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The Esperanto Teacher - A Simple Course for Non-Grammarians
by Helen Fryer
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LESSON 31.

Sur. Super. Sub.

"Sur" means "on, upon" (touching). "Li sidas sur la kanapo", He is sitting on the sofa. Followed by the accusative (with "n") it means "on to", as "Sidigxu sur la kanapon", Sit down on the sofa. "Influi sur la karakteron", To have influence on the character.

"Super" means "over, above" (not touching). "Super la maro flugis la nuboj", Over the sea floated the clouds. Followed by the accusative it shows motion over and above a thing, as "Li jxetis sxtonon super la muron", He threw a stone over the wall.

"Sub" means "under, underneath". "La hundo kusxis sub la tablo", The dog lay under the table. With the accusative "sub" shows motion to and beneath, as "La hundo kuris sub la tablon", The dog ran under the table.

VOCABULARY.

aero : air. suprajxo : surface. sono : sound. sxultro : shoulder. benko : bench. ferdeko : deck. kato : cat. balanc- : swing (something). lito : bed. frap- : strike, slap. frukto : fruit. influ- : have influence on. genuo : knee. prem- : press. muso : mouse. nagx- : swim. muziko : music. forestanta : absent. ponto : bridge. nobla : noble (quality). sofo : sofa. alta : high.

Mi sidas sur segxo kaj tenas la piedojn sur benketo. Li revenis kun kato sur la brako. Mi metis la manon sur la tablon. Li falis sur la genuojn. Ne iru sur la ponton. Li jxetis sin malespere sur segxon. Li frapis lin sur la sxultron, kaj premis lin malsupren sur la sofon. Mi sidigis min sur la lokon de la forestanta hejtisto. La fruktoplantado devas influi noblige sur tiujn, kiuj sia okupas je gxi.

Super la tero sin trovas aero. Liaj pensoj alte levigxis super la nubojn. Sxi ricevis la permeson sin levi super la suprajxon de la maro. Ili povis sin levi sur la altajn montojn alte super la nubojn. Li staras supre sur la monto kaj rigardas malsupren sur la kampon. Sxi sidis sur la akvo kaj balancigxis supren kaj malsupren.

El sub la kanapo la muso kuris sub la liton, kaj nun gxi kuras sub la lito. Sxi ofte devis nagxi sub la akvon. Sub la sonoj de muziko ili dancis sur la ferdeko. Ekfloris sub sxia rigardo la blankaj lilioj. Sxi subigxis sub la akvon. Sxi suprennagxis cxe la subiro de la suno.

LESSON 32.

Tra. Trans. Preter.

"Tra" means "through", as "Tra la truo", Through the hole. "Tra la mondo", Through the world.

"Trans" means "at the other side, across", as "Li logxas trans la rivero", He lives on the other side of the river. With the accusative it means "to the other side", as "Li nagxis trans la riveron", He swam to the other side of (across) the river.

"Preter" means "past, by", or "beyond;" it conveys the idea of coming up from behind and passing on in front, as "Mi pasis preter via frato", or "Mi preterpasis vian fraton", I passed your brother. The difference between "tra", "trans", and "preter" is clearly shown by the sentence "Trapasinte la arbaron, li preterpasis la pregxejon kaj tiam transpasis la riveron per la ponto", Having passed through the wood, he passed by the church, and then passed over the river by the bridge.

VOCABULARY.

kameno : hearth, fireside. momento : moment. poto : pot. abato : abbot. kaldrono : cauldron, kettle. penetr- : penetrate. vaporo : steam, vapour. bol- : boil (as water boils). hirundo : swallow. turn- : turn (a thing or oneself). tunelo : tunnel. largxa : wide, broad. oceano : ocean.

Li estas tiel dika, ke li ne povas trairi tra nia mallargxa pordo. Sxi rigardis supren tra la mallume-blua akvo. Tra la palrugxa aero lumis la stelo de la vespero. La sonado de la sonoriloj trapenetras malsupren al sxi. Ili traglitas inter la brancxoj. Sur la kameno inter du potoj staras fera kaldrono; el la kaldrono, en kiu sin trovas (or "trovigxas") bolanta akvo, eliras vaporo; tra la fenestro, kiu sin trovas (or "trovigxas") apud la pordo, la vaporo iras sur la korton.

La hirundo flugis trans la riveron, cxar trans la rivero sin trovis (or "trovigxis") aliaj hirundoj. Ili povas flugi sur sxipoj trans la maron. "Kial Hanibalo iris trans la Alpojn? Cxar tiam la tunelo ne estis ankoraux preter." Estas neeble, ke ili estu transirintaj trans la oceanon. Cxio transturnigxis la fundo supren.

Ni pasis preter la stacio. En tiu cxi momento preteriras la abato. Preterirante, mi demandis lin, cxu jam estas la dekdua horo. La muelilo ne povas mueli per akvo preterfluinta.

LESSON 33.

Antaux. Post.

"Antaux" means "before" (time), "Ni revenos antaux Mardo", We shall return before Tuesday, "in front of" (place), "Antaux la domo", Before the house. Before verbs "antaux ol" is used, as "Lavu vin, antaux ol mangxi", Wash (yourself) before eating.

"Post" means "after" (time), "behind" (place).

Care must be taken in using "antaux" and "post" to arrange the sentence so that there can be no doubt as to whether time or place is referred to. "He came before his father," in place or position, "i.e.", in front of his father, is "Li venis antaux sia patro", but if "before in time" is meant, it must be "Li venis antaux ol lia patro" ("venis"). "Li venis post sia patro" means He came behind his father; if we mean "after his father came" we may use "kiam", and say "Li venis post, kiam lia patro venis".

To express "time past," "ago," "antaux" is used, as "Antaux tri tagoj", Three days ago. "Antaux longe", A long time ago. "Antaux nelonge", Not long ago.

To express "in" a time to come "post" is used, as I will come in three days, "Mi venos post tri tagoj". "Post nelonge", In a short time.

VOCABULARY.

pregxejo : church (place of vek- : waken (someone). prayer). bala- : sweep. ordo : order. rauxka : hoarse. ricxeco : wealth. avida : eager, greedy. pasxo : step. ofte : often. pagxo : page. publike : publicly.

Antaux ili staris pregxejo. Antaux tiuj homoj estas inde paroli. Ofte en la nokto sxi staris antaux la fenestro. Mi estas peka antaux vi. Antaux unu horo. Antaux mallonge li vekigxis tre rauxka. Antaux nelonge oni vendis la domon publike. Ne iru, antaux ol vi scias, ke cxio estas en ordo. Mi devos lasi ilin elbalai la cxambron, antaux ol ni komencos danci. Mi estis tie en la antauxa jaro. Antauxe mi neniam pensis pri ricxeco. Estis al sxi, kiel la sorcxistino antauxdiris.

Li restis post la pordo. Iom post iom. Sxi komencis avide legi pagxon post pagxo. Sxi rigardis post lin kun rideto. Post kelkaj minutoj levigxis la suno. Sxi jxetis siajn brakojn posten kaj antauxen. Ni restos kelkajn semajnojn en Parizo; poste ni vojagxos en Germanujon.

LESSON 34.

Dum. Gxis. Cxirkaux.

"Dum" means "during", as "Dum mia tuta vivo", During my whole life. It is not much used as a preposition, that is, before a noun, "en la dauxro de" being better, as "En la dauxro de mia tuta vivo", In (the duration of) my whole life; or the preposition is omitted altogether, as "La tutan tagon mi laboradis", I used to work all day long. "Dum", meaning "while, whilst", is often used at the beginning of a sentence. "Dume" means meanwhile, or, in the meantime.

"Gxis" means "till, until, up to, as far as". "Atendu gxis Sabato", Wait until Saturday. "Iru gxis la rivero", Go as far as the river.

"Cxirkaux" means "about" or "around, somewhere near" (more or less). "Ili ludis cxirkaux la arbo", They played around the tree. "Cxirkaux Majo ni foriros", About May we shall go away.

VOCABULARY.

koncerto : concert. vitro : glass (material). flanko : side. globo : globe. sorto : fate. kolekt- : collect. radio : ray. prepar- : prepare. kupolo : cupola, dome. pes- : weigh (something). rublo : rouble. ekzist- : exist. etagxo : story (of building). pere- : perish. doloro : pain, ache. proksime : near to.

Dum la tuta tago (aux, la tutan tagon) li restis sola. Dum (aux, en la dauxro de) kelkaj monatoj, sxi ne eliradis el sia cxambro. Li dormis dum la tuta koncerto (aux, la tutan koncerton). Dum dauxris la preparoj, li estis gasto cxe la regxo. Dum li veturas sur la vojo al Grenada, en Santa Fe estas decidata lia sorto.

Ili laboradis gxis profunda nokto. La telero de la pesilo mallevigxis gxis la tero. Gxiaj radioj sin levadis gxis la kupolo. Pruntu al mi dek rublojn gxis morgaux. Li laboradis de frua mateno gxis malfrua nokto. Li batalos gxis la fino mem. Ni levadis nin cxiam pli kaj pli alte gxis la kvara etagxo. Gxi ekzistos gxis la mondo pereos.

La regxo venis cxirkaux tagmezo en la vilagxon Reading. Cxirkaux la mateno la ventego finigxis. Estos suficxe cxirkaux dek metroj. Cxiuj kolektigxis cxirkaux la vitra globo. Oni povas rigardi tre malproksime cxirkauxe. Cxirkauxe nagxis grandaj montoj de glacio. Li rigardis cxirkauxen sur cxiuj flankoj.

LESSON 35.

De. Da.

"De" means "of", "from", or "by"; it denotes (i.) "possession", as "La cxapelo de la patro", The father's hat; (ii.), "the agent of an action", as "La letero estis skribata de Johano", The letter was written by John; (iii.), "cause, Li mortis de febro", He died of fever; (iv.), "starting point, from, since", as "De tiu tempo neniu lin vidis", (Starting) from (since) that time nobody has seen him; "Li venis de Parizo", He came from Paris.

"Da" means "of"; it is used after words signifying quantity, when the noun following has a "general", not a "particular" sense, as "Dekduo da kuleroj", A dozen spoons; "Funto da teo", A pound of tea; "Peco da pano", A piece of bread; but if some particular tea, bread, etc., is specified, "de" must be used, as "Funto de la teo", A pound of the tea; "Peco de la pano", A piece of the bread. "La" cannot be used after "da."

VOCABULARY.

placo : place, square. peco : piece. velo : sail. sumo : sum. drapo : cloth. inko : ink. ovo : egg. najbaro : neighbour. kilometro : kilometre. mezuro : measure, bordo : shore. sufer- : suffer. amaso : crowd. signif- : mean, signify. auxtuno : autumn. nigra : black. turo : tower. plena : full. cxevalo : horse.

La lumo de la luno. En la mezo de la placo staris domo. Li povis havi la agxon de dekses jaroj. La tempo de ilia vivo estas ankoraux pli mallonga, ol de nia. Ili sin levis de apud la tablo. Mi pensis, ke vi de tie jam ne revenos. La sxipanoj demetis la velojn. Li deiris de la cxevalo.

Glaso de vino estas glaso, en kiu antauxe sin trovis vino, aux kiun oni uzas por vino; glaso da vino estas glaso plena je vino. Alportu al mi metron da nigra drapo. (Metro de drapo signifus metron, kiu kusxis sur drapo, aux kiu estas uzata por drapo). Mi acxetis dekon da ovoj. Tiu cxi rivero havas ducent kilometrojn da longo. Sur la bordo de la maro staris amaso da homoj. Multaj birdoj flugas en la auxtuno en pli varmajn landojn. Sur la arbo sin trovis multe (aux multo) da birdoj. Kelkaj homoj sentas sin la plej felicxaj, kiam ili vidas la suferojn de siaj najbaroj. En la cxambro sidis nur kelke da homoj. "Da" post ia vorto montras, ke tiu cxi vorto havas signifon de mezuro.

Gxi estas bela peco da sxtofo. Sur la teleron li metis milojn da pecoj da argxento. La lumoj brilas kiel centoj da steloj. Knabo acxetis boteleton da inko. Ili konstruas turetojn enhavantajn multe da cxambretoj. Li donis al ili grandan sumon da mono.

LESSON 36.

Per. Kun. Sen.

"Per" and "kun" represent different uses of our word "with," so care must be taken to use the correct word.

"Per" signifies "by means of"; it denotes the "instrument" by means of which something is done, as "Per hakilo ni hakas", By means of an axe we chop.

"Kun" means "in company with, accompanying". "Li iros kun mi", He will go with me.

"Sen" means "without" as "Teo sen sukero", Tea without sugar. It is used as a prefix to denote absence of something, as "sen-utila", without use, useless (compare with "mal", which denotes the exact opposite; "malutila" means "harmful, noxious").

VOCABULARY.

envio : envy. folio : leaf. sxauxmo : foam, froth. fadeno : thread. fisxo : fish. lud- : play. vosto : tail. pentr- : paint. pentrajxo : painting. flar- : smell (something). regxido : prince (king's son). pel- : drive. princo : prince. kovr- : cover. ondo : wave. cxes- : cease. membro : member. mov- : move (something). tataro : Tartar. kune : together.

Mi mangxas per la busxo, kaj flaras per la nazo. Sxi surpasxis per piedo sur la serpenton. Gxi enkovris la belegan lilion per blanka sxauxmo. La korpo finigxis per fisxa vosto. Cxiuj muroj estas ornamitaj per grandaj pentrajxoj. Per tie cxi, kaj ne per alia vojo, la sxtelisto forkuris. Per kia maniero oni povas veni en la landon de oro? Per tia maniero. Per unu vorto. La stelo Venus ekbrulis per envio.

Sxi volis ludi kun ili, sed kun teruro ili forkuris. Kun kia atento sxi auxskultis tiujn cxi rakontojn! La plej bela el ili estis la juna regxido kun la grandaj nigraj okuloj. Tien cxi alnagxis la virineto de maro kun la bela princo. Kun plezuro. Kun cxiu jaro la nombro de la membroj rapide kreskis.

La tataro restis sen bona cxevalo kaj sen mangxo. Li preskaux sen vivo estis pelata de la ondoj. Ili teksis per cxiuj fortoj, sed sen fadenoj. Li senvorte obeis. La folioj sin movis (or "movigxis") sencxese. Li kreis sennombrajn birdojn.

LESSON 37.

Por. Pro.

"Por" means "for, in order to, for the purpose of, for the benefit of", as "Li acxetis inkon por skribi", He bought ink in order to write. Por is one of the three prepositions used before verbs in the Infinitive.

"Pro" means "for, because of, on account of, for the sake of" (cause), as "Li demandis sxin, pro kio sxi ploras", He asked her, for what (reason or cause) she weeps.

"Por" looks "forward" to the aim or purpose of the action, to that which comes after the action, while "pro" looks "back" to what came before the action and caused it to be done, as "Mi mangxas" pro "malsato" por "vivi", I eat because of hunger in order to live.

VOCABULARY.

ofico : office. vend- : sell. mastro : master. konvink- : convince. kafo : coffee. kontenta : content, pleased. bieno : property. sata : satiated. kauxzo : cause.

Li sin kuracis por resanigxi. Sxi havis multege por rakonti. Li iris en la pregxejon, por fari la konfeson. Por iel pasigi la tempon. Neniu pli bone tauxgas por sia ofico, ol li. Li uzis cxiajn siajn fortojn por kontentigi sian mastron. Por mi estas tute egale, kie ajn mi logxas. Prenu (la pagon) por la kafo.

Li mortis pro (aux, de) malsato. Mi havis tre bonan bienon, kiu estis vendita pro sxuldoj. Pro la cxielo, ne faru tion cxi. Li estis konvinkita, ke li pro si ne devas timi. Pro tio cxi Venus lumas pli forte, ol multaj aliaj steloj. Cxu pro tio, aux cxu pro ia alia kauxzo, mi ne scias.

LESSON 38.

Pri. Laux.

"Pri" means "concerning, in regard to, about", as "Ni parolis pri nia amiko", We spoke about or concerning our friend.

"Pripensi", to think about, to consider. "Priparoli", to speak about. "Priskribi", to describe.

"Laux" means "according to, in accordance with", as "Laux mia opinio", According to (or, in) my opinion.

"Lauxlonge", lengthways.

VOCABULARY.

konko : shell afero : affair, matter. komando : command. honesteco : honesty. eksterajxo : exterior. konvena : suitable, proper, portreto : portrait. respectable. boneco : goodness. songx- : dream. fojo : time. sxajn- : seem, appear.

Sxi volis kredi, ke la hebreo parolas pri iu alia. Nun la virino havas cxion, sxi pri nenio povas peti. Pri tio cxi ne pensu. Tion oni vere ne povas diri pri vi. Estis ankoraux multaj aferoj, pri kiuj ili volis scii. Li ne povis ecx songxi pri sxi. Sxi demandadis pri tio la maljunan avinon.

Mi restas tie cxi laux la ordono de mia estro. Li ekiris laux tiu cxi rivero. Ili havis la permeson supreniri cxiufoje laux sia volo. Sxi povis laux sia placxo fosi kaj planti. La konkoj sin fermas kaj malfermas laux la fluo de la akvo. Laux sia eksterajxo li sxajnis konvena homo. Laux la komando "tri" vi ekpafos sur la arbon. La pli juna filino estis la plena portreto de sia patro laux sia boneco kaj honesteco.

LESSON 39.

Kontraux. Anstataux. Krom.

"Kontraux" means "against, opposite", or "in opposition to" as "Li kuragxe batalis kune kun ni kontraux niaj malamikoj", He courageously fought with us against our enemies. It is also used in the sense of "overlooking", as "La fenestro kontraux la strato", The window overlooking the street; and of "facing", as "Vizagxo kontraux vizagxo", Face to face. "Kontrauxdiri", to contradict.

"Anstataux" means "instead of, in the place" of, as "Mi iris Londonon anstataux Parizon", I went to London instead of to Paris. "Mi iris hieraux anstataux morgaux", I went yesterday instead of to-morrow. "Anstataux piediri, li veturis", Instead of going on foot, he drove. "Anstatauxi", to take (or, be in) the place of; "anstatauxigi", to put in the place of, to replace (by).

"Krom" means "not including, in addition to, besides", as "En la cxambro estis neniu krom li", In the room there was nobody except him. "La knabo estas granda, kaj krom tio, li estas bona". The boy is tall, and besides that, he is good.

VOCABULARY.

rimedo : a means, remedy. sukero : sugar. kutimo : custom. kremo : cream. profesoro : professor, prepozicio : preposition. reflektoro : reflector. vokalo : vowel. fiancxo : betrothed. abomeno : disgust. flanko : side. ordinara : ordinary. teo : tea.

Vi havas rimedojn kontraux cxiuj malsanoj. Kion povas fari li sola kontraux cent homoj? Kontraux sia kutimo, la profesoro nenion diris. Gxi flugis kontraux la reflektoron. Kontraux sia propra volo sxi tion cxi konfesis. Li eksentis ian abomenon kontraux si. La kontrauxa flanko. Ili sidigxis unu kontraux la alia. Sxi estis maljusta kontraux li. Kontraux la ordinaro, la nombro de la dancantoj estis granda.

Anstataux li, oni sendis lian fraton. Anstataux eliri, li restis en la domo. Okulo anstataux okulo, kaj dento anstataux dento. Anstataux kafo li donis al mi teon kun sukero sed sen kremo. Anstataux "la" oni povas ankaux diri "l'" (sed nur post prepozicio, kiu finigxas per vokalo).

En la salono staris neniu krom li kaj lia fiancxino. Krom la malplena teksilo nenio estis. Krom ni mem, ni havis tre malmulte por enporti. Sxi volis havi, krom la rugxaj floroj, nur unu belan statuon. Cxiuj dormis, krom la direktilisto apud sia direktilo. Krom la membroj alveturas multe da gastoj.

LESSON 40.

Malgraux. Spite. Po. Je.

"Malgraux" means "in spite of", "notwithstanding", as "Li sukcesis malgraux cxio", He succeeded in spite of everything.

"Spite" is a stronger expression than "malgraux"; it means in defiance of all opposition, despite, as "Li faris tion, spite la malpermeso", He did that, in spite of being forbidden.

"Po" means "at the rate of", as "Mi acxetis dekduon da ovoj po unu penco", I bought a dozen eggs at (the rate of) a penny (each). "Poduone", by halves. "Po grande", wholesale; "po malgrande", retail.

As already said (see Lesson 26), "je" is the only preposition which has no meaning of its own. It is used when a preposition is needed, and none of the others properly expresses the idea, as "La krucxo estas plena je" (or, "de") "akvo", The jug is full of water. "Mi enuas je la hejmo", I am tired of home.

VOCABULARY.

mastrumajxo : household affairs. honoro : honour. fungo : mushroom. libereco : freedom, liberty. senco : sense, meaning. kulpo : fault. regulo : rule. simila : similar, like. klareco : clearness. komuna : common to. akuzativo : accusative. kri- : cry. nobeleco : nobility (of birth). sopir- : sigh for, long for. ekzemple : for example.

Li multe laboris, sed malgraux cxio, li ne sukcesis. Estis ankoraux suficxe varme, malgraux ke la suno staris malalte. Ili estos severe punataj, se ili, malgraux la malpermeso, pekos kontraux la libereco de la vojo. Spite cxiuj miaj penoj por malhelpi lin, li foriris.

Por miaj kvar infanoj mi acxetis dek du pomojn, kaj al cxiu el la infanoj mi donis po tri pomoj. Ili povas kosti po tri gxis kvin sxilingoj. Tiu cxi libro havas sesdek pagxojn; tial se mi legos en cxiu tago po dekkvin pagxoj, mi finos la tutan libron en kvar tagoj. Mi acxetis kvar librojn po ses pencoj.

Ni estis nur okupitaj je kelkaj mastrumajxoj. La konstruo estas simila je fungo. Ili forkuris, kiam la virino ekkriis je ili. Je la vespero la cxielo kovrigxis je nuboj. El timo je Karagara mi forkuris. Sxi estis tre fiera je sia nobeleco. La hundo sincere malgxojis je li. Neniu el ili estis tiel plena je deziroj, kiel la plej juna knabino. Je vorto de honoro.

40A.

Se ni bezonas uzi prepozicion, kaj la senco ne montras al ni, kian prepozicion uzi, tiam ni povas uzi la komunan prepozicion "je." Sed estas bone uzadi la vorton "je" kiel eble pli malofte. Anstataux la vorto "je" ni povas ankaux uzi akuzativon sen prepozicio.—Mi ridas je lia naiveco (aux, mi ridas pro lia naiveco; aux mi ridas lian naivecon).—Je la lasta fojo mi vidas lin cxe vi (aux, la lastan fojon).—Mi veturis du tagojn kaj unu nokton.—Mi sopiras je mia perdita felicxo (aux, mian perditan felicxon).—El la dirita regulo sekvas, ke se ni pri ia verbo ne scias, cxu gxi postulas post si la akuzativon (t.e.=tio estas, cxu gxi estas aktiva) aux ne, ni povas cxiam uzi la akuzativon. Ekzemple, ni povas diri "obei al la patro" kaj "obei la patron" (anstataux, "obei je la patro"). Sed ni ne uzas la akuzativon tiam, kiam la klareco de la senco tion cxi malpermesas; ekzemple: ni povas diri "pardoni al la malamiko" kaj "pardoni la malamikon," sed ni devas diri cxiam "pardoni al la malamiko lian kulpon."

LESSON 41.

Suffixes -ajx-, -ec-.

"-ajx-" denotes a "thing" (i.) "made from" or "of" the substance named, or (ii.) having the "quality" or "character" named, or (iii.) "resulting from" the action expressed by the word to which it is added, as "Ovo", an egg, "ovajxo", something made of eggs, an omelette; "Mirinda", wonderful, "mirindajxo", a wonderful thing, a wonder; "Trovi", to find, "trovajxo" (or, "trovitajxo"), a thing found.

"-ec-" denotes "quality"; it forms the name of a quality; as, "Bona", good; "boneco", goodness. "Ricxa", rich; "ricxeco", richness. "Akurata", accurate, prompt; "akurateco", accuracy. "Mola", soft; "molajxo", a soft thing; "moleco", softness. "Amiko", a friend; "amikajxo", a friendly act; "amikeco", friendliness, friendship. "Eco", quality.

VOCABULARY.

kuko : cake. lago : lake. ligno : wood (substance). objekto : object, thing. alkoholo : alcohol. tren- : drag. araneo : spider. fotograf- : photograph. ceremonio : ceremony. konfit- : preserve with sugar. heroo : hero. pak- : pack. frandajxo : a dainty. la ceteraj : the rest, remainder. acido : acid. mirinda : wonderful. vinagro : vinegar. peza : heavy. sulfuro : sulphur. oportuna : convenient. azotacido : nitric acid.

La fotografisto fotografis min, kaj mi sendis mian fotografajxon al mia patro. Vi parolas sensencajxon, mia amiko. Mi trinkis teon kun kuko kaj konfitajxo. Akvo estas fluidajxo. Mi ne volis trinki la vinon, cxar gxi enhavis en si ian malklarajxon. Sur la tablo staris diversaj sukerajxoj. Mi mangxis bongustan ovajxon. Kiam mi ien veturas, mi neniam prenas kun mi multon da pakajxo. Glaciajxo estas dolcxa glaciigita frandajxo. La tuta suprajxo de la lago estis kovrita per nagxantaj folioj kaj diversaj aliaj kreskajxoj. La lignisto vendas lignon, kaj la lignajxisto faras tablojn, segxojn kaj aliajn lignajn objektojn. Mi uzas nenian alkoholajxon. Lia maljuna patrino kondukis la mastrajxon de la domo. "Malbonan eksterajxon li havis," respondis la hebreo. Sxi pripensis la faritajxojn de la tago pasinta. Gxi estas tiel malpeza, kiel araneajxo. La trenajxo de la vesto estis longa. Ili sin movas, kiel vivaj estajxoj.

Li amas tiun cxi knabinon pro sxia beleco kaj boneco. Lia heroeco tre placxis al mi. Mi vivas kun ili en granda amikeco. Ni estas ja en la proksimeco de la rivero. Tio cxi estas la plej grava eco. Kortega ceremonio postulas maloportunecon. La ricxeco de tiu cxi homo estas granda, sed lia malsagxeco estas ankoraux pli granda.

En tiuj cxi boteletoj sin trovas (trovigxas) diversaj acidoj, vinagro, sulfuracido, azotacido kaj aliaj. La acideco de tiu cxi vinagro estas tre malforta. Via vino estas nur ia abomena acidajxo. Tiu cxi granda altajxo ne estas natura monto. La alteco de tiu monto ne, estas tre granda.

LESSON 42.

Suffixes -ej-, -uj-, -ing-.

The suffix "-ej-" denotes a "place specially used" for a certain purpose, as "Tombo", a tomb; "tombejo", a cemetery. "Cxevalo", a horse; "cxevalejo", a stable. "Mallibera," captive "malliberejo", a prison.

"-uj-" denotes that which "contains" or "produces", or "bears" (as countries, fruit-trees, receptacles, etc.), as "Anglo", an Englishman: "Anglujo", England. "Hispano", a Spaniard; "Hispanujo" Spain ("lando" is also used, as "Skotlando"). "Pomo", an apple; "pomujo", an apple tree ("arbo" is also used, as "pomarbo"). "Abelo", a bee; "abelujo", a beehive. "Sukerujo", a sugar-basin; "Ujo", a receptacle.

"-ing-" signifies a "holder, case", or "sheath" for one thing, as "Fingro", a finger; "fingringo", a thimble. "Piedo", a foot; "piedingo", a stirrup. "Glavo", a sword; "glavingo", a sword-sheath. "Ingo", a sheath.

VOCABULARY.

skatolo : box. objekto : object, thing. hufo : hoof. glavo : sword, pantalono : trousers. konsil- : counsel, advise. cigaro : cigar. sxvit- : sweat, perspire. tubo : tube. sorb- : absorb. monahxo : monk. ban- : bathe (oneself or another). magazeno : magazine, warehouse.

La domo, en kiu oni lernas, estas lernejo, kaj la domo, en kiu oni pregxas, estas pregxejo. La kuiristo sidas en la kuirejo. La kuracisto konsilas al mi iri en sxvitbanejon. La cxevalo metis unu hufon sur serpentejon. La virino promenadis tra belegaj arbaroj kaj herbejoj. Li venis en sian logxejon. Li haltis apud la pordego de la monahxejo.

La rusoj logxas en Rusujo, kaj la germanoj en Germanujo. Mia skribilaro konsistas el inkujo, sablujo, kelke da plumoj, krajono, kaj inksorbilo. En la posxo de mia pantalono mi portas monujon, kaj en la posxo de mia surtuto mi portas paperujon; pli grandan paperujon mi portas sub la brako. Metu sur la tablon la sukerujon, la teujon, kaj la tekrucxon.

Magazeno, en kiu oni vendas cigarojn, aux cxambro, en kiu oni tenas cigarojn, estas cigarejo; skatoleto aux alia objekto, en kiu oni tenas cigarojn, estas cigarujo; tubeto, en kiun oni metas cigaron, kiam oni gxin fumas, estas cigaringo. Skatoleto, en kiu oni tenas plumojn, estas plumujo, kaj bastoneto, sur kiu oni tenas plumon por skribadi, estas plumingo. En la kandelingo sidis brulanta kandelo.

LESSON 43.

Ge-, bo-, -id-, pra-, -cxj-, -nj-.

The prefix "ge-" signifies "both sexes taken together", as "gepatroj", parents. "Gefratoj", brothers and sisters. "Geregxoj", king and queen (the word formed is, of course, always plural).

The prefix "bo-" denotes "relationship by marriage", as "bopatro", father-in-law; "bofilo", son-in-law.

The suffix "-id-" signifies the "offspring" or "descendant", as "Regxo" a king; "regxido", a king's son, a prince. "Kato", a cat; "katido", a kitten. "Sxafo", a sheep; "sxafido", a lamb.

The prefix "pra-" means "of generations ago, great-, grand-", as, "avo", grandfather; "pra-avo", great-grand-father. It is also used for descendants, as "pra-nepo", great-grandson. "Praa", primitive or primeval.

The suffix "-cxj-" is added to men's names and "-nj-" to women's names to form "pet names", part of the name being left out, as "Petro", Peter ; "Pecxjo", Pete. "Klaro", Clara; "Klanjo", Clarrie. "Pacxjo" (from "patro"), papa; "panjo", mamma.

VOCABULARY.

altaro : altar. gratul- : congratulate. parenco : relation. deven- : originate, descend from. doktoro : doctor (law, etc.). adres- : address (a letter). stato : state, condition. telegraf- : telegraph. koko : cock.

Patro kaj patrino kune estas nomataj gepatroj. Petro, Anno, kaj Elizabeto estas miaj gefratoj. Gesinjoroj N. hodiaux vespere venos al ni. La gefiancxoj staris apud la altaro. Mi gratulis telegrafe la junajn geedzojn. La geregxoj forveturis Kordovon. Sxi edzinigxis kun sia kuzo, kvankam sxiaj gepatroj volis sxin edzinigi kun alia persono.

La patro de mia edzino estas mia bopatro, mi estas lia bofilo, kaj mia patro estas la bopatro de mia edzino. Cxiuj parencoj de mia edzino estas miaj boparencoj, sekve sxia frato estas mia bofrato, sxia fratino estas mia bofratino; mia frato kaj fratino (gefratoj) estas la bogefratoj de mia edzino. La edzino de mia nevo, kaj la nevino de mia edzino estas miaj bonevinoj. Virino, kiu kuracas, estas kuracistino; edzino de kuracisto estas kuracistedzino. La doktoredzino A. vizitis hodiaux la gedoktorojn P. Li ne estas lavisto, li estas lavistinedzo.

La filoj, nepoj kaj pranepoj de regxo estas regxidoj. La hebreoj estas Izraelidoj, cxar ili devenas de Izraelo. Cxevalido estas nematura cxevalo, kokido nematura koko, bovido nematura bovo, birdido nematura birdo. Tiu bela tero trovis sin en tre praa stato.

Johanon, Nikolaon, Erneston, Vilhelmon, Marion, Klaron kaj Sofion iliaj gepatroj nomas Johancxjo (aux Jocxjo), Nikolcxjo (aux Nikocxjo, aux Nicxjo), Ernecxjo (aux Ercxjo), Vilhelcxjo (aux Vilhecxjo, aux Vilcxjo, aux Vicxjo), Manjo (aux Marinjo), Klanjo kaj Sonjo (aux Sofinjo).

LESSON 44.

Suffixes -ebl-, -ind-, -em-.

These three suffixes are used to form adjectives.

"-ebl-" means "possible to be" what the word to which it is added signifies, as "Vidi", to see; "videbla", able to be seen; "Auxdi", to hear; "auxdebla", able to be heard, audible; "Movi", to move; "movebla", movable; "Ebla", possible; "eble", possibly.

"-ind-" means "worthy of" what the word denotes, as "Honoro", honour; "honorinda", honourable, worthy of honour; "Honti", to be ashamed; "hontinda", shameful; "Indo", worth; "inda", worthy of.

"-em-" means having an "inclination towards" or "propensity" for, or "being disposed towards" something as "Forgesi", to forget; "forgesema", forgetful; "Servi" to serve; "servema", willing to serve, obliging. "Ema" fond of.

The difference between the three suffixes is shown by the following words:—

"Kredebla", possible of belief; "kredinda", worthy of belief; "kredema", having a tendency to believe readily, credulous.

"Legebla", able to be read; "leginda", worthy of being read; "legema", fond of reading, inclined to read.

VOCABULARY.

sxtalo : steel. memor- : remember. spirito : spirit, ekscit- : excite. bagatelo : trifle. vengx- : revenge. fleks- : bend. kredeble : probably. lauxd- : praise. kompreneble : of course. renvers- : turn over.

Sxtalo estas fleksebla, sed fero ne estas fleksebla. Ne cxiu kreskajxo estas mangxebla. Vitro estas rompebla kaj travidebla. Via parolo estas tute nekomprenebla, kaj viaj leteroj estas cxiam skribitaj tute nelegeble. La mallumo estas netrapenetrebla. Li rakontis al mi historion tute nekredeblan. Eble mi povos helpi al vi. Cxu vi amas vian patron? Kia demando! kompreneble, ke mi lin amas. Mi kredeble ne povos veni al vi hodiaux, cxar mi pensas, ke mi mem havos hodiaux gastojn. La tablo staras malrekte kaj kredeble baldaux renversigxos. Li faris sian eblon.

Li estas homo ne kredinda. Via ago estas tre lauxdinda. Tiu cxi grava tago restos por mi cxiam memorinda. Gxi estas vesto de granda indo. Gxi ne estas inda je danko. La sxipanaro montrigxas ne inda je sia estro.

Lia edzino estas tre laborema kaj sxparema, sed sxi estas ankaux tre babilema kaj kriema. Li estas tre ekkolerema, kaj ekscitigxas ofte cxe la plej malgranda bagatelo, tamen li estas tre pardonema, li ne portas longe la koleron, kaj li tute ne estas vengxema. Li estas tre kredema, ecx la plej nekredeblajn aferojn, kiujn rakontas al li la plej nekredindaj homoj, li tuj kredas. Li estas tre purema, kaj ecx unu polveron vi ne trovos sur lia vesto. Li estas bonega knabo, sed tre ema kredi spiritojn.

LESSON 45.

Dis-, -um-.

The prefix "dis-" denotes separation or scattering, as "Jxeti", to throw; "disjxeti", to scatter. "Sxiri", to tear; "dissxiri", to tear into bits. "Doni", to give; "disdoni", to distribute.

The suffix "-um-" has no definite meaning. It is used in only a few words, of which the most important are:—

aerumi (from "aero", air), to expose to the air. ventumi ( " "vento", wind), to fan. kolumo ( " "kolo", neck), collar. manumo ( " "mano", hand), cuff. butonumi ( " "butono", button), to button. gustumi ( " "gusto", taste), to taste (something). komunumo ( " "komuna", common), a community. krucumi ( " "kruco", cross), crucify. malvarmumi ( " "malvarma", cold), take cold. mastrumi ( " "mastro", master), keep house. plenumi ( " "plena", full), fulfil. brulumo ( " "bruli", burn), inflammation. kalkanumo ( " "kalkano", heel), heel of boot.

VOCABULARY.

rezultato : result. sxir- : tear. angulo : angle, corner. kvankam : although. tolo : linen. simila : similar. cxemizo : shirt. grava : important. ating- : attain, reach to.

Ni cxiuj kunvenis por priparoli tre gravan aferon; sed ni ne povis atingi ian rezultaton, kaj ni disiris. Malfelicxo ofte kunigas la homojn, kaj felicxo ofte disigas ilin. Mi dissxiris la leteron, kaj disjxetis gxiajn pecetojn en cxiujn angulojn de la cxambro. Post tio cxi oni disiris hejmen. La vojo disiris en kelkaj direktoj.

Mi volonte plenumis lian deziron. En malbona vetero oni povas facile malvarmumi. Li disbutonumis la superveston. Sxi ludis kun sia ventumilo. Cxemizojn, kolumojn, manumojn, kaj ceterajn similajn objektojn oni nomas tolajxo, kvankam ili ne cxiam estas faritaj el tolo.

The suffixes "-on-, -obi-, -op-," have already been explained in Lesson 9.

-Acx-

A new suffix "-acx-" has gradually come into use during the past few years. Its meaning is well shown in the following examples:—"Domo", house; "domacxo", hovel. "Virino", woman; "virinacxo", hag. "Ridi", to laugh; "ridacxi", to grin (maliciously). "Cxevalo", horse; "cxevalacxo", a sorry nag, a screw. "Obstina", persistent, stubborn; "obstinacxa", pig-headed. "Popolo", a people; "popolacxo", populace. "Morti", to die; "mortacxi", to die the death. "Lingvo", language; "lingvacxo", a jargon.

This suffix should only be used sparingly.

JOINING WORDS. CONJUNCTIONS.

Certain words are used merely to join words or sentences. Those already learned are:—

kaj : and. cxu : whether. sed : but. ke : that. cxar : because, for. kvazaux : as if. ankaux : also. kvankam : although. ol : than. almenaux : at least. se : if. tamen : however. aux : or. do : then, therefore.

The following are also useful:—

kaj ... kaj : both ... and. nek ... nek : neither ... nor. aux ... aux : either ... or. ecx se : even if. cxu ... aux : whether ... or. same kiel : the same as. cxu ... cxu : whether ... whether.

EXCLAMATIONS. INTERJECTIONS.

The following are simply exclamations of joy grief, surprise, etc.:—

ah! : aha! ah! kia! : what! ha! : ah! bone! : good! all right! he! : halloo! hey! brave! : bravo! hm! : hm! humph! hura! : hurrah! ho! : oh! vere! : truly! oho! : ho! efektive! : really! ho ve! : alas! adiaux! : goodbye! for! : away! bonvenu! : welcome! fi! : for shame! kompreneble! : of course! nu! : well (now)! vivu! : long live! nu do! : well (now) then! antauxen! : forward! ja! : indeed! cxu vere? : is it true? jen! : there! look! behold! cxu ne? : is it not? bis! : again! encore!

COMPOUND WORDS.

It is often convenient to form compound words, as "posxtkarto", "forpeli", "cxiuminute", "stacidomo", "senmove", "telertuketo". When this is done, the word expressing the principal idea is placed last.

Generally it is sufficient to use the "root" of the qualifying word, but if the sound or sense requires it, the whole word is taken, as "unutaga" means "of one day"; "unuataga", "of the first day."

* * * * *

ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS IN THE SENTENCE.

In English the sense often depends entirely on the order of the words, e.g., the sentence "John saw George" would mean something quite different if reversed—"George saw John." But in Esperanto, thanks to the accusative "n", the endings "a" and "e" for participles, and the pronoun "si", the order of words may be varied without altering the sense. "Georgon vidis Johano" means exactly the same as "Johano vidis Georgon."

But though the meaning can in most cases be understood whatever the order of the words, it is best to adopt the simplest arrangement, and to follow the natural course of thought, which is, first, that about which we think, then that which we think about it. English students may frame their sentences exactly as they would in their own language. In Esperanto, as in English, the arrangement is sometimes altered, either for emphasis, as "Lauxdata estu Dio!" Praised be God!; or to please the ear, as "Oni min admiras", instead of "Oni admiras min", People admire me.

"Note".—Care must be taken in placing the word "ne." Its usual place is before the verb, when it negatives the whole sentence. Study the effect of placing "ne" in different positions in the sentence "Mi deziras vidi Johanon kaj lian fraton", I wish to see John and his brother:—

(i.). "Mi ne deziras vidi Johanon kaj lian fraton", I do not wish to see John and his brother.

(ii.). "Mi deziras ne vidi Johanon kaj lian fraton", I wish not to see John and his brother, "i.e.", I wish to avoid seeing them.

(iii.). "Mi deziras vidi ne Johanon, sed lian fraton", I wish to see not John, but his brother.

(iv.). "Mi deziras vidi Johanon kaj ne lian fraton", I wish to see John and not his brother.

"Ne tute" means "not quite," while "tute ne" means "not at all."

"Jam ne" means "no longer." "Not yet" is "ankoraux ne".

Words which are already international, such as "microscope, telephone, automobile", etc., are adopted unchanged, except as to the spelling and termination, as "mikroskopo, telefono, auxtomobilo."

WORDS USED WITH THE OBJECT.

As already said, when an adjective or participle (or a noun) is added to the object simply as a describing word, it takes "n" like the object, as "Li perdis sian novan libron "("aux", sian libron novan), He lost his new book. "Sxi trankviligis la kriegantan infanon "(aux, "la infanon kriegantan"), She pacified the screaming child. "Li vizitis sian fraton Johanon", He visited his brother John. ("John" shows "which" brother).

But if the adjective, participle, or noun is used not merely to describe, but indirectly to tell something about the object, it does not take "n". A comparison of the following sentences will make this clear:—

1. Li trovis la pomojn maturajn. He found the ripe apples. Li trovis la pomojn maturaj. He found (that) the apples (were) ripe.

2. Li trovis la krucxon rompitan. He found the broken jug. Li trovis la krucxon rompita. He found (that) the jug (was) broken.

3. Li kolorigis la drapon rugxan. He dyed the red cloth. Li kolorigis la drapon rugxa. He dyed the cloth red.

4. Li trancxis (aux faris) la veston tro mallongan. He cut (or made) the too-short coat (the coat that was too short). Li trancxis la veston tro mallonga. He cut the coat (so that it was) too short.

5. Li nomis la knabon mensogisto. He called the boy a liar.

Compare this use of words with the following:—

He made his father angry (or, be angered). "Li kolerigis sian patron", or, "li igis sian patron kolera".

The loss drove him mad. "La perdo frenezigis lin", or, "igis lin freneza".

It rendered the gun useless. "Gxi senutiligis la pafilon", or, "igis la pafilon senutila".

COMPLETE GRAMMAR OF ESPERANTO. By Dr. Zamenhof.

A.—Alphabet.

Aa, Bb, Cc, Cxcx, Dd, Ee, Ff, Gg, Gxgx, Hh, Hxhx, Ii, Jj, Jxjx, Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn, Oo, Pp, Rr, Ss, Sxsx, Tt, Uu, Uxux, Vv, Zz [Footnote: Names of the letters: a, bo, co, cxo, do, e, fo, go, gxo, ho, hxo, i, jo, jxo, ko, lo, mo, no, o, po, ro, so, sxo, to, u, uxo, vo, zo.]

Remark.—Presses which do not possess the accented letters can use instead of them ch, gh, hh, jh, sh, u.

B.—Rules.

(1) There is no indefinite ARTICLE; there is only a definite article ("la"), alike for all sexes, cases, and numbers.

Remark.—The use of the article is the same as in the other languages. People who find a difficulty in the use of the article need not at first use it at all.

(2) SUBSTANTIVES have the termination "o". To form the plural the termination "j" is added. There are only two cases: nominative and accusative; the latter is obtained from the nominative by the addition of the termination "n". Other cases are expressed by the aid of prepositions (the genitive by "de", the dative by "al", the ablative by "per", or other prepositions according to sense).

(3) The ADJECTIVE ends in "a". Case and number as with the substantive. The Comparative is made by means of the word "pli", the Superlative by "plej"; with the Comparative the conjunction "ol" is used.

(4) The fundamental NUMERALS (they are not declined) are: "unu, du, tri, kvar, kvin, ses, sep, ok, naux, dek, cent, mil." The tens and hundreds are formed by simple junction of the numerals. To mark the ordinal numerals the termination of the adjective is added; for the multiple—the suffix "obl", for the fractional—"on", for the collective—"op", for the distributive—the word "po". Substantival and adverbial numerals can also be used.

(5) Personal PRONOUNS: "mi, vi, li, sxi, gxi" (referring to thing or animal), "si, ni, vi, ili, oni"; the possessive pronouns are formed by the addition of the adjectival termination. Declension is as with the substantives.

(6) The VERB undergoes no change with regard to person or number. Forms of the verb; time "being" (Present) takes the termination "-as;" time "been" (Past) "-is"; time "about to be" (Future) "-os"; the Conditional mood "-us;" the Ordering mood "-u;" the Indefinite "-i." Participles (with an adjectival or adverbial sense): active present "-ant;" active past "-int;" active future "-ont;" passive present "-at;" passive past "-it;" passive future "-ot." All forms of the passive are formed by the aid of a corresponding form of the verb "esti" and a passive participle of the required verb; the preposition with the passive is "de."

(7) ADVERBS end in "e;" degrees of comparison as with the adjectives.

(8) ALL the PREPOSITIONS require the nominative.

(9) EVERY word is read as it is written.

(10) The ACCENT is ALWAYS on the penultimate syllable.

(11) COMPOUND WORDS are formed by simple junction of the words (the chief word stands at the end); the grammatical terminations are also regarded as independent words.

(12) When another NEGATIVE word is present the word "ne" is left out.

(13) In order to show DIRECTION words take the termination of the accusative.

(14) Each PREPOSITION has a definite and constant meaning; but if we have to use some preposition and the direct sense does not indicate to us what special preposition we are to take, then we use the preposition "je" which has no meaning of its own. Instead of the preposition "je" we can also use the accusative without a preposition.

(15) The so-called FOREIGN WORDS, that is, those which the majority of languages have taken from one source, are used in the Esperanto language without change, merely obtaining the spelling of the latter; but with different words from one root it is better to use unchanged only the fundamental word and to form the rest from this latter in accordance with the rules of the Esperanto language.

(16) The FINAL VOWEL of the substantive and of the article can be dropped and replaced by an apostrophe.

* * * * *

COMMON USEFUL EXPRESSIONS.

tio estas, i.e. that is. kaj cetere, k.c. etcetera. kaj tiel plu, k.t.p. and so on. kiel ekzemple, k.ekz. as for example. kiel elbe plej (baldaux) as (soon) as possible. kio ajn okazos whatever happens (shall happen). kondicxe, ke on the condition that. kun la kondicxo, ke on the condition that.

Bonan tagon, sinjoro. Good day, sir. Kiel vi fartas? How do you do? Tre bone, mi dankas. Very well, I thank you. Mi dankas vin. I thank you. Dankon. Thanks. Multe da dankoj. Many thanks. Vi estas tre gxentila (afabla). You are very kind. Vi estas tre kompleza. You are very obliging. Mi malsatas. I am hungry. Mi soifas. I am thirsty. Al mi estas varme (malvarme). I am warm (cold). Kiu estas tie? Estas mi. Who is there? It is I. Sidigxu, mi petas. Be seated, I beg (you). Kun plezuro. With pleasure. Kion vi bezonas? What do you want? Cu vi min komprenas? Do you understand me? Vi estas prava (malprava). You are right (wrong). Tio estas vera. That is true. Estas vera, ke... It is true that... Je kioma horo vi foriros? At what time are you going? Kioma horo estas? What time is it? Kiom kostas tio cxi? How much does this cost? Gxi kostas tri sxilingojn. It costs three shillings. Kie vi estas? Where are you? Kien vi iras? Where are you going? Kian agxon li havas? How old is he? Antaux unu semajno. A week ago. Post du tagoj. In two days. Li venos jxauxdon. He will come on Thursday. Pasigu al mi la panon, Pass me the bread, mi petas vin. I beg you (please). Estas li mem! It is himself! Tiom pli bone So much the better! Oni diras, ke... They say, that... Neniu tion diras. Nobody says that. Kio okazis? What has happened? Cxu vi konas Sinjoron A.? Do you know Mr. A.? Mi scias, kiu li estas, I know who he is, sed mi ne konas lin. but I do not know him. Cxu estas leteroj por mi? Are there letters for me? Rapidu. Be quick. Ne diru tion. Do not say that. Ne faru tion. Do not do that. Kia estas la vetero? What kind of weather is it? Kian veteron ni havas? What kind of weather is it? Pluvas; negxas. It rains; it snows. Pluvis la tutan nokton. It rained all night long. Estas beld, varmege. It is fine, hot. Cxu mi tion faru? Shall I do that?

LETTERS.

(a). Beginnings.

Kara : dear. Patro, amiko, etc. : Mia kara : my dear. father, friend, etc. Estimata : esteemed. Samideano : fellow-thinker. Estiminda : estimable. Kunlaboranto : fellow-worker. Respektinda :respect-worthy. Sinjoro : Sir. Honorinda honourable. Sinjoroj : Gentlemen, Sirs. Sinjorino : Madame, Mrs. Frauxlino : Miss.

(b). Endings.

Kun (koraj, amikaj) salutoj, With (hearty, friendly) greetings. Kun (alta, granda) estimo, With (high, great) esteem. Kun (miaj, cxiuj) bondeziroj, With (my, all) good wishes. Kun (multe da) amo, With (much) love. Via, La via, Yours. Via, (tre) vin amanta, Your (very) loving. Via, tre sincere, fidele, Yours very sincerely, faithfully. Cxiam via, Yours always. Tre sincere via, Very sincerely yours.

KEY TO EXERCISES.

1.

A father and a brother. A lion is an animal. A rose is a flower and a pigeon is a bird. The rose belongs to Theodore. The sun shines. The father is a tailor. Where are the book and the pencil? Here is an apple. On the ground lies a stone. On the window lie a pencil and a pen. The son stands by the father. Here lies the hat of the father (the father's hat). The father is in the room. Before the house is (stands) a tree.

What is a lion? What is a rose? What shines? What is the father? Where is the father? What is on the window? Where is the pen?

Is a lion an animal? Yes, a lion is an animal. Is a rose a bird? No, a rose is not a bird, a rose is a flower.

2.

The father is well. A child is not a mature man. The sky is blue. A lion is strong. The father is good. The hand of John (John's hand) is clean. ("Some", or, "a") paper is white. White paper lies on the table. Here is the young lady's exercise book. In the sky stands (is) the beautiful sun. The paper is very white, but the snow is more white (whiter). Milk is more nutritious than wine. The bread is fresh. The uncle is richer than the brother. Here lies (is) a red rose. The dog is very faithful. The book is new.

3.

(The) birds fly. The song of (the) birds is pleasant. Where are the boys? The fathers are well. Children are not mature men. Lions are strong. John's hands are clean. Here are the young ladies' exercise books. The uncles are richer than the brothers. The dogs are very faithful. White papers lie on the table. In the room are new hats. Where are the sharp knives? Good children are diligent. Here lie (are) pure white delicate lilies. The teeth of lions (lions' teeth) are sharp.

4.

I read. You write. He is a boy, and she is a girl. We are men. You are children. They are Russians. Where are the boys? They are in the garden. Where are the girls? They also are in the garden. Where are the knives ? They are (lie) on the table. The child cries, because it wants to eat. Sir, you are impolite. Gentlemen, you are impolite. Tkey say that (the) truth always conquers. The house belongs to him. I come from (the) grandfather, and I go now to (the) uncle. I am as strong as you. Now I read, you read, and he reads, we all read. You write and the children write, they (you) all sit silent and write.

My dog, you are very faithful. He is my uncle, for my father is his brother. Of all my children, Ernest is the youngest. His father and his brothers are in the garden. Her uncle is in the house. Where are your books ? Our books are (lie) on the table; their pencils and their paper also are (lie) on the table.

Who is in the room ? Who are in the room ? The gentle- man who is reading is my friend. The gentleman to whom you are writing is a tailor. What is lying on the table ?

5.

I see a lion (lions). I read (am reading) a book (books). I love (the) father. I know John. (The) father is not reading a book, but he is writing a letter. I do not like obstinate people. I wish you good-day, sir. Good morning! A joyous festival (a pleasant holiday) (I wish you). What a joyful festival (it is to-day) ! In the day we see the bright sun, and at night we see the pale moon and the beautiful stars. We have newer bread than you. No, you are wrong, sir, your bread is less new (staler) than mine. We call the boy, and he comes. In (the) winter they heat the stoves. When one is rich one has many friends. He loves me, but I do not love him. Mr. P. and his wife love my children very much; I also love theirs very much. I do not know the gentleman who is reading.

6.

Why do you not answer me? Are you deaf or dumb? What are you doing?

The boy drove away the birds. From (the) father I received a book, and from (the) brother I received a pen. (The) father gave me a sweet apple. Here is the apple which I found. Yesterday I met your son, and he politely greeted me. Three days ago (before three days) I visited your cousin, and my visit gave (made) to him pleasure. When I came to him he was sleeping, but I woke him.

I will relate to you a story. Will you tell me the truth? To day is Saturday, and to-morrow will be Sunday. Yesterday was Friday, and the day after to-morrow will be Monday. [Footnote: Notice that in these two sentences "ankoraux" and "iam" express different meanings of the English word "yet."] Have you yet found your watch? I have not yet looked for it; when I have finished (shall finish) my work I will look for my watch, but I fear that I shall not find it again. If you (shall) conquer us, the people will say that only women you conquered. When you (shall) attain the age of fifteen years you will receive the permission.

7.

I love myself, you love yourself, he loves himself, and every man loves himself. I take care of her (so) as I take care of myself, but she takes no care at all of herself, and does not look after herself at all. My brothers had guests to-day; after supper our brothers went with the guests out of their (our brothers') house and accompanied them as far as their (the guests') house. I washed myself in my room, and she washed herself in her room. The child was looking for its doll; I showed the child where its doll lay. She related to him her adventure. She returned to her father's palace. Her flowers she tended not. My brother said to Stephen, that he loved him more than himself.

8.

Two men can do more than one. I have only one mouth, but I have two ears. He walks out with three dogs. He did everything with the ten fingers of his hands. Of her many children some are good and others bad. Five and seven make twelve. Ten and ten make twenty. Four and eighteen make twenty-two. Thirty and forty-five make seventy-five. One thousand eight hundred and ninety-three. He has eleven children. Sixty minutes make one hour, and one minute consists of sixty seconds.

8a.

January is the first month of the year, April is the fourth, November is the eleventh, and December is the twelfth. The twentieth day of February is the fifty-first day of the year. The seventh day of the week God chose to be (that it should be) more holy than the six first days. What did God create on the sixth day? What (which) date is it (have we) to-day? To-day is the twenty-seventh (day) of March. Christmas Day is the 25th of December, New Year's Day is the 1st of January, One does not easily forget one's first love.

9.

I have a hundred apples. I have a hundred (of) apples. This town has a million of inhabitants. I bought a dozen (of) spoons, and two dozen (of) forks. One thousand years (or, a thousand of years) make a millennium.

Firstly, I return to you the money which you lent to me; secondly, I thank you for the loan; thirdly, I beg you also afterwards (on a future occasion) to lend to me when I (shall) require money.

9a.

Three is half of six, eight is four-fifths of ten. Four metres of this stuff cost nine francs, therefore two metres cost four and a-half francs. One day is a three hundred and sixty-fifth or a three hundred and sixty-sixth of a year.

Five times seven are thirty-five. For each day I receive five francs, but for to-day I have received double pay, that is, ten francs.

These two friends walk out always (two) together. Five together they threw themselves upon me, but I overcame all five assailants.

10.

Give (to) the birds water, for they want to drink. Alexander will not learn, and therefore I beat Alexander. Who has courage (dares) to ride on a lion? I was going to beat him, but he ran away from me.

Do not give your hand to a lion. Relate (tell) to my young friend a beautiful story. Tell father that I am diligent. Tell me your name. Do not write to me such long letters. Show me your new coat. Child, do not touch the looking-glass. Dear children, always be honest. Do not listen to him.

He says that I am attentive. He begs me to be attentive. Tell him not to chatter. Ask him to send me a candle. The cottage is worth your buying (worthy that you should buy it). She strongly desired that he (should) remain alive.

Let him come, and I will forgive him. Let us be gay, let us use life well, for life is not long. Let him not come alone, but come with his best friend. I already have my hat; now look for yours.

11.

If the pupil knew his lesson well, the teacher would not punish him. If you knew who he is, you would esteem him more. They raised one hand upwards as if they were holding something. If I really were beautiful, others would try to imitate me. Oh! if I were (had) already the age of fifteen years!

12.

To remain with a lion is dangerous. The knife cuts well, for it is sharp. Go more quickly. He shut the door angrily. His speech flows softly and pleasantly. We made the contract not in writing, but by word of mouth. An honest man acts honestly. The pastor who died a short time ago lived long in our city. Did you not get it back? He is sick unto death. The iron rod which was in the stove (fire) is burning; hot. Paris is very gay. Early in the morning she drove to the station.

Forgive me that I stayed so long. His anger lasted long. He is to-day in an angry temper. The king soon sent again another good-hearted official. This evening we shall have a ball. Where are you? Away from here! (Get away!).

Where did he drive away to? She ran home. We went forward like furies. Everything was right (good), and we went on further. The lady glanced back. The sailors demanded to go back (required that one should go back). I hung it here, for it saved my life. I never sent here.

13.

My brother is not big, but he is not little, he is of medium growth. A hair is very thin. The night is so dark that we can see nothing even before our nose. This stale bread is hard as stone. Naughty children love to torment animals. He felt (himself) so miserable that he cursed the day on which he was born. We greatly despise this base man. The window was long unclosed; I closed it, but my brother immediately opened it again. A straight road is shorter than a curved. Do not be ungrateful.

The wife of my father is my mother, and the grandmother of my children. My sister is a very beautiful girl. My aunt is a very good woman. I saw your grandmother with her four granddaughters, and with my niece. I have an ox and a cow. The young widow became again a fiancee.

14.

He gave me money, but I immediately returned it to him. I am going away, but wait for me, for I shall soon return. The sun is reflected in the clear water of the river. He returned to his country. She threw herself again upon the seat.

In the course of a few minutes I heard two shots. The firing continued for a very long time. His speech of yesterday was very fine, but too much speaking tires him. He is singing a very beautiful song. Singing is an agreeable occupation. With my hand I kept on briskly rubbing him. The rain kept on falling in rivers. Every minute she kept looking out through the window and cursing the slow motion of the train.

I leap very cleverly. I started with surprise. I used to jump all day long from place to place. When you began to speak I expected to hear something new. The diamond has a beautiful sparkle. She let the diamond flash. Two flashes of lightning passed across the dark sky.

15.

I am (being) loved. I was (being) loved. I shall be (being) loved. I should be (being) loved, Be (being) loved. To be (being) loved. You have been washed. You had been washed. You will have been washed. You would have been washed. Be (having been) washed. To have been washed. He is to be invited. He was (going) to be invited. He will be (about to be) invited. He would be (about to be) invited. Be about to be invited. To be about to be invited. This commodity is always willingly bought by me. The overcoat was (has been) bought by me; consequently it belongs to me. When your house was being built, my house had already been built a long time. I give notice that from now my son's debts will not be paid by me. Be easy; my whole debt will soon have been paid to you. My gold ring would not be so long (being) sought for if it had not been so cleverly hidden by you. According to the plan of the engineers this railway is going to be constructed in the space of two years; but I think that it will be being constructed (in construction) more than three years. When the prayer was (had been) finished he rose.

Augustus is my best loved son. Money in hand is more important than (money) had. A sparrow (which has been) caught is better than an eagle (which is) going to be caught.

16.

Flowing water is purer than water standing still. The fallen man cannot raise himself. (The) time past will never more return; (the) time to come no one yet knows. Come, we await you, Saviour of the world. In the language Esperanto we see the future language of the whole world. The number of the dancers was great. It is the legend which true believers always repeat. He led the traveller to the place where the thieves were resting. (To) a man who has sinned unintentionally God easily pardons. The soldiers led the prisoners (arrested) through the streets. A man whom one has to judge is one to be judged (prisoner at the bar).

16a.

Now he teils me the truth. Yesterday he told me the truth. He always told me the truth. When you saw us in the drawing-room he had already (previously) told me the truth. He will tell me the truth. When you (shall) come to me, he will previously tell me the truth (or, he will have told me the truth; or, before you (will) come to me, he will tell me the truth). If I were to ask him, he would tell me the truth. I should not have made the mistake if he had previously told me the truth. When I (shall) come, tell me the truth. When my father (shall) come, tell me beforehand the truth. I wish to tell you the truth. I wish that that which I said should be true (or, I wish to have told the truth).

17.

Walking in the street, I fell. Having found an apple, I ate it. He came to me quite unexpected. He went meditating (deeply) and very slowly. We were ashamed, having received instruction from the boy. The imperial servant went out, taking with him the bracelet. Profoundly saluting, he related that the thief had been caught. Without saying a word, the duchess opened her jewel-case. Having worked a year, and having saved a few dollars, I married (with) my Mary. Having crossed the river, he found the thief. Looking (having looked) by chance on the floor, she saw some book, forgotten probably by a departed traveller.

18.

The bootmaker makes boots and shoes. Nobody lets thieves into his house. The brave sailor was drowned in the sea. An author writes books, and a writer simply copies papers. We have various servants - a cook, a housemaid, a nurse, and a coachman. (He) who occupies himself with mechanics is a mechanic, and (he) who occupies himself with chemistry is a chemist. A diplomatist we can also call a diplomat, but a physicist we cannot call a "physic," for "physics" is the name of the science itself. One day there came two cheats, who said that they were (are) weavers.

19.

They so hindered me that I spoiled the whole of my work. Send away your brother, for he hinders us. Fetch the doctor, for I am ill. He procured for himself many books from Berlin.

He grew pale with fear, and afterwards he blushed from shame. In the spring the ice and the snow melt. In the muddy weather my coat became very dirty; therefore I took a brush and cleaned the coat. My uncle did not die (by) a natural death, but nevertheless he did not kill himself, and also was killed by nobody; one day, walking near the railway lines, he fell under the wheels of a moving train, and was killed. I did not hang my cap on this little tree; but the wind blew away the cap from my head, and it, flying, became hung (got caught) on the branches of the little tree. Seat yourself (or, sit down), sir.

His gloomy face made his friend laugh. The whole night they passed awake, and lighted more than sixteen candles. I divested the child of his night clothes, and stood him in the tub; afterwards I dried him. He made friends with evil companions. A poor Hebrew wished to become a Christian. The bottle fell and broke. She became his wife. Little by little she became quite calm.

20.

The sea is deeper there than any anchor can reach. In some (any) way. Without any reproach of conscience. I know in what sort of place I shall certainly find him. What kind of weather is it? What harm have I done to you? In that way he did everything. He invited him to come into such and such a place. Not every sort of bird sings. Beyond all doubt. No (kind of) man deserves such a punishment. Such books are harmful. At times he visits us.

For some reason he could not sleep. Why do you not answer me? I did not understand your question, therefore I did not answer. People do not understand one another, and therefore they hold themselves aloof. For every reason that is the best.

I once loved you. What lives must of necessity some time die. When shall you go away? In the moonlight night, when all were asleep, then she sat on the edge or the ship. Be for ever blessed! She had never seen a dog before.

20a.

Where are the boys? Where did you go? I am staying here. He lost his purse somewhere in the town, but where he lost it he does not know. I willingly came from there here. He begged her to tell him whence she came (whence she comes). For youth there are snares everywhere. Everywhere are flowers, and nowhere can one find more beautiful (ones).

How beautiful! Am I fit for a king? So finished the happy day. They shone like diamonds. How are you? Somehow he misunderstood me. My wife thought the same as I. I cannot understand at all what you say. Very strange and quite incomprehensible! I, as president, elected him. I chose him as president.

Whose glove is this? I never take that one's opinion. Suddenly she heard somebody's loud disagreeable voice. Everybody's idea is different. A good friend, without whose help he would never have seen this land. Somebody's loss is not always somebody's gain. Someone's loss is often no one's gain.

20b.

I feel that something is happening. Never did I give you anything. I wish to do something good for (to) you. What is this? What kind of ornament is this? What do I see? This is all I spoke of. I will give up nothing to you. Do nothing against your mother. Before all, be faithful to yourself. She began to feel something such as (which) she herself in the beginning could (can) not understand.

She spoke a little angrily. The pupils of the eyes little by little contracted. Who is so unreasonable (senseless) that he can believe it? How much money have you? I have none. Give me as much water as wine.

Somebody comes; who is it? Would anybody have the courage to do that? Everybody tried to save himself as he could. A language in which nobody will understand us. None of them could save the drowning person. He helped nobody ever (never helped anybody) even with one centime. We shall go all together. I know nobody in that town. This is beyond all human strength.

20c.

Where I am travelling from, whither and why, I can only answer: I know not. They begged him to delay a little (with) his departure. These nests are often larger than the huts of the people of that place. He departed with the firm resolve to leave for ever this ungrateful land. If anyone were to see that, he would curse Fortune. I would give a hundred pounds sterling if ox tongue could have for me such a good taste as for you. What time is it? Nearly (soon) twelve o'clock.

21.

On a hot day I like to walk in a wood. They opened the gate noisily, and the carriage drove into the courtyard. This is no longer simple rain, but a downpour. A huge dog put its forepaw on me, and from terror I did not know what to do. Before our army stood a great series of cannon. (In) that night a terrible gale blew. With delight. He longed to go away again.

Immediately after heating the stove was hot, in an hour it was only warm, in two hours it was only just warm, and after three hours it was already quite cold. I bought for the children a little table and some little seats. In our country there are no mountains, but only hills. In summer we find coolness in thick woods. He sits near the table and dozes. A narrow path leads through this field to our house. On his face I saw a joyful smile. Before the woman appeared a pretty little dog. Pardon, he whispered.

22.

With (by means of) an axe we chop, with a saw we saw, with a spade we dig, with a needle we sew, with scissors we clip. The knife was so blunt that I could not cut the meat with it, and I had to use my pocket knife. Have you a corkscrew to uncork the bottle? I wished to lock the door, but I had lost the key. She combs her hair with a silver comb. In summer we travel by various vehicles, and in winter by a sledge. To-day it is beautiful frosty weather; therefore I shall take my skates and go skating. The steersman of the "Pinta" injured the rudder. The magnetic needle. The first indicator in most illnesses is the tongue. He put it on the plate of a pair of scales.

23.

The sailors must obey the captain. All the inhabitants of a state are citizens (subjects) of the state. Townsfolk are usually sharper than villagers. The Parisians are gay folk. Our town has good policemen, but not a sufficiently energetic chief constable. Lutherans and Calvinists are Christians. Germans and Frenchmen who live in Russia are Russian subjects, although they are not Russians. He is an awkward and simple provincial. The inhabitants of one state are fellow-countrymen, the inhabitants of one town are fellow-citizens, the professors of one religion are co-religionists. Those who have the same ideas are fellow-thinkers.

The ruler of our country is a good and wise king. The governor of our province is strict but just. Our regimental chief (colonel) is like a good father to (for) his soldiers. They are as (equally) proud as a housewife of her house. On the engine the engine-driver sat alone. The emperor, accompanied by the empress, had just entered (into) his box.

24.

Our country will conquer, for our army is large and brave. On a steep ladder he raised himself to the roof of the house. I do not know the Spanish language, but by help of a Spanish-German dictionary, I nevertheless understood your letter a little. On these vast and grassy fields feed great herds of beasts, especially flocks of fine-woolled sheep. The train consisted almost entirely (only) of passenger coaches. They put before me a cover (table requisites), which consisted of a plate, spoon, knife, fork, a small glass for brandy, a glass for wine, and a serviette. On the sea was a great ship, and among the rigging everywhere sat sailors. His escort stood at the back of the box. Dark ranges of mountains bar the way.

A florin, a shilling, and a penny are coins. A grain of sand fell into my eye. One spark is enough to explode gunpowder.

25.

A poor wise man dined with a miserly rich man. A fool everyone beats. He is a liar and a despicable man. A coward fears even his own shadow. This old man has become quite silly and childish. A learned man undertook an important scientific work. Only saints have the right to enter here. He only is the great, the powerful (One). It is not the legend about the beauty Zobeida. After an infectious disease the clothes of the patient are often burned. The curse of the prophet is over the head of an ungrateful one. After some minutes the brave man went out. All the saints, help!

(Lesson 26 no Exercise).

27.

She returned to her father's palace. They both went to the mayor. Did I not do good to you? She told him nothing. She wrote him a letter. He every day teaches people something which they do not know. They flew towards the sun. One sister promised the other to tell her what she saw, and what most pleased her the first day. Perhaps he will forgive you. She did not believe her own ears. He did not know that he had (has) to thank her [for] his life. She saved his life. The witch cut off the tongue of the mermaid.

28.

I lived with her father. It fell to (on) the bottom of the sea on the breaking up of the ship. By [the] light of torches. Arm in arm. There seized him some fear at the thought. Nothing helps; one must only bravely remain of his [own] opinion. She laughed at his recital. At every word which you (will) speak, out of your mouth will come either a flower or a precious stone.

He stopped near the door. The serpent crawled about her feet. When he was with me, he stood a whole hour by the window. I lived in a tree near your house. She planted near the statue a rose-red willow. The wayside trees.

29.

The bird flies in the room (= it is in the room and flies [about] in it). The bird flies into the room (= it is outside the room, and now flies into it). I am travelling in Spain. I am travelling to (into) Spain. What to do then (is to be done) in such a case? I am in a good temper. He whispered to the queen in the ear. In consequence of this occurrence. I should prefer to stay here in peace. Her birthday was exactly in the middle of winter. He glanced into the child's eyes. He was a tall handsome man of the age of forty years. In the whole of my life. At the end of the year. Hand in hand. Entering (having entered) the carriage, she sat as if on pins. Corn is ground into flour. Alexander turned into dust. He divided the apple into two parts.

30.

Between Russia and France is Germany. They divided among them twelve apples. Between ten and eleven o'clock in the morning. Between the pillars stood marble figures. Near the wall between the windows stood a sofa. They talked long among themselves. In this disease an hour may decide between life and death. In the interval between the speeches they set off fireworks.

I am standing outside the house, and he is inside. He is outside the door. Now we are out of danger. He lives outside the town. Standing outside, he could only see the outer side of our house. He pointed outside into the darkness. I left him outside. This man is better outwardly than within.

He went out of the town. He has just returned from foreign parts. With extraordinary vivacity she jumped out of the carriage (of the train). She put a crown of white lilies on her (another's) head (hair). He made use of the opportunity. These nests are made wholly of earth. She was the bravest of all. Now you have grown up! He went out of the bedroom, and entered into the dining-room. The Esperanto alphabet consists of twenty-eight letters.

31.

I am sitting on a seat and have my feet on a little bench. He came back with a cat on his arm. I put my hand on the table. He fell on his knees. Do not go on the bridge. He threw himself in despair on a seat. He slapped him on the shoulder and pressed him down on to the sofa. I seated myself in the place of the absent stoker. Fruit-culture must influence for good those who are occupied with it.

Over the earth is air. His thoughts rose high above the clouds. She received permission to rise above the surface of the sea. They could rise on the high mountains high above the clouds. He stands above on the mountain, and looks down on to the field. She sat on the water and swung up and down.

From under the sofa the mouse ran under the bed, and now it runs [about] under the bed. She often had to dive under the water. To (under) the sound of music they danced on the deck. Under her gaze blossomed the white lilies. She sank under the water. She swam up at sunset.

32.

He is so stout that he cannot go through our narrow door. She looked up through the dark-blue water. Through the roseate air shone the evening star. The sound of the bells penetrates down to her. They glide among the branches. On the fireplace between two pots stands an iron kettle; out of the kettle, in which is boiling water, goes steam; through the window, which is near the door, the vapour goes into the court.

The swallow flew across the river, for across (on the other side of) the river were other swallows. They can fly on ships across the sea. "Why did Hannibal go across the Alps? Because then the tunnel was not yet ready." It is impossible that they should have gone across the ocean. Everything was turned upside down.

We passed by the station. At this moment the abbot passes by. In passing, I asked him if it were (is) yet twelve o'clock. The mill cannot grind with the water that is past.

33.

Before them stood a church. Before such men it is worth while to speak. Often in the night she stood before the window. I am guilty towards (before) you. An hour ago. A short time ago he woke up very hoarse. Not long ago the house was sold publicly. Do not go before you know that everything is in order. I must let them sweep out the room before we (shall) begin to dance. I was there the previous year. Formerly I never thought about wealth. It was with (to) her as the witch prophesied.

He remained behind the door. Little by little. She began eagerly to read page after page. She looked after him with a smile. After some minutes the sun rose. She threw her arms backwards and forwards. We shall stay some weeks in Paris; afterwards we shall travel into Germany.

34.

During the whole day (or, the whole day) he remained alone. During (for) some months she did not leave her room. He slept during the whole concert (or, the whole concert). While the preparations lasted, he was a guest of the king. While he is journeying on the road to Granada, in Santa Fe his fate is being decided.

They used to work until late at night. The plate of the scales sank to the ground. Its rays crept up to the dome. Lend me ten roubles until to-morrow. He worked on from early morning till late at night. He will fight to the very end. We kept going up always higher and higher to the fourth story. It will exist until the world shall perish.

The king came about midday into the village of Reading. About morning the gale ended. About ten metres will be sufficient. All gathered round the glass globe. One can look very far round about. Great mountains of ice floated around. He looked around on all sides.

35.

The light of the moon. In the middle of the square stood a house. He might be of the age (have the age) of sixteen years. Their lifetime is still shorter than ours. They rose from beside the table. I thought that you would (will) never return from thence. The sailors took down the sails. He dismounted from the horse.

A wine glass is a glass in which there was wine previously, or which is used for wine; a glass of wine is a glass full of wine. Bring me a metre of black cloth. ("Metro de drapo" would mean a yard-measure which was lying on cloth, or which is used for cloth). I bought a half-score of eggs. This river has a length of two hundred kilometres (has two hundred kilometres of length). On the seashore stood a crowd of people. Many birds fly in the autumn into warmer lands. On the tree were many birds. Some people feel happiest when they see the sufferings of their neighbours. In the room were (sat) only a few people. "Da" after any word shows that this word signifies measure.

It is a beautiful piece of stuff. On the plate he put thousands of pieces of silver. The lights glitter like hundreds of stars. A boy bought a little bottle of ink. They construct little towers containing many little chambers. He gave them a great sum of money.

36.

I eat with my mouth, and smell with my nose. She trod with her foot on the serpent. It covered the lovely lily with white foam. The body ended in a fish's tail. All the walls are decorated with great paintings. By here, and by no other way, the thief escaped. In what way can one come into the land of gold? In such a way. In one word. The star Venus began to burn with envy.

She wished to play with them, but they ran away in terror. With what attention she listened to these tales. The most beautiful of them was the young prince with the great black eyes. Hither swam the sea-maiden with the beautiful prince. With pleasure. With every year the number of members rapidly increased.

The Tartar remained without a good horse and without food. Almost without life he was driven about by the waves. They wove with all their might, but without thread (threads). Without a word he obeyed. The leaves moved ceaselessly. He created numberless birds.

37.

He treated himself in order to regain his health. She had a great deal to tell. He went into the church to make his confession. In order to pass the time somehow. Nobody is more fit for his post than he. He used all his might to please his master. For me it is all one wherever I live. Take (the pay) for the coffee.

He died of hunger. I had a very good estate, which was sold on account of debts. For heaven's sake, do not do this. He was convinced that on his own account he need not fear. On this account Venus gives more light than many other stars. Whether for that, or for some other reason, I know not.

38.

She wished to believe that the Hebrew spoke of someone else. Now the woman has everything, she can ask for nothing. Do not think about this. One cannot truly say that about you. There were still many things about which they wished to know. He could not even dream about her. She used to ask the old grandmother about that.

I remain here by order of my chief. He began to go along this river. They had permission to go up always according to their (own) will. She could dig and plant as she pleased (according to her liking). The shells closed and opened according to the flow of the water. From his outward appearance he seemed a respectable man. At the command "three" you will shoot at the tree. The younger daughter was the very picture of her father in her goodness and honesty.

39.

You have remedies against all diseases. What can he alone do against a hundred men? Contrary to his custom, the professor said nothing. It flew against the reflector. Against her own will she confessed this. He began to feel a certain disgust against himself. The opposite side. They sat down one opposite the other. She was unjust towards him. Contrary to usual, the number of dancers was great.

Instead of him his brother was sent. Instead of going out he remained in the house. An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth. Instead of coffee he gave me tea with sugar, but without cream. Instead of "la" one can also say "l'" (but only after a preposition which ends with a vowel).

In the drawing-room there was nobody except him and his fiancee. Besides the empty loom there was nothing. Besides ourselves we had very little to bring in. She wished to have, besides the red flowers, only one beautiful statue. All slept, save the steersman beside his tiller. In addition to the members, many guests journey there.

40.

He worked hard, but in spite of everything he did not succeed. It was still fairly warm, notwithstanding that the sun was low. They will be severely punished if, notwithstanding the prohibition, they (shall) offend against the freedom of the road. Despite all my endeavours to prevent him, he went away.

For my four children I bought twelve apples, and to each of the children I gave at the rate of three apples. They may cost three to five shillings each. This book has sixty pages; therefore if I (shall) read every day (at the rate of) fifteen pages, I shall finish the whole book in four days. I bought four books at sixpence each.

We were only engaged about some household affairs. The structure is similar to a mushroom. They ran away when the woman cried out at them. In the evening the sky became covered with clouds. From fear of Karagara I ran away. She was very proud of her high rank. The dog sincerely mourned for him. None of them was so full of desires as the youngest girl. On word of honour.

40a.

If we need to use a preposition, and the sense does not show us what preposition to use, then we can use the general preposition "je." But it is well to use the word "je" as seldom as possible. Instead of the word "je" we can also use the accusative without a preposition. I laugh at his simplicity (or, I laugh on account of his simplicity; or, I ridicule his simplicity). The last time I saw him with you I travelled two days and one night. I sigh for my lost happiness. From the said rule it follows that if we do not know as to any verb whether it requires the accusative case after it (that is, whether it is active) or not, we can always use the accusative. For example, we can say "obei al la patro" and "obei la patron" (instead of "obei je la patro"). But we do not use the accusative when the clearness of the sense forbids it; for example, we can say "pardoni al la malamiko" and "pardoni la malamikon," but we must always say "pardoni al la malamiko lian kulpon."

41.

The photographer photographed me, and I sent my photograph to my father. You talk nonsense, my friend. I drank tea, with cake and jam. Water is a fluid. I did not wish to drink the wine, for it had in it a certain muddiness. On the table were various sweetmeats. I ate a tasty omelette. When I travel anywhere I never take with me much luggage. An ice is a sweet frozen dainty. The whole surface of the lake was covered with floating leaves and various other plants (growths). The timber merchant sells wood, and the joiner makes tables, chairs, and other wooden objects. I use no sort of alcoholics. His old mother carried on the management of the house. "An evil appearance he had," answered the Jew. She thought over the doings of the past day. It is as light as a cobweb. The train of the dress was long. They move like living beings.

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