch. I. ii.

Post. 2H6. III. i; 3H6. III. iii.

Posthumus Leonatus. Cym. I. i.

Prentices. 2H6. II. iii.

Priam, King of Troy. T&C. II. ii.

Priests: Hml. V. i; R3. III. ii; TwN. V. i.

Princess of France. LLL. II. i.

Proculeius. A&C. V. i.

Prologue. R&J; H5; MND; Hml. III, ii; H8; T&C.

Prospero. Tmp. I. ii.

Proteus. TGV. I. i.

Provost. Meas. I. ii.

Publius. JC. II. ii.

Publius. TA. IV. iii.

Puck, Robin Goodfellow. MND. II. i.

Pursuivant. R3. III. ii.

Pyramus. MND. V. i.

Queen, wife of Cymbeline. Cym. I. i.

Queen, wife of Richard II. R2. II. i.

Quickly, Mrs. 1H4. II. iv; 2H4. II. i; H5. II. i; MWW. I. iv.

Quince. MND. I. ii.

Quintus. TA. I. i.

Rambures. H5. III. vii.

Ratcliff, Sir Richard. R3. III. iii.

Regan. Lear I. i.

Reignier, Duke of Anjou. 1H6. I. ii.

Reynaldo. Hml. II. i.

Richard II, King. R2. I. i.

Richard II, Queen to. R2. II. i.

Richard III, King (at first Gloucester). 3H6. I. i; R3. I. i.

Richard, Duke of York, son of Edward IV. R3. II. iv.

Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York. 1H6. II. iv; 2H6. I. i; 3H6. I. i.

Richard Plantagenet, son of preceding. 2H6*; 3H6. I. i.

Richmond, Earl of, later Henry VII. 3H6*; R3. V. iii.

Rivers, Lord. 3H6. IV. iv; R3. I. iii.

Robin. MWW. I. iii.

Robin Goodfellow. MND. II. i.

Roderigo. Oth. I. i.

Roman, a. Cor. IV. iii. See Citizens.

Romeo. R&J. I. i.

Rosalind. AYLI. I. ii.

Rosaline. LLL. II. i.

Rosencrantz. Hml. II. ii.

Ross. Mcb. I. ii.

Ross, Lord. R2. II. i.

Rotherham, Thomas. Archbishop of York. R3. II. iv.

Rousillon, Count. See Bertram.

Rousillon, Countess. AWEW. I. i.

Rugby, John. MWW. I. iv.

Rumour. 2H4. Ind.

Rutland, Edmund, Earl of. 3H6. I. iii.

Sailors: Hml. IV. vi; Oth. I. iii; Per. III. i.

Salanio. Merch. I. i.

Salarino. Merch. I. i.

Salerio. Merch. III. ii.

Salisbury, Earl of. H5. IV. iii; 1H6. I. iv.

Salisbury, Earl of. 2H6. I. i.

Salisbury, Earl of. John III. i.

Salisbury, Earl of. R2. II. iv.

Sampson. R&J. I. i.

Sandys, William (Lord). H8. I. iii.

Saturninus. TA. I. i.

Say, Lord. 2H6. IV. iv.

Scales, Lord. 2H6. IV. v.

Scarus. A&C. III. x.

Scout. 1H6. V. ii.

Scribe. H8. II. iv.

Scrivener. R3. III. vi.

Scroop, Lord. H5. II. ii.

Scroop, Richard, Archbishop of York. 1H4. IV. iv; 2H4. I. iii.

Scroop, Sir Stephen. R2. III. ii.

Sea-Captain (Lieut.). 2H6. IV. i; TwN. I. ii.

Sebastian. Tmp. I. i.

Sebastian. TwN. II. i.

Secretary. H8. I i.

Seleucus. A&C. V. ii.

Sempronius. TA.*

Sempronius. Tim. III. iii.

Senators, Roman. Cor. I. i; Cym. III. vii; Venetian. Oth. I. iii; Athenian. Tim. II. i; Coriolanian. Cor. I. ii.

Sentinels. 1H6. II. i.

Sentry. A&C. IV. ix.

Sergeant. 1H6. II. i; (at arms) H8. I. i.

Servants: A&C. II. vii; Hml. IV. vi; 1H4. II. iii; 2H4. I. ii; H8. I. iv; JC. II. ii; Lear III. vii; Mcb. III. i; Meas. II. ii; Merch. III. i; Per. III. ii; R2. II. ii; TofS. IV. i; Tim. I. ii; T&C. III. i; TwN. III. iv; WT. II. iii.

Servilius. Tim. III. ii.

Servingmen: Cor. IV. v; 1H6. I. iii; 2H6. II. iv; Merch. I. ii; TofS. Ind.

Seyton. Mcb. V. iii.

Sexton. MAdo. I. i.

Sextus Pompeius. A&C. II. i.

Shadow. 2H4. III. ii.

Shallow, Justice. 2H4. III. ii; MWW. I. i.

Shepherd. 1H6. V. iv.

Shepherd, Old. WT. III. iii.

Sheriff. 1H4. II. iv; 2H6. II. iv; R3. V. i.

Shrewsbury, Talbot, Earl of. 1H6. I. iv.

Shylock. Merch. I. iii.

Sicilius Leonatus, a ghost. Cym. V. iv.

Sicinius Velutus. Cor. I. i.

Silence. 2H4. III. ii.

Silius. A&C. III. i.

Silvia. TGV. II. i.

Silvius. AYLI. II. iv.

Simonides, King of Pentapolis. Per. II. ii.

Simpcox. 2H6. II. i.

Simpcox's wife. 2H6. II. i.

Simple, Peter. MWW. I. i.

Siward. Mcb. V. iv.

Siward, young. Mcb. V. vii.

Slender, Abraham. MWW. I. i.

Sly, Christopher. TofS. Ind.

Smith. 2H6. IV. ii.

Snare. 2H4. II. i.

Snout. MND. I. ii.

Snug. MND. I. ii.

Soldiers: A&C. III. vii; AWEW. IV. i; Cor. I. iv; H5. IV. iv; 1H6. II. i; 2H6. IV. vi; 3H6. IV. viii; JC. IV. ii; Mcb. V. iv; Tim. V. iv; T&C. V. ix.

Solinus, Duke of Ephesus. CofE. I. i.

Somerset, Duke of. 1H6. II. iv; 2H6. I. i.

Somerset, Duke of. 3H6. IV. i.

Somerville, Sir John. 3H6. V. i.

Son that hath killed his father. 3H6. II. v.

Soothsayers. A&C. I. ii; Cym. IV. ii; JC. I. ii.

Southwell, John. 2H6. I. iv.

Speed. TGV. I. i.

Spirits. 2H6. I. iv.

Spring (Ver). LLL. V. ii.

Stafford, Lord. 3H6.*

Stafford, Sir Humphrey. 2H6. IV. ii.

Stafford, William. 2H6. IV. ii.

Stanley, Lord, Earl of Derby. R3. I. iii.

Stanley, Sir John. 2H6. II. iv.

Stanley, Sir William. 3H6. IV. v.*

Starveling. MND. I. ii.

Stephano. Merch.*

Stephano. Tmp. II. ii.

Steward. AWEW. I. iii.

Strangers. Tim. III. ii.

Strato. JC. V. v.

Suffolk, Earl and Duke of. 1H6. II. iv; 2H6. I. i.

Suffolk, Duke of. H8. II. ii.

Surrey, Earl of. 2H4.*

Surrey, Earl of. R2. IV. i.

Surrey, Earl of. R3. V. iii.

Surrey, Lord. H8. III. ii.

Surveyor. H8. I. ii.

Tailor. TofS. IV. ii.

Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury. 1H6. I. iv.

Talbot, John. 1H6. I. iv.

Tamora, Queen of Goths. TA. I. i.

Taurus. A&C. III. viii.

Thaisa. Per. II. ii.

Thaliard. Per. I. i.

Thersites. T&C. II. i.

Theseus. MND. I. i.

Thieves. 1H4. II. ii.

Thisbe. MND. V. i.

Thomas, Friar. Meas. I. iii.

Thurio. TGV. II. iv.

Thyreus (Thidias). A&C. III. xii.

Timandra. Tim. IV. iii.

Time (chorus). WT. IV. i.

Timon. Tim. I. i.

Titania. MND. II. i.

Titinius. JC. IV. iii.

Titus. Tim. III. iv.

Titus Andronicus. TA. I. i.

Titus Lartius. Cor. I. i.

Touchstone. AYLI. I. ii.

Townsmen of St. Albans. 2H6. II. i.

Tranio. TofS. I. i.

Travellers. 1H4. II. ii.

Travers. 2H4. I. i.

Trebonius. JC. II. i.

Tressel. R3. I. iii.*

Tribunes, Roman: Cym. III. vii; TA. I. i.

Trinculo. Tmp. II. ii.

Troilus. T&C. I. i.

Tubal. Merch. III. i.

Tullus Aufidius. Cor. I. ii.

Tutor. 3H6. I. iii.

Tybalt. R&J. I. i.

Tyrrel, Sir James. R3. IV. ii.

Ulysses. T&C. I. iii.

Ursula. MAdo. II. i.

Urswick, Christopher. R3. IV. v.

Valentine. TwN. I. iv.

Valentine. TGV. I. i.

Valentine. TA.*

Valeria. Cor. I. iii.

Varrius. A&C. II. i.

Varro, servant. Tim. II. ii.

Varro. JC. IV. iii.

Vaughan, Sir Thomas. R3. III. iii.

Vaux. 2H6. III. ii.

Vaux, Sir Nicholas. H8. II. i.

Venice, Duke of. Merch. IV. i.

Venice, Duke of. Oth. I. iii.

Ventidius. A&C. III. i.

Ventidius. Tim. I. ii.

Verges. MAdo. III. iii.

Vernon. 1H6. II. iv.

Vernon, Sir Richard. 1H4. IV. i.

Vincentio. TofS. IV. v.

Vincentio, Duke. Meas. I. i.

Vintner. 1H4. II. iv.

Viola. TwN. I. ii.

Violenta. AWEW. III. v.

Virgilia. Cor. I. iii.

Volsce, a. Cor. IV. iii.

Voltimand. Hml. I. ii.

Volumnia. Cor. I. iii.

Volumnius. JC. V. v.

Wall, MND. V. i.

Warders. 1H6. I. iii.

Wart. 2H4. III. ii.

Warwick (Beauchamp), Earl of. 2H4. III. i; H5. IV. viii; 1H6. II. iv.

Warwick (Nevil), Earl of. 2H6. I. i; 3H6. I. i.

Watchmen: Cor. V. ii; 3H6. IV. iii; MAdo. III. iii; R&J. V. iii.

Westminster, Abbot of. R2. IV. i.

Westmoreland, Earl of. 1H4. I. i; 2H4. IV. i; H5. I. ii.

Westmoreland, Earl of. 3H6. I. i.

Whitmore, Walter. 2H6. IV. i.

Widow. TofS. V. ii.

Widow, of Florence. AWEW. III. v.

William. AYLI. V. i.

Williams. H5. IV. i.

Willoughby, Lord. R2. II. i.

Winchester, Bishop of. 1H6. I. i; 2H6. I. i.

Winchester (Gardiner), Bishop of. H8. V. i.

Witches. Mcb. I. i.

Wolsey, Cardinal. H8. I. i.

Woodville. 1H6. I. iii.

Worcester, Earl of. 1H4. I. iii.

York, Archbishop of. See Rotherham and Scroop.

York, Duchess of. R2. V. ii.

York, Duchess of. R3. II. ii.

York, Duke of. H5. IV. iii.

York, Duke of. See Richard.

York, Duke of. See Richard, son of Edward IV.

York, Edmund Langley, Duke of. R2. II. i.

Young Marcius. Cor. V. iii.



Appendix C

INDEX OF THE SONGS IN SHAKESPEARE'S PLAYS

[Page Heading: Index of Songs]

The first lines are given. In a few cases it is doubtful whether the verses were sung or spoken.

A cup of wine that's brisk and fine, 2H4. V. iii.

And let me the canakin clink, clink; Oth. II. iii.

And will he not come again? Hml. IV. v.

An old hare hoar, R&J. II. iv.

Be merry, be merry, my wife has all; 2H4. V. iii.

Blow, blow, thou winter wind. AYLI. II. vii.

By gis, and by Saint Charity, Hml. IV. v.

Come away, come away, Mcb. III. v.

Come away, come away, death, TN. II. iv.

Come, thou monarch of the vine, A&C. II. vii.

Come unto these yellow sands, Tmp. I. ii.

Do me right, 2H4. V. iii.

Do nothing but eat, and make good cheer, 2H4. V. iii.

Farewell, master; farewell, farewell! Tmp. II. iii.

Fear no more the heat o' the sun, Cym. IV. ii.

Fie on sinful fantasy! MWW. V. v.

Fill the cup, and let it come; 2H4. V. iii.

Flout 'em and scout 'em. Tmp. III. ii.

Fools had ne'er less grace in a year; Lear I. iv.

For bonny sweet Robin is all my joy. Hml. IV. v.

Full fathom five thy father lies; Tmp. I. ii.

Get you hence, for I must go. WT. IV. iv.

Hark, hark! the lark at heaven's gate sings, Cym. II. iii.

He that has and a little tiny wit,— Lear. III. ii.

Honour, riches, marriage-blessing, Tmp. IV. i.

How should I your true love know. Hml. IV. v.

I am gone, sir, TN. IV. ii.

If it do come to pass, AYLI. II. vi.

In youth, when I did love, did love, Hml. V. i.

I shall no more to sea, to sea, Tmp. II. ii.

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