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The City of Domes
by John D. Barry
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On the sides of the tower the symbolism was consistently maintained, war and religion marking the progress of man toward the state indicated by the single figure of The Thinker.

"And, speaking of the soul," the architect went on, "Observe these great clusters of lights that illuminate this court and the approach on the other side of the tower. They look like stars, don't they? And the intention evidently is to use them for their star-like character. But there is history behind them. They are like the monstrance used in the Catholic Church, to hold the sacred host, the wafer that is accepted by the faithful as the body and blood of Jesus Christ. Since the sixteenth century it has been used by the church, a beautiful emblem, made of gold and designed to suggest the prayer of the sun, the Spirit of God in radiance. Its use here helps to give the court its ecclesiastical character."

As we made our way toward the Marina we noted how much the court gained by its general freedom from color. In the colonnade, to be sure, Guerin had been particularly successful with the shade of blue. But he would have done better if he had omitted the color, in fact all color, from the niches in the tower.

Viewed from the Marina, the entrance to the court proved to be a vision of loveliness. There was only one intrusive note to jar the harmony, the coarse sea figure by Sherry Fry, presumably Neptune's, Daughter, standing in the center, with a great fish at her feet, plainly out of place here, in spite of the court's celebration of the sea as the source of human life.



XVI

The Brangwyns



We lingered in the colonnade to view the eight mural decorations by Frank Brangwyn, of London. In front of The Bowmen we found a friend, a gifted woman painter, fairly bursting with enthusiasm. "What delights me in Brangwyn," she said, "is his artistic courage. He dares to put down just what he feels. This sturdy figure in the foreground, for example, peering through the trees, how many other painters would have allowed him to turn his back on the spectator? And yet how interesting he is and how alive."

"Some of those heads strike me as curious," I remarked. "That fellow closest to the center, just about to let his arrow fly, seems to have no head to speak of."

"Sometimes he's careless with his drawing. And yet he can draw magnificently, too. He evidently had a purpose in making so many of the heads in these murals almost deformed. He wanted to suggest that these types were in no way mental. They were wholly physical. Notice the care he has lavished on their muscular bodies, their great shoulders and legs."

"It doesn't seem like English work, does it?" said the architect.

"No, there's something almost Oriental about it both in the feeling and the coloring. And there's the Pagan love of the elemental life."

"But what a chance Brangwyn had to do something new with this magnificent subject," the architect went on. "At last, after centuries of effort, men are actually conquering the air. They've learned to fly. They've become birds. Now why didn't Brangwyn give us a pictorial expression of that miracle? Why didn't the artist have as much sense as the man of affairs who pays Art Smith to come out here and fly before the multitude?"

I argued that Brangwyn preferred to deal with antique themes - they were so much more pictorial.

The architect interrupted with some impatience. "But that's exactly what they're not. In my opinion Whistler was perfectly right when he said that if a mural decorator couldn't make modern life pictorial he didn't know his business. Flying through the air is only one of many wonders in the life of today that cry out for expression in art; but you scarcely catch a note of them here."

"For example?" said the painter.

"Industry - our great machines, the new power they bring into the world, the change in industrial relations and social and moral ideals. Now in these murals, Brangwyn has simply repeated himself and he hasn't by any means done his best work. And I question whether his observation is so accurate as you admirers of his try to make it appear. Look at the way those fellows are holding their bows - with the left hand, presumably for the pictorial effect of the composition. Well, let that point pass. One fellow has shot his arrow. The other is holding his arrow between the fore finger and the middle finger. Well, it won't go very far. The Indians know better. They let the arrow rest on the thumb to give it plenty of freedom to fly. One of those bows, by the way, has no string. Brangwyn probably thought it wouldn't be missed."

As we looked at the other panels the architect conceded that the points the painter raised for Brangwyn, the brilliant use of color; the dramatic grouping and the fineness of characterization, were true enough. "But he's too monotonous. Though his groups are of different periods, some of them ages apart, they're all essentially alike and the figures are even dressed alike. I'm perfectly willing to make allowance for artistic convention. But why should an artist limit himself unnecessarily when he has all the ages to draw on? Why should he neglect the present, the greatest of all the ages?"

"Ah, I'm afraid you're too literal said the painter. "You want to limit a genius to rules."

We turned from The Bowmen to study in detail the second illustration of Air, much more modern and yet charmingly old-fashioned, the windmill and the little mill high in the background, the group of naked boys flying kites, the toilers and their children, going home as fast as they could, fighting the wind, their picturesque draperies flying around them.

The architect was impressed. "He's caught the feeling of the thunderstorm, hasn't he?" he said.

"And he's brought out all the picturesqueness and the color and the majesty and even the humor," said the painter. "See how wonderfully be has composed the picture, what pictorial use he has made of every detail. The background of the clouds and the rain, the dark blues and the green and the pink; and the kites catching some of the color, and the lovely color of the mill and of the grass dried by the sun. And see that figure up there on the steps, all windblown and rushing under cover. It's all beautiful and yet there's not one face or figure there that would be considered beautiful by the painter who works for prettiness. He has no interest whatever in what the average mural decorator considers beautiful. And yet he sees beauty everywhere and he makes it felt. How pictorially he has used those purple flowers in the foreground at the base of the composition. And observe their relation to the purple clouds on top. And then what character he has put into those active figures, particularly in this queer little boy, naked except for the purple drapery flying from his waist. He has caught something of the fantastic spirit that you often see in children."

In nearing the two panels illustrating Water we had a chance to see how dexterously Brangwyn could manage his design without perspective, which would have made a hole in the wall. Those women with jars on their heads stood against a sky none the less lovely because it was flat. It was exquisite in its varieties of blue and white and green. That sturdy fellow lifting a heavy jar was actually working and working hard. "And how splendidly Brangwyn has modeled the figure with his back turned to us," the painter exclaimed. "What a stroke of genius it was that a yellow handkerchief of just that shade should hang from his neck. And the figures in the companion panel drawing their nets, they are putting their heart and soul into their work and they are having a good time, too. And this man here in the corner, with the purple shadows on his bare back, lifting his net, he's evidently had a big catch. He's holding the net in a way that shows it's heavy. And how decorative those men in the background are, with the baskets on their heads. Brangwyn loves to use figures in this attitude. They are interesting and picturesque and dramatic at the same time."

"But they're too conscious," the architect insisted, "too posed.

"Remember, they're not paintings," the painter insisted. "They're formal decorations."

In the panel representing the elementary use of Fire we were all struck by Brangwyn's daring and fine treatment of the ugly. Nearly every face was almost grotesque. And yet every face was appealing for the simple reason that it expressed attractive human qualities. Two, a man and a woman, had noses ridiculously large. The group of men in the center of the background, at the base, around the fire, had apparently started the fire by rubbing sticks together. One was intently leaning forward, as if in the act of blowing. Among the figures behind the group stood a man with an infant in his arms, vividly characterized by the unseeing eyes.

That infant was instantly singled out by the painter.

"Brangwyn is very wonderful in his observation of children. He has a quality that is almost maternal. Observe the difference between the expression in the face of that baby and the expression in the face of that little boy to the left of the fire-makers. How intently he is looking on as he leans against the brown jar. He shows all the interest of a boy just learning how to do things."

The kiln charmed us, too, though we regretted that it did not explain itself quite so spontaneously as most of the other panels. "But symbolism ought not to be too obvious, you know," the painter argued. "There's a certain charm in vagueness. It makes you feel your way toward a work- of art. The more you think about this panel the more you find there. To me it suggests the relation between fire and the abundance of the earth. See how cleverly, in each case of these two panels, Brangwyn has used smoke, first as a thin line, breaking into two lines as it goes up and interweaving, and then as a great flowing wreath, dividing the panel in two parts without weakening the unity."

For composition we decided that the two Earth panels were among the most remarkable of all. With satisfaction I heard Brangwyn compared by the painter to a great stage manager. "When I look at these groupings, I am reminded of Forbes-Robertson's productions of plays." Now we could see how brilliantly the decorator had planned in securing his effects of height by starting his group of figures close to the top of the canvas. And with what skill he had used trees and vines and vegetables and fruits, both for design and for coloring. "He has always been mad about apples and squashes," said that feminine voice. "In nearly every picture here you will find not one squash only, but several squashes. He loves them for their color and their shape. And how wonderful he makes the color of the grape. He suggests the miracle of its deep purple."

We admired the painter's pictorial use of shadow on those powerful and scantily draped figures and the animation he put into the bodies of the wine-pressers. And down there in a corner he had perfectly reproduced the attitude and facial expression of the worker at rest, holding out his cup for a drink. "There's another of those queer and interesting children. But oh, most wonderful of all is the opposite panel that ought to be called Abundance. See that mother, holding her lusty baby. The face is commonplace enough, but it has all motherhood in it. And the woman behind, she looks as if she might be a mother bereft or one of those women cheated out of motherhood."

The architect, though he still had his reservations on the subject of the Brangwyns, conceded that they were distinctly architectural. They blended into the spirit of the court.

The painter at once supported the opinion. "In these colonnades Guerin has done some of his finest coloring. The blue and the red are in absolute harmony with Brangwyn's rich tones. They must have been applied to fit the canvases. But the marvel is that the murals should show up so magnificently. Brangwyn painted them in London and he must have had second sight to divine just the right scheme. Do you realize," she went on enthusiastically, fairly losing herself in her enjoyment, "the immense difficulties he had to contend with? In the first place, see how huge those canvases are. Their size created all kinds of problems. To view them right, to get a line on the detail, so to speak, would have meant, for the average painter, walking long distances. But, in his studio, Brangwyn could not have taken anything like accurate measurements."

"Perhaps he painted them out of doors," the architect suggested.

"I believe the explanation is that he thought them all out and he saw them in their places. From Mr. Mullgardt he had probably received a complete account, with drawings, of just what the court was going to be like. Then it lived before him and he made the murals live. His work shows that he begins in the right place, unlike so many people who paint from outside. He feels the qualities of the people he is going to paint. He really loves them. He loves their surroundings. He must be very elemental in his nature. They say he is a great, uncouth sort of a fellow. When he first went to London he was very contemptuous of the work done by the academicians. It must have seemed to him, a good deal of it, effeminate and trifling. Can't you see how those murals show that he is a man clear through? They are masculine in every detail."

"And yet they have a good deal of delicacy, too, haven't they?" said the architect. "See how atmospheric those backgrounds are. They actually suggest nature."

"Because they are unconventional and because they are true. And yet they are purely decorative. You wouldn't like to think of them as standing apart in a great frame. When you go close you will see that the colors are laid on flat. And they don't shine. For this reason they have great carrying power. Observe The Bowmen down there in the distance. Even from this remote end of the court it expresses itself as lovely in color and composition. Let us walk down and see how it grows on us as we approach."

Slowly we moved along the colonnade, the figures seeming to grow more and more lifelike as the painter indicated their technical merits. "They are of the earth, those men, aren't they? They are the antithesis of the highly civilized types used by so many of the painters today. They suggest red blood and strength of limb and joy in the natural things of life, eating, drinking, the open air, and simple comradeship. They make us see the wonder of outdoor living, the kind of living that most of us have missed. What a pleasure it is to find a worker in any kind of work trying to do a thing and actually doing it and doing it with splendid abandon. Now if Brangwyn hadn't entered into the feelings of those bowmen in the foreground, he couldn't have made the figure alive. And the life, remember, isn't merely brought out by the happy use of the flesh tints or by the play of the muscles. It's in the animating spirit. As Brangwyn painted those fellows, he felt like a bowman. So he succeeded in putting into his canvas the strength that each bowman put into his bow. He isn't pretending to shoot, that sturdy fellow in front. He is shooting, and he's going to get what he is after."

Before each of the four pairs of murals, the painter indicated to us the happy way in which, by the deft use of the coloring, each blended into the other, and she called my attention to the clearness of the symbolism. So often, she remarked, the mural decorators used compositions that seemed like efforts to hide secrets, a childish way of working, sure to defeat itself. Brangwyn had no secrets. He was sincere and direct. He was happy over this work. He said that he had enjoyed doing it more than anything else he had ever done before. If these canvases had been found in the heart of Africa they would have been identified as coming from Brangwyn. No one else used color just as he did, with his kind of courage. His colors were arbitrary, too. He didn't follow nature and yet he always conveyed the spirit of natural things. Throughout his work he showed that he was a close and subtle observer. The sweep of rain through the air, the movement of figures and of draperies in the wind, the expression of human effort, how wonderfully he managed to suggest them all and to make them pictorial. But he wasn't interested in merely an activity. He loved repose. In nearly all of these eight canvases, so brimming with life, there were figures looking on serenely, calmly, conveying the impression of being absolutely at rest.

In every particular, according to the searching observer, Brangwyn was successful, with the exception of one, his treatment of birds. He evidently didn't know birds. If he had known them he would have loved them, and if he had loved them he would have entered into their spirit and he would have flown with them and he would have made them fly in his painting. Now they merely flopped. They were just about as much alive as the clay figures used in a shooting match. Even his highly decorative flamingoes weren't right. They did not stand firmly on the ground. They weren't alive. And the necks of the two flamingoes never could have met in the curves that Brangwyn gave them. This very failure, amusing as it was and hardly detracting from the effect of his work as a whole, was another proof that he was an instinctive painter, who relied for his guidance on feeling. But it was plain enough that he had chosen those flamingoes for their color, and a right choice it was.

We could not decide which of the eight murals we liked best. Perhaps, after all, they could not be considered apart. Though each was in itself a unity, the eight completely expressed a big conception. And in detail each canvas was full of delightful bits. If you closed your hand and peered between your thumb and your fingers, you could see how beautifully the color had been applied and how, throughout the whole surface, the workmanship sustained itself. Never was there the sense of faltering or of petering out. And everywhere there were expressions of fine understanding and sympathy, in the study of a peasant mother holding her babe, nude boys flying kites, a happy face with the lips blowing a pipe, a muscular figure lifting a jar, all conveying abundant life and rich coloring.

The painter finally ran away from us, apologizing for her enthusiasm.

In discussing her opinions, the architect said: "Well, I don't altogether agree. But she may be right. She sees from the inside, which is very different from seeing from the outside. There is a great deal of artistic appreciation that can be felt only by the artist, by the fellow-craftsman. No wonder we go so far astray when we criticise aspects of art that we're only related to indirectly or not related at all."

We walked to the Marina. From there we saw the sun, a great red ball, sinking behind the Golden Gate.



XVII

Watching the Lights Change



"There probably never was an Exposition in a more magnificent setting," said the architect. "The stretch from here to the Golden Gate makes one of the most splendid bits of scenery in the whole world. It was a good idea on the part of the Exposition people to build the little railway here so that visitors should get a glimpse of all the beauty. But, ideally, the view ought to be seen from a height. The curve from here to the Cliff House makes our foreign visitors gasp. It also makes them wonder why our boasting over San Francisco doesn't include some of the things we have the best excuse to boast about."

We stopped at one of the open-air restaurants, where we could eat and watch the fading light at the same time. Then we went to the lagoon, which the architect declared to be particularly interesting at this time of day.

The rotunda and the colonnade began to take on a deeper mystery. Across the surface of the water ran a faint ripple. In the background, over the Golden Gate, the sky was turning to flame. Delicate, gray cobwebs seemed to float in the air like veils, dusk and fog intermingled.

The light grew dim as we sauntered along the colonnade of the Palace. Through the columns we could see the Tower of Jewels, suddenly illuminated from inside, all in red, obscuring the sculptured figures and giving the lines greater unity and reach.

In the red glow the Italian towers fairly leaped into the air. "It's curious how the light makes them taller," said the architect.

Now the grounds were twinkling with a multitude of bulbs.

Presently the red light in the tower softened into white. Two of the Italian towers grew paler, the other two retaining their brilliancy. Ryan was putting on his colors like a painter, one over another.

We made our way back to the Marina, where the scintillators were soon to blaze. Before we arrived they informed us of their presence by the great feathered fan, of many colors, that rose into the sky.

"There was some opposition to the decorating of the Tower with jewels. The architects with conservative ideas very naturally felt that architecture which depended on its lines for beauty didn't need that kind of ornament. But Ryan has unquestionably justified himself. The feature has been talked about throughout the country more than any other. See how the light falls on the tower like a great shimmering robe. It gains by the contrast it makes with the subdued lighting beneath."

The group on the Column of Progress stood out against the sky.

The doorways were taking on the color of gold, becoming even more beautiful than they had been by day.

"What Ryan tried hardest to get," said the architect, "was evenness of lighting. He wanted to bring out clearly the details of the architecture and he succeeded."



XVIII

The Illuminating and the Reflections



That motionless steam engine, all in gray, harmonizing with the Travertine, was furiously at work. Into the air it sent clouds of steam that turned to red and blue and green under Ryan's magic. And up there, at the top of the Column of Progress, we saw the Adventurous Bowman and his companions in two groups, one reflected on the illuminated fog.

Through the smoke and the fog the bombs were shooting and breaking into great masses of liquid fire, golden and green and pink and yellow. "Someone says we're all children at heart," the architect remarked. "These fireworks get more attention than all the architecture and the art put together. But, after all, they're just about as beautiful as anything man can make and, in the way of color, they put the artists to shame."

We were part of the crowd that swept to the Court of the Universe, never so splendid as at night, with the columns reflected in the pool and Calder's star figures shining from the concealed electric bulbs. On reaching the court itself we stood at the end of one of the corridors and looked down. Great drops of light hung on the columns like molten gold. "Ryan has done something very artistic and unusual there," the architect remarked. "So far as I know nothing just like it has ever been done before. It suggests the tongues of fire mentioned in the Scripture that descended from Heaven."

In the sunken garden those two shafts, rising from the fountains, looking like stone by day, had become great candles, glowing from the base to the glass globe on top. "They're practically the sole means of illuminating this court. The other lights are merely ornamental. So far as I'm aware nothing just like these shafts has ever been tried in an Exposition or anywhere else. It's a novel Expositional effect. Some people don't like it; but most people admire it immensely. It symbolizes the gold that first drew the multitude to this part of the world. If the golden color had been used more extensively throughout the Exposition it would have helped a lot. Guerin gets it at night by means of the light that shines through the windows and Faville gets it in the light behind those wonderful doorways of his that haven't been praised half as much as they ought to be."

The Court of the Ages lured us along the dimly lighted inner court, the arches taking on an even more delicate beauty in the night light. Once within the court we found ourselves under the spell of Mullgardt's genius. The architecture, the cauldrons sending out pink steam, the flaming serpents, the torches on the tower, the warm lights from within the tower, the great ecclesiastical stars, brilliant with electricity, all carried out the idea of the earth, cast off by the sun.

In the entrance court we found the effects less magnificent but, in their way, just as beautiful. The lighting emphasized the refinement of the court, the rich delicacy of the ornamentation. "Mullgardt ought to go down into history for this contribution to the Exposition," said the architect. "He has shown that originality is still possible in architecture."

In the Court of the Four Seasons we watched the Emerald Pool turning the architecture into a mermaids' palace. The water flowing under the four groups of the seasons shone from an invisible light beneath, coloring it a rich green. "When Ryan promised to illuminate the water here without letting the source of the light be seen, it was thought by the people it couldn't be done." For a long time we sat in front of the lagoon where the swans were silently floating and, and the Palace of Fine Arts was reproduced with a deeper mystery. Now we could feel the relation between the colonnade and Gerome's chariot race. "It would please Gerome if he could know that he had helped to inspire so magnificent a conception," said the architect. "And if Boecklin could see this vision and hear that his Island of the Dead had started Maybeck's mind thinking of it he would probably be astonished and delighted at the same time. With his fine understanding of the influences operating in art he would see that his contribution did not in any way detract from Maybeck's originality. Down the centuries minds have been influencing one another and, in this way, adding to the sum of wisdom and beauty in the world. Now and then, as in this instance, we can plainly see the influences at work. Behind Boecklin and Gerome there were doubtless influences that led to their making those two pictures, inspirations from nature or from other artists, or both together. And this palace will doubtless inspire many another noble conception."

"When we apply that thought to the Exposition as a whole," I said, "we can see what a big influence it is likely to have on the art of the country."

"It has undoubtedly had a big influence already, even though we may not he able, as yet, to see it working. The very interest the Exposition has, aroused in the people that come here, whether they are artists or not, can't help being productive."



Seeing the Lights Fade



We went over to the South Gardens to see the lights change on the Tower of Jewels, passing the half-dome of Philosophy, the stained glass of the windows enveiling the background. They were still robing the tower in pure white, and the hundred thousand pieces of Austrian cut glass were shimmering. "They must have had a hard time getting those jewels fastened on the ornamentation of the upper tiers. The wind up there is very strong. Some of the men came near being blown off. It took pretty expert acrobatic work to hang the jewels out on the extreme edges.

Suddenly the lights on the tower glowed into red. The tower itself seemed to become thinner and finer in outline.

"There are people who don't like this color," said the architect. "It's fashionable nowadays to feel a prejudice against red. But it is one of the most beautiful colors in nature and one of nature's greatest favorites, associated with fire and with flowers. To me the tower is never so beautiful as it is when the red light seemed to burn from a fire inside. See how it tends to eliminate the superfluous ornamentation. It brings out the grace of line in the upper tiers, like folded wings. With just a few eliminations the improvement in that tower would be astonishing."

Presently the lights in the tower went out altogether. The four Italian towers also grew dim. It was getting late. People were hurrying out. But we lingered. We wished to see this city of domes as it appeared without any lights at all, except for those that were kept burning to meet the requirements of the law.

For an hour we roamed about the deserted place. Here and there we would meet a belated visitor or a group of people from some indoor festivity.

The material had taken on a finer quality. It looked like stone. Wonderful as the Exposition was by day and in the evening, it was far more wonderful at this hour.

Now it was easy to imagine the scene as a city, with the inhabitants asleep in their beds. But just what kind of city it was I could not make up my mind. When I expressed this thought to the architect, he said:

"Have you ever seen David Roberts' big illustrated volumes, 'Travels in the Holy Land'? If you haven't, look them up. Then you will see what kind of a city this city is. It's a city of Palestine. It's Jerusalem and Jaffa and Akka all over again."



Features that Ought to be Noted by Day



The South Gardens



Hedge. Idea suggested by W. B. Faville, of Bliss & Faville, architects, of San Francisco, and developed by John McLaren, landscape gardener and superintendent of the Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, to give impression of old English wall. African dew plant grown in shallow boxes, two inches deep, covered with wire netting.

Design of entrance at Scott Street, by Joseph J. Rankin.

South Gardens, French in character, with suggestions of Spanish. Planting by John McLaren.

In center, "Fountain of Energy," by A. Stirling Calder, acting chief of sculpture; French influence. Expresses triumph of energy that built the canal. Youth on horseback, standing in stirrups, "Energy." Figures on shoulders, "Fame" and "Valor." Figures on globe, two hemispheres; Western, bull-man; Eastern, lioness-woman. Figures on base, sea-spirits. Upright figure on globe, Panama. Large figures in pool, the oceans: The Atlantic, a woman with coral in her hair, riding on back of armored fish; North Sea, an Eskimo hunting on back of walrus; Pacific, a woman on back of large sea lion; and South Sea, a negro on back of trumpeting sea-elephant. Sea-maidens on dolphins' backs, in pool.

To right and left, in front of Festival Hall, and Horticultural Palace, at ends of long pools, French fountain of "The Mermaid," figure, by Arthur Putnam, of San Francisco.

To right, large building, Festival Hall, by Robert Farquhar, of Los Angeles; French theatre architecture. Studied from the theatres of the Beaux Arts style of French architecture. Details, French Renaissance developed from the Italian influence.

To right, Press Building, designed and built by the Exposition; Harris H. D. Connick, Director of Works.

To left, large building, Palace of Horticulture, Bakewell & Brown, architects.

To left, Young Women's Christian Association.

French light standards, by Walter D'Arcy Ryan and P. E. Denneville.

French ornamental vases, filled with flowers, by E. F. Champney.

The wall, by Faville, with ornamental Spanish entrances, runs around main courts and palaces, making the walled city. Tiled roofs suggesting mission architecture, associated with early California missions, a style developed from the Spanish.

Four smaller towers, two on either side of large tower, by George W. Kelham, of San Francisco; Italian Renaissance.

Sand on walks, selected by Jules Guerin for its pink color to harmonize with color scheme. Binds together buildings, its pink harmonizing with pink of walls. Grains of sand in walks translucent.

Flag poles, ornamented with gilt star, by Faville. Orange-colored streamers by Guerin.

Heraldic designs related to history of Pacific Coast, by Ryan.

Thoroughfare running along wall and lined with palms, Avenue of Palms.

Equestrian statue, to right of Tower of Jewels, by Charles Niehaus, "Cortez," conquerer of Mexico.

Equestrian statue, to left, by Charles Cary Rumsey, "Pizarro," conqueror of Peru. Fine in action and spirit.



Tower of Jewels



Main tower breaking southern wall, facing South Gardens, the Tower of Jewels, by Thomas Hastings, of Carrere & Hastings, New York. Developed from Italian Renaissance architecture, with Byzantine modifications, and designed to suggest an Aztec tower; 433 feet high; original intention to make it 100 feet higher.

Inscriptions on wall at base of tower chosen by Porter Garnett of Berkeley, explain steps that led to building of Panama Canal, celebrated by Exposition. On both sides of inscriptions Roman fasces denoting public authority. From left to right: "1501 Rodrigo de Bastides pursuing his course beyond the West Indies discovers Panama"; "1513 Vasco Nunes de Balboa crosses the Isthmus of Panama and discovers the Pacific Ocean"; "1904 the United States, succeeding France, begins operations on the Panama Canal"; "1915 the Panama Canal is opened to the commerce of the world."

Large Composite columns on base. Arched capitals with acanthus, ornamented with the American eagle, the nude figure of child, and ornamental design suggesting California fruits. Colored to resemble Sienna marble.

Corinthian columns at either side, eagles at corners of capital, human head above.

Figures by John Flanagan, of New York, represent types in early California history: Spanish adventurer of sixteenth century, who came to California and started Spanish influence; priest, who brought the Catholic religion to California Indians; philosopher, or scholar and teacher; and the Spanish warrior, the soldier of sixteenth century, who came to win territory for Spanish king. Above cornice of tower stand four figures on each of the four sides, twice life-size.

Between statues by Flanagan, square decorative panels; youthful figures with wreath, repeated on north of tower. Designed by Hastings, modelled by Newman and Evans, New York.

Armored horsemen on terrace, by F. M. L. Tonetti, type of Spanish soldier. Repeated four times on each side. Well modeled, but damaged in effect by being placed in row.

Rows of eagles on niches of tower, symbol of American initiative.

Decorative vase on wings of tower, Italian. Use of ram's head below bowl.

Wreaths of laurel under eagles, rewards of courage, suggesting triumph of building canal.

Prows of triremes, at corners on third lift, denoting worldwide commerce.

Ornamental use of niches, columns, vases, head-piece, breastplates, shields, the pagan bull, Cleopatra's Needle.

Human figures supporting globe, encircled with girdle, point of tower; suggest Atlas; ancient idea; somewhat like the group of the four quarters of the world by Jean Baptiste Carbeaux in the gardens of the Luxembourg.

Tower broken into seven stages. Horizontal lines have flattening effect; tower does not appear so high as it really is.

One hundred and thirty-five thousand jewels on tower, suspended to vibrate. Ruby, emerald, aquamarine, white, yellow. Made in Austria, of Sumatra stone.

Arch of Tower of Jewels, 110 feet high, 60 feet broad; fine example of Roman arch, like Arch of Constantine and Arch of Titus.

Figure of Minerva on centerpiece of arch, north and south.

Recessed or coffered panels in ceiling, richly colored, blue harmonizing with murals on east and west walls.

Murals by William de Leftwich Dodge, of New York. To west, "Atlantic and the Pacific," with the "Purchase" to right, and the "Discovery" to left. Opposite, "Gateway of All Nations," with "Labor Crowned" and the "Achievement" on sides. Tone of murals strengthens arch. Subjects related to history of California and the Panama Canal.

Fountains, one in each of the colonnades. To right, "Fountain of Youth," by Mrs. Edith Woodman Burroughs, of Flushing, New York. Figure of girl, simple and well-modeled; panels at either side show boats, youth rowing the older people; eagle and laurel wreath at back, suggest that central figure is United States. One figure shows a woman with hand at ear, her attention turned toward the beauty and happiness of lost youth. To left, "Fountain of El Dorado," by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney (Mrs. Harry Payne Whitney), of New York. Panels at either side show human struggle for "land of gold," or "happiness," or "success." Portals ajar, but Egyptian guardians bar the way. Dramatic subject, vigorous handling.

View of San Francisco hills between the columns, one of the most beautiful views on the grounds.

Inscriptions on north of tower, by Garnett, discovery of California and union with United States. From left to right: "1542 Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo discovers California and lands on its shores." "1776 Jose Joaquin Moraga founds the Mission of San Francisco de Asis"; "1846 the United States upon the outbreak of war with Mexico takes possession of California"; "1850 California is admitted to the Union as a sovereign State."

Forecourt of Court of Universe; coloring good, graceful planting of cypress.

Trees in niches under tower; contrast of colors, dark green, blue and pink.



Court of the Universe



Elephant poles, Roman, by McKim, Mead & White; streamers by Guerin.

Bear fountains, in walls of Palaces of Liberal Arts and Manufactures, north of Tower of Jewels. Three on each wall. Colors, pink, dark blue, light green.

Largest court in Exposition. By McKim, Mead & White, architects, of New York. Inspired by Bernini's entrance to St. Peter's, in Rome.

Area of court, seven acres; 650 feet wide from arch to arch; 1200 feet from Tower of Jewels to Column of Progress.

Palaces around court: northeast, Transportation; northwest, Agriculture; southwest, Liberal Arts; southeast, Manufactures.

Sunken Garden, planted by John McLaren.

Height of Arches of Rising Sun and Setting Sun, 203 feet from base to tip of sculpture.

East, Arch of Rising Sun; Arch of Setting Sun, in west. Suggested by arches of Constantine and Titus in Rome; modified by use of green lattices, Oriental, and by colossal sculptural groups, the East and the West, in place of Roman chariot or quadriga.

Columns in front of arches; composite, mingling of Ionic and Corinthian; female figure used as decoration.

"Angel of Peace," by Leo Lentelli, on each side of arches on Sienna columns, repeated four times. Sword is turned down, but not sheathed, a commentary on modern peace.

"Pegasus," in triangular spaces above arch, by Frederick G. R. Roth, repeated on the other side.

Medallions, right and left sides of arches. Female figures suggesting Nature, by Calder; male figures suggesting Art, by B. Bufano, of New York.

Above medallions on frieze, decorative griffons.

Quotations on Arch of Rising Sun, west side, facing court, chosen by Garnett. Panels from left to right: "They who know the truth are not equal to those who love it," from Confucius, the Chinese philosopher; "The moon sinks yonder in the west while in the east the glorious sun behind the herald dawn appears; thus rise and set in constant change those shining orbs and regulate the very life of this, our world," from "Shakuntala" by Kalidasa, the Indian poet; "Our eyes and hearts uplifted seem to gaze on heaven's radiance," from Hitomaro, the Japanese poet.

Quotations on Arch of Rising Sun, east side, facing Florentine Court. Panels from left to right: "He that honors not himself lacks honor wheresoe'er he goes," from Zuhayr, the Arabian poet; "The balmy air diffuses health and fragrance; so tempered is the genial glow that we know neither heat nor cold; tulips and hyacinths abound; fostered by a delicious clime, the earth blooms like a garden," from Firdausi, the Persian poet; "A wise man teaches, be not angry. From untrodden ways turn aside," from Phra Ruang, the Siamese poet.

Crenellated parapet on arches, note from military architecture. Archers used to shoot from behind.

Cleopatra's Needle repeated on edge of arches. Used by the Egyptians as historical records and public bulletins. Merely decorative.

Green jars, beautifully designed, in niches at base of Arches of Rising and Setting Sun, McKim, Mead & White. Eight in each arch.

Arch of the Rising Sun, surmounted by group representing types of Oriental civilization. "Nations of the East," designed by Calder, and executed in collaboration with Lentelli and Roth. From left to right: Arab sheik on horse, negro slave, Egyptian on camel, Arab falconer, Indian prince, Buddhist priest or lama from Thibet, Mohammedan with crescent, negro slave, and Mongolian on horseback.

Murals in arch by Edward Simmons, of New York. On north wall, from left to right, True Hope and False Hope, Commerce, Inspiration, Truth, Religion, Wealth, Family; in background Asiatic and American cities. On south wall: historical types, nations that have crossed the Atlantic; from left to right, "Call to Fortune," listening to the past, the workman, the artist, the priest, Raleigh the adventurer, Columbus the discoverer, the savage of lost Atlantis, the Graeco-Roman, and the Spirit of Adventure sounding the call to fortune. In background, ancient and modern ships.

Arch of Setting Sun. Statues, frieze, spandrels, parapet, identical with Arch of Rising Sun. Group on top, "The Nations of the West," designed by Calder, executed in collaboration with Lentelli and Roth. American figures grouped around prairie wagon, drawn by two oxen. Above wagon, "Enterprise"; in front, "The Mother of Tomorrow," white boy on one side, colored boy on other; south, a French-Canadian, an Alaskan woman, a Spanish-American, a German; north, an Italian, British-American, squaw, American Indian.

Quotations on Arch of Setting Sun, chosen by Garnett. Panels from left to right, facing court: "In Nature's infinite book of secrecy a little I can read," from "Antony and Cleopatra," by Shakespeare, the English poet;

"Facing west from California's shores, Inquiring, tireless, seeking what is yet unfound,

I, a child, very old, over waves, toward the house of maternity, the land of migrations, look afar,

Look off the shores of my Western sea, the circle almost circled. from "Leaves of Grass," by Walt Whitman the American poet; "Truth, witness of the past, councillor of the present, guide of the future," from "Don Quixote," by Cervantes, the Spanish novelist.

Murals in Arch of the Setting Sun, by Frank Vincent Du Mond of New York. "Westward March of Civilization," beginning on north and continuing on south wall. Four groups in north panel, from left to right, Emigrants setting out for the west; two workmen and a woman holding child; symbolic figure of the Call to Fortune; types of those who crossed the continent, the driver, the Preacher, the Pioneer, the Judge, the Schoolmistress, the children; youth bidding farewell to parents; in background, New England home and meeting place. South wall: four groups in panel, from left to right; two Spanish-American soldiers and captain with a Spanish priest, suggesting Mission period; symbolical figure "Spirit of Enlightenment"; types of immigrants, the Scientist, the Architect, the Writer Bret Harte, the Sculptor, the Painter William Keith, the Agriculturist, the Laborer, women and children; California welcoming the easterners, figures of California bear, farmer, miner, fruit pickers; orange tree, grain and fruit, symbols of state.

Classic groups at head of steps in front of arches leading down into gardens by Paul Manship, of New York. North side, "The Dancing Girls"; south, "Music and Art."

Star-figure, along upper edge of court, by Calder. Repeated ninety times. Contrast with angel in front of arches.

Lion's head, on cornice below star-figure, repeated around court.

Gilt balls on the domes of all six pavilions. Represent an ornamental motive borrowed from the Byzantines and often used on synagogues. A feature of St. Mark's. Dr. Jacob Nieto, rabbi of the Temple Israel, of San Francisco, has an interesting theory as to their origin. "The ancients always had the greatest regard for the central star of each of the constellations that made tip the zodiacal signs. No doubt in their method of representation they would symbolize the central stars by a globe, as they also did the sun and the moon, looking upon them all as servants of the earth, and having, possibly, no idea that these other constellations might be separate solar systems."

Frieze on pavilions at corners of court, "Signs of the Zodiac," Atlas and fourteen daughters, seven Pleiades and seven Hyades twelve bearing plaques, by Herman A. MacNeil, of New York. On four sides of each of the six dome-covered pavilions. The third figure from the end on either side represents Electra. Sculptor, in modelling the form, put it on one side and then reversed it on the other side. The daughters of Atlas: only those representing signs of the Zodiac, have shields. On each shield is one of the signs of the Zodiac. What the sculptor has designed on the right is reversed on the left, securing absolute symmetry. The figures are finely done and merit special attention.

Lamps around sunken garden. Women; the Canephori, priestesses who carried baskets in ancient Greek religious festivals; men, suggestive of Hermes, used by Romans at ends of roads. Instead of baskets, they all carry jars.

"Fountain of the Rising Still." Ninety-foot column crowned by figure of Rising Sun, by Adolph A. Weinman, of New York. Reliefs at base of column, "Day Triumphant"; Time, Light, Truth, Energy, conquering Falsehood, Vice, and Darkness. Ornamental figures under upper bowl looking down into water, suggest Neptune, but are winged, "Spirit of the Waters."

"Fountain of Setting Sun." Column with figure of Setting Sun, a woman; called also "Descending Night." Reliefs at base of fountain, "Gentle Powers of Night," with Dusk covering Labor, Love, and Peace, followed by the Stars, Luna, Illusions, and Evening Mists.

Tritons in pools of Fountains of Rising and Setting Sun, by Weinman. Two statues; one, triton struggles with snake; in the other, with fish. Two duplicated in each pool.

Sheetlike appearance of water when full force of water is on; streams from figures in pool, overflowing from bowl, spouting from lion heads above frieze.

"The Elements," reclining figures at head of main stairs leading down to sunken gardens by Robert Aitken, of New York. In size and treatment, suggestive of Michael Angelo. Northeast, "Water," riding a wave, with his trident in one hand, sea weed in the other. Northwest, "Fire," a Greek warrior lies in agony, grasping fire and lightning, with Phoenix, bird of flame, at back, and the salamander, reptile of fire, under his right leg. Southeast, "Earth," a woman leaning against a tree, apparently sleeping; at back two human figures struggle to uproot tree, symbol of man's war with nature. Southwest "Air" woman holding star to ear; birds, symbol of air; Icarus, mythological aviator who fell into sea, tied to wings of woman, typifying man's effort to conquer the air.

Small lion fountains below "The Elements," by McKim, Mead & White.

Bandstand, Arabic; picturesque, but inharmonious; obstructs view through entrance court.

Four tigers at base of bandstand, facing pool; decorative.

Court leading from gardens to Column of Progress. Designs repeated in frieze and in jeweled lamps of shell design, McKim, Mead & White; fine detail.

Colonnades on either side of court leading to Marina. Large Roman hanging lamps. Stars in ceilings. Beauty in design, coloring and sweep of corridor.

Frieze around main doorway in colonnades, bird and conventionalized foliage; skilfully designed.



On the Marina



View from Marina: Extreme right, Berkeley and Oakland; in center of bay, Alcatraz Island, like a white citadel; left of Alcatraz, Angel Island; left of Angel Island, Belvedere; left, Marin County, including Sausalito and Mount Tamalpais, with military reservation facing the Golden Gate and looking across to the large military reservation, Presidio.

Column of Progress, celebrating the Progress of Man. Preliminary sketch by Calder. W. Symmes Richardson, architect. Reliefs at base, by Isidore Konti, of New York. Surmounting statue, by Hermon A. MacNeil, of New York.

Tablets on four sides of base, in commemoration of aerial advancement. To the west, the scientific phase, a tribute to Langley, who first solved the problem of flying. To the north, aerial achievement. To the east, aerial organization. To the south, history of flying.

Frieze at base on four sides celebrates beginning of progress. On south front, two women holding palm branches, symbol of victory, call mankind to achievement.

Wreath at base of column, reward of achievement.

Top of pedestal, ornamental garland, with figure of Sphinx at corners.

Spiral, winding around column, with ships in full sail, suggestive of upward progress of world. Similar spiral on Column of Trajan and Column of Marcus Aurelius, in Rome.

Circular frieze sustaining main group at top, "The Burden Bearers," by MacNeil.

Group on top, "The Adventurous Bowman," the Superman, representing moment of attainment. Three figures, the dominating male, with the male supporter steadying his arm, and the devoted woman ready to crown him with laurel.

First use of this kind of column for an idealistic conception. Prototypes of this column, like Trajan's Column, but to celebrate some warlike figure or feat.

Best place to view column, from north, near California Building.

Esplanade, straight northern wall, broken by Court of Four Seasons, Court of the Universe, and Court of the Ages. Northern facades of all four buildings, ornate doors in duplicate of Spanish plateresque doorways.

Main doorways, rich detail. Statues in niches, by Allen Newman, of New York. Center, "Conquistador," sixteenth century Spanish adventurer. Figure on either side in duplicate, Newman's "Pirate," who preyed on shore commerce of South America. Humorous touch in bowlegs.

Magnificent view from Marina of San Francisco back of the Tower Of Jewels. Like a painting by Cezanne.



Approaching the Court of Four Seasons From the Court of the Universe



Venetian Court.

Palaces on sides of court; to the north, Agriculture; to the south, Liberal Arts.

Quotation on Arch of Setting Sun, facing Venetian Court, chosen by Garnett. Panels from left to right: "The world is in its most excellent state when justice is supreme," from Dante, the Italian poet; "It is absolutely indispensable for the United States to effect a passage from the Mexican Gulf to the Pacific Ocean, and I am certain that they will do it. Would that I might live to see it. But I shall not," from Goethe, the German poet; "The Universe, an infinite sphere, the center everywhere, the circumference no where," from Pascal, the French philosopher.

Italian Renaissance architecture.

Colors rich and well harmonized; pink and green.

Picturesque lattice work in small doorways.

Lighting standards, by Faville.

Goats' heads at top of standards, just below the globe.

Arches on sides, coupled Corinthian columns. Endeavor to make them more interesting than formal type of fluted columns. Four designs. They add to richness of court.

Winged figures over arches, by Faville.

Blue medallions above arches, Faville. Italian adaptation of Byzantine, Ship of State, the Bison, the Twins holding garlands representing abundance, the horn of plenty and cadeucus, and tree.

Coloring under eaves, bright shades, blue and orange.

Planting, by McLaren, well-massed, in great profusion.



Court of Four Seasons



Court of Four Seasons, Henry Bacon, of New York, architect. Hadrian's Villa used as model for half-dome and columns in front of fountain. Italian Renaissance in feeling. Every detail in classic spirit. Gives impression of seclusion and peace.

Quotations on gateways chosen by Garnett. On the eastern gateway, "So forth issew'd the seasons of the yeare - first, lusty spring all dight in leaves and flowres - then came the jolly sommer being dight in a thin cassock coloured greene, then came the autumne all in yellow clad - lastly came winter cloathed all in frize, chattering his teeth for cold that did him chill," from "The Faerie Queene," by Edmund Spenser. On the western gateway, "For lasting happiness we turn our eyes to one alone, and she surrounds you now, great nature, refuge of the weary heart and only balm to breasts that have been bruised. She bath cool hands for every fevered brow and gentlest silence for the troubled soul," from "The Triumph of Bohemia," by George Sterling.

Palaces around court: northeast, Agriculture; northwest, Food Products; southwest, Education; southeast, Liberal Arts.

Emerald pool. Surrounded by shrubbery. No sculpture. Architectural term, a "black mirror." Fine reflections.

Planting, by McLaren, simple and effective. Trees, olive, acacia, eucalyptus, cypress, laurel. All foliage, grey-green; banner poles same color.

Banners, by Ryan; no heraldic designs.

Best view of court from between columns of Fountains of Spring or Autumn.

Bulls at sides, above entrance to north court, "Feast of the Sacrifice," by Albert Jaegers, of New York. Youth and maiden leading bulls to harvest festival, suggested by great garlands.

Roman eagles below bulls on four corners of north court.

Bull's head with festoons, skull motive, at base of corner pavilions at four corners of north court, Roman.

Lion's head around cornice, designed by the architect, modelled by artisans of Exposition.

Bulls' heads above cornices between festoons of flowers around court. Roman motive.

Statue above south dome, "Harvest," by Albert Jaegers. Seated figure with horn of plenty. Fruits and grains on either side.

"Abundance," statue repeated four times over each gateway, by August Jaegers.

Vases repeated twenty-four times on balustrade around court; simple design, in harmony with classic plan of court.

Wreaths above cornice around court, harvest motive, wheat and grape.

Figures in triangular spaces over three arches of each gateway, repeated. By August Jaegers. Harvest motive.

In ceiling of east and west arches, faint relief, terra-cotta effect, Greek designs; coloring, orange, faint greens, and browns.

Signs of zodiac on gateways, Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces.

Half-dome to south, "Niche of Ceres." Rich coloring in vault, contrasted with light tones in arched section.

Figures on composite columns at right and left of half-dome, "Rain" and "Sunshine," Albert Jaegers. "Rain," a woman shielding head with mantle and holding shell; "Sunshine," woman shading head from sun with palm branch.

Capitals of columns of "Rain" and "Sunshine," agricultural figures, small harvesters. Modelled by Donnelly and Ricci after designs of the architect.

Pedestals at base of columns, agricultural scenes in low relief, modelled by Donnelly and Ricci after designs of the architect. Farmers going to work with women and children and dog.

In niches at corners of court, "Fountains of the Seasons," surmounted by statue groups representing seasons, Furio Piccirilli, of New York.

Delicate pink tinting of walls in niches, by Guerin, in imitation of pink marble.

Columns of colonnades, Ionic, with harvest suggestion in ears of corn hanging from capitals, flower at top.

Flower boxes, in walls of niches near top and at top; African dew plant hanging over edge; give note of age and break sharp outline of wall against sky, and contrast with color of background.

Southwest corner, "Spring," by Piccirilli. Young woman with floral garland, man adoring, Flora bringing flowers.

Northwest corner, "Summer," by Piccirilli. Group expresses fruition. Woman brings child to husband. Laborer with first sheaf from field.

Northeast corner, "Autumn," by Piccirilli. Young woman carrying wine jar, suggests fruitfulness. Harvest of fields and human race; one girl offers grapes, other a child.

Southeast corner, "Winter," by Piccirilli. Bare tree at back; laborer rests after tilling; one begins to sow, preparing for spring.

Murals in colonnades with fountains, by H. Milton Bancroft. Simple and obvious, in the pagan spirit.

Above doorway in southwest corner, Spring. "Spring" and "Seedtime."

Northwest corner, Summer. "Summer" and "Fruition."

Northeast corner, Autumn. "Autumn" and "Harvest."

Southeast corner, Winter. "Festivity" and "Winter."

Murals in half-dome to south, Bancroft. Coloring and arrangement of figures finer than in smaller panels.

On east wall under dome, "Art Crowned by Time." Father Time crowns Art; on one side, figures of Weaving, Jewelry Making, Glassmaking; on other Printing, Pottery, and Smithery.

"Man Receiving Instruction in Nature's Laws." Woman holds before a child a tablet inscribed "Laws of Nature." Nature's laws applied to Earth, Water, Fire, Love, Life, and Death.

North court, entrance to Court of Four Seasons. Wreaths, lion heads, bulls' beads, harvest design on capitals of columns, repeated.

"Ceres," by Miss Beatrice Evelyn Longman, goddess of agriculture, wreath of cereals and corn scepter. Figure conventional, prim and modish; flowing skirt.

Figures below "Ceres" on drum represent carefree nature. In deep relief. cameo-like. Figures of women, gracefully modeled, with garlands and tambourines.

Satyrs spout water into bowl of fountain.

Trees, yews in couples, on either side of walks and center of lawn; redwoods and eucalypti at sides of entrance to court.

Shiny-leaved dark green shrub, on borders in court, coprosma.

Mass of green, placed at end of court to hide Morro Castle. Deepens intimate note of court.

French lighting standards at north end of court, by Ryan and Denneville.



Aisle of Sunset



Aisle approaching the Palace of Fine Arts, leading from Court of Four Seasons, west to Administration Avenue, by Faville.

Central portal, Spanish Renaissance, with twisted Byzantine columns.

Globe above, symbolical of universal education.

Main sculptural group: "Education," by Gustave Gerlach, Weehawken, New Jersey. Tree of knowledge in background. Left, kindergarten stage. Center, half-grown children. Right, man working out problems for himself.

Below, open book of knowledge radiating light in all directions. Small figures draw aside curtains of darkness and ignorance. Hour-glass, "Time Flies." Crown, for seekers of knowledge.

Educational panels inlaid in wall over smaller entrances, by pupils of School of Sculpture of Beaux Arts Architects, and National Sculpture Society.

Woman teacher, by W. H. Peters.

Man teacher, by Cesare Stea.

"Victory," on gables of buildings, by Louis Ulrich, of New York; "Acroterium"; like "Victory of Samothrace."

Charm of green lattice-work in small doorways of palace.

Main doorway, Palace of Food Products, by Faville. Terra cotta effect on sides of door. Eagles above door, inspiration. Green lattice-work in doors.



Administration Avenue



West wall, magnificent; facing Palace of Fine Arts, broken by Aisle of Spring, and two large Roman half-domes in Palace of Food Products and Palace of Education.

Palaces facing avenue: from north to south, Food Products and Education; across lagoon, Fine Arts.

Greenery and niches in pink and blue prevent wall from being monotonous.

"Dome of Plenty," in Palace of Food Products, harmonizes with half-dome in Court of Four Seasons.

Fountain in dome; elaborate; Sienna design.

Man with oak wreath, repeated eight times above columns in portal representing strength, by Earl Cummings.

Great columns of imitation Sienna on either side of portal, surmounted by "Physical Vigor," by Ralph Stackpole.

Niches along wall, archaeological figures, by Charles Harley, of Philadelphia. "Triumph of the Field," man with harvest symbols, alternating with "Abundance," woman with horn of plenty.

Half-dome of Palace of Education, "Dome of Philosophy." Architecture as in "Dome of Plenty." Charm of background, ornamented ceiling, Corinthian columns with acanthus leaves.

Over doorways, beautiful use of stained glass.

Female figure repeated eight times above inner columns, by Albert Weinert; carries books; "Ex Libris," representing education.

Statue by Stackpole surmounting Sienna columns, reversed duplicate of figure before "Dome of Plenty," with different name, "Thought." Really represents vigorous man thinking.

Figures in niches repeated.

Roman fountain, "Dome of Philosophy," by Faville; simplest and one of the most beautiful of the fountains on grounds. Suggested by fountains in Sienna and Ravenna.



Palace of Fine Arts



Palace of Fine Arts, Bernard R. Maybeck, of San Francisco. Conception inspired by Boecklin's painting, "The Island of the Dead." Rotunda like Pantheon in Rome. Colonnade suggested by Gerome's "Chariot Race." Columns at end of colonnade, hint of Forum. Greek suggestion in Corinthian columns and fretwork and frieze around rotunda. Roof garden or pergola around edge of roof and the Egyptian red of wall gives Egyptian note. Suggestion of overgrown ruin; atmosphere of melancholy beauty. Originality of architectural design and treatment.

Curved hedge, obscuring view of floor of rotunda from opposite side of lagoon, by John McLaren. African dew plant, as in south hedge. Laurels and willows were originally planned to cover hedge and to reach to top of columns. Monterey cypress at north end of colonnade.

Kneeling figure on altar directly in front of rotunda, "Reverence," by Ralph Stackpole. Can be seen from across pool only.

Altar rock, planting grown down over edge gives effect of draped altar cloth.

Frieze on altar rock, below kneeling figure, by Bruno Louis Zimm, of New York. Represents "Source of Genius." In center, Genius; to left and right, mortals seeking to approach genius; lions guard the youth. Seen from across lagoon only.

Panels on exterior of rotunda just below dome, by Zimm, representing progress and influence of art.

Eastern panel, "Struggle for the Beautiful"; in center, Truth; at sides, Persistence and Strength, struggling with centaurs, symbols of materialism.

Panel to left, "Power of the Arts"; Genius taming Pegasus, inspiration in art; Wisdom inspiring Youth; Music with lyre; figures of Literature and Sculpture.

Panel to right, "Triumph of the Arts"; Apollo, patron of arts, in chariot; Fame, with olive branches; Ictinius, builder of Parthenon, leads procession of devotees.

Three panels, repeated on five sides of rotunda.

Decorative figure, man and woman alternating, between panels, repeated around rotunda.

Corinthian columns, ochre grouped with pale green ones; capitals of burnt orange.

Flower boxes by Ulric H. Ellerhusen; women at corners. Original plan was to have vines from boxes droop over, shoulders of women. Architect's purpose in attitude of women to suggest sadness of art.

Roman vases, eight or ten feet high around colonnade. Massive and graceful detail.



Sculpture Outside Fine Arts Palace Beginning at Northeast Corner of Lagoon



North of Lagoon



The Illustrious Obscure, by Robert Paine. (Fountain on island at north end of lagoon.)

Whaleman, by Bela L. Pratt.

Garden Group by Anna Coleman Ladd.

Dying Lion, by Paul Wayland Bartlett.

Garden Figure, Nymph, by Edmond T. Quinn.

Fragment of "Fountain of Time," by Lorado Taft. Representing the troubled generations.



Roadway to Right Before Entering Circle



Bird Fountain, by Caroline Risque.

The First Mother, by Victor S. Holm.



Circle at North End of Peristyle



Mother of the Dead, by C. S. Pietro. (Lagoon side of circle.)

Chief Justice Marshall, by Herbert Adams. (In walk.)

Destiny, by C. P. Dietsch.

Sundial, by Edward Berge.

Head of Lincoln, by A. A. Weinman.

Fountain Groups, by Anna Coleman Ladd. Sun-God and Python, Water Sprites, and Triton Babies. (To right.)

Sundial, by Gail Sherman Corbett.

Daughter of Pan, by R. Hinton Perry.

Boy Pan with Frog, by Clement J. Barnhorn,

Bondage, by Carl Augustus Heber. (Only feminist note in the grounds.)

Saki, Sundial, by Harriet W. Frishmuth. (In walk.)

Great Danes, by Anna Vaughan Hyatt.

Young Diana, by Janet Scudder.

Flower Urns, base of building along colonnade; Greek figures with garlands. Ulric H. Ellerhusen.

Wall of building facing colonnade, seventeen feet high. Acacia blooming there, suggesting over-growth, relieves severe lines of architecture. Broken by small doors, at corners decorated with spears. Doors suggest Greek design.

Corinthian columns and pilasters; harmony of color, smoked ivory and ochre, with shades of green in foliage.

Urns, on the wall on either side of the doorways and in the rotunda, designed by William G. Merchant. Suggested by urns in the Vatican, Rome.



North Peristyle (curved part colonnade north of rotunda).



Maiden of the Roman Campagna, by Albin Polasek. (To left.) Fountain: Duck baby, by Edith Barretto Parsons.

A Fawn's Toilet, by Attilio Piccirilli.

Apollo, by Haig Patigian. (To right.)

The Scalp, by Edward Berge. (To left.)

Primitive Man, by Olga Popoff Muller.

Youth, by Victor D. Salvatore. (To right.)

Soldier of Marathon, by Paul Noquet. (To left.)

Fountain: Fighting Boys, by Janet Scudder.

Garden Figure, by Edith Woodman Burroughs. (To right.)

L'Amour, by Evelyn Beatrice Longman. (To right.)

Returning from the Hunt, by John J. Boyle. (To left.)

Boy with Fish, by Bela L. Pratt. (To right.)

The Centaur, by Olga Popoff Muller.

The Sower, by Albin Polasek.

Beyond, by Chester Beach. (By main doorway.)

Aspiration, by Leo Lentelli. (Over main doorway.)

Pioneer Mother Monument, by Charles Grafly. (Before main doorway.)

Portrait of a Boy, by Albin Polasek. (Outside west archway.)

The Awakening, by Lindsey Morris Sterling. (Outside west archway.)

"Sculpture," relief on walls of west archway. Bela L. Pratt.



Rotunda, Entrance Through North Archway



William Cullen Bryant, by Herbert Adams. (At northwest archway.)

Lafayette, by Paul Weyland Bartlett. (Center of rotunda.)

The Young Franklin, by Robert Tait.

Princeton Student Memorial, by Daniel Chester French.

"Architecture," relief by Richard H. Recchia.

Commodore John Barry, by John J. Boyle.

"Architecture," relief by Richard H. Recchia.

Lincoln, by Daniel Chester French.

Thomas Jefferson, by Karl Bitter. (Outside southwest arch way.)

Murals in dome of rotunda, Robert Reid. Two series of paintings, four in each, "Birth and Influence of Art," alternating with "The Four Golds of California."

"Birth of Oriental Art," panel on west wall, toward main doorway. Man on dragon attacking eagle, heavenly bird of inspiration. China, man in bright robe. Japan, woman with parasol.

"Gold," panel to right, woman with wand; sits on horn of plenty pouring gold.

"Ideals of Art," panel to right. Greek ideal, nude. Religion Madonna and child. Heroism, Joan of Arc. Material youthful beauty, woman at left. Nature without inspiration or ideal, peacock. Figures with wreath and palm, rewards of art.

"Poppies," panel to right, second gold of California.

"Birth of European Art," panel to right. Altar with divine fire, guardian with torch. Mortal in chariot grasps torch of inspiration. Woman in lower corner with crystal globe, predicting future of art.

"Oranges," panel to right, third gold of California.

"Inspiration of Art," panel to right. Angels of inspiration above. Figures of Sculpture, Architecture, Painting, Music, and Poetry.

"Wheat," panel to right, fourth gold of California.

"Priestess of Culture," Herbert Adams, of New York; female figure surmounting columns within rotunda.

Coloring of dome, burnt orange, turquoise green, Sienna columns.



South Peristyle (curved colonnade).



Youth, by Charles Carey Rumsey. (To south of doorway.)

An Outcast, by Attilio Piccirilli. (To right.)

Idyl, by Olga Popoff Muller.

Dancing Nymph, by Olin L. Warner.

Boy and Frog, by Edward Berge. (To left.)

Eurydice, by Furio Piccirilli. (To right.)

Wild Flower, by Edward Berge.

Young Mother with Child, by Furio Piccirilli. (To right.)

Wood Nymph, by Isidore Konti.

Young Pan, by Janet Scudder, (To left.)

Michael Angelo, by Robert Aitken. (To right.)

Muse Finding the Head of Orpheus, by Edward Berge. (To left.)

Flying Cupid, by Janet Scudder.

Piping Pan, by Louis St. Gaudens.



Circle at South End of Peristyle



Bust of William Howard Taft, by Robert Aitken. (To right.)

Henry Ward Beecher, by John Quincy Adams Ward.

Bust of Halsey C. Ives, by Victor S. Holm. (To left.)

Seated Lincoln, by Augustus St. Gaudens.



South of Lagoon



Kirkpatrick Monument, by Gail Sherman Corbett, Indian pointing out spring to Jesuit priest. (To right on roadway running back of palace.)

American Bisons, by A. P. Proctor. (Sides of roadway.)

Peace, by Sherry E. Fry. (To left.)

Diana, by Haig Patigian.

Fountain: Wind and Spray, by Anna Coleman Ladd. (In lagoon, south end.)

The Scout, by Cyrus E. Dallin.

Sea Lions, by Frederick G. R. Roth.



Court of Palms



Court of Palms, by Kelham; opposite Palace of Horticulture, between Palaces of Education and Liberal Arts. Italian Renaissance. Sunken garden.

Palaces at sides of court: to the west, Education; to the east, Liberal Arts.

"The End of the Trail," equestrian statue at entrance, by James Earl Fraser. Exhausted Indian, suggests destiny of the American Indian race.

Italian Towers, Byzantine influence, by Kelham. Both sides of entrance to court; identical. Simpler than towers at Court of Flowers, to cast.

Coloring of towers, by Jules Guerin. Walls frankly treated, not as stone, but as plaster, after Italian method. Blue checkered border, pink and blue diaper design; turquoise columns on little towers above, in harmony with domes and columns of Tower of Jewels.

Design on top, repeated four times at corners, from choragic monument of Lysicrates, in Venice.

Sienna columns at entrances of towers. Effective contrast.

Reclining women, purely decorative, in triangular spaces above entrances to towers, by Albert Weinert.

Figures on side of shield over all portals, very graceful. Pink and turquoise.

"The Fairy," crowning Italian Towers, Carl Gruppe.

Female figures, the caryatides on wide frieze, above columns, by Calder and John Bateman, of New York. Flushed pink, against pink and blue background of imitation marble and terra cotta.

Festoons of fruit in panels, blues and reds.

Coupled Ionic columns, smoked. Effective against pink walls.

Vases, before entrances, by Weinert. Bacchanalian revels, low relief. Satyr handles.

Lighting standards on balustrade, designed by Ryan, modeled by Denneville.

"Pool of Reflections," no sculpture.

Italian cypresses, on sides of portals.

Balled acacias between columns on corridors.

Palms, in garden.

Corridors, pink walls, blue ceiling.

Lamp standards, smoked ivory globes. Designed by Kelham, modeled by Denneville.

Lamps in corridors Roman, hanging. Light pink, green, and cream; effective. By Kelham.

Murals, in corridors, at east, north, and west portals.

"Pursuit of Pleasure," east arch, Charles W. Holloway. Light touch, bright reds and blues in keeping with court; difficult use of floating figure.

"Victorious Spirit," north arch, Arthur F. Mathews. Spirit of Enlightenment protecting Youth from Materialism, symbolized by rampant horse and the rider, Brute Force. Arrangement good, coloring deep and beautiful.

"Fruits and Flowers," west arch, Childe Hassam. Early Italian.

Symbolism, obvious. Warmth of color.

Vista from south, graceful curve of court, view through north portal through Court of the Four Seasons, long colonnade, to purple bills and bay beyond.



Palace of Horticulture



Palace of Horticulture, Bakewell & Brown, architects, San Francisco.

Architecture dome and spires Byzantine, suggest mosque of Ahmed the First, in Constantinople. Ornamentation Renaissance, popular with modern French architects.

Basket on top of dome, 33 feet in diameter.

Dome, 186 feet in height, 152 feet in diameter steel construction St. Peter's, 137 feet, concrete. Pantheon, 142 feet, concrete.

Ornamental shafts, suggestive of minarets, in French style.

Semi-circular colonnade forming entrances, French lattice-work.

Hanging lamp, in entrances, flower basket design; elaborate.

Lamps, hanging along porches, simple design.

Female figures at base of spires, by Eugene Louis Boutier; purely ornamental.

Lavish decorations on building suggest variety and abundance of California horticulture. Floral designs; green wreaths with fruit motives and leaves; lamps; flowered shields over doorway; decorated columns; entrance under green lattice-work; great ornamental vases on sides.

Female figures used as columns supporting roof of porch, the caryatides, by John Bateman.

Building suggests festivity, done in exposition spirit.

Coloring, green, old copper. Green lattice-work in domes.



Along the South Wall, West of the Tower of Jewels



South Wall, by Faville. Spanish Renaissance. Domes, Byzantine.

Palaces facing Avenue of Palms, from west to east: Education, Palace Liberal Arts, Manufactures, and Varied Industries.

Vases beside doorways of Palace of Education, finely designed; pedestal of one, a Corinthian capital; of the other, an Ionic capital.

Main portals, Faville. Suggest Roman gateway. Coloring, pink, turquoise blue, and burnt orange; accentuates sculpture. Duplicated on Palaces of Manufactures and Liberal Arts.

Panel over doorway, by Mahonri Young, Ogden, Utah; figures of domestic life and industries, making of glass, metal work, statuary, textiles. Figures at side, to left, woman with spindle; to right, man with sledge-hammer.

Flat columns at side of portals, pilasters. Corinthian.

Lion, over centerpiece of arch.

"Victory," on gables by Louis Ulrich, like the winged figure used by the Greeks, " Blessings on this house."

Niches in wall, colored pink and blue. Heads of lions and elephants used as fountains, alternately by Faville.

Panel over niches, figures with garland, by Faville.



Festival Hall



Festival Hall, Robert Farquhar, of Los Angeles, architect. Modern French architecture, of the Beaux Arts style, Paris. Used in many French theatres; not a natural growth in this country, but growing in favor; building arrangement fine. Details from Le Petit and Le Grand Trianon. Coloring. light green, not so effective as on Horticultural Palace, popular with French architects.

Figure on corner domes, "The Torch Bearer," Sherry F. Fry, of New York.

Figures on sides of shield over big central arch, by Fry. Decorative. West entrance.

Reclining figures, above, on sides of entrance, by Fry. To right, Bacchus with grapes and wine-skin. To left, a woman listening.

Groups in front of ball, on sides of stairway, by Fry. "Flora," flower girl on pedestal, repeated. On left below pedestal, "Young Pan," seated on Ionic capital covered with fawn skin, his music arrested by sight of lizard. On right, young girl seated.

Greek drinking horns, rhytons, repeated around entrance, on cornice, suggest festivity.

Symbol of Music, the lyre, above entrance.

Recital Hall, on the second floor of Festival Hall, eastern end, contains fine stained glass windows. Designer and executor, Charles J. Connick, of Boston. Three windows, a small one or, the landing of the north stairway, and two larger ones on the west wall of the hall itself.

On the stairway. Figure of a young monk bearing a scroll inscribed with "Venite exultamus domin" ("Come, let us exalt the Lord").

In the hall, window to the left. In the large tipper section, a figure of St. Martha of Bethany. Below, Christ and three women, one kneeling.

In the hall, window to the right. In the large tipper section, figures of two men, the wise men, one watching the star, one seated reading; an owl and a lantern in the window also. In the small section below, a ship with a cross on the main sail; the cross is of the design used in the Crusades.



Court of Flowers



Court of Flowers, by Kelham. Italian Renaissance, Byzantine touches. Opposite Festival Hall, between Palaces of Varied Industries and Mines. Details different from Court of Palms; ornament richer.

Figure on tower, "The Fairy," by Carl Gruppe.

Palaces at sides of court: to the west, Manufactures; to the east, Varied Industries.

Italian towers, by Kelham, same feeling. Outlines on top different from those in Court of Palms.

"The American Pioneer," equestrian statue at entrance, by Solon Borglum, of New York. Patriarchal. Suggests Joaquin Miller. Warlike trappings of horse picturesque, but sixteenth century Spanish, out of place.

Spanish loggia around second story of court, southern in feeling, implying warm climate.

"Oriental Flower Girl," female figure in niches along loggia, by Calder.

Griffons around frieze on top of columns.

Corridors, pink walls, smoked olive columns with orange capitals.

Against wall, Corinthian coupled pilasters.

Roman banging lamps, by Kelham, suggest bronze, great weight. Bronze, pink, green, and cream. Italian bronze lanterns suggest blue eucalyptus.

Lamp standards between columns, globe half concealed, by Kelham. Charm of effect, improvement on those with globe wholly visible.

Conventionalized lions in pairs at portals, by Albert Laessle, of Philadelphia.

Fountain, "Beauty and the Beast," by Edgar Walter, of San Francisco. Sandals and hat on woman. Beast at her feet. Fauns and satyrs, piping, under circular bowl. Frieze outside edge of bowl, lion, bear, ape, and tiger repeated; playful. Designed for Court of Palms to be seen from above.

Lophantha trees, trimmed four feet from ground, branching out six feet across, along walks.

Vista through fairy-like Court of the Ages to Florentine Tower and blue sky beyond, from south entrance of Court of Flowers.



Along the South Wall, East of Tower of Jewels



Palaces facing Avenue of Palms, from east to west: Varied Industries, Manufactures, Liberal Arts, Education.

South facade of Palace of Varied Industries, by Faville. High walls, seventy feet in height, suggest eighteenth century California missions.

Green domes on corners, Byzantine, inspired by mosques of Constantinople.

Coloring of flags, cerulean blue, pastel red, and burnt orange.

Windows in corners, mosque design. Little hexagonal kiosks at corners below domes, Moorish.

Central portal, after portal of Santa Cruz Hospital, in Toledo, Spain. Sixteenth century Spanish Renaissance, plateresque. Lattice-work effect in doorway in harmony with lace-like silver-platter style. Niche walls pink, with ultramarine blue.

Pope Calixtus III sent for a Spanish goldsmith, Diaz, to do work for him in Rome. Diaz returned to Spain, carrying the influence of the Italian Renaissance. He met the son of the architect of the cathedral at Toledo, De Egas. To the son he imparted his knowledge and the son applied it to architecture, creating the plateresque style. Till then all Spanish cathedrals had shown the Gothic influence from the north.

Figures on large door by Stackpole. Upper figures, "Age Transferring His Burden to Youth," America. Figure in center piece of arch, "Power of Industry," the American workman. Figures in half circle above door, "Varied Industries," from left to right, Spinning, Building, Agriculture, Manual Labor, and Commerce. Figure repeated four times in lower niches, "Man with the Pick."

"California Bear" and "California Shield" on buttresses, or square columns supporting wall. Used in old mission buildings.



Avenue of Progress



Planting, some of the best landscape effects in Exposition. Against buildings, Monterey cypress; banked by Lawson cypress in front and between these, spruces and Spanish fir.

Machinery Palace, Ward & Blohme, of San Francisco, architects. Italian Renaissance, inspired by Roman baths. Like Baths of Caracalla. Largest building of its kind in world; three blocks long, seven acres in area.

Banners, by Ryan, heraldic designs of early Spanish explorers and soldiers.

Lophantha lawn, designed by John McLaren, trees trimmed off four feet above ground, and trained to grow flat alongside Palace of Varied Industries.

East facade of Varied Industries, made Italian to harmonize with Italian Machinery Palace.

Main portal, like gateways of old Roman walled cities.

"The Miner," in niches of gateway, by Albert Weinert of New York.

Small portals Italian, fine color effect; lattice-work, orange, blue, light green'.

Sculpture on Machinery Palace, by Haig Patigian, of San Francisco.

Large columns in front and in vestibule of half dome, imitation Sienna marble.

Small portals, orange columns at sides, pink niche, blue dome, orange above dome; pleasing tone,

Corinthian columns at sides of portals; eagles at corners of capitals, at top, symbolize inspiration.

Frieze around drums at base of columns "Genii of Machinery," by Haig Patigian; eyes closed, signifying Power of the spirit, or blind fate.

Figures in triangular spaces on either side above doorways, "Application of Power to Machinery," by Haig Patigian.

Figures on tall Sienna marble columns, "Power," "by Haig Patigian. "Steam Power," with lever. "Invention," carrying figure with flying wings, suggesting quickness of mind. "Imagination, eyes closed. Eagle bird of inspiration, about to fly. "Electricity," foot on earth, carrying symbol.

Eagles repeated on bar, the entablature, across front of domes; symbol of inspiration.

Coloring in vestibule of Machinery Palace: Finely harmonized; brown and brick-colored walls; orange and blue ceilings; green lattice work.

"Genius of Creation," group before court leading to Court of Ages, Daniel Chester French. Spirit above, a woman, creating life from shapeless mass of earth below. Man at left, courageous and enterprising; woman at right, timid, hesitating. Serpent, symbol of wisdom, coiled about mass.



Court of Mines, Leading to Court of Ages



Coloring, pink walls, pink streamers, by Guerin. Green shell lamp posts, by McKim, Mead & White, architects. Called "Pink Alley" by workmen during construction.

Palaces on sides of court: to the north, Mines; to the south, Varied Industries.

Lamp standards against walls, dark bronze, smoked ivory globes, by Faville.

Flat Ionic columns, called pilasters, against walls, by Faville.

Figure in niches, "The Miner," by Albert Weinert.



Court of the Ages



Court of Ages, Louis Christian Mullgardt, of San Francisco, architect. Most original of the courts. Faint influence of Spanish Gothic, Romanesque, French, Moorish. Richness and profusion. Suggests evolution of man.

Palaces around court: northeast, Mines; northwest, Transportation; southwest, Manufactures; southeast, Varied Industries,

Decorations on columns of archways around court, kelp, crabs, lobsters, and other sea animals. Vertical lines in columns suggest falling water.

Fairy lamps, two in each archway, delicately designed.

"Primitive Man and Woman," by Albert Weinert, repeated alternately above corridors around court. Man, a hunter, feeding pelican. Woman, the child-bearer.

Tower at north entrance, suggestive of French cathedral architecture, massive, but gives appearance of lightness. One of the great successes of the Exposition.

"The Rise of Civilization," groups of sculpture on tower, by Chester Beach. Central idea, evolution, Stone Age, Mediaeval Age, and Present Age. "Primitive Man," lowest group, just above great reptiles in foreground. Man is holding child and protecting mate. "Mediaeval Age" directly above, Crusader in center, Priest and Warrior on sides. The candlesticks on sides of crusader, used in mediaeval churches, the light of understanding. On sides of altar, "Modern Man and Woman," struggling for freedom from the physical to the spiritual. "Spirit of Intelligence" enthroned above; on one side, child with book; on the other side, child with wheel of industry.

Chanticleer, repeated on highest pinnacles of court, at level with altar. Signifying dawn of Christianity.

"Thought," figure on east and west sides of tower. Candlesticks at sides.

Design on upper part of tower, suggested by the lily, emblem of purity.

Star clusters, at south end of court and in north court, by Ryan, modeled from snow crystal, and deepening the ecclesiastical character of the court by suggesting the golden monstrance, shaped like the rays of the sun, used in the Catholic church and, in the small glass-covered circle at the center, holding the sacred host.

"Water Sprites," by Leo Lentelli. Girl archers on top of columns at four corners of central court, launching arrow at sprites on base of columns. Originally designed as fountains.

Serpent cauldrons, around pool, designed by Mullgardt.

"Fountain of the Earth," by Robert Aitken, in center of court. Two Parts to fountain; large central one with globe representing earth, surrounded by panels showing life on earth; and on same pedestal to south, groups representing life before and after death. "Setting Sun," group at extreme south of pool, by Aitken. Man holding golden ball, Helios; serpent, heat of sun.

Figures on west side of southern group, "The Dawn of Life." Hand of Destiny giving life, pointing toward earth; Sleep of Woman before Birth; the Awakening; Joy of Life; Kiss of Life; Birth. Gap to central group represents time between peopling and history.

Panels around earth; South Panel; Vanity in center with handglass; man and woman with children, representing Fecundity, starting on earthly journey.

West Panel: "Natural Selection;" women turn to fittest male; one rejected suitor angry, other despairing.

North Panel: "Physical Courage" or "Awakening of War Spirit." Two men fight for possession of woman on left. Woman on right attempts to draw one aside.

East Panel: "Lesson of Life." Old woman gives counsel to young man and woman. Old man restrains an angry, jealous youth.

Right of south panel, "Lust."

East side of southern group: Greed, looking back on earth. Faith offering Immortality, symbolized by scarab, to Woman. Figures of man and woman sinking back into oblivion, "Sorrow" and "Sleep." Hand of Destiny drawing mortality to itself.

Hermae, pillars with head of Hermes, god of boundaries, separating panels around earth.

Reptilian and fishy forms above panels of central mass of fountain.

Corridors, walls red, blue vault above, arches of smoked ivory, lines of blue on wall. Illumination by half-globes in cups on inner side of columns.

Murals, by Frank Brangwyn, of London, representing Elements. Best placed of all murals. At corners of court in corridors.

Northeast corner, "Fire." "Primitive Fire," figures around fire nursing it, or feeding it. "Industrial Fire," use of fire in service of man.

Southeast corner, "Water": Fishermen dragging in net, carriers with baskets on backs, "The Net." Women and men filling jars at a spring, flamingoes in water, luxuriant growth, clouds, "The Fountain."

Southwest corner, "Air": Men shooting arrows through trees, birds in flight, "The Hunters." Huge mill, children flying kites, clouds, grain blown by wind, "The Windmill."

Northwest corner, "Earth": Men high in trees and on ground, "The Fruit Pickers." Figures crushing juice out with feet, group in front with wine, "The Dancing of the Grapes."

Planting in Court: Tall Italian cypress before arches; orange trees; balled acacia; denseness of growth along colonnades; heavy and rank, suggesting tropical flora.

Large cauldrons, at side of steps leading down to sunken gardens, designed by Mullgardt.



North Entrance to Court of Ages



"Daughter of Neptune" or "Aquatic Life," large female figure in north Court of Ages, by Sherry E. Fry.

Planting: eucalyptus, acacia, laurel.



Features that Ought to be in Noted by Night



Illumination



Three kinds of light used; white arc lamps, extensively behind banners and shields to flood facades of outer walls and Court of Four Seasons; warmer light of Mazda lamps in clear and colored globes; and searchlights concealed on tops of buildings trained on towers and on high groups of sculpture.

Lighting scheme and scope completed long before buildings were up; made possible by advance in illuminating engineering, developed under name of science of lighting and art of illumination.

Chief of Department of Illumination, Walter D'Arcy Ryan, of the General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York; field assistant, A. F. Dickerson.

Ornamental details of lighting standards and fixtures, designed by J. W. Gosling; designs made at Illuminating Engineering Laboratories, Schenectady.

Keynote of lighting scheme - life and gaiety, without garishness.

Lighting kept subordinate to architecture; walks shaded to throw emphasis on brilliantly lighted facades and to bring out architecture, landscape and flowers. Same lighting principle used throughout; but effect in different courts radically different.

Area of surface illuminated, 8,000,000 square feet; 2,000,000 of wall surface, and 6,000,000 of ground surface.

Number of searchlights used: 373 arc searchlights, in diameter from 13 to 36 inches; 450 small searchlights, called the "Mosquito Fleet"; 250 incandescent projectors for flag lighting.



Fillmore Street Entrance



South facade of entrance, outline illumination, with bare electric lights following outlines of architecture; used elsewhere only in Zone.

Inside Fillmore Street entrance, Zone to right; brilliant lighting, outline illumination, more or less refined; exaggerated effects prohibited.

Zone, element of festivity in arches crossing street at short intervals, ribbons of turkey red suspended from each lamp give warmth and action.

Contrast of Zone lights with illumination in other parts of Exposition.

To left, Service Building, administration offices; coloring, Pinks and blue; ceiling of porch, intense blue, deepest used on grounds.

Corner of Avenue of Palms and Avenue of Progress: lights banners, towers, facades of buildings, walks, flood lights, spots of light and color.

Fairy-like effect of Avenue of Palms: towers look luminous; in early evening Italian Towers red hot, throbbing; glow stronger than Tower of Jewels; later, Tower of Jewels most brilliant spot on avenue.

Tower illumination, floods of light from searchlights; white light creates shadows, in turn illuminated by concealed colored light on various stages, on Tower of Jewels and Italian Towers.

Single light standards along Avenue of Palms, light yellow, dull points of light; contrast with white pearly light on tops of booths.



Avenue of Progress



Along Avenue of Progress: fine flag display; no direct sources of light; banners; beautiful scenes made by planting against walls and quality of green on lawn; daylight effect from luminous arcs which produce whitest artificial light in use.

Gas lights on tops of booths, emergency lights if electricity fails.

Banners and heraldic shields, designed by Ryan; banners, of early explorers and pioneers, heraldic shields related to history of California, Mexico, Central America, and Pacific Ocean.

Purpose of banners: to form beautiful lines of color, to screen eyes from direct light source, to reflect light toward buildings, and to suggest history of court.

Banners suspended, swung by wind, form moving spots of color.

Roman gateway, Palace of Varied Industries: faint light through small arches above doorway; delicate green lattice or grill work in door.

Light in doorways: appearance of life within, produced by reflectors inside palaces throwing light through glass of doors; new idea; contrast with dark windows of other expositions.

Arches of Machinery Palace: warm red glow in domes above; strong yellow through doors below.



Inner Court of Mines Leading From Palace of Machinery to Court of Ages



Illumination strongest on upper sections of wall; it becomes more subdued as it approaches flowers and lawns, and reaches lowest point on center of avenue; plan used on all avenues.

Green lattice work, filling entire main doorway, in harmony with lawns.

Single globe lamps placed against walls; only court with lights in this position.

Shell lamps, flooding walls with light, advanced method of wall illumination.

View of central fountain in Court of Ages: glow of red lights, faint shimmer in pools, steam rising to suggest the earth cooling after being thrown off by the sun.



Court of the Ages



Court of the Ages: mystery in blending of illumination from searchlights above; lack of direct illumination on court itself; steam cauldrons, with illumination, incandescent lights, gas torches in small serpent cauldrons, lanterns in arches of the arcade that burn around cloister.

Fountain of Earth in center of pool, carrying mind down the ages to correspond with architect's conception of court.

Steam rising from base of fountain; figures silhouetted in warm red glow; lighter tone of red at upper portion of ball; shimmering reflection of panels, with red background in pool at sides of fountain.

Serpent cauldrons, around edge of pool, to heighten weird effect, by the flickering of the gas lamps.

Large cauldrons at east and west entrances; effect of simmering molten liquid.

Steam used in court, obtained from twenty horse-power boiler under tower.

Main tower, only tower without direct light thrown on exterior; religious feeling, increased by candlesticks, two on each side; steam to suggest smoke drifting upward.

Reflection of tower in pool, to be seen from south.

Cathedral appearance of windows at sides of court, by illumination in warm orange tone from within.

Sunburst standards modelled in imitation of snow crystal, and resembling monstrance used in Catholic church; two at south of court; only large light sources in court; contrast with other illumination.

Two fairy lanterns in each arch around court.

Brangwyn murals lighted without glare by indirect diffusion from four corners.

Play of lights along colonnade; lighting on murals adds to apparent distance.



North Entrance to Court of the Ages



Similar treatment of lights, brighter than in central court; four star clusters, sixteen serpent cauldrons; effect heightened.

Tower, more beautiful from Marina side; note of refinement illumination in altar, shadow in two colors, created by red light illuminated by pale amber lights.

Star clusters convey to mind religious feeling in keeping with design; cathedral effect.

View of Italian Towers at sides of Court of Flowers, from north court, red glow and green columns of towers on either side of Mullgardt tower, vivid contrast.

To Court of the Universe, through Florentine Court.



Florentine Court



Florentine Court; only illumination, single lamp standards; contrast with intense light in Court of Universe, beyond.

Fine shadow effects against walls; vertical shadows of columns in arches contrasted with shadows of trees and shrubbery.



Court of the Universe



Arch of Rising Sun; light through latticed windows in arch to give faint spots of luminous color.

Illumination of main and side arches; curvature preserved and details thrown into relief by lights of different strengths and colors; concealed red light on one side and pale lemon light on other side thrown on arch. All main arches similarly accentuated.

Urns in side arches, effect heightened by lights thrown from sides, bring out lines; red on one side, on the other pale green.

Colonnade, illuminated by three translucent shell cups sunk into central groove of each column at rear; spear of light from each shell up the grooves or fluting; pleasant glow through shells from below. Effect of melted gold, suggesting the tongues of fire mentioned in the Scriptures.

Sculptural groups on Arches of Rising and Setting Sun, flooded with light from searchlights, creating black shadows, in turn illuminated by purple lights on top of arch. Figures thrown into relief.

Tower of Jewels, gradual illumination; early evening, faintly lighted; later, when searchlights are turned on, tower dominates southern wall; blaze of white light; jewels sparkle like diamonds; turquoise columns, faintly colored in bright light; statues, orange color.

Star figures around court above colonnades, jewelled; each has forty-two stones, illuminated by small searchlights on opposite side of court. Early evening, pretty effect; little jets of light from figures shoot across the court in clearly defined rays. Later, flood of lights from columns in court above the small rays.

Fountains of Rising and Setting Sun; columns, said to be strongest light sources ever created; aggregate 500,000 candlepower sufficient to illuminate 500,000 square feet of surface; fluting of columns glazed with special diffusion glass. For elimination of shadows caused by structure, there is diffusive glass inside. The glare from the light source is not excessive; brilliancy low; daring illumination of entire court.

Lights under water in pools of fountains; source and reflection concealed; yellow light diffused over surface.

Figures on pedestals of balustrades mark boundary of Sunken Garden; not for illumination, but for ornament merely.

Domes of corner pavilions, north of Tower of Jewels, fine contrasts in interior; delicate blue ceiling; orange at sides.

Bear fountains at sides of Palaces of Manufactures and Liberal Arts, north of Tower of Jewels; three on each wall in flat niches; coloring, pink wall, turquoise blue, green; lights concealed under water; when water is flowing, wavering light like heat waves; niches hardly noticeable when water is not flowing.

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