The English Husbandman
by Gervase Markham
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Of the time of Haruest and the gathering in of Corne.

{SN: The getting in of Masline.} {SN: The getting in of Wheate.} Next vnto plowing, it is necessary that I place Reaping, sith it is the end, hope, and perfection of the labour, and both the merit and incouragement which maketh the toyle both light and portable: then to proceede vnto the time of Haruest. You shall vnderstand that it is requisite for euery good Husband about the latter end of Iuly, if the soyle wherein he liueth be of any hot temper, or about the beginning of August, if it be of temperate warmth, with all dilligence constantly to beholde his Rye, which of all graines is the first that ripeneth, and if he shall perceiue that the hull of the eare beginneth to open, and that the blacke toppes of the Corne doth appeare, he may then be assured that the Corne is fully ripe, and ready for the Sickle, so that instantly he shall prouide his Reapers, according to the quantitie of his graine: for if hee shall neglect his Rye but one day more then is fit, it is such a hasty graine, that it will shale forth of the huske to the ground, to the great losse of the Husbandman. When hee hath prouided his shearers, which he shall be carefull to haue very good, he shall then looke that neither out of their wantonnesse nor emulation, they striue which shall goe fastest, or ridd most ground, for from thence proceedeth many errors in their worke, as namely, scattering, and leauing the Corne vncut behind them, the cutting the heads of the Corne off so that they are not possible to be gathered, and many such like incommodities, but let them goe soberly and constantly, and sheare the Rye at least fourteene inches aboue the ground. Then he must looke that the gatherers which follow the Reapers doe also gather cleane, & the binders binde the Sheafes fast from breaking, then if you finde that the bottomes of the Sheafes be full of greenes, or weedes, it shall not be amisse to let the Sheafes lye one from another for a day, that those greenes may wither, but if you feare any Raine or foule weather, which is the onely thing which maketh Rye shale, then you shall set it vp in Shockes, each Shocke containing at least seauen Sheafes, in this manner: first, you shall place foure Sheafes vpright close together, and the eares vpwards, then you shall take other three Sheafes and opening them and turning the eares downeward couer the other foure Sheafes that stoode vpwards, and so let them stand, vntill you may with good conueniencie lead them home, which would be done without any protraction. Next after your cleane Rye, you shall in the selfe-same sort reape your blend-Corne, or Masline: and albeit your Wheate will not be fully so ripe as your Rye, yet you shall not stay your labour, being well assured that your Rye is ready, because Wheate will harden of it selfe after it is shorne, with lying onely. After you haue got in your Rye and blend-Corne, you shall then looke vnto your cleane Wheate, and taking heare and there an eare thereof, rubbe them in your hand, and if you finde that the Corne hath all perfection saue a little hardning onely, you shall then forthwith set your Reapers vnto it, who shall sheare it in all things as they did sheare your Rye, onely they shall not put it in Shockes for a day or more, but let the Sheafes lye single, that the winde and Sunne may both wither the greenes, and harden the Corne: which done, you shall put the Sheafes into great Shockes, that is to say, at least twelue or foureteene Sheafes in a Shocke, the one halfe standing close together with the eares vpward, the other halfe lying crosse ouerthwart those eares, and their eares downeward, and in this sort you shall let your Wheate stand for at least two dayes before you lead it.

Now it is a custome in many Countries of this kingdome, not to sheare their Wheate, but to mow it, but in my conceit and in generall experience, it is not so good: for it both maketh the Wheate foule, and full of weede, and filleth vp a great place with little commoditie, as for the vse of thacking, which is the onely reason of such disorderly cutting, there is neither the straw that is shorne, nor the stubble which is left behinde, but are both of sufficiencie inough for such an imployment, if it passe through the hands of a workman, as we see in dayly experience.

{SN: The getting in of Barly.} Next to your Wheate, you shall haue regard to your Barly, for it sodainely ripeneth, and must be cut downe assoone as you perceiue the straw is turned white, to the bottome, and the eares bended downe to the groundward. Your Barly you shall not sheare, although it is a fashion in some Country, both because it is painefull and profitlesse, but you shall Mowe it close to the ground, and although in generall it be the custome of our kingdome, after your Barly is mowen and hath lyne a day or two in swathe, then with rackes to racke it together, and make it into great cockes, and so to leade it to the Barne, yet I am of this opinion that if your Barly be good and cleane without thistles or weedes, that if then to euery sitheman, or Mower you alot two followers, that is to say, a gatherer, who with a little short rake and a small hooke shall gather the Corne together, and a binder, who shall make bands and binde vp the Barly in smale Sheafes, that questionlesse you shall finde much more profit thereby: and although some thinke the labour troublesome and great, yet for mine owne part, I haue seene very great croppes inned in this manner, and haue seene two women, that with great ease, haue followed and bound after a most principall Mower, which made me vnderstand that the toyle was not so great as mine imagination; and the profit ten-fold greater then the labour: but if your Corne be ill Husbanded, and full of thistles, weedes, and all filthinesse, then this practise is to be spared, and the loose cocking vp of your Corne is much better. Assoone as you haue cleansed any Land of Barly, you shall then immediatly cause one with a great long rake, of at least thirtie teeth, being in a sling bound bauticke-wise crosse his body, to draw it from one end of the Land to the other, all ouer the Land, that he may thereby gather vp all the loose Corne which is scattered, and carry it where your other Corne standeth, obseruing euer, as your cheifest rule, that by no meanes you neither leade Barly, nor any other graine whatsoeuer, when it is wet, no although it be but moistned with the dew onely: for the least dankishnesse, more then the sweate which it naturally taketh, will soone cause it to putrifie.

{SN: The getting in of Oates.} Now for the gathering in of your Oates, they be a graine of such incertaintie, ripening euer according to the weather, & not after any setled or naturall course, that you are to looke to no constant season, but to take them vpon the first show of ripenesse, and that with such diligence that you must rather take them before, then after they be ripe, because if they tarry but halfe a day too long, they will shed vpon the ground, & you shal loose your whole profit. The time then fittest to cut your Oates is, assoone as they be somewhat more then halfe changed, but not altogether changed, that is, when they are more then two parts white, and yet the greene not vtterly extinguished, the best cutting of them is to mow them (albeit I haue seene them shorne in some places) & being mowen to let them dry and ripen in the swathe, as naturally they will doe, and then if you bind them vp in Sheafes, as you should binde your Barly, it is best: for to carry them in the loose cocke, as many doe, is great losse and hindrance of profit.

{SN: The getting in of Pulse.} After you haue got in your white Corne, you shall then looke vnto your Pulse, as Beanes, Pease, Fitches, and such like, which you shall know to be ready by the blacknesse of the straw: for it is a rule, whensoeuer the straw turnes, the Pulse is ripe. If then it be cleane Beanes, or Beanes and Pease mixt, you shall mowe them, and being cleane Beanes rake them into heapes, and so make them vp into cockes, but if they be mixt you shall with hookes fould the Beanes into the Pease, and make little round reapes thereof, which after they haue beene turned and dryed, you may put twenty reapes together, and thereof make a cocke, and so lead them, and stacke them: but if they be cleane Pease, or Pease and Fitches, then you shall not mowe them, but with long hookes cut them from the ground, which is called Reaping, and so foulding them together into small reapes, as you did your Pease and Beanes, let them be turned and dryed, and so cocked, and carried either to the Barne, stacke, or houell.

Now hauing thus brought in, and finished your Haruest, you shall then immediately mowe vp the stubble, both of your Wheate, Rye, and Masline, and with all expedition there-with thacke, and couer from Raine and weather, all such graine as for want of house-roome, you are compeld to lay abroad, either in stacke, or vpon houell: but if no such necessitie be, and that you haue not other more necessary imployment for your stubble, it shall be no part of ill Husbandry to let the stubble rot vpon the Land, which will be a reasonable Manuring or fatting of the earth.

Now hauing brought your Corne into the Barne, it is a lesson needlesse to giue any certaine rules how to spend or vtter it forth, sith euery man must be ruled according to his affaires, and necessitie, yet sith in mine owne experience I haue taken certaine setled rules from those who haue made themselues great estates by a most formall and strickt course in their Husbandry, I thinke it not amisse to show you what I haue noted from them, touching the vtterance and expence of their graine: first, for your expence in your house, it is meete that you haue euer so much of euery seuerall sort of graine thresht, as shall from time to time maintaine your family: then for that which you intend shall returne to particular profit, you shall from a fortnight before Michaelmas, till a fortnight after, thresh vp all such Wheate, Rye, & Masline, as you intend to sell for seede, which must be winnowed, fand, and drest so cleane as is possible, for at that time it will giue the greatest price; but as soone as seede-time is past, you shall then thresh no more of those graines till it be neare Midsummer, but begin to thresh vp all such Barly as you intend to conuert and make into Malt, and so from Michaelmas till Candlemas, apply nothing but Malting, for in that time graine is euer the cheapest, because euery Barne being full, some must sell for the payment of rents, some must sell to pay seruants wages, and some for their Christmas prouisions: in which time Corne abating and growing scarse, the price of necessitie must afterwards rise: at Candlemas you shall begin to thresh all those Pease which you intend to sell for seede, because the time being then, and euery man, out of necessitie, inforced to make his prouision, it cannot be but they must needes passe at a good price and reckoning.

After Pease seede-time, you shall then thresh vp all that Barly which you meane to sell for seede, which euer is at the dearest reckoning of any graine whatsoeuer, especially if it be principally good and cleane. After your seede-Barly is sould, you may then thresh vp all such Wheate, Rye, and Masline, as you intend to sell: for it euer giueth the greatest price from the latter end of May vntill the beginning of September. In September you shall begin to sell your Malt, which being old and hauing lyne ripening the most part of the yeere, must now at the latter end of the yeere, when all old store is spent, and the new cannot be come to any perfection, be most deare, and of the greatest estimation: and thus being a man of substance in the world, and able to put euery thing to the best vse, you may by these vsuall obseruations, and the helpe of a better iudgement, imploy the fruits of your labours to the best profit, and sell euery thing at the highest price, except you take vpon you to giue day and sell vpon trust, which if you doe, you may then sell at what vnconscionable reckoning you will, which because such vnnaturall exactions neither agree with charitie, nor humanitie, I will forbeare to giue rules for the same, and referre euery man that is desirous of such knowledge, to the examples of the world, wherein he shall finde presidents inough for such euill customes. And thus much for the first part of this worke, which containeth the manner of Plowing and tillage onely.

THE SECOND PART OF THE FIRST BOOKE OF the English Husbandman, Contayning the Art of Planting, Grafting and Gardening, either for pleasure or profit; together with the vse and ordering of Woodes.


Of the Scyte, Modell, Squares, and Fashion of a perfect Orchard.

Although many authors which I haue read, both in Italian, French, and Dutch, doe make a diuersitie and distinguishment of Orchardes, as namely, one for profit, which they fashion rudely and without forme, the other for delight, which they make comely, decent, and with all good proportion, deuiding the quarters into squares, making the alleyes of a constant breadth, and planting the fruit-trees in arteficiall rowes: yet for as much as the comelinesse and well contriuing of the ground, doth nothing abate, but rather increase the commoditie, I will therefore ioyne them both together, and make them onely but one Orchard. Now for the scyte and placing of this Orchard, I haue in the modell of my Country house, or Husbandmans Farme, shewed you where if it be possible it should stand, and both what Sunne & ayre it should lye open vpon: but if the scyte or ground-plot of your house will not giue you leaue to place your Orchard according to your wish, you shall then be content to make a vertue of necessitie, and plant it in such a place as is most conuenient, and nearest alyed to that forme before prescribed.


Now when you haue found out a perfect ground-plot, you shall then cast it into a great large square, which you shall fence in either with a stone or bricke wall, high, strong pale, or great ditch with a quicke-set hedge, but the wall is best and most durable, and that wall would haue vpon the inside within twelue or fourteene foote on of another, Iames or outshoots of stone or bricke, betweene which you may plant and plash those fruit-trees which are of greatest tendernesse, the South and West Sunne hauing power to shine vpon them.

When you haue thus fenc'st in this great square, you shall then cast foure large alleyes, at least fourteene foote broad, from the wall round about, and so likewise two other alleyes of like breadth, directly crosse ouerthwart the ground-plot, which will deuide the great square into foure lesser squares, according to the figure before set downe.

The figure 1. sheweth the alleyes which both compasse about, and also crosse ouer the ground-plot, and the figure 2. sheweth the foure quarters where the fruit-trees are to be planted.

Now if either the true nature and largnesse of the ground be sufficient, or your owne abilitie of pursse so great that you may compasse your desires in these earthly pleasures, it shall not be amisse, but a matter of great state, to make your ground-plot full as bigge againe, that is to say, to containe eight large quarters, the first foure being made of an euen leuell, the other foure being raysed at least eight foote higher then the first, with conuenient stayres of state for ascending to the same, to be likewise vpon another euen leuell of like forme, and if in the center of the alleyes, being the mid-point betweene the squares, might be placed any quaint fountaines or any other antique standard, the platforme would be more excellent and if vpon the ascent from one leuell to another there might be built some curious and arteficiall banquetting house, it would giue luster to the Orchard.

Now for the planting and furnishing of these quarters: you shall vnderstand that if your Orchard containe but foure quarters, then the first shalbe planted with Apple-trees of all sorts, the second with Peares and Wardens of all sorts, the third with Quinces & Chesnutes, the fourth with Medlars & seruices. Against the North side of your Orchard wall against which the South sunne reflects, you shall plant the Abricot, Verdochio, Peach, and Damaske-plumbe: against the East side of the wall, the whit Muskadine Grape, the Pescod-plumbe, and the Emperiall-plumbe: against the West side the grafted Cherries, and the Oliue-tree: and against the South side the Almond, & Figge tree. Round about the skirts of euery other outward or inward alley, you shall plant, the Wheate-plumbe, both yealow & redde, the Rye-plumbe, the Damson, the Horse-clog, Bulleys of all kindes, ordinary french Cherryes, Filberts, and Nuts of all sorts, together with the Prune-plumbe, and other such like stone fruits. But if your Orchard be of state and prospect, so that it containe eight quarters or more (according to the limitation of the earth) then you shall in euery seuerall quarter plant a seuerall fruit, as Apple-trees in one quarter, Peares in another, Quinces in another, Wardens in another, and so forth of the rest. Also you shall obserue in planting your Apples, Peares, and Plumbes, that you plant your summer or early fruit by themselues, and the Winter or long lasting fruit by themselues. Of Apples, your Ienitings, Wibourns, Pomederoy, and Queene-Apples are reckoned the best earely fruits, although their be diuers others, and the Pippin, Peare-maine, Apple-Iohn, and Russetting, your best Winter and long lasting fruit, though there be a world of other: for the tastes of Apples are infinite, according to there composition and mixture in grafting. Of Peares your golden Peare, your Katherine-Peare, your Lording, and such like, are the first, and your stone-Peare, Warden-Peare, and choake-Peare, those which indure longest. And of Plumbes the rye-plumbe is first, your Wheate-plumbe next, and all the other sorts of plumbes ripen all most together in one season, if they haue equall warmth, and be all of like comfortable standing.


Now for the orderly placing of your trees, you shall vnderstand that your Plumbe-trees (which are as it were a fence or guard about your great quarters) would be placed in rowes one by one, aboue fiue foote distance one from another, round about each skirt of euery alley: your Apple-trees & other greater fruit which are to be planted in the quarters, would be placed in such arteficiall rowes that which way soeuer a man shall cast his eyes yet hee shall see the trees euery way stand in rowes, making squares, alleyes, and deuisions, according to a mans imagination, according to the figure before, which I would haue you suppose to be one quarter in an Orchard, and by it you may easily compound the rest: wherein you shall vnderstand that the lesser prickes doe figure your Plumbe-trees, & the greater prickes your Apple trees, and such other large fruit.

Now you shall vnderstand that euery one of these great trees which furnish the maine quarter, shall stand in a direct line, iust twelue foote one from another, which is a space altogether sufficient inough for there spreading, without waterdropping or annoying one another; prouided that the Fruiterer, according to his duty, be carefull to preserue the trees vpright and to vnderprope them when by the violence of the winde they shall swarue any way. Vpon the ascent or rising from one leuell to another, you may plant the Barberry-trees, Feberries, and Raspberries, of all sorts, which being spreading, thorny and sharpe trees, take great delight to grow thicke and close together, by which meanes often times they make a kinde of wall, hedge, or fencing, where they stand.

Hauing thus shewed you the ground-plot and proportion of your Orchard, with the seuerall deuisions, ascents, and squares, that should be contained therein, and the fruits which are to furnish euery such square and deuision, and their orderly placing, it now rests that you vnderstand that this Orchard-plot, so neare as you can bring it to passe, doe stand most open and plaine, vpon the South and West sunne, and most defended from the East and North windes and bitternesse, which being obserued your plot is then perfect and absolute.

Now forasmuch as where nature, fruitfulnesse, and situation doe take from a man more then the halfe part of his industrie, and by a direct and easie way doth lead him to that perfection which others cannot attaine to without infinit labour and trauell: and whereas it is nothing so commendable to maintaine beautie, as to make deformitie beautifull, I will speake something of the framing of Orchard-plots there where both nature, the situation, and barrainnesse, doe vtterly deny the enioying of any such commoditie, as where the ground is vneuen, stonie, sandy, or in his lownesse subiect to the ouerflow of waters, all being apparant enemies to these places of pleasure and delight. First, for the vneuennesse of the ground, if that be his vttermost imperfection, you shall first not onely take a note with your eye, but also place a marke vpon the best ascent of the ground to which the leuell is fittest to be drawne, and then plowing the ground all ouer with a great common plough, by casting the furrowes downward, seeke to fill in and couer the lesser hollownesses of the ground, that their may not any thing appeare but the maine great hollowes, which with other earth which is free from stones, grauell, or such like euils, you shall fill vp and make leuell with that part where your marke standeth, and being so leuelled, forthwith draw the plot of your Orchard: but if the ground be not onely vneuen but also barraine, you shall then to euery loade of earth you carry to the leuelling adde a loade of Manure, either Oxe Manure, or Horse Manure, the rubbish of houses, or the clensings of olde ditches, or standing pooles, and the earth will soone become fertill and perfect; but if the ground be stonie, that is, full of great stones, as it is in Darbishire about the Peake or East Mores, for small pibbles or small lime-stones are not very much hurtfull, then you shall cause such stones to be digd vp, and fill vp the places where they lay either with marle, or other rich earth, which after it hath beene setled for a yeere or two you shall then plough, and leuell it, and so frame forth the plot of your Orchard. If the ground be onely a barraine sand, so that it wanteth strength either to maintaine or bring forth, you shall then first digge that earth into great trenches, at least foure foote deepe, and filling them vp with Oxe Manure, mixe it with the sand, that it may change some part of the colour thereof and then leuelling it fashion out your Orchard. But lastly, and which is of all situations the worst, if you haue no ground to plant your Orchard vpon, but such as either through the neighbourhood of riuers, descent of Mountaines, or the earths owne naturall quallitie in casting and vomiting out water and moysture, is subiect to some small ouerflowes of water, by which you cannot attaine to the pleasure you seeke, because fruit-trees can neuer indure the corruption of waters, you shall then in the dryest season of the yeere, after you haue marked out that square or quantitie of ground which you intend for your Orchard, you shall then cast therein sundry ditches, at least sixteene foote broad, and nine foote deepe, and not aboue twelue foote betwixt ditch and ditch, vpon which reserued earth casting the earth that you digged vp, you shall raise the banckes at least seauen foote high of firme earth, and keepe in the top the full breadth of twelue foote, with in a foote or little more: and in the casting vp of these bankes you shall cause the earth to be beaten with maules and broad beetels that it may lye firme, fast, and leuell, and after these bankes haue rested a yeere or more, and are sufficiently setled, you may then at the neather end of the banke, neare to the verge of the water plant store of Osyers, which will be a good defence to the banke, and vpon the top and highest part of the banke you shall plant your Orchard and fruit-trees, so that when any inundation of water shall happen, the ditches shalbe able inough to receiue it; or else making a passage from your Orchard into some other sewer, the water exceeding his limits may haue a free current or passage: besides these ditches being neatly kept, and comforted with fresh water, may make both pleasant and commodious fish-ponds. Also you must be carefull in casting these bankes that you doe not place them in such sort that when you are vpon one you cannot come to the other, but rather like a maze, so that you may at pleasure passe from the one to the other round about the ground, making of diuers bankes to the eye but one banke in substance, and of diuers ponds in appearance, but one in true iudgement. And thus much for the plot or situation of an Orchard.


Of the Nurserie where you shall set all manner of Kernels, and Stones, for the furnishing of the Orchard.

Although great persons, out of their greatnesse and abilitie, doe buy their fruit trees ready grafted, and so in a moment may plant an Orchard of the greatest quantitie, yet sith the Husbandman must raise euery thing from his owne indeauours, and that I onely write for his profit, I therefore hould it most conuenient to beginne with the nursery or store-house of fruits, from whence the Orchard receiueth his beauty and riches.

This Nursery must be a piece of principall ground, either through Art or Nature, strongly fenced, warme, and full of good shelter: for in it is onely the first infancy and tendernesse of fruit-trees, because there they are first kernells, or stones, after sprigs, and lastly trees.

Now for the manner of chusing, sowing, and planting them in this nursery, I differ some thing from the french practise, who would chuse the kernells from the cider presse, sow them in large bedds of earth, and within a yeere after replant them in a wilde Orchard: now for mine owne part, though this course be not much faulty, yet I rather chuse this kinde of practise, first: to chuse your kernells either of Apples, Peares, or Wardens, from the best and most principallest fruit you can taste, for although the kernell doe bring forth no other tree but the plaine stocke vpon which the fruit was grafted, as thus, if the graft were put into a Crab-stocke the kernell brings forth onely a Crab-tree, yet when you taste a perfect and delicate Apple, be assured both the stocke and graft were of the best choise, and so such kernells of best reckoning. When you haue then a competent quantitie of such kernells, you shall take certaine large pots, in the fashion of milke-boules, all full of hoales in the bottome, through which the raine and superfluous moysture may auoyde, and either in the Months of March or Nouember (for those are the best seasons) fill the pots three parts full of the finest, blackest, and richest mould you can get, then lay your kernells vpon the earth, about foure fingars one from another, so many as the vessell can conueniently containe, and then with a siue sift vpon them other fine moulds almost three fingars thicke, and so let them rest, filling so many pots or vessells as shall serue to receiue your quantitie of kernells of all sorts. Now if any man desire to know my reason why I rather desire to set my kernells rather in vessells then in beds of earth, my answere is, that I haue often found it in mine experience, that the kernell of Apples, Peares, Quinces, and such like, are such a tender and dainty seede that it is great oddes but the wormes will deuoure and consume them before they sprout, who naturally delight in such seedes, which these vessels onely doe preuent: but to proceede.

After your kernells are sprouted vp and growne to be at least seauen or eight inches high, you shall then within your nursery digge vp a border about two foote and an halfe broad, more then a foote deepe, and of such conuenient length as may receiue all your young plants, and hauing made the mould fine and rich with Manure, you shall then with your whole hand gripe as much of the earth that is about the plant as you can conueniently hould, and so take both the plant and the mould out of the vessell, and replant it in the new drest border: and you shall thus doe plant after plant, till you haue set euery one, and made them firme and fast in the new mould: wherein you are to obserue these two principles, first that you place them at least fiue foote one from another, and secondly, that such kernells as you set in your vessels in March, that you replant them in borders of earth in Nouember following, and such as you set in Nouember to replant in March following, and being so replanted to suffer them to grow till they be able to beare grafts, during which time you shall diligently obserue, that if any of them chance to put forth any superfluous branches or cyons, which may hinder the growth of the body of the plant, that you carefully cut them away, that thereby it may be the sooner inabled to beare a graft: for it is euer to be intended that whatsoeuer proceedeth from kernells are onely to be preserued for stockes to graft on, and for no other purpose.

Now for the stones of Plumbes, & other stone fruit, you shall vnderstand that they be of two kindes, one simple and of themselues, as the Rye-plumbe, Wheate-plumbe, Damson, Prune-plumbe, Horse-clogge, Cherry, and such like, so that from the kernells of them issueth trees of like nature and goodnesse: the other compounded or grafted plumbes, as the Abricot, Pescod, Peach, Damaske, Verdochyo, Emperiall, and such like, from whose kernells issueth no other trees but such as the stockes were vpon which they were grafted. Now, for the manner of setting the first, which are simple and vncompounded, you shall digge vp a large bedde of rich and good earth a month or more before March or Nouember, and hauing made the mould as fine as is possible, you shall flat-wise thrust euery stone, a foote one from another, more then three fingars into the mould, and then with a little small rake, made for the purpose, rake the bedde ouer and close vp the holes, and so let them rest till they be of a yeeres groath, at which time you shall replant them into seuerall borders, as you did your Apple-tree plants and others.

Now for the kernells of your compounded or grafted Plumbes, you shall both set them in beddes and replant them into seuerall borders, in the same manner as you did the other kernells of Plumbes, onely you shall for the space of eight and forty houres before you set them steepe them in new milke, forasmuch as the stones of them are more hard, and with greater difficulty open and sprout in the earth, then any other stone whatsoeuer: and thus hauing furnished your Nursery of all sorts of fruits and stockes, you shall when they come to full age and bignesse graft them in such order as shalbe hereafter declared.


Of the setting or planting of the Cyons or Branches of most sorts of Fruit-trees.

As you are to furnish your nursery with all sorts of kernells and stones, for the breeding of stockes where on to graft the daintiest fruits you can compasse, so shall you also plant therein the cyons and branches of the best fruit trees: which cyons and branches doe bring forthe the same fruit which the trees doe from whence they are taken, and by that meanes your nursery shall euer afford you perfect trees, wherewith either to furnish your owne grounds, or to pleasure your neighbours. And herein by the way you shall vnderstand that some trees are more fit to be set then to be sowne, as namely, the Seruice-tree, the Medler, the Filbert and such like. Now for the Seruice-tree, hee is not at all to be grafted, but set in this wise: take of the bastard cyons such as be somewhat bigger then a mans thumbe, and cutting away the branches thereof, set it in a fine loose moulde, at least a foote deepe, and it will prosper exceedingly, yet the true nature of this tree is not to be remoued, and therefore it is conuenient that it be planted where it should euer continue: in like manner to the Seruice-tree, so you shall plant the bastard cyons of the Medlar-tree either in March or October, and at the waine of the moone.

Now for the Filbert, or large Hassell-nut, you shall take the smallest cyons or wands, such as are not aboue two yeeres groath, being full of short heauie twigges, and grow from the roote of the maine tree, and set them in a loose mould, a foote deepe, without pruning or cutting away any of the branches, and they will prosper to your contentment. Now for all sorts of Plumbe-trees, Apple-trees or other fruit-trees which are not grafted, if you take the young cyons which grow from the rootes cleane from the rootes, and plant them either in the spring, or fall, in a fresh and fine mould, they will not onely prosper, but bring forth fruit of like nature and qualitie to the trees from whence they were taken.

Now for your grafted fruit, as namely, Apples, Plumbes, Cherryes, Mulberries, Quinces, and such like, the cyons also and branches of them also will take roote and bring forth fruit of the same kinde that the trees did from whence they were taken: but those cyons or branches must euer be chosen from the vpper parts of the trees, betwixt the feast of all-Saints and Christmas, they must be bigger then a mans finger, smooth, straight, and without twigges: you shall with a sharpe chissell cut them from the body or armes of the tree with such care, that by no meanes you raise vp the barke, and then with a little yealow waxe couer the place from whence you cut the cyon: then hauing digged and dunged the earth well where you intend to plant them, and made the mould easie, you shall with an Iron, as bigge as your plant, make a hoale a foote deepe or better, and then put in your cyon and with it a few Oates, long steept in water, and so fixe it firme in the mould, and if after it beginneth to put forth you perceiue any young cyons to put forth from the root thereof, you shall immediatly cut them off, & either cast them away or plant them in other places, for to suffer them to grow may breede much hurt to the young trees. Now where as these cyons thus planted are for the most part small and weake, so that the smallest breath of winde doth shake and hurt their rootes, it shalbe good to pricke strong stakes by them, to which, fastning the young plant with a soft hay rope it may the better be defended from stormes and tempests.

Next to these fruit-trees, you shall vnderstand that your bush-trees, as Barberryes, Gooseberryes, or Feberryes, Raspberryes, and such like, will also grow vpon cyons, without rootes, being cut from their maine rootes in Nouember, & so planted in a new fresh mould. And here by the way I am to giue you this note or caueat, that if at any time you finde any of these cyons which you haue planted not to grow and flourish according to your desire, but that you finde a certaine mislike or consumption in the plant, you shall then immediatly with a sharpe knife cut the plant off slope-wise vpward, about three fingars from the ground, and so let it rest till the next spring, at which time you shall beholde new cyons issue from the roote, which will be without sicknesse or imperfection; and from the vertue of this experiment I imagine the gardners of antient time found out the meanes to get young cyons from olde Mulberry-trees, which they doe in this manner: first, you must take some of the greatest armes of the Mulberry-tree about the midst of Nouember, and with a sharpe sawe to sawe them into bigge truncheons, about fiueteene inches long, and then digging a trench in principall good earth, of such depth that you may couer the truncheons, being set vp on end, with Manure and fine mould, each truncheon being a foote one from another, and couerd more then foure fingars aboue the wood, not fayling to water them whensoeuer neede shall require, and to preserue them from weeds and filthinesse, within lesse then a yeeres space you shall behold those truncheons to put forth young cyons, which as soone as they come to any groath and be twigged, then you may cut them from the stockes, and transplant them where you please, onely the truncheons you shall suffer to remaine still, and cherish them with fresh dunge, and they will put forth many moe cyons, both to furnish your selfe and your friends. And thus much for the planting and setting of cyons or branches.


Of the ordinary and accustomed manner of Grafting all sorts of Fruit-trees.

{SN: The mixing of Stockes and Grafts.} As soone as your nursery is thus amply furnished of all sorts of stockes, proceeding from kernells and of all sorts of trees proceeding from cyons, branches or vndergrowings, and that through strength of yeeres they are growne to sufficient abilitie to receiue grafts, which is to be intended that they must be at the least sixe or eight inches in compasse, for although lesse many times both doth and may receiue grafts, yet they are full of debilitie and danger, and promise no assurance to the worke-mans labour, you shall then beginne to graft your stockes with such fruits as from art and experience are meete to be conioyned together, as thus: you shall graft Apples vpon Apples, as the Pippin vpon the great Costard, the Peare-maine vpon the Ienetting, and the Apple-Iohn or blacke annet vpon the Pomewater or Crab-tree: to conclude, any Apple-stocke, Crab-tree, or wilding, is good to graft Apples vpon, but the best is best worthy. So for Peares, you shall graft them vpon Peare stockes, Quinces vpon Quinces or Crab-trees, and not according to the opinion of the frenchman, vpon white thorne or willow, the Medlar vpon the Seruice-tree, and the Seruice vpon the Medlar, also Cherryes vpon Cherryes, & Plumbes vpon Plumbes, as the greater Abricots vpon the lesser Abricots, the Peach, the Figge, or the Damson-tree, and to speake generally without wasting more paper, or making a long circumstance to slender purpose, the Damson-tree is the onely principall best stocke whereupon to graft any kinde of Plumbe or stone fruit whatsoeuer.

{SN: The choise of Grafts.} After you haue both your stockes ready, and know which grafts to ioyne with which stockes, you shall then learne to cut and chuse your grafts in this manner: looke from what tree you desire to take your grafts, you shall goe vnto the very principall branches thereof, and looke vp to the vpper ends, and those which you finde to be fairest, smoothest, and fullest of sappe, hauing the little knots, budds, or eyes, standing close and thicke together, are the best and most perfect, especially if they grow vpon the East side of the tree, whereon the Sunne first looketh; these you shall cut from the tree in such sort that they may haue at least three fingars of the olde woode ioyning to the young branch, which you shall know both by the colour of the barke, as also by a little round seame which maketh as it were a distinction betwixt the seuerall growths. Now you shall euer, as neere as you can, chuse your grafts from a young tree, and not from an olde, and from the tops of the principall branches, and not from the midst of the tree, or any other superfluous arme or cyon; now if after you haue got your grafts you haue many dayes Iourneys to carry them, you shall fould them in a few fresh mouldes, and binde them about with hay, and hay ropes, and so carry them all day, and in the night bury them all ouer in the ground and they will containe their goodnesse for a long season.

{SN: How to graft in the Cleft.} Hauing thus prepared your grafts, you shall then beginne to graft, which worke you shall vnderstand may be done in euery month of the yeere, except Nouember and October, but the best is to beginne about Christmas for all earely and forward fruit, and for the other, to stay till March: now hauing all your implements and necessaryes about you, fit for the Grafting, you shall first take your grafts, of what sort soeuer they be, and hauing cut the neather ends of them round and smoth without raysing of the barke, you shall then with a sharp knife, made in the proportion of a great pen-knife slice downe each side of the grafts, from the seame or knot which parts the olde woode from the new, euen to the neather end, making it flat and thinne, cheifely in the lowest part, hauing onely a regardfull eye vnto the pith of the graft, which you may by no meanes cut or touch, and when you haue thus trimmed a couple of grafts, for moe I doe by no meanes alow vnto one stocke, although sundry other skilfull workmen in this Art alow to the least stocke two grafts, to the indifferent great three, and to the greatest of all foure, yet I affirme two are sufficiently inough for any stocke whatsoeuer, and albeit they are a little the longer in couering the head, yet after they haue couered it the tree prospereth more in one yeere then that which contayneth foure grafts shall doe in two, because they cannot haue sap inough to maintaine them, which is the reason that trees for want of prosperitie grow crooked and deformed: but to my purpose. When you haue made your grafts ready, you shall then take a fine thinne sawe, whose teeth shalbe filed sharpe and euen, and with it (if the stocke be exceeding small) cut the stocke round off within lesse then a foote of the ground, but if the stocke be as bigge as a mans arme, then you may cut it off two or three foote from the ground, and so consequently the bigger it is the higher you may cut it, and the lesser the nearer vnto the earth: as soone as you haue sawne off the vpper part of the stocke, you shall then take a fine sharpe chissell, somewhat broader then the stocke, and setting it euen vpon the midst of the head of the stocke somewhat wide of the pith, then with a mallet of woode you shall stricke it in and cleaue the stocke, at least foure inches deepe, then putting in a fine little wedge of Iron, which may keepe open the cleft, you shall take one of your grafts and looke which side of it you intend to place inward, and that side you shall cut much thinner then the out side, with a most heedfull circumspection that by no meanes you loosen or rayse vp the barke of the graft, cheifly on the out side, then you shall take the graft, and wetting it in your mouth place it in one side of the cleft of the stocke, and regard that the very knot or seame which goes about the graft, parting the olde woode from the new, do rest directly vpon the head of the stocke, and that the out side of the graft doe agree directly with the out side of the stocke, ioyning barke vnto barke, and sappe vnto sappe, so euen, so smooth, and so close, that no ioyners worke may be discerned to ioyne more arteficially: which done, vpon the other side of the stocke, in the other cleft, you shall place your other graft, with full as much care, diligence, and euery other obseruation: when both your grafts are thus orderly and arteficially placed, you shall then by setting the haft of your chissell against the stocke, with all lenitie and gentlenesse, draw forth your wedge, in such sort that you doe not displace or alter your grafts, and when your wedge is forth you shall then looke vpon your grafts, and if you perceiue that the stocke doe pinch or squize them, which you may discerne both by the straitnesse and bending of the outmost barke, you shall then make a little wedge of some greene sappy woode, and driuing it into the cleft, ease your grafts, cutting that wedge close to the stocke. When you haue thus made both your grafts perfect, you shall then take the barke of either Apple-tree, Crab-tree or Willow-tree, and with that barke couer the head of the stocke so close that no wet or other annoyance may get betwixt it and the stocke, then you shall take a conuenient quantitie of clay, which indeede would be of a binding mingled earth, and tempering it well, either with mosse or hay, lay it vpon the barke, and daube all the head of the stocke, euen as low as the bottome of the grafts, more then an inch thicke, so firme, close, and smooth as may be, which done, couer all that clay ouer with soft mosse, and that mosse with some ragges of wollen cloath, which being gently bound about with the inward barkes of Willow, or Osyar, let the graft rest to the pleasure of the highest: and this is called grafting in the cleft.

{SN: Notes.} Now there be certaine obseruations or caueats to be respected in grafting, which I may not neglect: as first, in trimming and preparing your grafts for the stocke: if the grafts be either of Cherry, or Plumbe, you shall not cut them so thinne as the grafts of Apples, Quinces, or Medlars, because they haue a much larger and rounder pith, which by no meanes must be toucht but fortefied and preserued, onely to the neather end you may cut them as thinne as is possible, the pith onely preserued.

Secondly, you shall into your greatest stockes put your greatest grafts, and into your least, the least, that there may be an equall strength and conformitie in their coniunction.

Thirdly, if at any time you be inforced to graft vpon an olde tree, that is great and large, then you shall not graft into the body of that tree, because it is impossible to keepe it from putrifaction and rotting before the grafts can couer the head, but you shall chuse out some of the principall armes or branches, which are much more slender, and graft them, as is before shewed, omitting not dayly to cut away all cyons, armes, branches, or superfluous sprigs which shall grow vnder those branches which you haue newly grafted: but if there be no branch, small or tender inough to graft in, then you shall cut away all the maine branches from the stocke, and couering the head with clay and mosse, let it rest, and within three or foure yeeres it will put forth new cyons, which will be fit to graft vpon.

Fourthly, if when you either sawe off the top of your stocke, or else cleaue the head, you either raise vp the barke or cleaue the stocke too deepe, you shall then sawe the stocke againe, with a little more carefulnesse, so much lower as your first errour had committed a fault.

Fiftly, you shall from time to time looke to the binding of the heads of your stockes, in so much that if either the clay doe shrinke away or the other couerings doe losen, by which defects ayre, or wet, may get into the incission, you shall presently with all speede amend and repaire it.

Lastly, if you graft in any open place where cattell doe graze, you shall not then forget as soone as you haue finisht your worke to bush or hedge in your graft, that it may be defended from any such negligent annoyance. And thus much for this ordinary manner of grafting, which although it be generall and publike to most men that knoweth any thing in this art, yet is it not inferiour, but the principallest and surest of all other.


Of diuers other wayes of grafting, their vses and purposes.

Although for certainty, vse, and commodity, the manner of grafting already prescribed is of sufficiency inough to satisfie any constant or reasonable vnderstanding, yet for nouelty sake, to which our nation is infinitly addicted, and to satisfie the curious, who thinke their iudgements disparaged if they heare any authorised traueller talke of the things which they haue not practised, I will proceede to some other more quaint manners of grafting, and the rather because they are not altogether vnnecessary, hauing both certainety in the worke, pleasure in the vse, and benefit in the serious imploying of those howers which else might challenge the title of idlenesse, besides they are very well agreeing with the soyles and fruits of this Empyre of great Brittaine and the vnderstandings of the people, for whose seruice or benefit, I onely vndergoe my trauell.

You shall vnderstand therefore, that there is another way to graft, which is called grafting betweene the barke and tree, and it is to be put in vse about the latter end of February, at such time as the sappe beginnes to enter into the trees: and the stockes most fit for this manner of grafting are those which are oldest and greatest, whose graine being rough and vneuen, either through shaking or twinding, it is a thing almost impossible to make it cleaue in any good fashion, so that in such a case it is meete that the grafter exercise this way of grafting betwixt the barke and the tree, the manner whereof is thus.

{SN: Grafting betweene the barke.} First, you shall dresse your grafts in such sort as was before discribed when you grafted in the cleft, onely they shall not be so long from the knot or seame downeward by an inch or more, neither so thicke, but as thinne as may be, the pith onely preserued, and at the neather end of all you shall cut away the barke on both sides, making that end smaller and narrower then it is at the ioynt or seame, then sawing off the head of the stocke, you shall with a sharpe knife pare the head round about, smooth and plaine, making the barke so euen as may be, that the barke of your grafts and it may ioyne like one body, then take a fine narrow chissell, not exceeding sharpe, but somewhat rebated, and thrust it hard downe betwixt the barke and the tree, somewhat more then two inches, according to the iust length of your graft, and then gently thrust the graft downe into the same place, euen close vnto the ioynt, hauing great care that the ioynt rest firme and constant vpon the head of the stocke, and thus you shall put into one stocke not aboue three grafts at the most, how euer either other mens practise, or your owne reading doe perswade you to the contrary. After your grafts are fixt and placed, you shall then couer the head with barke, clay, and mosse, as hath beene formerly shewed: also you shall fasten about it some bushes of thorne, or sharpe whinnes, which may defend and keepe it from the annoyance of Pye-annats, and such like great birds.

There is another way of grafting, which is called grafting in the scutchion, which howsoeuer it is esteemed, yet is it troublesome, incertaine, and to small purpose: the season for it is in summer, from May till August, at what time trees are fullest of sappe and fullest of leaues, and the manner is thus: take the highest and the principallest branches of the toppe of the tree you would haue grafted, and without cutting it from the olde woode chuse the best eye and budding place of the cyon, then take another such like eye or budde, being great and full, and first cut off the leafe hard by the budde, then hollow it with your knife the length of a quarter of an inch beneath the budde, round about the barke, close to the sappe, both aboue and below, then slit it downe twice so much wide of the budde, and then with a small sharpe chissell raise vp the scutchion, with not onely the budde in the midst but euen all the sappe likewise, wherein you shall first raise that side which is next you, and then taking the scutchion betweene your fingars, raise it gently vp without breaking or brusing, and in taking it off hould it hard vnto the woode, to the end the sappe of the budde may abide in the scutchion, for if it depart from the barke and cleaue to the woode, your labour is lost, this done you shall take another like cyon, and hauing taken off the barke from it, place it in the others place, and in taking off this barke you must be carfull that you cut not the woode, but the barke onely, and this done you shall couer it all ouer with redde waxe, or some such glutenous matter; as for the binding of it with hempe and such trumpery it is vtterly dissalowed of all good grafters: this manner of grafting may be put in practise vpon all manner of cyons, from the bignesse of a mans little fingar to the bignesse of a slender arme.

{SN: Grafting with the Leafe.} Not much vnlike vnto this, is the grafting with the Leafe, and of like worth, the art whereof is thus: any time betwixt midst May, vntill the midst of September, you shall chuse, from the toppe of the sunne-side of the tree, the most principall young cyon you can see, whose barke is smoothest, whose leaues are greatest, and whose sappe is fullest, then cutting it from the tree note the principall leafe thereof, and cut away from it all the woode more then about an inch of each side of the leafe, then cutting away the vndermost part of the barke with your knife, take peece meale from the barke all the woode and sappe, saue onely that little part of woode and sappe which feedeth the leafe, which in any wise must be left behind, so that the graft will carry this figure.


Then goe to the body, arme, or branch of that tree which you intend to graft, which is to be presupposed must euer haue a smooth and tender barke, and with a very sharpe knife slit the barke, two slits at least, two inches long a peece, and about halfe an inch or more distance betweene the two slits: then make another slit crosse-wise ouerthwart, from long slit to long slit, the figure whereof will be thus:


Then with your knife raise the barke gently from the tree, without breaking, cracking, or brusing: then take your graft, and putting it vnder the barke lay it flat vnto the sappe of the tree, so as that little sappe which is left in the leafe, may without impediment cleaue to the sappe of the tree, then lay downe the barke close againe and couer the graft, and with a little vntwound hempe, or a soft wollen list, binde downe the barke close to the graft, and then couer all the incisions you haue made with greene waxe: by this manner of grafting you may haue vpon one tree sundry fruits, as from one Apple-tree, both Pippins, Peare-maines, Russettings and such like, nay, you may haue vpon one tree, ripe fruit all summer long, as Ienettings from one branch, Cislings from another, Wibourns from another, Costards and Queene-Apples from others, and Pippens and Russettings, from others, which bringeth both delight to the eye, and admiration to the sence, and yet I would not haue you imagine that this kinde of grafting doth onely worke this effect, for as before I shewed you, if you graft in the cleft (which is the fastest way of all grafting) sundry fruits vpon sundry armes or bowes, you shall likewise haue proceeding from them sundry sorts of fruits, as either Apples, Plumbes, Peares or any other kind, according to your composition and industry; as at this day we may dayly see in many great mens Orchards.

{SN: Grafting on the toppes of trees.} There is yet another manner of grafting, and it is of all other especially vsed much in Italy, and yet not any thing disagreeable with our climate, and that is to graft on the small cyons which are on the toppes of fruit trees, surely an experience that carryeth in it both dificulty and wonder, yet being put to approbation is no lesse certaine then any of the other, the manner whereof is thus: you shall first after you haue chosen such and so many grafts as you doe intend to graft, and trimd them in the same manner as you haue beene taught formerly for grafting within the cleft, you shall then mount vp into the toppe of the tree, vpon which you meane to graft, and there make choise of the highest and most principallest cyons (being cleane barkt and round) that you can perceiue to grow from the tree, then laying the graft, and the cyon vpon which you are to graft, together, see that they be both of one bignesse and roundnesse: then with your grafting knife cut the cyon off betweene the olde woode and the new, and cleaue it downe an inch and an halfe, or two inches at the most: then put in your graft (which graft must not be cut thinner on one side, then on the other, but all of one thicknesse) and when it is in, see that the barke of the graft both aboue and below, that is, vpon both sides, doe ioyne close, euen, and firme with the barke of the branch or cyon, and then by foulding a little soft towe about it, keepe them close together, whilst with clay, mosse, and the in-most barke of Osyars you lappe them about to defend them from ayre, winde, and tempests. And herein you shall obserue to make your graft as short as may be, for the shortest are best, as the graft which hath not aboue two or three knots, or buddes, and no more. You may, if you please, with this manner of grafting graft vpon euery seuerall cyon, a seuerall fruit, and so haue from one tree many fruits, as in case of grafting with the leafe, and that with much more speede, by as much as a well-growne graft is more forward and able then a weake tender leafe. And in these seuerall wayes already declared, consisteth the whole Art and substance of Grafting: from whence albeit many curious braines may, from preuaricating trickes, beget showes of other fashions, yet when true iudgement shall looke vpon their workes, he shall euer finde some one of these experiments the ground and substance of all their labours, without which they are able to doe nothing that shall turne to an assured commoditie.

{SN: The effects of Grafting.} Now when you haue made your selfe perfect in the sowing, setting, planting and grafting of trees, you shall then learne to know the effects, wonders, and strange issues which doe proceede from many quaint motions and helpes in grafting, as thus: if you will haue Peaches, Cherryes, Apples, Quinces, Medlars, Damsons, or any Plumbe whatsoeuer, to ripen earely, as at the least two months before the ordinary time, and to continue at least a month longer then the accustomed course, you shall then graft them vpon a Mulberry stocke: and if you will haue the fruit to tast like spice, with a certaine delicate perfume, you shall boyle Honey, the powder of Cloues and Soaxe together, and being cold annoynt the grafts there-with before you put them into the cleft, if you graft Apples, Peares, or any fruit vpon a Figge-tree stocke, they will beare fruit without blooming: if you take an Apple graft, & a Peare graft, of like bignesse, and hauing clouen them, ioyne them as one body in grafting, the fruit they bring forth will be halfe Apple and halfe Peare, and so likewise of all other fruits which are of contrary tastes and natures: if you graft any fruit-tree, or other tree, vpon the Holly or vpon the Cypresse, they will be greene, and keepe their leaues the whole yeere, albeit the winter be neuer so bitter.

If you graft either Peach, Plumbe, or any stone-fruit vpon a Willow stocke, the fruit which commeth of them will be without stones.

If you will change the colour of any fruit, you shall boare a hole slope-wise with a large auger into the body of the tree, euen vnto the pith, and then if you will haue the fruit yealow you shal fill the hole with Saferne dissolued in water: if you will haue it redde, then with Saunders, and of any other colour you please, and then stoppe the hole vp close, and couer it with red or yealow waxe: also if you mixe the coulour with any spice or perfume, the fruit will take a rellish or tast of the same: many other such like conceits and experiments are practised amongst men of this Art, but sith they more concerne the curious, then the wise, I am not so carefull to bestow my labour in giuing more substantiall satisfaction, knowing curiosity loues that best which proceedes from their most paine, and am content to referre their knowledge to the searching of those bookes which haue onely strangnesse for their subiect, resolued that this I haue written is fully sufficient for the plaine English husbandman.


Of the replanting of Trees, and furnishing the Orchard.

As soone as your seedes, or sets, haue brought forth plants, those plants, through time, made able, and haue receiued grafts, and those grafts haue couered the heads of the stockes and put forth goodly branches, you shall then take them vp, and replant them, (because the sooner it is done the better it is done) in those seuerall places of your Orchard which before is appointed, and is intended to be prepared, both by dungging, digging, and euery orderly labour, to receiue euery seuerall fruit. And herein you shall vnderstand, that as the best times for grafting are euery month (except October and Nouember) and at the change of the moone, so the best times for replanting, are Nouember and March onely, vnlesse the ground be cold and moist and then Ianuary, or February must be the soonest all wayes, excepted that you doe not replant in the time of frost, for that is most vnholsome.

{SN: The taking vp of trees.} Now when you will take vp your trees which you intend to replant in your Orchard, you shall first with a spade bare all the maine branches of the roote, and so by degrees digge and loosen the earth from the roote, in such sort that you may with your owne strength raise the young tree from the ground, which done, you shall not, according to the fashion of Fraunce, dismember, or disroabe the tree of his beauties, that is to say, to cut off all his vpper branches and armes, but you shall diligently preserue them: for I haue seene a tree thus replanted after the fall of the leafe to bring forth fruit in the summer following: but if the tree you replant be olde then it is good to cut off the maine branches with in a foote of the stocke, least the sappe running vpward, and so forsaking the roote too sodainely doe kill the whole tree.

When you haue taken your tree vp, you shall obserue how, and in what manner, it stoode, that is, which side was vpon the South and receiued most comfort from the sunne, and which side was from it and receiued most shadow and bleaknesse, and in the same sort as it then stoode, so shall you replant it againe: this done you shall with a sharpe cutting-knife, cut off all the maine rootes, within halfe a foote of the tree, onely the small thriddes or twist-rootes you shall not cut at all: then bringing the plant into your Orchard, you shall make a round hole in that place where you intend to set your tree (the rankes, manner, distance and forme whereof hath beene all ready declared, in the first Chapter:) and this hole shalbe at least foure foote ouerthwart euery way, and at least two foote deepe, then shall you fill vp the hole againe, fifteene inches deepe, with the finest blacke mould, tempered with Oxe dunge that you can get, so that then the hole shalbe but nine inches deepe, then you shall take your tree and place it vpon that earth, hauing care to open euery seuerall branch and thrid of the roote, & so to place them that they may all looke downe into the earth, and not any of them to looke backe and turne vpward: then shall you take of the earth from whence your tree was taken, and tempering it with a fourth part of Oxe dunge and slekt sope-asshes (for the killing of wormes) couer all the roote of your tree firmely and strongly: then with greene soddes, cut and ioyned arteficially together, so sodde the place that the hole may hardly be discerned. Lastly take a strong stake, and driuing it hard into the ground neare vnto the new planted tree, with either a soft hay rope, the broad barke of Willow, or some such like vnfretting band, tye the tree to the stake, and it will defend it from the rage of winde and tempests, which should they but shake or trouble the roote, being new planted, it were inough to confound and spoyle the tree for euer.

Now, although I haue vnder the title and demonstration of replanting one tree giuen you a generall instruction for the replanting of all trees whatsoeuer, yet, for as much as some are not of that strength and hardnesse to indure so much as some others will, therefore you shal take these considerations by the way, to fortefie your knowledge with.

First, you shall vnderstand that all your dainty and tender grafted Plumbes, and fruits, as Abricots, Peaches, Damaske-Plumbes, Verdochyos, Pescods, Emperialls, and diuers such like, together with Orrenges, Cytrons, Almonds, Oliues, and others, which indeede are not familiar with our soyles, as being nearer neighbours to the sunne, doe delight in a warme, fat, earth, being somewhat sandy, or such a clay whose coldnesse by Manure is corrected, and therefore here with vs in the replanting of them you cannot bestow too much cost vpon the mould: as for the Damson, and all our naturall english Plumbes, they loue a fat, cold, earth, so that in the replanting of them if you shall lay too much dunge vnto their roote, you shall through the aboundant heate, doe great hurt vnto the tree. The cherry delighteth in any clay, so that vpon such soyle you may vse lesse Manure, but vpon the contrary you cannot lay too much. The Medlar esteemeth all earths alike, and therefore whether it be Manured or no it skilles not, sunne and shadow, wet and drinesse, being all of one force or efficacy. The Peare and Apple-tree delights in a strong mixt soyle, and therfore indureth Manure kindly, so doth also the Quince and Warden: lastly the Filbert, the Hasell, and the Chesnut, loue cold, leane, moist, and sandy earths, in so much that there is no greater enimy vnto them then a rich soyle: so that in replanting of them you must euer seeke rather to correct then increase fertillity.

You shall also vnderstand that all such fruit-trees as you doe plant against the walles of your Orchard (of which I haue spoken already & deciphered out their places) you shall not suffer to grow as of themselues, round, and from the wall, but at the times of pruning and dressing of them (which is euer at the beginning of the spring and immediately after the fall) you shall as it were plash them, and spread them against the wall, foulding the armes in loopes of leather, and nayling them vnto the wall: and to that end you shall place them of such a fit distance one from another, that they may at pleasure spread and mount, without interruption: the profit whereof is at this day seene almost in euery great mans Orchard: and although I haue but onely appointed vnto the wall the most quaint fruits of forraine nations; yet there is no fruit of our owne, but if it be so ordered it will prosper and bring forth his fruit better and in greater abundance. And thus much for the replanting of trees and furnishing of a well proportioned Orchard.


Of the Dressing, Dungging, Proyning, and Preseruing of Trees.

Sith after all the labour spent of ingendring by seede, of fortefying and inabling by planting, and of multiplying by grafting it is to little or no purpose if the trees be not maintained and preserued by dressing, dungging and proyning, I will therefore in this place shew you what belongs to that office or duty, and first, for the dressing of trees: you shall vnderstand that it containeth all whatsoeuer is meete for the good estate of the tree, as first, after your tree is planted, or replanted, if the season shall fall out hot, dry, and parching, insomuch that the moisture of the earth is sucked out by the atraction of the Sunne, and so the tree wanteth the nutriment of moisture, in this case you shall not omit euery morning before the rising of the sunne, and euery euening after the set of the sunne, with a great watring-pot filled with water, to water & bath the rootes of the trees, if they be young trees, and newly planted, or replanted, but not otherwise: for if the trees be olde, and of long growth, then you shall saue that labour, and onely to such olde trees you shall about the midst of Nouember, with a spade, digge away the earth from the vpper part of the rootes and lay them bare vntill it be midde-March, and then mingling such earth as is most agreeable with the fruit and Oxe-dunge and sope-ashes together, so couer them againe, and tread the earth close about them: as for the vncouering of your trees in summer I doe not hold it good, because the reflection of the sunne is somewhat too violent and dryeth the roote, from whence at that time the sappe naturally is gone: you shall also euery spring and fall of the leafe clense your fruit trees from mosse, which proceeding from a cold and cankerous moisture, breedeth dislike, and barrainenesse in trees: this mosse you must take off with the backe of an olde knife and leaue the barke smooth, plaine, and vnraced: also if you shall dunge such trees with the dunge of Swine, it is a ready way to destroy the mosse.

{SN: Proyning of Trees.} After you haue drest and trimmed your trees, you shall then proyne them, which is to cut away all those superfluous branches, armes, or cyons, which being either barraine, bruised or misplaced, doe like drones, steale-away that nutriment which should maintaine the better deseruing sinewes, and you shall vnderstand that the best time for proyning of trees, is in March and Aprill, at which time the sappe assending vpward, causeth the trees to budde: the branches you shall cut away are all such as shall grow out of the stocke vnderneath the place grafted, or all such as by the shaking of tempests shall grow in a disorderly and ill fashioned crookednesse, or any other, that out of a well tempered iudgement shall seeme superfluous and burdensome to the stocke from whence it springs, also such as haue by disorder beene brooken, or maimed, and all these you shall cut away with a hooke knife, close by the tree, vnlesse you haue occasion by some misfortune to cut away some of the maine and great armes of the tree, and then you shall not vse your knife for feare of tearing the barke, but taking your sawe you shall sawe off those great armes close by the tree, neither shall you sawe them off downeward but vpward, least the waight of the arme breake the barke from the body: And herein you shall also vnderstand that for as much as the mischances which beget these dismembrings doe happen at the latter end of Summer, in the gathering of the fruit, and that it is not fit such maymed and broken boughes hang vpon the tree till the Spring, therefore you shall cut them off in the Winter time, but not close to the tree by almost a foote, and so letting them rest vntill the spring, at that time cut them off close by the tree. Now if you finde the superfluitie of branches which annoy your trees to be onely small cyons, springing from the rootes of the trees, as it often hapneth with all sorts of Plumbe-trees, Cherry-trees, Nut-trees, and such like, then you shall in the winter, bare the rootes of those trees, and cut off those cyons close by the roote: but if your trees be broused or eaten by tame-Deare, Goates, Sheepe, Kine, Oxen, or such like, then there is no help for such a misfortune but onely to cut off the whole head and graft the stocke anew.

{SN: Of Barke-bound.} Next to the proyning of trees, is the preseruing, phisicking, and curing of the diseases of trees: to which they are subiect as well as our naturall bodyes: and first of all, there is a disease called Barke-bound, which is when the barke, through a mislike and leperous drynesse, bindeth in the tree with such straitnesse that the sappe being denied passage the body growes into a consumption: it is in nature like vnto that disease which in beasts is called hide-bound, and the cure is thus: at the beginning of March take a sharpe knife, and from the toppe of the body of the tree, to the very roote, draw downe certaine slits, or incissions, cleane through the barke, vnto the very sappe of the tree, round about the tree, & then with the backe of your knife open those slits and annoint them all through with Tarre, and in short space it will giue libertie vnto the tree to encrease & grow: this disease commeth by the rubbing of cattell against the tree, especially Swine, who are very poyson vnto all plants.

{SN: Of the Gall.} There is another disease in fruit-trees, called the Gall, and it eateth and consumeth the barke quit away, and so in time kills the tree: the cure is to cut and open the barke which you see infected, and with a chissell to take away all that is foule and putrefied, and then to clappe Oxe dunge vpon the place, and it will helpe it, and this must be done euer in winter.

{SN: Of the Canker.} The Canker in fruit trees is the consumption both of the barke and the body, & it commeth either by the dropping of trees one vpon another, or else when some hollow places of the tree retaineth raine water in them, which fretting through the barke, poysoneth the tree: the cure is to cut away all such boughes as by dropping breede the euill, and if the hollow places cannot be smooth and made euen, then to stoppe them with clay, waxe, and sope-ashes mixt together.

{SN: Of worme-eaten barkes.} If the barkes of your trees be eaten with wormes, which you shall perceiue by the swelling of the barke, you shall then open the barke and lay there-vpon swines dunge, sage, and lime beaten together, and bound with a cloath fast to the tree, and it will cure it: or wash the tree with cowes-pisse and vinegar and it will helpe it.

{SN: Of Pismiers and Snailes.} If your young trees be troubled with Pismiers, or Snailes, which are very noysome vnto them, you shall take vnsleckt lime and sope-ashes and mingling them with wine-lees, spread it all about the roote of the trees so infected, and annoint the body of the tree likewise therewith, and it will not onely destroy them but giue comfort to the tree: the soote of a chimney or Oake sawe-dust spread about the roote will doe the same.

{SN: Of Caterpillers, and Earewigges.} If Caterpillers doe annoy your young trees, who are great deuourers of the leaues and young buddes, and spoylers of the barke, you shall, if it be in the summer time, make a very strong brine of water and salt, and either with a garden pumpe, placed in a tubbe, or with squirts which haue many hoales you shall euery second day water and wash your trees, and it will destroy them, because the Caterpiller naturally cannot indure moisture, but if neuerthelesse you see they doe continue still vpon your trees in Winter, then you shall when the leaues are falne away take dankish straw and setting it on fire smeare and burne them from the tree, and you shall hardly euer be troubled with them againe vpon the same trees: roules of hay layd on the trees will gather vp Earewigges and kill them.

{SN: Of the barrainenesse of Trees.} If your trees be barraine, and albeit they flourish and spread there leaues brauely, yet bring forth no fruit at all, it is a great sicknesse, and the worst of all other: therefore you shall vnderstand it proceedeth of two causes: first, of two much fertillitie, and fatnesse of the ground, which causeth the leafe to put forth and flourish in such vnnaturall abundance, that all such sappe and nutriment as should knit and bring forth fruit, turnes onely vnto leafe, cyons, and vnprofitable branches, which you shall perceiue both by the abundance of the leaues and by the colour also, which will be of a more blacker and deeper greene, and of much larger proportion then those which haue but their naturall and proper rights: and the cure thereof is to take away the earth from the roote of such trees and fill vp the place againe with other earth, which is of a much leaner substance: but if your tree haue no such infirmitie of fatnesse, but beareth his leaues and branches in good order and of right colour and yet notwithstanding is barraine and bringeth forth little or no fruit, then that disease springeth from some naturall defect in the tree, and the cure thereof is thus: first, you shall vnbare the roote of the tree, and then noting which is the greatest and principallest branch of all the roote, you shall with a great wimble boare a hole into that roote and then driue a pinne of olde dry Ashe into the same (for Oake is not altogether so good) and then cutting the pinne off close by the roote, couer all the head of the pinne with yealow waxe, and then lay the mould vpon the roote of the tree againe, and treade it hard and firmely downe, and there is no doubte but the tree will beare the yeere following: in Fraunce they vse for this infirmitie to boare a hoale in the body of the tree slope-wise, somewhat past the hart, and to fill vp the hoale with life honey and Rose-water mixt together, and incorporated for at least xxiiij. howers, and then to stoppe the hole with a pinne of the one woode: also if you wash the rootes of your trees in the drane water which runneth from your Barley when you steepe it for Malt, it will cure this disease of barrainenesse.

{SN: Of the bitternesse of Fruit.} If the fruit which is vpon your trees be of a bitter and sootie tast, to make it more pleasant and sweet you shall wash your tree all ouer with Swines dunge and water mixt together, & to the rootes of the trees you shall lay earth and Swines dunge mixt together, which must be done in the month of Ianuary and February onely, and it will make the fruit tast pleasantly. And thus much for the dressing and preseruing of trees.


Of the Vine, and of his ordering.

For as much as the nature, temperature, and clymate, of our soyle is not so truely proper and agreeing with the Vine as that of Fraunce, Italy, Spaine, and such like, and sith wee haue it more for delight, pleasure, and prospect, then for any peculyar profit, I will not vndertake Monsiuer Lybaults painefull labour, in discribing euery curious perfection or defect that belongs thereunto, as if it were the onely iewell and commoditie of our kingdome, but onely write so much as is fitting for our knowledge touching the maintaynance, increase, and preseruation thereof, in our Orchards, Gardens, and other places of recreation.

{SN: Of planting or setting the Vine.} First then to speake of the planting or setting of the Vine, your greatest diligence must be to seeke out the best plants, and if that which is most strange, rare, great and pleasant be the best, then is that grape which is called the Muskadine, or Sacke grape, the best, and haue their beginning either from Spaine, the Canary Ilands, or such like places: next to them is the French grape, of which there be many kindes, the best whereof is the grape of Orleance, the next the grape of Gascoynie, the next of Burdeaux, and the worst of Rochell, and not any of these but by industry will prosper in our English gardens: when therefore you chuse your plants, you shall chuse such of the young cyons as springing from the olde woode, you may in the cutting cut at least a ioynt or two of olde woode with the young: for the olde will take soonest, and this olde woode must be at least seauen or eight inches long, and the young cyon almost a yard, and the thicker and closer the ioynts of the young cyon are, so much the better they are: and the fit time for cutting and gathering these sets are in midde-Ianuary, then hauing prepared, digged, and dunged your earth the winter before, you shall at the latter end of Ianuary take two of these sets, or plants, placing them according to this figure:


And lay them in the earth slope-wise, at least a foote deepe, leauing out of the earth, vncouered, not aboue foure or fiue ioynts, at the most, and then couer them with good earth firmely, closely, and strongly, hauing regard to raise those cyons which are without the earth directly vpward, obseruing after they be set, once in a month to weede them, and keepe them as cleane as is possible: for nothing is more noysome vnto them then the suffocating of weeds: also you shall not suffer the mould to grow hard or bind about the rootes, but with a small spade once in a fortnight to loosen and breake the earth, because there rootes are so tender that the least straytning doth strangle and confound them. If the season doe grow dry, you may vse to water them, but not in such sort as you water other plants, which is to sprinckle water round about the earth of the rootes, but you shall with a round Iron made for the purpose somewhat bigger then a mans fingar, make certaine holes into the earth, close vpon the roote of the Vine, and powre therein either water, the dregges of strong-Ale, or the lees of Wine, or if you will you may mixe with the lees of Wine either Goats-milke, or Cowes-milke, and power it into the holes and it will nourish the Vine exceedingly, and not the Vine onely, but all sorts of dainty grafted Plumbes, especially Peaches.

{SN: Of proyning the Vine.} Now for proyning the Vine, you shall vnderstand that it is euer to be done after the fall of the leafe, when the sappe is desended downeward, for if you shall proyne, or cut him, either in the spring, or when the sappe is aloft, it will bleede so exceedingly, that with great difficulty you shall saue the body of the tree from dying: and, in proyning of the Vine you shall obserue two things, the first, that you cut away all superfluous cyons and branches, both aboue and below, which either grow disorderly aboue, or fruitlessely below, and in cutting them you shall obserue, neither to cut the olde woode with the young cyon, nor to leaue aboue one head or leader vpon one branch: secondly, you shall in proyning, plash and spread the VINE thinnely against the wall, giuing euery seuerall branch and cyon his place, and passage, and not suffer it to grow loosely, rudely, or like a wilde thorne, out of all decency and proportion: for you must vnderstand that your Grapes doe grow euer vpon the youngest cyons, and if of them you shall preserue too many, questionlesse for want of nourishment they will lose their vertue, and you your profit. Now if your Vine be a very olde Vine, and that his fruit doth decay, either in quantitie or proportion; if then you finde he haue any young cyons which spring from his roote, then when you proyne him you shall cut away all the olde stocke, within lesse then an handfull of the young cyons, and make them the leaders, who will prosper and continue in perfection a long time after, especially if you trimme the rootes with fresh earth, and fresh dunge. Againe, if you be carefull to looke vnto your Vine, you shall perceiue close by euery bunch of grapes certaine small thridde-like cyons, which resemble twound wyars, curling and turning in many rings, these also take from the grapes very much nutriment, so that it shall be a labour very well imployd to cut them away as you perceiue them.

{SN: Experiments of the Vine.} Now from the Vine there is gathered sundry experiments, as to haue it tast more pleasant then the true nature of the grape, and to smell in the mouth odoriferously, or as if it were perfumed, which may be done in this sort: Take damaske-Rose-water and boyle therein the powder of Cloaues, Cynamon, three graines of Amber, and one of Muske, and when it is come to be somewhat thicke, take a round goudge and make a hole in the maine stocke of the Vine, full as deepe as the hart thereof, and then put therein this medicine, then stopping the hole with Cypresse, or Iuniper, lay greene-waxe thereupon, and binde a linnen cloath about it, and the next grapes which shall spring from that Vine will tast as if they were preserued or perfumed.

If you will haue grapes without stones, you shall take your plants and plant the small ends downeward and be assured your desire is attained.

The Vine naturally of himselfe doth not bring forth fruit till it haue beene three yeeres planted: but if euening and morning for the first month you will bath his roote with Goats-milke or Cowes-milke, it will beare fruit the first yeere of his planting. Lastly, you may if you please graft one Vine vpon another, as the sweet vpon the sower, as the Muskadine grape, or greeke, vpon the Rochell or Burdeaux, the Spanish, or Iland grape, on the Gascoyne, and the Orleance vpon any at all: and these compositions are the best, and bring forth both the greatest and pleasantest grapes: therefore whensoeuer you will graft one grape vpon another, you shall doe it in the beginning of Ianuary, in this sort: first, after you haue chosen and trimmed your grafts, which in all sorts must be like the grafts of other fruits, then with a sharpe knife, you shall cleaue the head of the Vine, as you doe other stockes and then put in your graft, or cyon, being made as thinne as may be and see that the barkes and sappes ioyne euen and close together, then clay it, mosse it, and couer it, as hath beene before declared.

{SN: The medicining of the Vine.} If your Vine grow too ranke and thicke of leaues, so that the sappe doth wast it selfe in them, and you thereby lose the profit of the fruit, you shall then bare all the rootes of the Vine, and cast away the earth, filling vp the place againe with sand & ashes mingled together: but if the Vine be naturally of it selfe barraine, then with a goudge you shall make a hole halfe way through the maine body of the Vine, and driue into the hole a round pible stone, which although it goe straitly in, yet it may not fill vp the hole, but that the sicke humour of the Vine may passe thorrow thereat: then couer the roote with rich earth, and Oxe dunge mixt together, and once a day for a month water it with olde pisse, or vrine of a man, and it will make the tree fruitfull: if the Vine be troubled with Wormes, Snailes, Ants, Earewigges, or such like, you shall morning and euening sprinckle it ouer with cowes-pisse and vinegar mixt together & it will helpe it: & thus much for ordering the Vine.


The office of the Fruiterrer, or the Gatherer, and keeper, of Fruit.

After you haue planted euery seuerall quarter, allye, and border within your Orchard, with euery seuerall fruit proper vnto his place, and that you haue placed them in that orderly and comely equipage which may giue most delight to the eye, profit to the tree, and commendations to the workeman, (according to the forme and order prescribed in the first Chapter) and that now the blessing of the highest, time, and your indeuours hath brought forth the haruest and recompence of your trauell, so that you behould the long-expected fruit hang vpon the trees, as it were in their ripenesse, wooing you to plucke, tast, and to deliuer them from the wombes of their parents, it is necessary then that you learne the true office of the Fruiterer, who is in due season and time to gather those fruits which God hath sent him: for as in the husbanding of our grayne if the Husbandman be neuer so carefull, or skilfull, in ploughing, dungging, sowing, weeding and preseruing his crop, yet in the time of haruest be negligent, neither regarding the strength or ripnesse thereof, or in the leading and mowing respects not whether it be wet or dry, doth in that moments space loose the wages of his whole yeeres trauell, getting but durt from durt, and losse from his negligence: so in like case houlds it with all other fruits, if a man with neuer so great care and cost procure, yet if he be inrespectiue in the gathering, all his former businesse is vaine and to no purpose; and therefore I hould nothing more necessary then the relation of this office of the Fruiterer, which is the consummation and onely hope of our cost, and diligence, teaching vs to gather wisely what wee haue planted wearily, and to eate with contentment what we haue preserued with care.

{SN: Of gathering and preseruing Cherries.} Know then, that of all fruits (for the most part) the Cherry is the soonest ripe, as being one of the oldest children of the summer, and therefore first of all to be spoken of in this place, yet are not all Cherries ripe at one instant, but some sooner then other some, according to the benefit of the Sunne, the warmth of the ayre, and the strength of sappe in the branch on which the Cherry hangeth: they are a fruit tender and pleasant, and therefore much subiect to be deuoured and consumed with Byrds of the smallest kindes, as Sparrowes, Robins, Starlings, and such like, especially the Iay, and the Bull-finch, who deuoure them stones and all, euen so fast as they rypen: for preuention whereof; if you haue great abundance of Cherry trees, as maine holts that be either one or many akers in compasse, you shall then in diuers places of your holts, as well in the midst, as out-corners, cause to be errected vp certaine long poales of Fyrre, or other woode, which may mount somewhat aboue the toppes of the trees, and one the toppes of those poales you shall place certaine clappe-milles made of broken trenchers ioyned together like sayles, which being moued and carryed about with the smallest ayre, may haue vnderneath the sayles a certaine loose little board, against which euery sayle may clap and make a great noyse, which will afright and scare the Byrds from your trees: these milles you shall commonly see in Husbandmens yards placed on their stackes or houells of Corne, which doth preserue them from fowle and vermine: but for want of these clap-milles you must haue some boy or young fellow that must euery morning from the dawning of the day till the Sunne be more then an houre high, and euery euening from fiue of the clocke till nine, runne vp and downe your ground, whooping, showtying, and making of a great noyse, or now and then shooting of some Harquebush, or other Peece: but by no meanes to vse slings or throwing of stones, least by the miscarriage of his hand hee either beate downe the fruit or bruise the trees. In this sort hauing preserued your Cherries from destruction, you shall then know there ripenesse by their colours, for euer those which are most red, are most ripe, and when you see any that are ripe, you shall take a light ladder, made either of fyrre or sallow, and setting it carefully against the branches, so as you neither bruise them nor the fruit, you shall gather those you finde ripe, not taking the fruit from the stalke, but nipping the stalke and fruit both together from the tree: also you shall be carefull in gathering to handle or touch the Cherry so little as may be, but the stalke onely, especially if your hands be hot, or sweaty, for that will change the colour of your Cherries, and make them looke blacke: if there be any ripe Cherries which hang out of the reach of your hands, then you shall haue a fine small gathering hooke of woode, whose bout shall be made round, and smooth, for nipping the barke of the branches, and with it you shall gently pull vnto you those branches you cannot reach: you shall also haue a little round basket of almost a foote deepe, made with a siue bottome, hauing a handle thwarte the toppe, to which a small hooke being fastned, you shall with that hooke hang the basket by you on some conuenient cyon, and as you gather the Cherries, gently lay them downe into the same, and when you haue filled your basket you shall descend and empty it into larger great baskets made of the same fashion, with siue bottomes, and hauing vnderneath two broad lathes or splinters, at least three fingers broad a peece, within foure inches one of the other, and going both one way crosse ouerthwart the basket, that if either man or woman shall carry them vpon their heads, which is the best manner of cariage, then the splinters may defend the bottome of the basket from the head of the party, and keepe the Cherries from hurt or bruising, and if you haue occasion to carry your Cherries farre, and that the quantitie grow beyond the support of a man, then you shall packe them in hampers or panniers made with false bottoms like siues, and finely lyned on the out side with white straw, and so being closely trust on each side a Horses-backe, to carry them whether you please. You shall by no meanes suffer your Cherries to lye in any great or thicke heapes one vpon another, but vntill you sell them, or vse them, lay them as thinne as may be, because they are apt of themselues to sweat and catch heate, and that heate doth soone depriue them of the glory of their colour. When you gather any Cherries to preserue, you shall gather those which are the greatest, the ripest, you shall pull them from their stalkes one by one, and vse them at furthest within xxiiij. howers after the time they are gotten.

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