The Closet of Sir Kenelm Digby Knight Opened
by Kenelm Digby
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A certain and infallible method to boil new-laid Eggs to sup up, and yet that they have the white turned to milk, is thus: Break a very little hole, at the bigger end of the shell, and put it into the water, whiles it boileth. Let it remain boiling, whiles your Pulse beateth two hundred stroaks. Then take it out immediately, and you will find it of an exact temper: others put Eggs into boyling water just as you take it from the fire, and let them remain there, till the water be so cooled, that you may just put in your hand, and take out the Eggs.

Others put the Eggs into cold water, which they set upon the fire, and as soon as the water begins to boil, the Eggs are enough.


Take two pound of the broadest open Bran of the best Wheat, and put it to infuse in a Gallon of Water, during two or three days, that the water may soak into the pure flower, that sticks to the bran. Then boil it three or four walms, and presently take it from the fire, and strain it through some fine strainer. A milky substance will come out, which let stand to settle about half a day. Pour off the clear water, that swimmeth over the starch or flomery, that is in the bottom (which is very good for Pap, &c.) and boil it up to a gelly, as you do Harts-horn gelly or the like, and season it to your taste.


Boil the bones (well broken) and remaining flesh of the Venison, from whence the meat of the Pasty is cut, in the Liquor, wherein Capons and Veal, or Mutton have been boiled, so to make very strong broth of them. The bones must be broken, that you may have the Marrow of them in the Liquor; and they must stew a long time (covering the pot close:) that you may make the broth as strong as you can; and if you put some gravy of Mutton or Veal to it, it will be the better. When the Pasty is half baked, pour some of this broth into it, by the hole at the top; and the rest of it, when it is quite baked, and wanteth but standing in the oven to soak. Or put it all in at once, when the Pasty is sufficiently baked, and afterwards let it remain in the oven a good while soaking.

You may bake the bones (broken) with the broth and gravy, or for want thereof, with only water in an earthen pot close stopped, till you have all the substance in the Liquor; which you may pour into the Pasty an hour before it is baked enough.

If you are in a Park, you may soak the Venison a night in the blood of the Deer; and cover the flesh with it, clotted together when you put it in paste. Mutton blood also upon Venison, is very good. You may season your blood a little with Pepper and Salt.


After you have boned it, and cut away all the sinews, then season it with Pepper and Salt pretty high, and divide a Stag into four pots; then put about a pound of Butter upon the top of each pot, and cover it with Rye-past pretty thick. Your oven must be so hot, that after a whole night it maybe baked very tender, which is a great help to the keeping of it. And when you draw it, drain all the Liquor from it, and turn your pot upon a pie plate, with the bottom upwards, and so let it stand, until it is cold; Then wipe your pot, that no gravy remain therein, and then put your Venison into the same pot again; then have your Butter very well clarified, that there be no dross remaining; Then fill up your pot about two Inches above the meat with Butter, or else it will mould. And so the next day binde it up very close, with a piece of sheeps Leather so that no air can get in. After which you may keep it as long as you please.

Master Adrian May put's up His Venison in pots, to keep long, thus: Immediately as soon as He hath killed it, he seasoneth and baketh it as soon as He can, so that the flesh may never be cold. And this maketh that the fat runneth in among the lean, and is like calvered Salmon, and eats much more mellow and tender. But before the Deer be killed, he ought to be hunted and chafed as much as may be. Then seasoned and put in the oven before it be cold. Be sure to pour out all the gravy, that settleth to the bottom, under the flesh after the baking, before you put the Butter to it, that is to lie very thick upon the meat, to keep it all the year.


It must be a very large oven, that so it may contract the stronger heat, and keep it the longer. It must be at least eight hours heating with wood, that it be as hot as is possible. If the Brawn be young, it will suffice eight hours or a little more in the oven. But if old, it must be ten or eleven. Put but two Collars into each pot, for bigger are unwieldy. Into every pot, put twelve corns of whole Pepper, four Cloves, a great Onion peeled and quartered, and two bay-leaves, before you put them into the oven. Before they are set in, you do not fill them with water to the top, least any should spill in sliding them in; but fill them up by a bowl fastned to a long Pole. No water must be put in, after the oven is closed (nor the oven ever be opened, till after all is throughly baked) and therefore you must put in enough at first to serve to the last; you must rowl your Collars as close as may be, that no air may be left in the folds of them: and sow them up in exceeding strong cloth, which a strong man must pull as hard as He can in the sowing. Their cloths must not be pulled off, till the Collars have been three or four days out of the oven, least you pull off part of the Brawn with them. You may put the same proportion of Pepper, Cloves, &c. into the Souce drink as you did in the baking them; which at either time (especially at first) give them a fine taste. The Souce-drink is made of six shillings Beer, and Thames or River-water, of each an equal quantity, well boiled with Salt. When boiled and cold, put in to it two or three quarts of skimmed Milk, only to colour it; and so change it once in three Weeks. Tender Brawn sliced thin, and laid Sallet-wise in a dish as the sliced Capon, and seasoned with Pepper, Salt and Vinegar and Oyl, with a little Limon, is a very good Sallet.


It is a good Sallet, to slice a cold Capon thin; mingle with it some Sibbolds, Lettice, Rocket and Tarragon sliced small. Season all with Pepper, Salt, Vinegar and Oyl, and sliced Limon. A little Origanum doth well with it.


Take a large fat loin of Mutton (or two) boned after the manner of Venison. Season it well to your taste with Pepper and Salt. Then lay it to steep all night in enough of the sheep's blood, to cover it over, and soak well into it. Then lay it into the past, with all the clotted thick blood, under it, upon it, and hanging about it. You may season the blood with Pepper and Salt, before you lay the meat in it. But though you do not, it will not be amiss, so as the meat be seasoned high enough. Then bake it as you do an ordinary Pasty; and you may put gravy of Mutton or strong broth into it. You may do it in a dish with past; as My Lady of Newport doth Her Venison. This way of steeping in blood before you bake it, is very good also for Venison.


Hash the flesh of as many Hares, as you please, very small. Then beat them strongly in a Mortar into a Paste, which season duly with Pepper and Salt. Lard it throughly all over with great Lardons of Lard well rowled in Pepper and Salt. Put this into a straight earthen pot, to lye close in it. If you like Onions, you may put one or two quartered into the bottom of the Pot. Put store of Sweet-butter upon the meat, and upon that, some strong red Claret-wine. Cover the pot with a double strong brown paper, tyed close about the mouth of it. Set it to bake with houshold-bread (or in an oven, as a Venison pasty) for eight or ten hours. Then take out the pot, and thence the meat, and pour away all the Liquor, which let settle. Then take all the congealed Butter, and clarifie it well. Put your meat again into the pot, and put upon it your clarified Butter, and as much more as is necessary. And I believe the putting of Claret-wine to it now is better, and to omit it before. Bake it again, but a less while. Pour out all the Liquor, when it is baked, and clarifie the Butter again, and pour it upon the meat, and so let it cool; The Butter must be at least two or three fingers breadth over the meat.


Bone it, and beat it exceeding well on all sides, with a roling pin, upon a table. Then season it with Pepper and Salt, (rubbing them in very well) and some Parsley, and a few Sweet herbs (Penny-royal, Winter-savoury, Sweet-marjoram, Limon Thyme, Red-sage, which yet to some seems to have a Physical taste) an Onion if you will. Squeese it into the pot as close as you can. Put Butter upon it, and Claret-wine, and covered all as above. Bake it in a strong oven eight or ten hours. Take it out of the oven, and the meat out of the pot, which make clean, from all settlings; and squeese all the juyce from it (even by a gentle press.) Then put it in again hard pressed into the pot. Clarifie the Butter, that you poured with the Liquor from the meat out of the pot; and pour it again with more flesh, to have enough to cover it two or three fingers thick.


Season them duly with Pepper and Salt; then lay them in the pot, and put store of Butter, and some Claret-wine to them. Cover and bake as above: but a less while according to the tenderness of the meat. In due time take out your pot, and your birds out of it, which press not, but only wipe off the Liquor. Pour it out all. Clarifie the Butter; put in the birds again, and the clarified butter, and as much more as needs (all melted) upon them, and let it cool. You may put a few Bay-leaves upon any of these baked meats, between the meat and the Butter.


An excellent cold Pye is thus made. Take two fat Green-geese; bone them, and lay them in paste one upon the other, seasoning them well with Pepper and Salt, and some little Nutmeg, both above and below and between the two Geese. When it is well-baked and out of the oven, pour in melted Butter at a hole made in the top. The crust is much better than of a Stubble-goose.


The way to have Beef tenderest, short and best boiled, as my Lord of Saint Alban's useth it, is thus. Take a rump or brisket of beef; keep it without salt as long as you may, without danger to have it smell ill. For so it groweth mellow and tender, which it would not do, if it were presently salted. When it is sufficiently mortified, rub it well with Salt; let it lie so but a day and a night, or at most two nights and a day. Then boil it in no more water then is necessary. Boil it pretty smartly at first, but afterwards but a simpring or stewing boiling, which must continue seven or eight hours. Sometimes he boileth it half over night, and the rest next morning. If you should not have time to Salt it, you may supply that want thus; When the Beef is through boiled, you may put so much Salt into the pot as to make the broth like brine, and then boil it gently an hour longer; or take out the Beef, and put it into a deep dish, and put to it some of his broth made brine, and cover it with another dish, and stew it so an hour. A hanch of Venison may be done the same way.


Season your Duck and Teal with Pepper and Salt, both within and without, so much as you think may season them; then crack their bones with a roling pin; then put them into an earthen pot close, and cover them with Butter, and bake them in an oven as hot as for bread, and let them stand three or four hours; when you take them out of the oven, pour out all the Liquor from them, then melt so much Butter as will cover them; when you have melted your Butter, let it stand a while, until all the dross be settled to the bottom, and put in the clear Butter, which must cover the Fowl.


Bake Humble-Pyes without chapping them small in a Pye, seasoned with Pepper and Salt, adding a pretty deal of Parsley, a little sweet-marjoram and Savoury, and a very little Thyme.

Rost wilde Ducks putting into their Bellies some Sage and a little Onion (both well shreded) wrought into a lump with butter, adding a little Pepper and Salt. And let their sauce be a little gravy of Mutton, to enlarge the seasoned gravy, that comes from the Ducks when they are cut up.


Take a good fat Turkey or two; dress them clean, and bone them; then tye them up in the manner of Sturgeon with some thing clean washed. Take your kettle, and put into it a pottle of good White-wine, a quart of Water, and a quart of Vinegar; make it boil, and season it with Salt pretty well. Then put in your Turkeys, and let them boil till they be very tender. When they are enough boiled, take them out, and taste the Liquor; if it be not sharp enough, put more Vinegar, and let it boil a little; then put it into an earthen pot, that will hold both Turkeys. When it is cold enough, and the Turkeys through-cold, put them into the Liquor in the Pot, and be sure they be quite covered with the Liquor; Let them lye in it three weeks or a month; Then serve it to the table, with Fennel on it, and eat it with elder Vinegar.

You may do a Capon or two put together in the same manner: but first larding it with great Lardons rowled in Pepper and Salt. A shorter time lying in the pickle will serve.


Take a fat Goose, and Powder it with Salt eight or ten days; Then boil it tender, and put it into pickle, like Sturgeon-pickle. You may do the like with a very fat Turkey; but the best pickle of that is, the Italian Marinating, boiling Mace, Nutmeg, &c. in it. You may boil Garlick in the belly of the fouls, if you like it, or in the pickle.


Cut it down the back, and take out all the bones; Lard it very well with green Bacon, and season it well with three quarters of an Ounce of Pepper; half an Ounce of Ginger; a quarter of an Ounce of Cloves, and Salt as you judge proportionable; a pint of white wine and some Butter. Put three or four Bay-leaves under the meat, and bake it with Brown-bread in an earthen pot close covered, and the edges of the cover closed with Paste. Let it stand three or four days in the pickle; then eat it cold with Vinegar.


At Franckfort they use the following cautions about the Bacon they salt for Gambons or sides to keep. The best is of male Hogs of two year old, that have been gelt, when they were young. They kill them in the wane of the Moon, from a day or two after the full, till the last quarter. They fetch off their hair with warm-water, not by burning (which melteth the fat, and maketh it apt to grow resty), and after it hath lain in the open air a full day, they salt it with dry Salt, rubbing it in well: Then lay what quantity you will in a tub for seven or eight days (in which time the Salt dissolveth to water); then take it out, and wipe it dry, and hang it in a room, where they keep fire, either on a hearth, or that smoak cometh out of a stove into the room (as most of those rooms do smoak) but hang them not in the Chimney, that the hot smoak striketh upon them; but if you have a very large Chimney, hang them pretty high and aside, that the smoak may not come full upon them. After a while, (when they are dry) take them thence, and hang them from the smoak in a dry warm room. When the weather groweth warm as in May, there will drop from them a kinde of melted oyly grease, and they will heat, and grow resty, if not remedied. Take them down then, and lay them in a cold dry place, with hay all about them, that one may not touch another. Change the Hay every thirty, or twenty, or fifteen days, till September, when the weather groweth cool; then hang them up again in the free air, in a dry Chamber. If you make the shoulders into Gambons, you must have a care to cut away a little piece of flesh within, called in Dutch the Mause; for if that remain in it, the Bacon will grow resty.


Take Spinage, Sorrel, Tansey, Wheat, a quart of Cream; bread (the quantity of a two peny loaf) twenty Eggs, and half the whites, one Nutmeg, half a pound of Sugar, and the juyce of a couple of Limons. Spinage is the chief herb to have the juyce; Wheat also is very good, when it is young and tender. You must not take much Sorrel, for fear of turning the Cream; but less Tansey, so little that it may not taste distinctly in the composition. The juyce of Limons is put in at the end of all. You may lay thin slices of Limon upon the Tansey made, and Sugar upon them.


Beat twelve Eggs (six whites put away) by themselves exceeding well (two or three hours), sometimes putting in a spoonful of Cream to keep them from oyling; Then mingle them well with a quart of Cream; to which put about half a pint of juyce of Spinage (as much as will make the Cream green) or of green wheat, and four spoonfuls of juyce or Tansey, one Nutmeg scraped into thin slices, and half a pound of Sugar; All things exceeding well Incorporated together; Fry this with fresh butter, no more then to glase the Pan over, and keep the Tansey from sticking to the Pan.


Take twelve quarts of Milk warm from the Cow, turn it with a good spoonful of Runnet. Break it well, and put it into a large strainer, in which rowl it up and down, that all the Whey may run out into a little tub; when all that will is run out, wring out more. Then break the curds well; then wring it again, and more whey will come. Thus break and wring till no more come. Then work the Curds exceedingly with your hand in a tray, till they become a short uniform Paste. Then put to it the yolks of eight new laid Eggs, and two whites, and a pound of butter. Work all this long together.

In the long working (at the several times) consisteth the making them good. Then season them to your taste with Sugar finely beaten; and put in some Cloves and Mace in subtile powder. Then lay them thick in Coffins of fine Paste, and bake them.


To half a peck of fine flower, take a pound and half of Butter, in this manner. Put your Butter with at least three quarts of cold water (it imports not how much or how little the water is) into a little kettle to melt, and boil gently: as soon as it is melted, scum off the Butter with a ladle, pouring it by ladlefuls (one a little after another, as you knead it with the flower) to some of the flower (which you take not all at once, that you may the better discern, how much Liquor is needful) and work it very well into Paste. When all your butter is kneaded, with as much of the flower, as serves to make paste of a fitting consistence, take of the water that the Butter was melted in, so much as to make the rest of the flower into Paste of due consistence; then joyn it to the Paste made with Butter, and work them both very well together, of this make your covers and coffins thin. If you are to make more paste for more Tarts or Pyes, the water that hath already served, will serve again better then fresh.

To make Goose-pyes, and such of thick crust, you must put at least two pound of Butter to half a peck of flower. Put no more Salt to your Past, then what is in the Butter, which must be the best new Butter that is sold in the Market.


Take eight wine quarts of flower; one pound of loaf Sugar beaten and searsed; one ounce of Mace, beat it very fine: then take thirty Eggs, fifteen whites, beat them well; then put to them a quart of new Ale-yest; beat them very well together, and strain them into your flower; then take a pint of Rose-water, wherein six grains of Ambergreece and Musk have been over night. Then take a pint and half of Cream or something more, and set it on the fire, and put into it four pounds and three quarters of Butter; And when it is all melted, take it off the fire and stir it about, until it be pretty cool; And pour all into your flower, and stir it up quick with your hands, like a lith pudding; Then dust a little flower over it, and let it stand covered with a Flannel, or other woollen cloth, a quarter of an hour before the fire, that it may rise; Then have ready twelve pounds of Currants very well washed and pick'd, that there may be neither stalks, nor broken Currants in them. Then let your Currants be very well dryed before the fire, and put warm into your Cake; then mingle them well together with your hands; then get a tin hoop that will contain that quantity, and butter it well, and put it upon two sheets of paper well buttered; so pour in your Cake, and so set it into the oven, being quick that it may be well soaked, but not to burn. It must bake above an hour and a quarter; near an hour and half. Take then a pound and half of double refined Sugar purely beaten and searsed; put into the whites of five Eggs; two or 3 spoonfuls of rose-water; keep it a beating all the time, that the Cake is a baking which will be two hours; Then draw your Cake out of the oven, and pick the dry Currants from the top of it, and so spread all that you have beaten over it, very smooth, and set it a little into the oven, that it may dry.


Take three pounds and an half of flower; one penny worth of Cloves and Mace; and a quarter of a pound of Sugar and Salt, and strew it on the flower. Then take the yolks of eight Eggs well beaten, with a spoonful and half of rose water; Then take a pint of thick Cream, and a pound of Butter; Melt them together, and when it is so, take three quarters of a pint of Ale-yest, and mingle the yest and Eggs together. Then take the warm liquor, and mingle all together; when you have done, take all, and pour it in the bowl, and so cover the flower over the liquor; then cover the pan with a Napkin, and when it is risen, take four pounds of Currants, well washed and dryed, and half a pound of Raisins of the Sun sliced, and let them be well dryed and hot, and so stir them in. When it is risen, have your oven hot against the Cake is made; let it stand three quarters of an hour. When it is half baked, Ice it over with fine Sugar and Rose-water, and the whites of Eggs, and Musk and Ambergreece.

When you mingle your yest and Eggs together for the Cake, put Musk and Amber to that.


Take a peck of flower, and put it in half. Then take two quarts of good Ale-yest, and strain it into half the flower, and some new milk boiled, and almost cold again; make it into a very light paste, and set it before the fire to rise; Then take five pound of Butter, and melt it in a skillet, with a quarter of a pint of Rose-water; when your paste is risen, and your oven almost hot, which will be by this time, take your paste from the fire, and break it into small pieces, and take your other part of flower, and strew it round your paste; Then take the melted Butter, and put it to the past, and by degrees work the paste and flower together, till you have mingled all very well. Take six Nutmegs, some Cinnamon and Mace well beaten, and two pound of Sugar, and strew it into the Paste, as they are a working it. Take three pounds of Raisins stoned, and twelve pounds of Currants very well washed and dryed again; one pound of Dates sliced; half a pound of green Citron dryed and sliced very thin; strew all these into the paste, till it have received them all; Then let your oven be ready, and make up your Cake, and set it into the oven; but you must have a great care, it doth not take cold. Then to Ice it, take a pound and half of double refined Sugar beaten and searsed; The whites of three Eggs new-laid, and a little Orange-flower-water, with a little musk and Ambergreece, beaten and searsed, and put to your sugar; Then strew your Sugar into the Eggs, and beat it in a stone Mortar with a Woodden Pestel, till it be as white as snow, which will be by that time the Cake is baked; Then draw it to the ovens mouth, and drop it on, in what form you will; let it stand a little again in the oven to harden.


To a Peck of fine flower, take six pounds of fresh butter, which must be tenderly melted, ten pounds of Currants, of Cloves and Mace, half an ounce of each, an ounce of Cinnamon, half an ounce of Nutmegs, four ounces of Sugar, one pint of Sack mixed with a quart at least of thick barm of Ale (as soon as it is settled, to have the thick fall to the bottom, which will be, when it is about two days old) half a pint of Rose-water; half a quarter of an ounce of Saffron. Then make your paste, strewing the spices, finely beaten, upon the flower: Then put the melted butter (but even just melted) to it; then the barm, and other liquors: and put it into the oven well heated presently. For the better baking of it, put it in a hoop, and let it stand in the oven one hour and half. You Ice the Cake with the whites of two Eggs, a small quantity of Rose-water, and some Sugar.


To half a peck of flower, take three spoonfuls of barm, two ounces of seeds; Aniseeds or Fennel-seeds. Make the paste very stiff, with nothing but water, and dry it (they must not have so much heat, as to make them rise, but only dry by degrees; as in an oven after Manchet is taken out, or a gentle stove) in flat Cakes very well in an oven or stove.


Take three pound and a half of the finest flower and dry it in an oven; one pound and a half of sweet butter, and mix it with the flower, until it be crumbled very small, that none of it be seen; Then take three quarters of a pint of new Ale-yeast, and half a pint of Sack, and half a pint of new milk; six spoonfuls of Rose-water, four yolks, and two whites of Eggs; Then let it lie before the fire half an hour or more. And when you go to make it up, put in three quarters of a pound of Caraway-Confits, and a pound and half of biskets. Put it into the oven, and let it stand an hour and half.


Take four quarts of fine flower, two pound and half of butter, three quarters of a pound of Sugar, four Nutmegs; a little Mace; a pound of Almonds finely beaten, half a pint of Sack, a pint of good Ale-yest, a pint of boiled Cream, twelve yolks, and four whites of Eggs; four pound of Currants. When you have wrought all these into a very fine past, let it be kept warm before the fire half an hour, before you set it into the oven. If you please, you may put into it, two pound of Raisins of the Sun stoned and quartered. Let your oven be of a temperate heat, and let your Cake stand therein two hours and a half, before you Ice it; and afterwards only to harden the Ice. The Ice for this Cake is made thus: Take the whites of three new laid Eggs, and three quarters of a pound of fine Sugar finely beaten; beat it well together with the whites of the Eggs, and Ice the Cake. If you please you may add a little Musk or Ambergreece.


Take three pound of very fine flower well dryed by the fire, and put to it a pound and half of loaf Sugar sifted in a very fine sieve and dryed; Three pounds of Currants well washed and dryed in a cloth and set by the fire; When your flower is well mixed with the Sugar and Currants, you must put in it a pound and half of unmelted butter, ten spoonfuls of Cream, with the yolks of three new-laid Eggs beat with it, one Nutmeg; and if you please, three spoonfuls of Sack. When you have wrought your paste well, you must put it in a cloth, and set it in a dish before the fire, till it be through warm. Then make them up in little Cakes, and prick them full of holes; you must bake them in a quick oven unclosed. Afterwards Ice them over with Sugar. The Cakes should be about the bigness of a hand-breadth and thin: of the cise of the Sugar Cakes sold at Barnet.


Blanch Nut-Kernels from the Husks in the best manner you can. Then pun them with a due proportion of Sugar, and a little Orange-flower, or Rose-water. When it is in a fitting uniform paste, make it into round Cakes, about the bigness of your hand, or a little larger, and about a finger thick; and lay every one upon a fine paper cut fit to it; which lay upon a table. You must have a pan like a tourtiere, made to contain coals on the top, that is flat, with edges round about to hold in the coals, which set over the Cakes, with fire upon it. Let this remain upon the Cakes, till you conceive, it hath dryed them sufficiently for once; which may be within a quarter of an hour; but you take it off two or three times in that time, to see you scorch not the outside, but only dry it a little. Then remove it to others, that lye by them; and pull the Papers from the first, and turn them upon new Papers. When the others are dryed enough, remove the pan back to the first, to dry their other side: which being enough, remove it back to the second, that by this time are turned, and laid upon new Papers. Repeat this turning the Cakes, and changing the Pan, till they are sufficiently dry: which you must not do all at once, least you scorch them: and though the outside be dry, the inside must be very moist and tender. Then you must Ice them thus: Make a thick pap with Orange flower or Rose-water, and purest white Sugar: a little of the whites of Eggs, not above half a spoonful of that Oyl of Eggs, to a Porrenger full of thick Pap, beaten exceeding well with it, and a little juyce of Limons. Lay this smooth upon the Cakes with a Knife, and smoothen it with a feather. Then set the pan over them to dry them. Which being if there be any unevenness, or cracks or discolouring, lay on a little more of that Mortar, and dry it as before. Repeat this, till it be as clear, and smooth, and white, as you would have it. Then turn the other sides, and do the like to them. You must take care, not to scorch them: for then they would look yellow or red, and they must be pure, white and smooth like Silver between polished and matte, or like a looking Glass. This Coat preserves the substance of the Cakes within, the longer moist. You may beat dissolved Amber, or Essence of Cinnamon, with them.


According to the bigness of your moulds proportion your stroakings for your Cheese-curds. To six quarts of stroakings, take a pint of Springwater: if the weather be hot, then let the water be cold, and before you put it into the stroakings, let them stand a while to cool after they are milked, and then put in the water with a little Salt first stirred in it: and having stirred it well together, let it stand a little while, and then put in about two good spoonfuls of Runnet, stir it well together, and cover it with a fair linnen-cloth, and when it is become hard like a thick jelly, with a skimming-dish lay it gently into the moulds, and as it sinks down into the moulds, fill it still up again, till all be in, which will require some three or four hours time. Then lay a clean fine cloth into another mould of the same cise, and turn it into it, and then turn the skirts of the cloth over it, and lay upon that a thin board, and upon that as much weight, as with the board may make two pound or thereabouts. And about an hour after, lay another clean cloth into the other mould, and turn the Cheese into that; then lay upon the board so much, as will make it six or seven pound weight; and thus continue turning of it till night: then take away the weight, and lay it no more on it; then take a very small quantity of Salt finely beaten, and sprinkle the Cheese all over with it as lightly as can be imagined. Next morning turn it into another dry cloth, and let it lye out of the mould upon a plain board, and change it as often as it wets the cloth, which must be three or four times a day: when it is so dry, that it wets the cloth no more, lay it upon a bed of green-rushes, and lay a row upon it; but be sure to pick the bents clean off, and lay them even all one way: if you cannot get good rushes, take nettles or grass. If the weather is cold, cover them with a linnen and woollen cloth; in case you cannot get stroakings, take five quarts of new Milk, and one of Cream. If the weather be cold, heat the water that you put to the stroakings. Turn the Cheese every day, and put to it fresh of whatsoever you keep it in. They are usually ripe in ten days.


Master Phillips his Method and proportions in making slippe-coat Cheese, are these. Take six wine quarts of stroakings, and two quarts of Cream; mingle these well together, and let them stand in a bowl, till they are cold. Then power upon them three pints of boiling fair water, and mingle them well together; then let them stand, till they are almost cold, colder then milk-warm. Then put to it a moderate quantity of Runnet, made with fair water (not whey, or any other thing then water; this is an important point), and let it stand till it come. Have a care not to break the Curds, nor ever to touch them with your hands, but only with your skimming dish. In due time lade the Curds with the dish, into a thin fine Napkin, held up by two persons, that the whey may run from them through the bunt of the Napkin, which you rowl gently about, that the Curds may dry without breaking. When the whey is well drained out, put the Curds as whole as you can into the Cheese-fat, upon a napkin, in the fat. Change the Napkin, and turn the Cheese every quarter of an hour, and less, for ten, twelve or fourteen times; that is, still as soon as you perceive the Napkin wet with the whay running from the Curds. Then press it with a half pound weight for two or three hours. Then add half a pound more for as long time, then another half pound for as long, and lastly another half pound, which is two pounds in all; which weight must never be exceeded. The next day, (when about twenty four hours are past in all) salt your Cheese moderately with white Salt, and then turn it but three or four times a day, and keep it in a cotton cloth, which will make it mellow and sweet, not rank, and will preserve the coat smooth. It may be ready to eat in about twelve days. Some lay it to ripen in dock-leaves, and it is not amiss; but that in rain they will be wet, which moulds the Cheese. Others in flat fit boxes of wood, turning them, as is said, three or four times a day. But a cotton cloth is best. This quantity is for a round large Cheese, of about the bigness of a sale ten peny Cheese, a good fingers-breadth thick. Long broad grass ripeneth them well, and sucketh out the moisture. Rushes are good also. They are hot, but dry not the moisture so well.

My Lady of Middlesex makes excellent slipp-coat Cheese of good morning milk, putting Cream to it. A quart of Cream is the proportion she useth to as much milk, as both together make a large round Cheese of the bigness of an ordinary Tart-plate, or Cheese-plate; as big as an ordinary soft cheese, that the Market-women sell for ten pence. Thus for want of stroakings at London, you may take one part of Cream to five or six of morning milk, and for the rest proceed as with stroakings; and these will prove as good.


Take three quarts of the last of the stroakings of as many Cows as you have; keep it covered, that it may continue warm; put to it a skimming dishful of Spring-water; then put in two spoonfuls of Runnet, so let it stand until it be hard come: when it is hard come, set your fat on the bottome of a hair-sieve, take it up by degrees, but break it not; when you have laid it all in the fat, take a fine cloth, and lay it over the Cheese, and work it in about the sides, with the back of a Knife; then lay a board on it, for half an hour: after half an hour, set on the board an half pound stone, so let it stand two hours; then turn it on that board, and let the cloth be both under and over it, then pour it into the fat again; Then lay a pound and half weight on it; Two hours after turn it again on a dry cloth, and salt it, then set on it two pound weight, and let it stand until the next morning. Then turn it out of the Cheese-fat, on a dry board, and so keep it with turning on dry boards three days. In case it run abroad, you must set it up with wedges; when it begins to stiffen, lay green grass or rushes upon it: when it is stiff enough, let rushes be laid both under and over it. If this Cheese be rightly made, and the weather good to dry it, it will be ready in eight days: but in case it doth not dry well, you must lay it on linnen-cloth, and woollen upon it, to hasten the ripening of it.


Take six gallons of new milk: put to it two quarts of the evening Cream; then put to it good runnet for winter Cheese; let it stand, till it be even well, then sink it as long as you can get any whey out: then put it into your fat, and set it in the press, and let it stand half an hour: in this time turn it once. When you take it out of the Press, set on the fire two gallons of the same whey; then put your Cheese in a big bowl, break the Curd as small with your hands as you do your Cheese-cakes: when your whey is scalding hot, take off the scum: lay your strainer over the Curd, and put in your whey: take a slice, and stir up your Curd, that it may scald all alike: put in as much whey as will cover it well: if you find that cold, put it out, and put in more to it that is hot. Stir it as before: then cover it with a linnen and woollen cloth: then set some new whey on the fire, put in your Cheese-fat and suter and cloth. After three quarters of an hour, take up the Curd, and put it into the Cheese fat, as fast, as two can work it in: then put it into the hot cloth, and set it into the Press. Have a care to look to it, and after a while turn it, and so keep it in the press with turning, till the next day: then take it forth and Salt it.


Strain your Whey, and set it on the fire: make a clear and gentle fire under the kettle: as they rise, put in whey, so continuing, till they are ready to skim. Then take your skimmer, and put them on the bottom of a hair-sieve: so let them drain till they are cold. Then take them off, and put them into a bason, and beat them with three or four spoonfuls of Cream and Sugar.


Cut pieces of quick, fat, rich, well tasted cheese, (as the best of Brye, Cheshire, &c. or sharp thick Cream-Cheese) into a dish of thick beaten melted Butter, that hath served for Sparages or the like, or pease, or other boiled Sallet, or ragout of meat, or gravy of Mutton: and, if you will, Chop some of the Asparages among it, or slices of Gambon of Bacon, or fresh-collops, or Onions, or Sibboulets, or Anchovis, and set all this to melt upon a Chafing-dish of Coals, and stir all well together, to Incorporate them; and when all is of an equal consistence, strew some gross White-Pepper on it, and eat it with tosts or crusts of White-bread. You may scorch it at the top with a hot Fire-Shovel.


First give them for two days paste made of Barley Meal and Milk with Clyster Sugar to scowre them. Then feed them with nothing but hashed Raisins of the Sun. The less drink they have, the better it is: for it washeth away their fat; but that little they have, let it be broken Beer; Milk were as good or better; but then you must be careful to have it always sweet in their trough, and no sowerness there to turn the Milk. They will be prodigiously fat in about twelve days: And you must kill them, when they are at their height: Else they will soon fall back, and grow fat no more.

Others make their Paste of Barley meal with Milk and a little course Sugar, and mingle with it a little (about an eight part) of powder of green Glass beaten exceeding small. Give this only for two days to cleanse their stomacks. Then feed them with paste of Barley-meal, made sometimes with Milk and Sugar, and sometimes with the fat skimmed off from the pot, giving them drink as above.

Others make a pretty stiff paste for them with Barley-meal (a little of the coursest bran sifted from it) and the fat scummed off from the boiling pot, be it of Beef (even salted) or Mutton, &c. Lay this before them for their food for four days. Then give them still the same, but mingled with a little powder of Glass for 4 or five days more. In which time they will be extremely fat and good. For their drink, give them the droppings of good Ale or good Beer. When you eat them, you will find some of the powder of glass in their stomacks, i.e. gizzards.


My Lady Fanshaws way of feeding Capons, Pullets, Hens, Chickens or Turkies, is thus. Have Coops, wherein every fowl is a part, and not room to turn in, and means to cleanse daily the ordure behind them, and two troughs; for before that, one may be scalding and drying the day the other is used, and before every fowl one partition for meat, another for drink. All their Meat is this: Boil Barley in water, till it be tender, keep some so, and another parcel of it boil with Milk, and another with strong Ale. Let them be boiled as wheat that is creed. Use them different days for variety, to get the fowl appetite. Lay it in their trough, with some Brown-Sugar mingled with it. In the partition for Liquor, let them have water or strong Ale to drink. They will be very drunk and sleep; then eat again. Let a Candle stand all night over the Coop, and then they will eat much of the night. With this course they will be prodigiously fat in a fortnight. Be sure to keep them very sweet. This maketh the taste pure.


Take Barley meal, and with droppings of small Ale, (or Ale it self) make it into a consistence of batter for Pan-cakes. Let this be all their food. Which put into the troughs before them, renewing it thrice a day, morning, noon and evening; making their troughs very clean every time, and keeping their Coops always very clean and sweet. This is to serve them for drink as well as meat, and no other drink be given them. Feed them thus six days; the seventh give them nothing in their troughs but powder of brick searced, which scowreth and cleanseth them much, and makes their flesh exceeding white. The next day fall to their former food for six days more, and the seventh again to powder of Brick. Then again to barley Meal and Ale. Thus they will be exceeding fat in fifteen days, and purely white and sweet.


Boil Rice in Milk till it be very tender and Pulpy, as when you make Milk Potage. It must be thick, almost so thick, that a spoon may stand an-end in it. Sweeten this very well with ordinary Sugar. Put this into their troughs where they feed, that they may be always eating of it. It must be made fresh every day. Their drink must be onely Milk, in another little trough by their meat-trough. Let a candle (fitly disposed) stand by them all night; for seeing their meat, they will eat all night long. You put the Chicken up, as soon as they can feed of themselves; which will be within a day or two after they are hatched, and in twelve days, or a fortnight, they will be prodigiously fat; but after they have come to their height, they will presently fall back. Therefore they must be eaten as soon as they are come to their height. Their Pen or Coop must be contrived so, that the Hen (who must be with them, to sit over them) may not go at liberty to eat away their meat, but be kept to her own diet, in a part of the Coop that she cannot get out of. But the Chicken must have liberty to go from her to other parts of the Coop, where they may eat their own meat, and come in again to the Hen, to be warmed by her, at their pleasure. You must be careful to keep their Coop very clean.


Fatten your Chicken the first week with Oatmeal scalded in Milk; the second with Rice and Sugar in Milk. In a fortnight they will be prodigiously fat. It is good to give them sometimes a little Gravel, or powder of Glass, to cleanse their maws, and give them appetite.

If you put a little bran with their meat, it will keep their maws clean, and give them appetite.


Boil white bread in Milk, as though you were to eat it; but make it thick of the bread, which is sliced into it in thin slices, not so thick as if it were to make a pudding; but so, that when the bread is eaten out, there may some liquid milk remain for the Chicken to drink; or that at first you may take up some liquid Milk in a spoon, if you industriously avoid the bread: sweeten very well this potage with good Kitchin Sugar of six pence a pound; so put it into the trough before them. Put there but a little at a time, (two or three spoonfuls) that you may not clog them, and feed them five times a day, between their wakening in the morning, and their roosting at night. Give them no other drink; the Milk that remaineth after they have eaten the bread, is sufficient; neither give them Gravel, or ought else. Keep their Coops very clean, as also their troughs, cleansing them very well every morning. To half a dozen very little Chickens, little bigger then black-birds, an ordinary porenger full every day may serve. And in eight days they will be prodigiously fat, one peny loaf, and less then two quarts of Milk and about half a pound of Sugar will serve little ones the whole time. Bigger Chickens will require more, and two or three days longer time. When any of them are at their height of fat, you must eat them; for if they live longer, they will fall back, and grow lean. Be sure to make their potage very sweet.


Stone a pound of Raisins of the Sun, and beat them in a Mortar to Pulp; pour a quart of Milk upon them, and let them soak so all night. Next morning stir them well together, and put to them so much Crums of Grated stale white bread as to bring it to a soft paste, work all well together, and lay it in the trough before the Chicken (which must not be above six in a pen, and keep it very clean) and let a candle be by them all night. The delight of this meat will make them eat continually; and they will be so fat (when they are but of the bigness of a Black-bird) that they will not be able to stand, but lie down upon their bellies to eat.


You must often change their food, giving them but of one kind at a time, that so their appetites may be fresh to the others, when they are weary of the present. Sometimes dry wheat; Sometimes wheat soaked two or three days in water, to make it soft and tender; Sometimes barley so used; Sometimes oats in like manner. Give them continually to lie by them; Some of the great green leaves of Cabbages, that grow at the bottom of the stalk, and that are thrown away, when you gather the Cabbage; which you may give them either whole or a little chopped. Give them often Ants and their Eggs, laying near them the inward mould of an Ant hill, taken up with the Ants in it.


Take new milk Curds, strained well from the whey; then rub them very well; season them with Nutmeg, Mace, Rose-water and Sugar; then take an Egg or two, a good piece of Butter, and a handful of flower; work all together, and make them into Balls; bake them in an oven, upon sheets of Paper; when they are baked, serve them up with butter melted and beaten with Rose-water and Sugar. In stead of flower, you may take fine grated-bread, dried very well, but not Crisp.


My Lady Paget makes her fine preserved Pippins, thus: They are done best, when Pippins are in their prime for quickness, which is in November. Make your Pippin-water as strong as you can of the Apples, and that it may be the less boiled, and consequently the paler, put in at first the greatest quantity of pared and quartered Apples, the water will bear. To every Pint of Pippin-water add (when you put the Sugar to it) a quarter of a pint of fair spring-water, that will bear soap (of which sort only you must use) and use half a pound of Sugar, the purest double refined. If you will have much gelly, two Pippins finely pared and whole, will be enough; you may put in more, if you will have a greater proportion of substance to the gelly. Put at first but half the Sugar to the Liquor; for so it will be the paler. Boil the Apples by themselves in fair water, with a very little Sugar, to make them tender; then put them into the liquor, and the rest, the other half of the Sugar with them. Boil them with a quick fire, till they be enough, and the liquor do gelly, and that you see the Apples look very clear, and as though they were transparent. You must put the juyce of two Limons and half an Orange to this in the due time. Every Pippin should be lapped over in a broad-pill of Orange; which you must prepare thus. Pare your Orange broad and very thin, and all hanging together, rub it with Salt, prick it, and boil it in several waters, to take away the bitterness, and make it tender. Then preserve it by it self with sufficient quantity of Sugar. When it is throughly done, and very tender (which you must cast to do before hand, to be ready when the Apples are ready to be put up) take them out of their Syrup, and lap every Pippin in an Orange-peel, and put them into a pot or glass, and pour the liquor upon them: which will be gelly over and about the Apples, when all is cold. This proportion of liquor, Apples, and Orange-peels, will take up about three quarters of a pound of Sugar in all. If you would keep them any time, you must put in weight for weight of Sugar.

I conceive Apple-John's in stead of Pippins will do better, both for the gelly and Syrup; especially at the latter end of the year; and I like them thin sliced, rather than whole; and the Orange-peels scattered among them in little pieces or chipps.


Quarter and Core your Pippins; then stamp them in a Mortar, and strain out the Juyce. Let it settle, that the thick dregs may go to the bottom; then pour off the clear; and to have it more clear and pure, filter it through sucking Paper in a glass funnel. To one pound of this take one pound and an half of pure double refined Sugar, and boil it very gently (scarce simpringly, and but a very little while) till you have scummed away all the froth and foulness (which will be but little) and that it be of the consistence of Syrup. If you put two pound of Sugar to one pound of juyce, you must boil it more & stronglier. This will keep longer, but the colour is not so fine. It is of a deeper yellow. If you put but equal parts of juyce and Sugar, you must not boil it, but set it in a Cucurbite in bulliente Balneo, till all the scum be taken away, and the Sugar well dissolved. This will be very pale and pleasant, but will not keep long.

You may make your Syrup with a strong decoction of Apples in water (as when you make gelly of Pippins) when they are green; but when they are old and mellow, the substance of the Apple will dissolve into pap, by boiling in water.

Take three or four spoonfuls of this Syrup in a large draught of fountain water, or small posset-Ale, pro ardore urinae to cool and smoothen, two or three times a day.


Cut your Apples into quarters (either pared or unpared). Boil them in a sufficient quantity of water, till it be very strong of the Apples. Take the clear liquor, and put to it sufficient Sugar to make gelly, and the slices of Apple; so boil them all together, till the slices be enough, and the liquor gelly; or you may boil the slices, in Apple-liquor without Sugar, and make gelly of other liquor, and put the slices into it, when it is gelly, and they be sufficiently boiled. Either way, you must put at the last some juyce of Limon to it; and Amber and Musk if you will. You may do it with halves or quartered Apples, in deep glasses, with store of gelly about them. To have these clear, take the pieces out of the gelly they are boiled in, with a slice, so as you may have all the rags run from them, and then put neat clean pieces into clear gelly.


Pare and Core the Wardens, and put a little of the thin rind of a Limon into the hole that the Core leaveth. To every pound of Wardens, take half a pound of Sugar, and half a pint of water. Make a Syrup of your Sugar and Water; when it is well scummed, put it into a Pewter dish, and your Wardens into the Syrup, and cover it with another Pewter dish; and so let this boil very gently, or rather stew, keeping it very well covered, that the steam get out as little as may be. Continue this, till the Wardens are very tender, and very red, which may be in five, or six, or seven hours. Then boil them up to the height the Syrup ought to be to keep: which yet will not be well above three or four months. The whole secret of making them red, consisteth in doing them in Pewter, which spoileth other preserves, and in any other mettal these will not be red. If you will have any Amber in them, you may to ten or twelve pounds of Wardens, put in about twenty grains of Amber, and one, or at most, two grains of Musk, ground with a little Sugar, and so put in at the last. Though the Wardens be not covered over with the Syrup in the stewing by a good deal, yet the steam, that riseth and cannot get out, but circulateth, will serve both to stew them, and to make them red and tender.


My Lady Barclay makes her fine Apple-gelly with slices of John apples. Sometimes she mingles a few Pippins with the John's to make the Gelly. But she liketh best the John's single, and the colour is paler. You first fill the glass with slices round-wise cut, and then the Gelly is poured in to fill up the vacuities. The Gelly must be boiled to a good stiffness. Then when it is ready to take from the fire, you put in some juyce of Limon, and of Orange too, if you like it: but these must not boil; yet it must stand a while upon the fire stewing in good heat, to have the juyces Incorporate and Penetrate well. You must also put in some Ambergreece, which doth exceeding well in this sweet-meat.


When Flomery is made and cold, you may make a pleasant and wholesome caudle of it, by taking some lumps and spoonfuls of it, and boil it with Ale and White wine, then sweeten it to your taste with Sugar. There will remain in the Caudle some lumps of the congealed flomery, which are not ungrateful.


Take four ounces of blanched Almonds; of Pine kernels, and of Pistachios, ana, four Ounces. Erin-go-roots, Candid-Limon peels, ana, three Ounces, Candid Orange peels two Ounces, Candid Citron-peels four Ounces, of powder of white Amber, as much as will lie upon a shilling; and as much of the powder of pearl, 20 grains of Ambergreece, three grains of Musk, a book of leaf gold, Cloves and Mace, of each as much as will lie upon a three pence; cut all these as small as possible you can. Then take a pound of Sugar, and half a pint of water, boil it to a candy-height, then put in the Ambergreece and Musk, with three or four spoonfulls of Orange flower water. Then put in all the other things and stir them well together, and cast them upon plates, and set them to dry: when both sides are dry, take Orange-flower-water and Sugar, and Ice them.


Take four Ounces of Harts-horn rasped, boil it in four pound of water, till it will be a gelly, which you may try upon a plate (it will be so, in four or five or six hours gentle boiling) and then pass the clear liquor from the horn (which will be a good quart) then set it on the fire again with fine Sugar in it to your taste; when that is dissolved (or at the same time you put that in) put half a pound of white-wine or Sack into it, and a bag of Spice, containing a little Ginger, a stick of Cinnamon bruised, a Nutmeg quartered, two or three Cloves, and what other Spice you like, but Pepper. As soon as it beginneth to boil, put into it the whites of three or four Eggs beaten, and let it boil up gently, till the Eggs harden into a curd. Then open it with a spoon, and pour into it the juyce of three or four good Limons; then take it presently off the fire, letting it not boil more above a walm: Then run it through a Hippocras bag, putting spirit of Cinnamon, or of Ambergreece, or what you please to it.

For gelly of flesh you proceed in the same manner, with a brawny Capon or Cock, and a rouelle of Veal (first skinned, and soaked from the blood) in stead of Harts-horn: and when the broth will gelly, do as above, using a double or treble proportion of wine. Boil no Salt in it at first, for that will make the gelly black.


Take a pound of Harts-horn, and boil it in five quarts of water, until it come to three pints, then strain it through a sieve or strainer, and so let it stand, until it be cold; and according to the strength you may take more or less of the following Ingredients. First, take your stock of gelly, & put it into a skillet or pipkin with a pound of fine loaf Sugar, and set it over a fire of Charcoal; and when it begins to boil, put in a pint or more of Rhenish-wine. Then take the whites of Eggs six or eight, beaten very well, with three or four spoonfuls of Rose-water, and put into the gelly. Then take two grains of Amber, and one grain of Musk, and put thereto, so let it boil a quarter of an hour, but not too violent; Then put in three or four spoonfuls of Cinnamon-water, with the juyce of seven or eight Limons; boil it one walm more, and run it very hot through your gelly-bag; this done, run it again as cool and softly as you can into your Glasses and Pots.


Take a pound of Harts-horn, and a prety big lean Chicken, and put it into a skillet with about nine quarts of water, and boil your stock prety stiff, so that you may cut it with a knife; you may try it in a spoon, as it is a boiling. Then drain your liquor clear away from the Harts-horn through a fine searse, and let it stand until the next morning; Then if there be any fat upon it, pare it away, and likewise the settlings at the bottom. Then put your Gelly into a good big skillet, and put to it a quart of the palest white-wine that you can procure, or a quart of Rhenish-wine, and one pound of double refined Sugar, and half an Ounce of Cinnamon broken into small pieces, with three or four flakes of Mace. Then set it upon the fire, and boil it a good pace. Then have the whites of sixteen Eggs beaten to a high froth; so put in the froth of your Eggs, and boil it five or six Walms; then put in the juyce of six Limons, and boil it a little while after, and then run it into a silver bason through your gelly-bag: and keep it warm by the fire, until it have run through the second time. You must observe to put but a very little into your bag at a time for the second running, that it may but little more then drop; and it will be so much the clearer: and you must not remove the whites of Eggs nor Spice out of the bag, all the while it is running. And if the weather be hot, you need not put in so much wine; for it will not then be so apt to gelly as in cold weather.


Take a small Cock-chick, when it is scalded, slit it in two pieces, lay it to soak in warm water, until the blood be well out of it. Then take a calves foot half boiled, slit it in the middle and pick out the fat and black of it. Put these into a Gallon of fair-water; skim it very well; Then put into it one Ounce of Harts-horn, and one Ounce of Ivory. When it is half consumed, take some of it up in a spoon; and if it gelly, take it all up, and put it into a silver bason, or such a Pewter one as will endure Char-coal. Then beat four whites of Eggs, with three or four spoonfuls of Damask-Rose-water very well together. Then put these into the gelly, with a quarter of an Ounce of Cinnamon broken into very small pieces; one flake of Mace; three or four thin slices of Ginger; sweeten it with loaf Sugar to your liking; set it then over a chafing dish of coals; stir it well, and cover it close; blow under it, until there arise a scum or curd; let it boil a little, then put into it one top of Rose-mary, two or three of sweet Marjoram; wring into it the juyce of half a Limon; let not your curd fall again, for it will spoil the clearness of the gelly. If you will have it more Cordial, you may grind in a Sawcer, with a little hard Sugar, half a grain of Musk, a grain of Ambergreece. It must be boiled in an earthen pipkin, or a very sweet Iron-pot, after the Harts-horn and Ivory is in it. It must constantly boil, until it gellieth. If there arise any scum, it must be taken off.


Take the quickest Pippins, when they are newly gathered, and are sharp; Pare and Core and cut them into half quarters. Put to them their weight of the finest Sugar in Powder, or broken into little pieces. Put upon these in your preserving pan, as much fountain water, as will even cover them. Boil them with a quick-fire, till by trying a little upon a Plate, you find it gellieth. When it is cold (which may be in less then half an hour) then take it from the fire, and put into it a little of the yellow rind of Limons rasped very small, and a little of the Yellow rinde of Oranges boiled tender (casting away the first waters to correct their bitterness) and cut into narrow slices (as in the gelly of Pippins) and some Ambergreece, with a fourth part of Musk, and break the Apples with the back of your preserving spoon, whiles it cooleth. If you like them sharper, you may put in a little juyce of Limon, a little before you take the pan from the fire. When it is cold, put it into pots. This will keep a year or two.

Try if the juyce of Apples (strained out of rasped Apples) in such sort, as you make Marmulate of Quinces, with the juyce of Quinces, would not be better, then fair-water, to boil your Apples and Sugar in.


My last Gelly of Quinces I made thus. The Quinces being very ripe, and having been long gathered, I took the flesh of twelve Quinces in quarters, and the juyce of fifteen or sixteen others, which made me two pounds of juyce; And I made a strong decoction of about twenty four others, adding to these twenty four (to make the decoction the stronger, and more slimy) the Cores and the Parings of the twelve in quarters; and I used the Cores sliced and Parings of all these. All this boiled about an hour and half in eight or ten pound of water; Then I strained and pressed out the decoction (which was a little viscous, as I desired) and had between 4 and five pound of strong decoction. To the decoction and Syrup, I put three pound of pure Sugar, which being dissolved and scummed, I put in the flesh, and in near an hour of temperate boiling (covered) and often turning the quarters, it was enough. When it was cold, it was store of firm clear red gelly, environing in great quantity the quarters, that were also very tender and well penetrated with the Sugar. I found by this making, that the juyce of Quinces is not so good to make gelly. It maketh it somewhat running like Syrup, and tasteth sweetish, mellowy, syrupy.

The Decoction of the flesh is only good for Syrup. I conceive, it would be a grateful sweetmeat to mingle a good quantity of good gelly with the Marmulate, when it is ready to put into pots. To that end they must both be making at the same time: or if one be a little sooner done then the other, they may be kept a while warm (fit to mingle) without prejudice. Though the Gelly be cold and settled, it will melt again with the warmth of the Marmulate, and so mingle with it, and make a Marmulate, that will appear very gellyish; or peradventure it may be well to fill up a pot or glass with gelly, when it is first half filled with Marmulate a little cooled.


When I made Quinces with Gelly, I used the first time these proportions; of the decoction of Quinces three pound; of Sugar one pound three quarters; Flesh of Quince two pound and an half; The second time these, of decoction two pound and an half, Sugar two pound and a quarter, Of flesh two pound three quarters. I made the decoction by boyling gently each time a dozen or fourteen Quinces in a Pottle of water, an hour and a half, or two hours, so that the decoction was very strong of the Quinces. I boiled the parings (which for that end were pared very thick, after the Quinces were well wiped) with all the substance of the Quince in thick slices, and part of the Core (excepting all the Kernels) and then let it run through a loose Napkin, pressing gently with two plates, that all the decoction might come out; but be clear without any flesh or mash. The first making I intended should be red; and therefore both the decoction, and the whole were boiled covered, and it proved a fine clear red. This boiled above an hour, when all was in. The other boiled not above half an hour, always uncovered (as also in making his decoction) and the Gelly was of a fine pale yellow. I first did put the Sugar upon the fire with the decoction, and as soon as it was dissolved, I put in the flesh in quarters and halves; and turned the pieces often in the pan; else the bottom of such as lay long unturned, would be of a deeper colour then the upper part. The flesh was very tender and good. I put some of the pieces into Jar-glasses (carefully, not to break them,) and then poured gelly upon them. Then more pieces, then more gelly, &c. all having stood a while to cool a little.


Take Quinces newly from the tree, fair and sound, wipe them clean, and boil them whole in a large quantity of water, the more the better, and with a quick fire, till the Quinces crack and are soft, which will be in a good half hour, or an hour. Then take out the Quinces, and press out their juyce, with your hands hard, or gently in a press through a strainer, that only the clear liquor or juyce run out, but none of the pap, or solid and fleshy substance of the Quince. (The water, they were boiled in, you may throw away.) This liquor will be slimy and mucilaginous, which proceedeth much from the seeds that remaining within the Quinces, do contribute to making this Liquor. Take three pound of it, and one pound of fine Sugar, and boil them up to a gelly, with a moderate fire, so that they boil every where, but not violently. They may require near an hours boiling to come to a gelly. The tryal of that is, to take a tin or silver plate, and wet it with fair-water, and drop a little of the boiling juyce upon the wet plate; if it stick to the plate, it is not enough; but if it fall off (when you slope the Plate) without sticking at all to it, then is it enough: and then you put it into flat shallow Tin forms, first wetted with cold water, and let it stand in them four or five hours in a cold place, till it be quite cold. Then reverse the plates, that it may shale and fall out, and so put the parcels up in boxes.

Note, you take fountain water, and put the Quinces into it, both of them being cold. Then set your Kettle to boil with a very quick-fire, that giveth a clear smart flame to the bottom of the Kettle, which must be uncovered all the while, that the gelly may prove the whiter; And so likewise it must be whiles the juyce or expression is boiling with the Sugar, which must be the finest, that it may not need clarifying with an Egg; but that little scum that riseth at the sides at the beginning of moderate boiling must be scummed away. You let your juyce or expression settle a while, that if any of the thick substance be come out with it, it may settle to the bottom; for you are to use for this only the clear juyce: which to have it the clearer, you may let it run through a large, thin, open, strainer, without pressing it. When you boil the whole Quinces, you take them out, to strain them as soon as their skins crack, and that they are quite soft; which will not happen to them all at the same time, but according to their bigness and ripeness. Therefore first take out and press those, that are ready first: and the rest still as they grow to a fit state to press. You shall have more juyce by pressing the Quinces in a torcular, but it will be clearer, doing it with your hands; both ways, you lap them in a strainer.


Take a pound and an half of flesh of Quinces sliced, one pound of Sugar, and one pound of Liquor (which is a decoction made very strong of Quinces boiled in fair water). Boil these with a pretty quick fire, till they be enough, and that you find it gellieth. Then proceed as in my way.


Take six pounds of flesh of Quince, and two pound of Sugar moistened well with juyce of Quinces. Boil these together in a fit kettle; first gently, till the Liquor be sweated out from the quince, and have dissolved all the Sugar; Then very quick and fast, proceeding as in my way, (bruising the Quinces with a spoon, &c.) till it be enough. This will be very fine and quick in taste; but will not keep well beyond Easter. In this course you may make Marmulate without any juyce or water (by the meer sweeting of the flesh) if you be careful, proceeding slowly till juyce enough be sweated out, least else it burn to; and then quick, that the flesh may be boiled enough, before the Moisture be evaporated away.


Take a quart of the juyce of Quince, and when it is on the fire, put into it, pared, quartered and Cored as much Quince, as the juyce will cover; when it is boiled tender, pass the Liquor through a sieve & put the pulp into a stone Mortar, and beat it very fine with a Woodden Pestel; then weigh it, and to every pound of pulp, take a quarter of a pound of loaf Sugar, and boil it up to a candy-height in some of the juyce, which you passed through the sieve; then put therein your pulp, stirring it well together, till it hath had one boil and no more; Then drop it on glasses, or spread it on plates, and set it to dry.

Into the juyce that remains, you may put more flesh of Quinces, and boil it tender, doing all as at the first. Then adding it (beaten to pulp in a Mortar) unto the former pulp; repeating this, till you have taken up all your juyce. Then put your proportion of Sugar to the whole quantity of pulp, and so make it up into paste, and dry it, and sometimes before a gentle fire, sometimes in a very moderate stove.


To one pound of flesh or solid substance of Quinces (when they are pared, cored, and quartered,) take but a quarter of double refined Sugar. Do thus, scald your flesh of Quinces in a little of the juyce of other Quinces, that they may become tender, as if they were coddled.

Then beat them in a mortar to a subtle uniform smooth pulp (which you may pass through a searce.) In the mean time let your Sugar be dissolved, and boiling upon the fire. When it is of a candy-height, put the pulp of Quince to it, and let it remain a little while upon the fire, till it boil up one little puff or bubbling, and that it is uniformly mixed with the Sugar; you must stir it well all the while. Then take it off, and drop it into little Cakes, or put it thin into shallow glasses which you may afterwards cut into slices. Dry the cakes and slices gently and by degrees in a stove, turning them often. These will keep all the year, and are very quick of taste.


Put the Quinces whole into scalding water, and let them boil there, till they be tender. Then take them out and peel them, and scrape off the pulp, which pass through a strainer; and when it is cold enough to every pound put three quarters of a pound of double refined Sugar in subtile powder; work them well together into an uniform paste; then make little cakes of it, and dry them in a stove. If you would have the Cakes red, put a little (very little; the colour will tell you, when it is enough) of juyce of barberies to the paste or pulp. You have the juyce of Barberries thus: Put them ripe into a pot over the fire, till you see the juyce sweat out. Then strain them, and take the clear juyce. If you would have the paste tarter, you may put a little juyce of Limons to it.

A pleasant Gelly in the beginning of the winter is made, of Pearmains, Pippins and juyce of Quinces. Also a Marmulate made of those Apples, and juyce of Quinces, is very good.


Take only the Cores, and slice them thin, with the seeds in them. If you have a pound of them, you may put a pottle of water to them. Boil them, till they be all Mash, and that the water hath drawn the Mucilage out of them, and that the decoction will be a gelly, when it is cold. Then let it run through a widestrainer or fitcolender (that the gross part may remain behind, but all the slyminess go through), and to every pint of Liquor take about half a pound of double refined Sugar, and boil it up to a gelly. If you put in a little juyce of Quince, when you boil it up, it will be the quicker.

You may also take a pound of the flesh of Quinces (when you have not cores enow, to make as much as you desire) and one ounce of seeds of other Quinces, and boil them each a part, till the one be a strong decoction; the other a substantial Mucilage. Then strain each from their course faeces: and mingle the decoctions, and put Sugar to them, and boil them up to a Gelly.

Or with the flesh and some juyce of Quinces, make Marmulate in the Ordinary way; which whiles it is boiling, put to it the Mucilage of the seeds to Incorporate it with the Marmulate. You may take to this a less proportion of Sugar than to my Marmulate.


Take four pound of the best Kentish Cherries, before they be stoned, to one pound of pure loaf Sugar, which beat into small Powder: stone the Cherries, and put them into your preserving pan over a gentle fire, that they may not boil, but resolve much into Liquor. Take away with the spoon much of the thin Liquor, (for else the Marmulate will be Glewy) leaving the Cherries moist enough, but not swimming in clear Liquor. Then put to them half your Sugar, and boil it up quick, and scum away the froth that riseth. When that is well Incorporated and clear, strew in a little more of the Sugar; and continue doing so by little and little, till you have put in all your Sugar; which course will make the colour the finer. When they are boiled enough, take them off, and bruise them with the back of a spoon; and when they are cold, put them up in pots.

You may do the same with Morello Cherries; which will have a quicker-tast, and have a fine, pure, shining, dark colour.

Both sorts will keep well all the year.


Mingle juyce of Raspes and red Currants with the stoned Cherries, and boil this mixture into Marmulate, with a quarter, or at most, a third part of Sugar. The juyces must be so much as to make Gelly of them to mingle handsomely with the Cherries, to appear among and between them.

Madam Plancy (who maketh this sweet-meat for the Queen) useth this proportion. Take three pounds of Cherries stoned; half a pound of clear juyce of raspes, and one pound of the juyce of red currants, and one pound of fine Sugar. Put them all together into the preserving pan; boil them with a quick fire, especially at the first, skimming them all the while, as any scum riseth. When you find them of a fit consistence, with a fine clear gelly, mingled with the Cherries, take the preserving pan from the fire, and braise the Cherries with the back of your preserving spoon; and when they are of a fit temper of coolness, pot them up.

Peradventure, to keep all the year, there may be requisite a little more Sugar.


Slice a dozen or twenty Pippins into thin slices, and lay them in a deep dish, stratum super stratum, with pure double refined Sugar in powder. Put two or three spoonfuls of water to them, and cover them close with another dish, luting their joyning that nothing may expire. Then set them into an oven. And when you take out the dish, you will have an excellent Syrup, and the remaining substance of the Apples will be insipid.

You may proceed with Damsens, or other plumms, in the same manner, and you will have excellent stewed Damsens, (as fair as preserved ones) swimming in a very fine Syrup.


She maketh the past of Apricocks (which is both very beautiful and clear, and tasteth most quick of the fruit) thus, Take six pound of pared and sliced Apricocks, put them into a high pot, which stop close, and set it in a kettle of boiling water, till you perceive the flesh is all become an uniform pulp; then put it out into your preserving pan or possenet, and boil it gently till it be grown thick, stirring it carefully all the while. Then put two pound of pure Sugar to it, and mingle it well, and let it boil gently, till you see the matter come to such a thickness and solidity, that it will not stick to a plate. Then make it up into what form you will. The like you may do with Raspes or Currants.

It is a pleasant and beautiful sweet meat to do thus: Boil Raspes in such a pot, till they be all come to such a Liquor; Then let the clear run through a strainer; to a pound, or English wine pint whereof, put a pound of red Currants (first stoned and the black ends cut off) and a pound of Sugar. Boil these, till the Liquor be gellied. Then put it in Glasses. It will look like Rubies in clear Gelly. You may do the like with Cherries, either stoned, and the stalks cut off, or three or four capped upon one stalk, and the stone left in the first, and boiled in Liquor of Raspes.

She makes her curious red Marmulate thus: Take six pounds of Quince-flesh; six pounds of pure Sugar; and eight pints of juyce; boil this up with quick fire, till you have scummed it, then pull away all the Coals, and let it but simper, for four or five hours, remaining covered, renewing from time to time so little fire, as to cause it so to continue simpring. But as soon as it is scummed, put into it a handful of Quince kernels, two races of Ginger sliced, and fourteen or fifteen Cloves whole; all these put into a Tyffany-bag tyed fast; when you finde that the colour is almost to your minde, make a quick fire, and boil it up a pace, then throw away your bag of kernels, Ginger and Cloves, and pot up your Marmulate, when it is cool enough.

She makes her red Gelly of Quince thus: Put the Quinces pared and sliced into a pot, as above; and to every pound of this flesh put about half a demistier of fair water, and put this into a kettle of boiling water, till you perceive all the juyce is boiled out of the Quince. Then strain it out, and boil this Liquor (which will not yet be clear) till you perceive it gellieth upon a plate. Then to every pint of Liquor put a pound of Sugar, and boil it up to a gelly, skimming it well, as the scum riseth, and you will have a pure gelly.


Take them clean picked, and fresh gathered in the morning, in a bason, set them over the fire, that their juyce may sweat out, pressing them all the while with the back of your preserving spoon, to squeese out of them all that is good. When you see all is out, strain the Liquor from them, and let it stand to settle four or five hours, that the gross matter may sink to the bottom. Then take the pure clear, (the thick settling will serve to add in making of Marmulate of Cherries, or the like) and to every pint or pound of it, put three quarters of a pound of the purest refined Sugar, and boil them up with a quick fire, till they come to a gelly height (which will be done immediately in less then a quarter of an hour) which you may try with a drop upon a plate. Then take it off, and when it is cold enough, put it into Glasses. You must be careful to skim it well in due time, and with thin brown Paper to take off the froth, if you will be so curious.


Take four pound of good Sugar, clarifie it with whites of Eggs, then boil it up to a candid height (that is, till throwing it, it goeth into flakes): Then put into it five pound (or at discretion) of pure juyce of red Currants first boiled to clarifie it by skimming it. Boil them together a little while, till it be well scummed, and enough to become gelly. Then put a good handful or two of the berries of Currants whole, and cleansed from the stalks and black ends, and boil them a little till they be enough.

You need not to boil the juyce, before you put it to the Sugar, and consequently do not scum it before the Sugar and it boil together: but then scum it perfectly: and take care before, that the juyce be very clear and well strained.


Take some juyce of red Currants, and put into it a convenient proportion of some entire Currants cleansed from the stalks and buttons at the other end. Let these boil a little together. Have also ready some fine Sugar boiled to a candy height. Put of this to the Currants at discretion, and boil them together, till they be enough: and bruise them with the back of your spoon, that they may be in the consistence of Marmulate (like that of Cherries) which put in pots, when it is cool enough. You do not stone the whole Currants put into the juyce, unless you please.


To candy or preserve the tender stalks of Mallows, do thus; Take them in the spring, when they are very young and tender; and peel off the strings that are round about the outside, as you do French-beans, and boil them, till they are very tender. In the mean time prepare a high Syrup of pure Sugar, and put the boiled stalkes into it, whiles it is boiling hot, but taken from the fire. Let them lie soaking there till the next morning. Then take out the stalks, and heat the Syrup again, scalding hot, and return the stalks into it, letting them lie there till next morning; (Note, that the stalks must never boil in the Syrup,) Repeat this six, or eight, or nine times, that is to say, till they are sufficiently Imbibed with the Syrup. When they are at this pass, you may either keep them as a wet sucket in Syrup, or dry them in a stove upon Papers, turning them continually, in such sort as dried sweet-meats are to be made. I like them best dry, but soft and moist within (Medullosi) like Candied Eryngos. In Italy they eat much of them, for sharpness and heat of Urine, and in Gonorrhoea's to take away pain in Urining.

A Sucket is made in like manner of the Carneous substance of stalks of Lettice. It is the knob, out of which the Lettice groweth, which being pared, and all the tough rind being taken off, is very tender and so it is a pretty way downwards the root. This also is very cooling and smoothing.

In Italy these tender stalks of Mallows are called Mazzocchi, and they eat them (boiled tender) in Sallets, either hot or cold, with Vinegar and Oyl, or Butter and Vinegar, or juyce of Oranges.


Doctor Glisson makes his conserve of red Roses thus: Boil gently a pound of red Rose leaves (well picked, and the Nails cut off) in about a pint and a half (or a little more, as by discretion you shall judge fit, after having done it once; The Doctors Apothecary takes two pints) of Spring water; till the water have drawn out all the Tincture of the Roses into it self, and that the leaves be very tender, and look pale like Linnen; which may be in a good half hour, or an hour, keeping the pot covered whiles it boileth. Then pour the tincted Liquor from the pale Leaves (strain it out, pressing it gently, so that you may have Liquor enough to dissolve your Sugar) and set it upon the fire by it self to boil, putting into it a pound of pure double refined Sugar in small Powder; which as soon as it is dissolved, put in a second pound; then a third, lastly a fourth, so that you have four pound of Sugar to every pound of Rose-leaves. (The Apothecary useth to put all the four pounds into the Liquor altogether at once,) Boil these four pounds of Sugar with the tincted Liquor, till it be a high Syrup, very near a candy height, (as high as it can be, not to flake or candy) Then put the pale Rose-leaves, into this high Syrup, as it yet standeth upon the fire, or immediately upon the taking it off the fire. But presently take it from the fire, and stir them exceeding well together, to mix them uniformly; then let them stand till they be cold; then pot them up. If you put up your Conserve into pots, whiles it is yet throughly warm, and leave them uncovered some days, putting them in the hot Sun or stove, there will grow a fine candy upon the top, which will preserve the conserve without paper upon it, from moulding, till you break the candied crust, to take out some of the conserve.

The colour both of the Rose-leaves and the Syrup about them, will be exceeding beautiful and red, and the taste excellent; and the whole very tender and smoothing, and easie to digest in the stomack without clogging it, as doth the ordinary rough conserve made of raw Roses beaten with Sugar, which is very rough in the throat. The worst of it is, that if you put not a Paper to lie always close upon the top of the conserve, it will be apt to grow mouldy there on the top; especially apres que le pot est entame.

The Conserve of Roses, besides being good for Colds and Coughs, and for the Lunges, is exceeding good for sharpness and heat of Urine, and soreness of the bladder, eaten much by it self, or drunk with Milk, or distilled water of Mallows, and Plantaine, or of Milk.


Doctor Bacon related to me, that Mr. Minito the Roman Apothecary, made him some conserve of Roses, in this manner. He took twelve pounds (of sixteen Ounces to the pound) of the best lump or Kitchin Sugar, and clarified it very well with whites of Eggs, using Spring-water in doing this. He made his reckoning, that his twelve pound of Sugar, came to be but nine pound, when all the scum was taken away, and the Sugar perfectly clarified. Boil it then to a Syrup, and when it is about half boiled, go roundly about your Rose-leaves. They must be picked and the white nails cut off before-hand; but begin not to beat them before your Syrup is half boiled. Then put thirty Ounces (which is two pound and an half of Roses to every pound of such Sugar) of your Red-Roses into the Mortar, and beat them well, squeesing into them, as you beat them, some of the subtilest and best part (which comes out first) of about two Limons, which brings out their colour finely. You must have finished beating your Roses, by then the Sugar is come by boiling to a high Syrup (for if you should let them lie still in the Air, but a little while, they would grow black, and of ill colour) then with your ladle put the Roses to the Sugar, and stir them very well in it, to Incorporate all well and uniformly together. So let them boil on gently (for all this while you take not your preserving pan from the fire, and a thick scum of the Roses will rise, which you scum off from time to time continually as it comes up, and reserve this in a pot by it self, for it will be good hard Sugar of Roses, and may be about an eight or ninth part of the whole. After it is clear from scum, and hath boiled near a quarter of an hour with the Roses in it, and that you see by a drop upon a plate, that it is of a due consistence; take your pan from the fire, and stir all very well together, and put it into pots, which leave uncovered during ten or twelve days, setting them in the hot strong Sun all the day long during that time, to give the Roses a fine hard crust or candy at the top; but under it, in the substance of the matter, it will be like a fine clear Syrupy gelly. If the Sun favour you not, then you may use a stove. After twelve days, tie covers of Paper, upon the pots.

Doctor Bacon useth to make a pleasant Julep of this Conserve of Roses, by putting a good spoonful of it into a large drinking glass or cup; upon which squeese the juyce of a Limon, and clip in unto it a little of the yellow rinde of the Limon; work these well together with the back of a spoon, putting water to it by little and little, till you have filled up the glass with Spring-water: so drink it. He sometimes passeth it through an Hypocras bag, and then it is a beautiful and pleasant Liquor.




Scotch Ale from my Lady Holmbey 98

To make Ale drink quick 100

A very pleasant drink of Apples 100

Ale with Honey 104

Small Ale for the stone 105

Apple drink with Sugar, Honey, &c. 106

Master Webbs Ale and Bragot 107

To stew Apples 201

Apples in Gelly 234

Sweet-meat of Apples 238

To make an excellent syrup of Apples 253


Stewed Broth 125

Portugal Broth, as it was made for the Queen 127

Nourishing Broth 133

Broth and Potage 141

Broth for sick and convalescent Persons 143

A savoury and nourishing boiled Capon 133

To stew Beef 150

To stew a Rump of Beef 163, 196, 197

To rost Wilde Boar 168

About making of Brawn 205

To bake Beef 208

To boil Beef or Venison 209

Ordering Bacon for Gambons, and to keep 212

To make Bisket 219


To make Cider 100

Sir Paul Neal's way of making Cider 101

Dr. Harvey's pleasant Water Cider, whereof he used to drink much, making it his ordinary drink 103

A good Dish of Cream 116

An excellent Spanish Cream 116

Another Clouted Cream 117

My Lord of St. Alban's Cresme Fouettee 119

To make the Cream Curds 120

The Queens Barley Cream 139

Capon in White-broth 146

To make Cock-Ale 147

Savoury Collops of Veal 157

To pickle Capons my Lady Portland's way 159

Scotch Collops 167

Excellent good Collops 171

My Lady Diana Porter's Scotch Collops 181

Cream with Rice 191

Pickled Champignons 200

Sallet of cold Capon Rosted 206

To make Cheese cakes 214

Short and crisp Crust for Tarts and Pyes 215

To make a Cake 216

To make a Caraway-Cake 219

Excellent small Cakes 221

To make scalded Cheese 227

The Cream-Courds 228

Savoury tosted or melted Cheese 228

To feed Chicken 228

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