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The English Novel in the Time of Shakespeare
by J. J. Jusserand
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V.

Thus in two different ways a reaction showed itself against the literature in fashion, and the merits of those who attempted it only made its failure the more felt. The caricature of the heroic romance and the attempt at the novel of common life were without effect. Their authors had come too soon, and remained isolated; the false heroism now scoffed at in France continued in England until the eighteenth century. The writers under Queen Anne, in order to destroy it, were obliged to recommence the whole campaign. Addison, as we have seen, found heroism still in fashion, and the great romances in their places in ladies' libraries. They were still being reprinted. There is, for example, an English edition of "Cassandra" dated 1725, and one of "Cleopatra" dated 1731. Fielding saw heroism still in possession of the stage, and he satirized it in his amusing "Tom Thumb." Carey attacked it in his "Chrononotontologos."[365]

The hundred years which follow Shakespeare's death are, therefore, taken altogether, a period of little invention and progress for romance literature. The only new development it takes, consists in the exaggeration of the heroic element, of which there was enough already in many an Elizabethan novel; it consists, in fact, in the magnifying of a defect. The imitation of France only resulted in absurd productions which were so successful and filled the literary stage so entirely that they left no space for other kinds of romances. In vain did a few intelligent persons, such as the authors of "The Adventures of Covent Garden" and of "Zelinda," attempt to bring about a reaction; their words found no echo. The other kinds of novels started in Shakespearean times continued to be cultivated, but were not improved. The picaresque romance as Nash had understood it, includes in the seventeenth century no original specimen but Richard Head's "English Rogue,"[366] one of the worst compositions in this style to be found in any literature. The allegorical, social, and political novel, as inaugurated by Sir Thomas More, continued by Bacon, by Joseph Hall, Bishop of Norwich, and by Godwin,[367] that novel which was to gain new life in the hands of Swift and Johnson, is, if we except Bunyan's eloquent manual of devotion, mainly represented in the second half of the century by barren allegories, such as Harrington's "Oceana," 1656, and Ingelow's "Bentivolio and Urania," 1660; or by short stories like "The perplex'd Prince," "The Court Secret," &c.[368] When we have read ten pages of these it is difficult to speak of them with coolness and without an aggressive animosity towards their authors.

Persistent and close analysis of human emotion and of the passion of love in the way in which Sir Philip Sidney had caught sight of it, disappeared from the novel until the day when a second "Pamela" was to figure on the literary stage, and to fill with emotion all London and Paris, down even to Crebillon fils, who was to write to Lord Chesterfield: "Without 'Pamela' we should not know what to read or to say." And at reading it, the author of "The Sopha" was "moved to tears."

One work alone was published towards the end of the century in which an original thought is to be found, the "Oroonoko"[369] of Mrs. Behn. The sentiment that animates it is of another epoch, and belongs to a quite peculiar class of novel; with her begins the philosophical novel, crowded with dissertations on the world and humanity, on the vanity of religions, the innocence of negroes, and the purity of savages. These are the ideas of Rousseau before Rousseau: other ideas of Rousseau had been, as we have seen, anticipated, in the history of the novel, by Lyly.

Remains of the ordinary heroic style are of course not wanting. Being love-struck Oroonoko, an African negro, well read in the classics, refuses to fight, and following Achilles' example, retires to his tent. "For the world, said he, it was a trifle not worth his care. Go, continued he, sighing, and divide it amongst you, and reap with joy what you so vainly prize!" In trying to carry out this advice his companions are utterly routed, until after two days Oroonoko consents to take up his arms again, and the victors are at once all put to flight. Oroonoko's death is also in the heroical style, but a peculiar sort of heroism which recalls Scudery, and at the same time Fenimore Cooper.

But more striking are the parts in which the manners of the savages are compared to those of civilized nations. "Everything is well," Rousseau was to say later, "when it comes fresh from the hands of the Maker of things; everything degenerates in the hands of man."[370] Mrs. Behn expressed many years before the very same ideas; her Oroonoko has been educated by a Frenchman who "was a man of very little religion, yet he had admirable morals and a brave soul," an ancestor obviously of Rousseau himself, and a fit tutor for this black "Emile." The aborigines of Surinam live in a state of perfection which reminds Mrs. Behn of Adam and Eve before the fall: "These people represented to me an absolute idea of the first state of innocence, before man knew how to sin: and 'tis most evident and plain that single nature is the most harmless, inoffensive and virtuous mistress. 'Tis she alone, if she were permitted, that better instructs the world than all the inventions of man. Religion would here but destroy that tranquillity they possess by ignorance, and laws would but teach 'em to know offences of which now they have no notion. They made once mourning and fasting for the death of the English governor who had given his hand to come on such a day to 'em and neither came nor sent; believing when a man's word is past, nothing but death could or should prevent his keeping it."

The words "humanity," "mankind," are repeated also with a frequency worthy of Rousseau, and the religion of humanity is set in opposition to the religion of God with a clearness foreshadowing the theories of Auguste Comte. When the sea captain refuses to take the word of Oroonoko as a pledge equivalent to his own, "which if he should violate, he must expect eternal torments in the world to come,"—"Is that all the obligations he has to be just to his oath? replyed Oroonoko. Let him know, I swear by my honour; which to violate, would not only render me contemptible and despised by all brave and honest men, and so give me perpetual pain, but it would be eternally offending and displeasing to all mankind, harming, betraying, circumventing and outraging all men."[371]

Most of these ideas, including an embryo-taste for landscape painting, were to be cherished and eloquently defended by Rousseau. Mrs. Behn, as a novelist, can only be studied with the authors of the middle of the eighteenth century; she carries us at once beyond the times of Defoe, Richardson, and Fielding, and takes us among the precursors of the French Revolution. With the change she foreshadows, philosophy and social science are perhaps more concerned than the novel proper.

It can, all things considered, be stated with truth that, between the age of Elizabeth, and the age of Anne and the Georges, there is in the history of the novel a long period of semi-stagnation. The seventeenth century, which furnishes hardly any important name, added very little, apart from an exaggerated heroism, to the art of the novel. Defoe, Richardson and Fielding are, as novelists, more nearly related to the men of the time of Shakespeare than to the men of the time of Dryden. They have been thus so completely separated from their literary ancestors that the connection has been usually forgotten. It cannot, however, be doubted.

Now that we have carried so far this sketch of the history of the early English novel, as far indeed as the time of writers whose works are still our daily reading, we have to take leave of our heroes, picaroons, and monsters, of Arthur and Lancelot, Euphues and Menaphon, Pyrocles and Rosalind, Jack Wilton and Peregrine, Oroontades and Parthenissa; nor let us forget to include in this farewell our Lamias, Mantichoras, dragons, and all the menagerie of Topsell and of Lyly. Mummified, buried and forgotten as most of these romances have long been, they managed somehow not to die childless, but left behind them the seed of better things. "No, those days are gone away," says Keats, thinking of the legends of early times,

"And their hours are old and grey, And their minutes buried all Under the down trodden pall Of the leaves of many years.... Gone, the merry morris din; Gone, the song of Gamelyn; Gone, the tough-belted outlaw; All are gone away and past."

With them many reputations are gone. White fingers circled with gold no longer turn over the pages of "Euphues" or "Arcadia." But the writings of the descendants of Greene and Nash and Sidney afford endless delight to-day. And that is why these old authors deserve not the lip-tribute of cold respect, but the heart's offering of warmest gratitude; for they have had the most numerous and the most brilliant posterity, perhaps the most loved, that literary initiators have ever had in any time or country.



FOOTNOTES:

[312] London, 1619, fol., translated by Anthony Munday (first edition of first part, 1590, 4to). Another translation of the same romance was made by F. Kirkman, and published in 1652, 4to.

[313] Advertised by Ch. Bates at the end of "the history of Guy earl of Warwick," London, 1680 (?), 4to (illustrated).

[314] From a chap-book of the eighteenth century: "History of Guy earl of Warwick," 1750(?).

[315] "De la Lecture des vieux romans," by Jean Chapelain, ed. Feillet, Paris, 1870, 8vo.

[316] Edition of the "Grands Ecrivains de la France," vol. ii. pp. 529 and 535.

[317] 12th July, 1671, "Grands Ecrivains," vol. ii. p. 277. A few days before, on the 5th, she had been writing: "Je suis revenue a 'Cleopatre' ... et par le bonheur que j'ai de n'avoir point de memoire, cette lecture me divertit encore. Cela est epouvantable, mais vous savez que je ne m'accommode guere bien de toutes les pruderies qui ne me sont pas naturelles, et comme celle de ne pas aimer ces livres la ne m'est pas encore entierement arrivee, je me laisse divertir sous le pretexte de mon fils qui m'a mise en train."

[318] "L'heure de la veille de Pasques, a laquelle le Roy devoit recevoir le baptesme de la main de S. Remy estant venue, il s'y presenta avec une contenance relevee, une demarche grave, un port majestueux, tres richement vestu, musque, poudre, la perruque pendante, curieusement peignee, gauffree, ondoiante, crespee et parfumee, selon la coustume des anciens rois Francois" ("Histoire Generale de France," Paris, 1634, vol. i. p. 58).

[319] "Traicte de l'Economie politique," Rouen, 1615, 4to.

[320]

"Soit que le blond Phoebus, sortant du creux de l'onde Vienne recolorer le visage du monde; Soit que de rays plus chauds il enflame le jour, Ou qu'il s'aille coucher en l'humide sejour, Il ne void un seul homme en ce monde habitable Qui soit en tout bon-heur avec moi comparable: Ma gloire est sans pareille, et si quelqu'un des Dieux Vouloit faire a la terre un eschange des cieux, Et venir habiter sous le rond de la lune, Il se contenteroit de ma belle fortune."

"Aman ou la vanite"; "Tragedies d'Antoine de Montchrestien," Rouen, 1601, 8vo.

[321]

"Outre qu'on m'a vu naistre avec une couronne, La fortune qui m'aime est celle qui les donne, Et sans prendre la leur, ce bras a le pouvoir De m'en acquerir cent, si je les veux avoir. Mais souffrez mon discours, il est pour votre gloire; Je suy, je suy l'Amour et non pas la Victoire."

("L'amour tirannique," 1640. Speech by Tiridate.)

"Je tiens en mon pouvoir les sceptres et la mort; Je t'arracherais l'un, je te donnerais l'autre ... Mais j'ay cette faiblesse," &c. ("Ibrahim," 1645.)

[322] Boileau, "Les heros de romans, dialogue a la maniere de Lucien," written in 1664, published 1713, but well known before in literary drawing-rooms, where Boileau used himself to read it aloud.

[323] I.e., Mme. du Plessis Guenegaud, who figures in "Clelie" under this name. "Letter to Pompone, Nov. 18, 1664."

[324] Scudery's preface to "Ibrahim, or the illustrious bassa ... englished by Henry Cogan," London, 1652, fol.

[325] "Cassandre," vol. i book v.

[326] By William Prynne, London, 1628, 4to.

[327] Preface to "Artamenes, or the Grand Cyrus," London, 1653-1654, five vols. fol.

[328] "Astrea ... translated by a person of quality," i.e., J. D[avies?], London, 1657-8, 3 vols. fol.; prefaces to vols. i and ii. Dramas with their plots taken from "Astree" were written in England and in France, such as "Tragi-comedie pastorale ou les amours d'Astree ... par le Sieur de Rayssiguier," Paris, 1632, 8vo; "Astrea, or true love's mirrour, a pastoral," by Leonard Willan. London, 1651, 8vo.

[329] "The Grand Scipio ... by Monsieur de Vaumoriere, rendered into English by G. H.," London, 1660, fol.

[330] "Loveday's letters, domestick and foreign," seventh impression. London, 1684, 8vo, p. 146 (first edition 1659).

[331] By Scudery, translated by J. Philips, London, 1677, fol. part ii. bk. ii. p. 166. Books entirely made up of "conversations" were published by Mdlle. de Scudery, treating of pleasures, of passions, of the knowledge of others and of ourselves, &c. They read very much like dialogued essays; and it is interesting to compare them with Addison's essays which treat sometimes of the same subjects. They were received with great applause; Madame de Sevigne highly praises them. They were translated into English: "Conversations upon several subjects, ... done into English by F. Spence," London, 1683, 2 vol. 12mo.

[332] About this curious little society see Mr. Gosse's "Seventeenth Century Studies," 1883, pp. 205 et seq.

[333] "Cathos: Le nom de Polixene que ma cousine a choisi et celui d'Aminte que je me suis donne ont une grace dont il faut que vous demeuriez d'accord" ("Precieuses Ridicules," sc. v.).

[334] "Natures pictures," London, 1656, fol., preface No. 2.

[335] Her "Playes," 1662, are preceded by two dedications, one prologue, and eleven prefaces.

[336] "CCXI. Sociable Letters," London, 1664, fol.

[337] "Lives of the Poets ... to the time of Dean Swift," London. 1753, 5 vols. 12mo; vol. ii. p. 164.

[338] "Letters from Dorothy Osborne to Sir William Temple, 1652-4," ed. Parry, London, 1888, 8vo. Letter ix. p. 60; Letter x. p. 64; Letter xxiv. p. 124, year 1653.

[339] May 13, 1666; Feb. 24, 1667-8; Nov. 16, 1668.

[340] Letter xxxiv. p. 162. Year 1653.

[341] "Parthenissa, that most fam'd romance," London, 1654.

[342] He assisted her in getting her translation of Corneille's "Pompee" represented at Dublin with embellishments, consisting in dances, music, songs, &c. He was born in 1621 and was held in great esteem both by Cromwell and by the Stuarts. He left dramas and other works and died in 1679.

[343] "British Novelists," by David Masson, Cambridge, 1859, 8vo. p. 72.

[344] Letter LI. p. 236, year 1654.

[345] P. 54. Part of the tale, viz.: the adventures of Brandon, supplied Otway with the plot of his "Orphan" (performed 1680).

[346] "Pandion and Amphigenia, or the history of the coy lady or Thessalia adorned with sculptures," London, 1665, 8vo. Crowne died about 1703; his dramatic works have been published in four vols., 1873.

[347] Pp. 140, 141.

[348] "Almanzor and Almahide, or the Conquest of Granada," performed (with great success) in the winter, 1669-70, act iii. sc. 1.

[349] Settle's "Empress of Morocco," London, 1673, 4to. The engraving we reproduce represents the interior of a Moorish prison, with Muley Labas, son of the Emperor of Morocco, and the Princess Morena.

[350] "Andromache, a tragedy, as it is acted at the Dukes Theatre," London, 1675, 4to.

[351] Spectator, April 12, 1711.

[352] "The Constant Couple, or a trip to the Jubilee," 1700, act iii., last scene.

[353] "Titus and Berenice; a tragedy," 1677.

[354] "The Princess of Montpensier," 1666; "The Princess of Cleve ... written by the greatest wits of France, rendred into English by a person of quality at the request of some friends," 1688: "Zayde," 1688. Nat. Lee's play is entitled, "The Princess of Cleve," London, 1689, 4to. As to the popularity of this novel in France, it will be enough to notice Madame de Sevigne's allusion to "ce chien de Barbin," who does not fulfil her orders when she wants books, because she does not write "des Princesses de Cleves."

[355] "Je ne vous dirai pas exactement s'il avait soupe et s'il se coucha sans manger comme font quelques faiseurs de romans qui reglent toutes les heures du jour de leurs heros, les font se lever de bon matin, confer leur histoire jusqu'a l'heure du diner, reprendre leur histoire ou s'enfoncer dans un bois pour y aller parler tout seuls, si ce n'est quand ils out quelque chose a dire aux arbres et aux rochers" ("Roman comique," chap. ix. ed. 1825).

"Je vous raconteray sincerement et avec fidelite plusieurs historiettes et galanteries arrivees entre des personnes qui ne seront ny heros ny heroines, qui ne dresseront point d'armees, ny ne renverseront point de royaumes, mais qui seront de ces bonnes gens de mediocre condition, qui vont tout doucement leur grand chemin, dont les uns seront beaux et les autres laids, les uns sages et les autres sots; et ceux-cy out bien la mine de composer le plus grand nombre" ("Roman bourgeois," ed. Janet, p. 6).

[356] Rabelais by Urquhart, London, 1653, 8vo; Cervantes in 1612; and again by T. Shelton in 1620 and by J. Philips, 1687.

[357] Scarron's "Comical romance: or a facetious history of a company of strowling stage-players," London, 1676, fol. Preface to the continuation. The translator is at some pains to anglicize his original; when Scarron speaks of Paris, the translator puts London; Ragotin is heard defending Spenser (chapter xv.). The poet in Scarron brags of his acquaintance with Corneille and Rotrou, and in the English text, with Shakespeare, Fletcher, and Jonson (chap. viii.). There were other translations of Scarron: "The whole comical works of M. Scarron," translated by Mr. T. Brown, Mr. Savage, and others, London, 1700, 8vo; "The comic romance," translated by O. Goldsmith, Dublin, 1780(?) 2 vol. 12mo. His shorter novels or stories were separately translated by John Davies, who states in the preface of "The unexpected Choice," London, 1670, that he did so at the suggestion of the late Catherine Philips, the matchless Orinda.

[358] "The extravagant Shepherd, the anti-romance, or the history of the shepherd Lysis," London, 1653, another edition 1660. Strange to say, besides some adaptations from Spanish authors ("La Picara," 1665; "Donna Rosina," 1700?), a translation of Voiture's Letters, 1657, the same John Davies of Kidwelly, who had written this eloquent appeal against heroical romances, translated "Clelia," 1656, and part of "Cleopatra" in conjunction with Loveday.

[359] See also in Furetiere's "Roman bourgeois" how the reading of "Astree" made of Javotte "la plus grande causeuse et la plus coquette fille du quartier" (Ed. Janet, i. p. 173).

[360] "The Adventures of Covent Garden, in imitation of Scarron's city romance," London, 1699, 16mo. "Scarron" is here evidently for "Furetiere." This work, the author of which is unknown, has long been forgotten, though deserving a better fate. It is dedicated "to all my ingenious acquaintance at Will's coffee-house."

[361] Cf. Moliere: "Je voudrais bien savoir si la grande regle de toutes les regles n'est pas de plaire, et si une piece de theatre qui a attrape son but n'a pas suivi un bon chemin.... Laissons nous aller de bonne foi aux choses qui nous prennent par les entrailles et ne cherchons point de raisonnements pour nous empecher d'avoir du plaisir" ("Critique de l'Ecole des Femmes," sc. 7).

[362] "Double Dealer," by Congreve; "Plot and no Plot," by Dennis; "Beauty in distress," by Motteux.

[363] By T. D., perhaps T. Duffet (Bullen), London, Bentley, 1676, 12mo.

[364] From his "Histoire d'Alcidalis et Zelide." Voiture had begun it in 1633 in the style fashionable at the Hotel de Rambouillet, and even, as he pretends, with the help of Mdlle. de Rambouillet, to whom it is dedicated. It was left unfinished and was published after his death, being completed by Desbarres. A regular translation of it was published in English in 1678.

[365] These two pieces which appeared in 1730 and 1734 are not, as is often stated, caricatures of classical tragedy. In the same way as the Duke of Buckingham in his "Rehearsal" (1671), Fielding and Carey ridicule heroic drama, born of romance a la Scudery, as Dryden and his followers had understood it.

[366] "The English Rogue described in the life of Meriton Latroon," London, 1665, 8vo, continued by F. Kirkman, 1661, et seq., 4 vols. (reprinted by Pearson).

[367] The "Mundus alter et idem," by Hall, was written about 1600, and appeared some years later on the continent, without date. "The Man in the Moon or a discourse of a voyage thither," by F. Godwin, appeared in 1638, and was translated into French, which allowed Cyrano de Bergerac to become acquainted with it: "L'Homme dans la Lune ou le voyage chimerique fait au monde de la Lune" ... by Dominique Gonzales (pseud.), Paris, 1648, 8vo. The translation is by that same Baudoin who had already turned Sidney's "Arcadia" into French. Barclay's "Argenis" belongs to European rather than to English literature.

[368] "The perplex'd Prince," by T. S. In this romance Westenia is Wales; Otenia, England; Bogland, Scotland; the amours of Charles II. and those of the Duke of York (the Prince of Purdino) are related in it under fictitious names. "The Court Secret," 1689; Selim I. and Selim II. represent Charles I. and Charles II.; Cha-abas, Louis XIV., &c. In "Oceana," Parthenia is Queen Elizabeth; Morpheus, James I.; in Ingelow's work, Bentivolio represents "Good will," and Urania "Heavenly light." "Oceana" and "Bentivolio" are didactic treatises rather than romances; the first is a political treatise, and the second a religious treatise, an enormous morality in prose. "The Pilgrim's Progress" must be placed among religious literature properly so-called, as being its master-work in England.

[369] "The plays histories and novels of the ingenious Mrs. Aphra Behn," London (Pearson's reprint), 1871, 6 vols., 8vo, vol. i. "Oroonoko or the royal slave," first printed, 1698. The adventures and virtues of Oroonoko made him very popular; his story was transferred to the stage by Th. Southern; his life was translated into German, and into French (by La Place, 1745). Mrs. Behn's other novels show much less originality. She died in 1689.

[370] Beginning of "Emile."

[371] "Oroonoko," ibid., pp. 121, 79, 135.



INDEX.



INDEX.

A.

Acolastus, 316

Actors, Nash on, 316; as playwrights, 156-158

Addison, 25, 381, 396, 412

"Adventures of Covent Garden," 404-408; 412

"Alcida," Greene's, 112, 155

Alexander, poem imitated from the French romance, 39

Alfarache, Guzman d', 292, 293, 294

Alfred, literature under, 33

"Almahide," 370

"Almanzor and Almahide," 392

Amadis of Gaul, Munday's translation of, 349

Amourists, The, 245

"Anatomie of Absurditie," Nash's, 169 note, 279

Andrews, Dr., Sermons by, 382

"Andromaque," Racine's, English translation of, 395, 396

Angennes, Julie d', 352

Anglo-Saxons, songs and legends of the, 32; gloom of the literature of the, 33, 34

"Apologie for Poetrie," Sidney's, 229-233; 235, 254, 255, 301

Apulaeus, 86

"Arbasto," 155; 175-178

"Arcadia," Sidney's, 226, 229; account and criticism of, 234-262; popularity, imitations and translations of, 262-283; criticised in the eighteenth century by Addison, Cowper and Young, 270-272; Milton's and Horace Walpole's criticism of, 272; Niceron on, 283; drawings from editions of, 16, 17, 273, 275, 277

"Arcadianism," Dekker and Ben Jonson on, 261

Arcady, land of, 218, 219

Architecture, Elizabethan, 12, 99, 100, 101, 102

Aretino, 298, 348

"Argalus and Parthenia," Quarles', 16, 264, 267; as a chap-book, 271-275

D'Argenson's opinion of England, 24

"Ariosto," 43, 173, 237, 363; Harington's translation of, 13, 76, 77, 79, 80, 366

"Arisbas," Dickenson's, 146

Arthur, the Celtic hero, 39; and his knights, 35

Arundel, Earl of, 159

Ascham, Roger, denounces foreign travel and literature, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 79 note, 85, 318; condemns Morte d'Arthur, 63, 74; on the study of Greek and Latin, 87, 88; his views on the old romances endorsed by Nash, 307, 308

"Astree," d'Urfe's, 205, 247, 364, 365

"Astrophel and Stella," 229, 233, 234

D'Aubigne, 398

"Aucassin and Nicolete," 36, 37, 59, 60, 353

B.

Bacon, Francis, 24, 43; "New Atlantis," 50; and English prose, 52; essay on Gardens, 241; 300, 403, 413

Bacon, Friar, stories about, 28

Bandello, 81 note, 86, 147

"Baron de Foeneste," 398

Baudoin, translation of Sidney's "Arcadia" into French, 276-280

Baxter's "Sir Philip Sidney's Ourania," 262

Beattie, 26

Beckett, engraver, 19

Behn, Mrs., 414-417

Bell's "Theatre," engraving from, 14, 97

Belleforest's tales translated and imitated by Paynter, 86; "Histoires tragiques," 147

"Bentivolio and Urania," Ingelow's, 413

"Beowulf," the oldest English romance, 11; fac-simile of the beginning of the MS., 31; 33, 34; want of tenderness in, 35

"Berenice," Racine's, translated by Otway, 397

"Berger extravagant," 21, 280, 398, 401

Bergerac, Cyrano de, his "Etats et empires de la lune et du soleil," 50; his "Pedant joue," 128 note; style of, 258; humour of, 289, 290

Berners, Lord, 106-107

Bestiaries, 108, 111, 112, 115, 116, 119

Blount, Charles, Lord Mountjoy, Earl of Devonshire, 227

Blount, Edward, publisher of Lyly's comedies, 137, 138

Boccaccio, 43; "Filocopo," "Amorous Fiammetta," "Decameron," English translations of, 75, 76; 86

Boileau, 258, 356 note, 363, 390

Borde, Dr. Andrew, 288, 289, 326

Bossuet, 387

Bovon of Hanstone, poem imitated from a French romance, 39

Boyle, Roger, Lord Broghill, 384-389

Bozon, Nicole, 111

Breton, Nicholas, 192, 198-202

Brunne, Robert Manning de, 38, 39

Bullen, 22

Bunyan, John, 159, 413

Burghley House, 12, 101, 102

Byron's "Don Juan," 409, 410

C.

Caesarius, 48, 49

Callot, 317, 337

Camden Society, 18

"Campaspe," Lyly's, 138

Carey, 412

"Carte du Tendre," 19, 359, 361

"Cassandra," 396, 403, 412; "Cassandre," 362, 364, 382, 383

Castiglione's "Courtier," 76

Caxton's woodcut of Chaucer's pilgrims, 12, 45; his editions of Chaucer and work as a printer, 52-55; 60

"Cent Nouvelles," 47, 48

Cervantes, 43, 88, 399

Chappelain, Mdlle. G., translator of Sidney's "Arcadia," 277-280

Chapelain, Jean, author of "La Pucelle," 294, 350, 357

Characters, books of, 201-2 note

Charlemagne, poem imitated from French romance of, 39

Charles I., 84; 250, 252; 366, 382

Charles II., 381

Charles IX., 220

Chartley, 223

Chateaubriand, 231, 283

Chateaumorand, Diane de, 276

Chatterton, 26

Chaucer, Caxton's engraving of his pilgrims, 12, 45; a story-teller, but with small influence on the Elizabethan novel, 43, 44; homage of Pope and Dryden to, 44; faculty of observation in, 49; and mediaeval story-tellers, 89; "Cooke's Tale," 204; read by Nash, 296

Chesterfield, Lord, 414

Chettle's edition of "Groats-worth of Wit," 165 note, 321; "Piers Plain," 328, 330, 331

"Chrononotontologos," 412

Cibber, Theophilus, 381

"Civile Conversation," Guazzo's, 72, 73, 76

"Clarissa Harlowe," 25, 26, 31

"Clelie," 361, 364, 370; frontispiece of "La Fausse," 20, 375

"Cleopatra," 412; Queen, as represented on the English stage, 14, 97; "Cleopatre," 364, 369; frontispiece of, 20, 371

Clovis, 354

Colet, Dean of St. Paul's, 87

Comte, Auguste, 416

Conde, 352, 357

"Contes Moralises," Bozon's, 111

Cooper, Fenimore, 415

Copland, 12

Corneille, 278, 282, 343, 355, 363, 373

Coryat, 302 note

Cotterel, Sir Charles, translator of "Cassandre," 373

"Cour Bergere," play derived by Mareschal from Sidney's "Arcadia," 282

"Court Secret," 413

Cowper, on Sidney's "Arcadia," 271

Coxon (or Cockson), Thomas, engraver, portraits by, 13

Crebillon fils, 414

Cromwell, 84, 363, 381

Crowne's "Pandion and Amphigenia," 19, 389-391; 392, 395

D.

Davenport, 173

Davies, John, drawing from his translation of Sorel's "Berger extravagant," 21

Day, John, "Ile of Guls," 263; collaborator of Dekker, 331

"Debat de folie et d'amour," 173

Dedekind, 339

Defoe, 25, 26; protest against the abbreviation of "Robinson Crusoe," 123, 124; 199, 260, 270, 294, 313, 320, 335, 345, 348, 390, 404, 417

Dekker, portrait of, 333; on Arcadianism and Euphuism, 261; on Nash in the Elysian fields, 327; plays and pamphlets by, 330-346; love of literature, 332; gaiety, 333; Lamb on, 332; Nash and, 334; "Wonderfull Yeare," 335-338; advice on behaviour at a play-house, 340-343

Desperriers, Bonaventure, 86

Devereux, Penelope, afterwards Lady Rich, Sidney's "Stella," 223, 224, 225, 227, 228

Dickens, Charles, 124

Dickenson, imitator of Lyly, 145, 146, 161 note

Disguises, fondness for, in Elizabethan times, 237-239

"Don Simonides," Rich's, 146, 147

Drayton, 331

Dryden, 354, 363, 389, 392, 396, 404, 417

Du Bartas, 271

Du Bellay, 70

Dupleix, Scipion, historiographer royal, 354

Dyce, reprint by, 18

E.

"Ecclesiastical Polity," Hooker's, 382

Eliot, George, 36, 124

Elizabeth, Queen, portrait by Rogers, 11, 96, 256; by Zucchero, 14; in pastoral romance, 218; manners of, 91-96; learning of, 92; toilettes of, 92; Hentzner on, 96

Elizabethan houses, 101, 102; dress, 128; literary men, 161; amusements, 18, 287, 298

"Emile," Rousseau's, 415

"Empress of Morocco," Settle's, 393, 395

"Endimion," Lyly's, 138, 139; Gombauld's, 19, 367, 369

English, ancestry of the, 40, 41, 42; effect of the French conquest on the literature of the, 43

"English Adventures," Boyle's, 388, 389

"English Rogue," Head's, 413

Erasmus, 51, 87, 88, 348

Essex, Earl of, 159

"Euphues," Lyly's, 103-142; written for women, 104, 105; on women in, 127-130, 133; natural history in, 107, 108-120; moral teaching in, 123, 124, 127; bringing up of children in, 130-132; popularity of, 137-142; Nash on, 139, 140; abbreviation of, 141

"Euphues his censure to Philautus," Greene's, 146, 168

Euphuism, Lyly and, 105; acclimatization of, in England, 106, 107; Shakespeare on, 140; Dekker and, 261

Exeter, Joseph of, 38

Exeter, Marquis of, seat of the, 12

F.

Fayette, Mme. de la, 397

Fenelon's, "Telemaque," 50; "Lettre a l'Academie," 229

Fenton's, "Tragicall Discourses," 80, 81

Fielding, 25, 124, 270, 313, 317, 406, 412, 417

Floire and Blanchefleur, 36

Florio's Montaigne, 227

Ford, Emanuel, disciple of Lyly, 192; "Parismus," 193-198; collaborator of Dekker, 331

Fortescue's, "Foreste," 81

Fouquet, 281

Fournival, Richard de, 107, 108

Fox, George, the Quaker, 158

"Francesco's Fortunes," drawings from, 11

"Francion," 293, 398

French, gaiety of the literature of the, 33, 34

Froissart, 43, 47, 86

Furetiere, 398, 399, 404, 405

Furnivall, F. J., 39, 90, 102, 140, 162, 223

G.

Gaedertz, of Berlin, 17

"Gallathea," Lyly's, 139

"Gamelyne," tale of, 204

Gargantua and Pantagruel, story of, 50

Gascoigne, "Adventures passed by Master F. T.," 81

Gawain, a metrical romance imitated from the French, 89

"Genereuse Allemande," Mareschal's, 282

Gheeraedts, 16

Gil Bias, 24

Godwin, F., 413

"Golden boke of Marcus Aurelius," translated by Lord Berners and Sir Thomas North, 106, 107

Gomberville, 356

Gosse, 373

Gower, 296

"Grand Cyrus," romance of, 364, 383, 396

Green Knight, metrical romance from the French, 39

Greene, Robert, illustrations to his work, 11, 15; stories of, translated into French, 27; denounces foreign travel, 73 note; natural history of, 112; imitator of Lyly, 145, 146, 170, 171 note; Warner on, 149, 150; character, birth, and education, 152, 153, 154; travels, 74, 154; writings, 151, 155; "Groats-worth of Wit," 156, 157, 158; "Repentances," 158, 159, 162; marriage, 159, 160, 166, 167; Nash on, 160, 161; complaint against plagiarists, 163; abuse of Shakespeare, 164, 165; illness and death, 162, 163, 165, 166, 167; Ben Jonson on, 166; contributions to the novel literature of Elizabethan times, 167-192; Euphuism of, 170-173; "Penelope," 174; imitated by Breton, 198, 199, 201; by Lodge, 202; style of his novels, 290; 295, 296, 300, 418

Greville Fulke, Lord Brooke, 220, 226, 245

Grimestone's translation of tales by Goulart, 81

"Groats-worth of Wit," 156, 157, 165 note, 328

Grobianism, 339, 344, 345, 346

"Grobianus," 338, 339

Guazzo's "Civile Conversation," translation of, 76

Guevara, 86, 106

"Gulliver's Travels," 50, 51

"Guls Horne-booke," Dekker's, 28, 261, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343

"Gwydonius," Greene's, 155

H.

Hall, Joseph, bishop of Norwich, 73 note, 413

Hampole, Rolle de, story of a scholar of Paris, 48, 49

Harington's translation of "Ariosto," 13, 76, 77, 79, 80, 366

Harrington's "Oceana," 413

Harrison's "Description of Britaine," 101

Hartley, Mrs., as Cleopatra, 14, 97

Harvey, Gabriel, Nash and, 297, 298

Hastings, battle of, results of, 33

Hathaway, 331

Haughton, 331

Havelock the Dane, a metrical romance, 39

Head, Richard, writer of a picaresque novel, 294, 412, 413

Henri IV., 352

Henrietta of England, Duchess of Orleans, 386, 387

Henry VIII., learning of, 87

Henslowe, 328, 331

Hentzner on Elizabeth, 96

"Heptameron," Reine de Navarre's, 398

Herbert, William, Shakespeare's friend, 234

"Hercules of Greece," romance, 349

Heroical novels and plays in England and France, 347-397; reaction against, 397-412

Heywood, T., 331

"History of the Ladye Lucres," 81; drawing from German edition of, 14, 82

Hood, Robin, stories about, 28

Hooker, Richard, 382

Hurst, Richard, drawing from his version of Gombauld's "Endimion," 19

"Hystorie of Hamblet," 81

I.

"Ibrahim ou l'illustre Bassa," 364

"Ile of Guls," Day's, 263

Ingelow's "Bentivolio and Urania," 413

"Isle of Dogs," Nash's, 297, 298 note

J.

"Jack Wilton," Nash's novel of, 297; account of, 308-321

Jessopp, Dr., 218

Johnson, Dr., 151, 413

Jones, Inigo, sketches by, 14, 100; architecture of, 100, 101

Jonson, Ben, 151, 261, 270, 331, 341 note, 348, 404, 407

K.

Keats, 418

Kemp, the actor, 18, 287, 298

Kenilworth, festivities at, 223; park of, 241, 242

King Horn, a metrical romance, 39

"Knight of the Swanne," frontispiece of, 12, 61, 64

L.

Labe, Louise, "Debat de Folie et d'Amour," 173

La Calprenede, 356, 369, 384, 398, 408; Mme. de Sevigne on, 353

"Lady of May," Sidney's masque of, 229, 289

La Fontaine, 232

Landmann, Dr., 106, 123 note

Laneham, Robert, account of the Kenilworth Festivities, 85

Languet, Hubert, the French Huguenot and friend of Sidney, on English manners, 136, 137; correspondence with Sidney, 221, 223, 288; poem on, in the "Arcadia," 222

"La Pucelle," 294, 350

Layamon, 39, 40

Lee, 392, 397

Leicester, Earl of, 91, 96, 159, 223

"Lenten Stuff," Nash's, 324, 325

Le Sage, style of, 47; "Gil Blas," 294

"Le Sopha," 24

"Lettre a l'Academie," Fenelon's, 229

"Life and Death of Ned Browne," Greene's, 187, 188

Lindsey, Earl of, 382

Lodge, Thomas, imitator of Lyly, 145, 150, 151; birth, education, travels, 202; novels, 203; "Rosalynde," 144, 204, 205, 206, 207-215; 290, 403

Longueville, Mme. de, 352, 357

"Looking Glasse for London and England," by Greene and Lodge, 215

Louis XIII., 354

Louis XIV., 352

Loveday, Robert, translator of La Calprenede's "Cleopatre," 369; frontispiece of, 20, 369, 371

Ludlow Castle, 219, 220

Lyly, John, editions of "Euphues," 27; denounces foreign travel, 73 note; writes for women, 104, 105; his style, 107; knowledge of plants and animals, 119, 120; the moral teaching of Lyly's "Euphues," 126-135; comedies by, 137-139; imitators of, 145-215; Sidney's style compared with, 255; kind of novel, 290; and the Martin Marprelate Controversy, 297; an ancestor of Richardson, 317; anticipates Rousseau, 131, 415

M.

Malory's "Morte d'Arthur," 54-57, 60-63

"Mamillia," Greene's, 154, 155, 168

Mandeville, 296

Map, Walter, 38; his faculty of observation, 49

Mareschal, Antoine, 282

"Margarite of America," Lodge's, 202, 203

"Marianne," 24

Marlowe, heroes and heroines of, 247, 249; dies young, 295; Nash's criticisms of, 299, 306, 307

Mary, Queen of Scots, 92

Massinger, 331

Master Reynard, 292

"Matchless Orinda," The, 384, 391

Medicis, Marie de, 276

Melbancke, imitator of Lyly, 145

Melville, Sir James, ambassador of Mary Queen of Scots to the English court, on the manners of the English, 91-95; on the liking of the Elizabethans for disguises, 239

"Menaphon," Greene's, 146, 155, 160, 185-187

Meres, Francis, 198 note, 254 note, 300

Merimee's style, 305

"Midas" comedy by Lyly, 139

Middleton, 331

Milton's "Comus," 220, 221; opinion of Sidney's "Arcadia," 250, 251

Moliere, his love for old songs, 232; his denunciation of the behaviour of gallants at the playhouse, 343, 344; the "Precieuses ridicules," 373; English translations of, 397; the "Critique de l'Ecole des Femmes," 405

Monmouth, Geoffrey of, 38, 41

Montaigne, 43

Montausier, 352, 388, 391

Montchrestien, Antoine de, 354, 355

Montemayor's "Diane," 76; translation of, 227; style of, 229; imitated by Sidney, 236

Montesquieu's "Lettres persanes," 132

More, Sir Thomas, writes in Latin; the "Utopia," 50, 51; Erasmus' opinion of, 87; hero in Nash's novel, 348; his "Utopia," a political novel, 413

Morris, William, 63

"Morte d'Arthur," Malory's, 54-59; Ascham on, 63

Munday, Anthony, imitator of Lyly, 145, 193, 331, 349

Muerger's "Scenes de la vie de Boheme," 150, 151

"Myrrour of Modesty," Greene's, 155, 168, 349

N.

Nash, Thomas, portrait of, 18; his stories translated into French, 27; initiator of the picaresque novel, 294; birth, education, studies, and travels, 295, 296; works of, 297; love of poetry, 299, 300; style and vocabulary of, 302-307; Dekker on, 327, 334; begins the novel of real life, 347, 348; 406, 412, 418

Navarre, Queen of, 86

Newcastle, Duchess of, drawing from "Nature's Pictures," 20, 379; literary works of the, 374-381

Newton, 24

North, Sir Thomas, 106, 107

Novels, in Tudor times, 80-102; as sermons, 123, 124, 127; pastoral, 235-283; picaresque, 291-346; heroical, 348-414; philosophical, 414-416

Nucius, Nicander, on the study of Italian and French in England, 87; on the manners of English women, 91

O.

"Oceana," Harrington's, 413

Octavian, romance imitated from the French, 39

Oliver, Isaac, miniature of Sir Philip Sidney, 15, 221, 243; drawing by, 69

"Oroonoko," Mrs. Behn's, 414-417

"Orlando Furioso," Ariosto's, 76, 77, 79, 80

Osborne, Dorothy, letters to Sir William Temple, 382-384, 387, 388

Otway, 389 note, 397, 404

Owen, Miss, 373

P.

Padua, John of, architect, 12, 101

"Pamela," Richardson's, 127, 249, 250, 414

"Pandion and Amphigenia," Crowne's heroical novel of, 389, 390, 391

"Pandosto," Greene's, 155, 168, 169, 175, 178-185

"Parismus," Ford's, 193; compared with "Romeo and Juliet," 194-198

"Parthenissa," Lord Broghill's, 384, 385; Dorothy Osborne on, 386, 387

Pas, C. de, drawings by, 19, 369

Paynter, translations of tales by, 28; "Palace of Pleasure," 80; tales by, 86

Peele, 295

"Penelopes Web," Greene's, 155

Penshurst, Sidney's birthplace, Ben Jonson's description of, 16; drawing of, 217

Pepys, Mr., 383

Percival, romance imitated from the French, 39

Percy, 26

"Perimedes," Greene's, 155

"Perplexed Prince," 413

"Petit Jehan de Saintre," 47

Petrarca, 43

Pettie, George, on English prose, 72, 73; "Pettie Pallace," 81

Philips, Catherine, "matchless Orinda," 19; 370-373

Philips, Mr., husband of "matchless Orinda," 373

"Philomela," Greene's, 171-173

"Philotimus," Melbancke's, 148

"Pierce Penilesse," Nash's, 322-324

"Piers Plain," Chettle's, 328-330

"Pilgrimage to Parnassus," 140

Pinturicchio, 174

Pius II., 83

"Planetomachia," Greene's, 155

"Polexandre," 364

Pope, Alexander, 218, 237, 381

Porro, Girolamo, engraver, 13

Poussin, Gaspard, 237

"Princesse de Cleves," 24, 397

Prose, little cultivated in England, 50

Prynne, 382

Puritans, and Charles I., 250; manners of, 364, 366; and Cromwell, 381

Pytheas, an old traveller, 33

Q.

Quarles, Francis, drawings from his "Argalus and Parthenia," 16; "Emblemes," 264, 267

"Quinze joyes de Mariage," 338, 345, 346

"Quip for an upstart Courtier," Greene's, frontispiece of, 15, 265; description of, 189-192

R.

Rabelais, 43; and the "Utopia," 51, 52; 88, 128, 289, 297, 304, 305, 399

Racine, 355, 363, 395, 396, 397

Racine, Louis, 123

"Railleur ou la Satyre du Temps," Mareschal's, 282

Raleigh, 218

Rambouillet, Hotel de, 352, 356, 357, 370-373; Mme. de, 381

Renaissance, tentative, of the fourteenth century, 43; short stories, outcome of, 47; period of the, 60, 68; effects of the, 69, 70; art of the, 79; women at the time of the, 133; costumes and furniture in Sidney's "Arcadia" pure, 244; characteristics of, 303

"Returne from Parnassus," 140 note, 316 note, 326

Rich, "Farewell to militarie profession," 81; imitator of Lyly, 145; works of, 146, 147

Rich, Lord, husband of Sidney's "Stella," 223, 227

Richardson, 25, 26, 123, 124, 127, 131; "Pamela" and "Clarissa Harlowe," 169, 202; borrows from Sidney, 249, 250; 270, 317, 378, 417

Richelieu, 352

Rivers, Lord, 134

Robert the Devil, drawing of, 57

"Robinson Crusoe," 123, 124, 159

Robinson, Ralph, translator of More's "Utopia," 50, 51

Rogers, William, engraving by, 11, 256

"Roland," poem imitated from a French romance, 34, 39

"Roman bourgeois," 398

"Roman comique," 398

Romances, end of chivalrous, 25; pastoral, 217-283; heroical, reaction against, 397, 398, 411; French, translated and read in England, 363-384

Ronsard, 43, 88

"Rosalynde," Lodge's, compared with "As you like it," 202-213

Rousseau's "Emile," 130, 131; "Social contract," 221; and Mrs. Behn, 414-416

Rowley, 331

S.

Sainte More, Benoit de, poems by, 34, 35

Saint Dunstan, literature under, 33

Salisbury, John of, 38

"Sapho and Phao," Lyly's, 138

Sarasin, 350

Scarron, 398, 400 note, 404

"Scipion," 365

Scott, Sir Walter, 26, 36

Scudery, George de, 278, 348, 355, 356; preface to "Ibrahim," 358, 408, 409, 415; Madeleine de, "Clelie," 20; 355-357; 361, 384, 388, 396

Settle's "Empress of Morocco," 20, 21, 293; 392-395

Sevigne, Mme. de, admirer of heroism in romances and plays, 352, 353, 357, 381

Shakespeare, interior view of a theatre in time of, 17, 18, 286; 24; glory of, 26; editions of the plays of, 27; 43; his daily reading, 85; outcome of his age, 88; Cleopatra, 97, 99, 156; source of "Twelfth Night," 147; of "Winter's Tale," 155, 178-185; "Parismus" compared with "Romeo and Juliet," 194-198; of "As you like it," 202-213; source of part of "Lear," 262; source of "Two Gentlemen of Verona," 149, 150, 236 note; little known in France, 279; a copy of, in Louis XIV.'s library, 281; earliest French criticism on, 282; humour of, 289; beginning of career of, 299, 300; on music, 300, 301; interposes himself in his plays, 314, 315; and Moliere, 343; style of, 403, 404

Shirley, 288

Sidney, Mary, Countess of Pembroke, portrait of, 16; fame of, 234, 235; works dedicated to, 263

Sidney, Sir Philip, 217-283; miniature and portraits of, 221, 222; "Arcadia," 16, 17, 226, 229, 234-283; stories of, translated, 27; birth, 219; education and travels, 74, 220, 221; love for "Stella," 222-225; "Shepheardes Calender," dedicated to, 225; at Wilton, 226; Marriage and death, 226, 227; literary work and style, 228-263; "Apologie," 229-233, 235, 254, 255, 301; Du Bartas on, 274; known to Florian, 283; humour of, 288-290; Nash on, 299; ancestor of Richardson, 317; prose of, 403; analysis of feeling by, 414

"Sir Charles Grandison," 31

Smith, Wentworth, 331

Smollett, 294

Smyth's "Straunge and tragicall histories," 81

"Sociable letters," Duchess of Newcastle's, 378

"Sopha," 414

Sorel, Charles, 280, 298

Spenser, Edmund, 43; Nash on, 298, 299, 300

Steele, Richard, 25, 381

"Stella," books dedicated to, 227, 228

Sterne, 313

"Strange Fortunes," Breton's, 199, 200

Suckling, Sir John, 388

Surrey, Earl of, 74, 245; Nash on, 300; 348

Swift, 345, 384, 413

Swinburne, 63

Sylvius, AEneas (Piccolomini), 81

T.

Tacitus' opinion of the English, 123

Tarleton, 298

Tasso, 43; translations in English of, 76

"Telemaque," 50

Temple, Sir William, 382, 384, 387, 388

"Tendre" country, Map of, 19, 20, 359, 361

Teniers, 317

Tennyson, 63

Thackeray, 124; "Vanity Fair," 291

Thorpe, John, architect, 12, 101

"Til Eulenspiegel," 292

Tintoretto, 244

Titian, 244

"Tom Thumb," Fielding's, 412

Tom-a-Lincoln, stories of, 28

"Tom Jones," 26

Topsell's Natural History, 14, 15, 103, 109, 111-113; 115-117; 119, 121, 125, 145, 171, 417

Tormes, Lazarillo de, 292-294

"Tragicall Discourses," 80, 81

Tristan, tales of, 25

"Trojan War," romance imitated from the French, 39

Turberville, drawings from his "Booke of Faulconrie," and "Noble Art of Venerie," 15

Turenne, 352

U.

Universities, Lyly's experience of, 153

D'Urfe, 247

"Utopia," More's, 50, 51

V.

Villemain's lectures on the eighteenth century, 31, 32

Vinci, 231

Virgil, 363, 398

Voiture, 409

Voltaire's prose tales, 47, 51

W.

Wace, 39

Walpole, Horace, 272

Walsingham, Sir Francis, 220, 226

Warner, imitator of Lyly, 145; "Pan his Syrinx," and "Albion's England," 148, 149

Warwick, Guy of, metrical romance from the French, 19, 39, 67, 349-351

Watson, Thomas, 139, 245

Webster, heroines of, 249; 331

Wentworth, 331

Whetstone, collections of tales translated by, 28; "Heptameron," 81

William the Silent, 226

Wilson, 331

Wilt, John O., drawing by, 17

Wireker, Nigel, 38, 49

Women, their learning and manners in Tudor times, 89, 90, 91; Ascham and Harrison on, 90, 91; Caxton on, 133, 134; English and Italian compared, 133, 134; Rich's stories for, 147; excluded from the stage, 301, 302

"Wonderfull Yeare," 335-338

Worde, Wynkyn de, 12, 64

Wroth, Lady Mary, "Urania," 268-270; Ben Jonson on, 270

Wyatt, Sir Thomas, 74, 245

Wycherley, 404

Wyle, Nicolaus von, 82

X.

Xenophon, 86

Y.

Young, on the "Arcadia," 271, 272

Z.

"Zelauto, the Fountain of Fame," Munday's, 146, 147, 148

"Zelinda," adaptation of Voiture's, 408-412

Zucchero's portrait of Elizabeth, 14, 329



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"The appearance of a new book by Mr. Becke has become an event of note—and very justly. No living author, if we except Mr. Kipling, has so amazing a command of that unhackneyed vitality of phrase that most people call by the name of realism. Whether it is scenery or character or incident that he wishes to depict, the touch is ever so dramatic and vivid that the reader is conscious of a picture and impression that has no parallel save in the records of actual sight and memory."—Westminster Gazette.

"Another series of sketches of island life in the South Seas, not inferior to those contained in 'By Reef and Palm.'"—Speaker.

"The book is well worth reading. The author knows what he is talking about and has a keen eye for the picturesque."—G. B. BURGIN in To-day.

"A notable contribution to the romance of the South Seas." T. P. O'CONNOR, M.P., in The Graphic.

* * * * *

CLARA HOPGOOD

BY

MARK RUTHERFORD

EDITED BY

REUBEN SHAPCOTT

Second Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, 6s.

(The Third and Cheaper Edition is now ready, Crown 8vo, cloth, 3s. 6d.)

"The writer who goes by the name of Mark Rutherford is not the most popular novelist of his time by any means. There are writers with names which that recluse genius has never heard of, probably, whose stories give palpitations to thousands of gentle souls, while his own are quietly read by no more than as many hundreds. Yet his publisher never announces a new story by the Author of 'Mark Rutherford's Autobiography,' and 'The Revolution in Tanner's Lane,'—which we believe to be one of the most remarkable bits of writing that these times can boast of—without strongly exciting the interest of many who know books as precious stones are known in Hatton Garden.... 'Clara Hopgood' is entirely out of the way of all existing schools of novel-writing.... Had we to select a good illustration of 'Mark's way' as distinguished from the way of modern storytellers in general, we should point to the chapter in which Baruch visits his son Benjamin in this narration. Nothing could be more simple, nothing more perfect."—Pall Mall Gazette.

A FIRST FLEET FAMILY: BEING A HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED NARRATIVE OF CERTAIN REMARKABLE ADVENTURES COMPILED FROM THE PAPERS OF SERGEANT WILLIAM DEW, OF THE MARINES

BY

LOUIS BECKE and WALTER JEFFERY

Second Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, 6s.

"As convincingly real and vivid as a narrative can be."—Sketch.

"No maker of plots could work out a better story of its kind, nor balance it more neatly."—Daily Chronicle.

"A book which describes a set of characters varied and so attractive as the more prominent figures in this romance, and a book so full of life, vicissitude, and peril, should be welcomed by every discreet novel reader."—Yorkshire Post.

"A very interesting tale, written in clear and vigorous English."—Globe.

"The novel is a happy blend of truth and fiction, with a purpose that will be appreciated by many readers; it has also the most exciting elements of the tale of adventure."—Morning Post.

11, Paternoster Buildings, London, E.C.

CUBA AND PORTO RICO WITH THE OTHER ISLANDS OF THE WEST INDIES,

BY ROBERT T. HILL, Of the United States Geological Survey.

A valuable Work of Reference. A Scientific Presentation. An indispensable Guide. A readable Narrative. 500 Pages. 160 Illustrations. Price 16s.

BAHAMAS, JAMAICA, HAITI, SAN DOMINGO, ST. THOMAS, ST. KITTS, ANTIGUA, MONTSERRAT, GUADELOUPE, MARTINIQUE, ST. LUCIA, BARBADOS, ST. VINCENT, GRENADA, TRINIDAD.

Flora, Climate, Soil, Products, Minerals, Agriculture, Scenery, Topography, Sanitation, People, Transportation, Statistics, History, Routes of travel, Administration, Accessibility, Possibilities.

"His book is a very good example of its kind, carefully written, full of the information that is required."—The Times.

"He has written the most important book that has been published on the subject."—Chicago Tribune.

"His volume of 429 pages, with profuse Illustrations and an index, forms a little condensed library of reference."—N. Y. Times.

"The book is well and ably written ... is brightened by a truly magnificent series of photographs ... beautifully reproduced on fine paper."—Edinburgh Scotsman.

* * * * *

Tourists to Cuba, Porto Rico and the West Indies will find this a most reliable and the only General Handbook.

T. FISHER UNWIN, PATERNOSTER SQUARE, LONDON.

3 GREAT ART BOOKS

EDITED BY JOSEPH PENNELL.

* * * * *

Lithography and Lithographers:

SOME CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF THE ART.

With Technical Remarks and Suggestions by JOSEPH and ELIZABETH ROBINS PENNELL. Together with 154 Illustrations, besides a Frontispiece Portrait of Joseph Pennell by JAMES MCNEILL WHISTLER, and other original lithographs by A. Legros, W. Strang, C. H. Shannon, A. Lunois, J. McLure Hamilton and T. R. Way. (13-1/2 x 10-1/2 inches, xiii + 279 pp.) L3 13s. 6d. net. Also, a Fine Edition signed by JOSEPH PENNELL; on Japan paper, L15 15s. net.

"The selection is done as admirably as the reproduction, which is saying much.... The authors ... present, in fact, the first complete and intelligent historical survey of the art in the different countries of the world."—St. James's Gazette.

"The present volume contains a great number of admirably-reproduced examples by many artists, and these illustrate in a very complete manner, not only the growth of ideas in regard to lithography, but also the varied possibilities of the stone in different hands."—Morning Post.

* * * * *

"The Greatest English Artist since Hogarth."

The Work of Charles Keene.

With Introduction and Comments by JOSEPH PENNELL, and numerous Pictures illustrative of the artist's method and vein of humour; to which is added a Bibliography of Selected Works and Notes by W. H. CHESSON. The Edition is limited to 750 copies (250 of these for America), an Ordinary Edition at L3 13s. 6d. net., and 15 copies of a Fine Edition at L15 15s. net.

"This work ... will be a revelation even to those who are beginning to estimate this consummate artist at his true merit."—Literature.

"Mr. Pennell's is the fullest critical appreciation of Keene we have yet had."—Daily News.

"Extraordinarily good and well worth having ... we thank Mr. Pennell very warmly for the thorough performance of a task that called out to be accomplished."—Daily Chronicle.

"The bibliography by Mr. W. H. Chesson ... is a labour of real merit and value, carried out in a thorough and workmanlike manner."—Graphic.

* * * * *

"The Masterpiece of a Great Spanish Artist."

PABLO DE SEGOVIA:

The Adventures of a Spanish Sharper.

BY FRANCISCO DE QUEVEDO.

Illustrated with over 100 Drawings by DANIEL VIERGE. With an Introduction on "Vierge and his Art," by JOSEPH PENNELL; and "A Critical Essay on Quevedo, and his Writings," by H. E. WATTS, Super royal 4to, parchment, old style (limited edition), L3 13s. 6d. net.

London: T. FISHER UNWIN, PATERNOSTER SQUARE.

Transcriber's Notes Page 2: Shakesperean amended to Shakespearean Page 55: marvaylous sic ("marvayllous" in the excerpt in footnote 22) Page 129: Duplicate "and" let as is ("... seeme thou carelesse, and and then will she be carefull"). Page 317: pourtraying amended to portraying Page 424: The index reference to Dekker's portrait has been amended from page 19 to page 333. Footnote 68: "conscience' sake" sic Footnote 310: "Bouvart et Pecuchet" sic Generally punctuation has been standardised, with the exception of punctuation in the Index. Hyphenation has generally been standardised. However, when a word appears hyphenated and unhyphenated an equal number of times, both versions have been retained (bonheur/bon-heur; nowadays/now-a-days; playhouse/play-house; re-baptized/rebaptized; some-how/somehow). Accented letters have generally been standardized, unless different versions of the word appear an equal number of times (Celadon/Celadon; Heptameron/Heptameron).

THE END

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