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The Chignecto Isthmus And Its First Settlers
by Howard Trueman
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Two sons of Thomas Mitchell are in the Presbyterian ministry.

Of this Scotch-Irish stock Hon. Charles Bell says: "The Scotch-Irish were people of Scottish lineage who dwelt upon Irish soil. They stuck together and kept aloof from the native Celtic race." Macaulay says: "They sprang from different stocks. They spoke different languages. They had different national characteristics as strongly opposed as any two national characters in Europe. Between two such populations there could be little sympathy, and centuries of calamities and wrongs had generated a strong antipathy. The Scotch planted upon Irish soil were Scotch still, and the Irish were Irish still." One of their own writers says: "If we be not the very peculiar people, we Scotch-Irish are a most peculiar people, who have ever left our own broad distinct mark wherever we have come, and have it in us still to do the same, even our critics being the judges. These racial marks are birth-marks, and birth-marks are indelible. They are principles. The principles are the same everywhere, and these principles are of four classes: religious, moral, intellectual and political."

I have been led to make these quotations referring to the Scotch-Irish because I have found so many of them among the early settlers of this country, and wherever they are found they have proved true to their lineage.

Others embraced in this emigration are: Clark, Moffat, Logan, Dickey, McElmon, McClennen, Allison, and Dickson or Dixon.

FAWCETT.

Three brothers name Fawcett—William, John and Robert—came to Nova Scotia from Hovingham, Yorkshire, in the spring of 1774. William, with his and three children, settled in Upper Sackville, on the farm now owned by Charles George. John settled in Lower Sackville, near present Mount Allison Academy, and built a mill on the brook that runs through the farm. The Fawcett foundry stands on what was the bed of the old mill-pond. Robert was a sea captain. He removed his family to the United States and was afterwards lost at sea. One of his sons lost his life in the same way.

William's children were: John, William and Polly. John married Mrs. Eleanor Colpitts, nee Eleanor Forster, of Amherst, and had four children, George, Ann, William and Eleanor.

William (second) married Sarah Holmes. Their children were Rufus and Betsy.

Polly married John Dobson, who afterwards moved to Sussex. The Dobsons of Sussex and Upper Dorchester belong to this family.

John Fawcett (first), Lower Sackville, had four children—two sons, Robert and John, and two daughters, Mary and Nancy. Of these, Robert married ——- Seaman; John married Jane Black; Mary married Henry Ripley, and Nancy married John Ogden. Robert, a son of the second Robert, married Jane Trueman, daughter of William Trueman.

In 1817 (March 22nd) Thomas Fawcett, of Stockton Forest, Yorkshire, sailed from Hull on the ship VALIANT, bound for Charlottetown, P. E. Island. The voyage lasted seventy-three days. About the middle of the voyage the VALIANT came across a Scotch brig in a sinking condition and took on board her sixty passengers and crew. There were one hundred and ninety-three immigrants on the ship when she arrived at her destination.

Thomas Fawcett settled first at Cove Head, P.E.I. He afterward moved to Sackville, and finally located at Salisbury. He had three sons, one now living in Carleton County, N.B., one in Salisbury, and John is one of the solid men to Tidnish.

Other passengers on the VALIANT were: John Milner, settled in Sackville; John Towse, settled in Dorchester; Robert Morrison, settled in Sussex; Robert Mitten and family, settled in Coverdale.

EVANS.

Isaac Evans came to this country, probably from the United States, shortly after the close of the Revolutionary war. The family was originally from Wales. He was married to Miss Lydia Jenks, and settled within a few rods of the old Botsford place at Westcock. They had seven children, all born in this country—James, Isaac, William, Lydia, Mary, Ann and Beriah. James married Miss Barnes, and Mr. Isaac N. Evans, the only man of the name now living in the parish, is a son of theirs. His name and his brother William's are to be found in the list of students attending Mount Allison Academy in 1843. Isaac drowned off Grindstone Island when twenty-four years old, in 1819. William married a Miss Estabrooks, and they had ten children—James Isaac, who died recently at Shediac, where his family still live; Evander Valentine, who lived in Sackville and was well known as Captain Evans; Jane, who married Marcus Trueman, and now lives in California; William Murray Stuart, who at one time had charge of the Westmoreland Bank in Moncton; George Edwin, a mechanic, who moved early in life to the United States; Henry, who served on the side of the North in the War of Secession; Charles, who married a daughter of the late John Fawcett, but died young. Lydia married Lewis Jenks; Mary never married, but lived to be old, and was known by her friends as "Aunt Polly"; Ann married John Boultonhouse, and Beriah married John Stuart. Isaac Evans, the original settler, was drowned off Partridge Island, St. John, June, 1798, aged thirty-four. Lydia, his wife, died November 11th, 1842, in her seventy- fourth year.

WOOD.

William Wood was from Buriston, near Bedale, in the West Riding of Yorkshire. His wife was Elizabeth Clarkson. They emigrated to America with the first Yorkshire contingent (1772-3). Shortly after coming to this country Mrs. Wood died, leaving three children—a son and two daughters. The son was born on St. Valentine's Day, and was named Valentine. Mr. Wood's second wife was the widow of an officer who had served at Fort Cumberland. Mr. Wood was at the "Fort" when the Eddy rebels attacked that place, and distinguished himself by his bravery. He was drowned in the Bay of Fundy.

Valentine Wood married and settled in Point de Bute. His family consisted of eleven children: William, who died in boyhood; Edward, Rufus, Joshua, Cyrus, Thomas, Albert, Mary Ann, Cynthia, Amelia, and the youngest, Rebecca (Mrs. Thompson Trueman, of Sackville, N.B.)

Edward was named for an uncle in England. He made his home in Bay Verte, N.B., and became a most useful and acceptable Methodist local preacher. Two of the Wood family were teachers. Thomas W. was a prominent and successful educationalist. The Wood family were more than ordinarily gifted intellectually. Albert, the youngest son, became celebrated as a skilful and successful sea captain. He published a book, entitled "Great Circle Sailing," that quite changed the methods, in some particulars, from which ships had been navigated previously. Captain Wood finally settled in California, where he now lives, and is an enthusiastic temperance worker and writer. Joshua was musically inclined, and taught the old fashioned singing school. He possessed characteristics that made him quite a hero with many of his friends.

Most of the descendants of William Wood bearing the name have removed from the country.

HARRIS.

The Harris name is one of the oldest in Canada. Arthur Harris came from Plymouth, England, to Bridgewater, New England, in 1650. He removed from there to Danby, and from Danby to Boston in 1696. His son, Samuel, was with Captain Ben Church's expedition to Acadia in 1704, and shortly after Acadia came into possession of the English he settled in Annapolis. Michael Spurr Harris, a grandson of Samuel Harris, was born at Annapolis Royal in 1804. His wife, Sarah Ann Troop, was born in Aylesford in 1806. Michael Harris started in business in St. John in 1826; in 1837 he removed his family to Moncton and opened a general store and carriage building establishment, and soon after added shipbuilding to the business. After his death the business was very successfully conducted for many years by his two sons, the late John Harris and Christopher Harris.

This firm was always abreast of the times, and the city of Moncton owes much to its enterprise and farsightedness. The late Mrs. John A. Humphrey was a daughter of Michel Spurr Harris.

MAIN.

The Mains are Scotch. The family tree goes back to the beginning of the fifteenth century, one branch including the present Lord Rosebery and Sir William Alexander, who are one time owned Nova Scotia and gave the Province its name. David Main with two of his sons, John and James, emigrated from Dumfries. Scotland, to Richibucto, New Brunswick, in the spring of 1821, and settled at Galloway, on the farm now owned by Robert Main, a grandson of David, and son of James. James married Jane Murray, of Shemogue. James Main, of Botsford, is also a son of theirs. John married Jean Johnstone, and lived in Kingston, now called Rexton. Mary Jean Main, wife of Howard Trueman, is his daughter. The late David Main, of St. Stephen, was a son of John Main.

SHARP.

Four brothers named Sharp came to the Isthmus from Cornwallis, N.S., about the year 1812. Matthew settled in Nappan, William in Maccan, Allan in Amherst, and John in Sackville. Samuel Sharp, who married Fanny Trueman, was a son of William Sharp.

WELDON.

Two of William Trueman's sons married into the Weldon family. I am not able to give any more information about the Weldons than is found in the "History of the Blacks," which is as follows: "A Mr. Weldon left London for Halifax in 1760. The vessel in which he sailed was wrecked on the coast of Portugal. Returning to London, in 1761, he found that his wife and family had sailed for Halifax, where he joined them in the fall of the same year." Mr. Weldon settled first in Hillsboro and later removed to Dorchester, where the name has remained ever since. Dr. Weldon, Dean of the Halifax Law School, belongs to this family.

SCOTT.

Adam Scott was from Langholm, Dumfriesshire, Scotland. He emigrated to New Brunswick with his wife and family in 1834, landing first at Quebec. He settled in Shemogue, Westmoreland County. His wife's name was Janet Amos. He had eight children. Two of the sons and the eldest daughter, Janet, married into William Trueman's family. The daughter, Mrs. Joseph Trueman, is still living, bright and cheerful, in the 84th year of her age. Mr. Scott was one of the most prosperous farmers in the district in which he settled, and lived to be ninety-nine years of age.

BENT.

This name is believed to have come from bent grass, "a stiff, wiry growth, little known in America." John Bent, the first of the name in America, was born in Penton-Grafton, England, in November, 1596. He came to America in his forty-second year, and settled in Sudbury, Mass. The Bents came to Nova Scotia around 1760. The names of Jesse and John Bent are found on the list of grantees for the township of Cumberland in 1763, to which reference has previously been made. Sarah A. Bent, daughter of Martin Bent, married Edward Trueman.

JEWETT—COY.

Mary Jewett, who married Alder Trueman, of Sackville, and Asa Coy, who married Catherine Trueman, of Point de Bute, were of the New England emigration that settled on the St. John River in 1762-3.

HARRISON.

John Harrison, of Rillington, Yorkshire, England, and his wife, Sarah Lovell, of the same place with their family arrived in Cumberland County, Nova Scotia, in the spring of 1774, and settled on the Maccan River. They had family as follows: Luke, born August 25th, 1754, married Tryphena Bent, November 22nd, 1789; John, married twice, first wife Dinah Lumley, of Yorkshire, England, and second Charlotte Mills, of the State of New York; Thomas born March 28th, 1762, married Mary Henry; William, born March 25th, 1770, married Jane Coates; Mary, married Matthew Lodge; Sarah, married James Brown; Nancy, married John Lumley; Hannah, married John Lambert; Elizabeth, married Henry Furlong.

Luke Harrison (son of John) and his wife Tryphena Bent, had family as follows: Jane, married William Bostock; Margaret; George, married Sarah Hodson; Hannah married George Boss; Amy, married Thos. Dodsworth; Eunice, married Amos Boss; Elizabeth, married William Smith; Joseph; Jesse, married Elizabeth Hoeg.

John Harrison (son of John), whose first wife was Dinah Lumley, and second Charlotte Mills, had family as follows: Sarah, John, Maria, Lovell, Mary, Charlotte, Rebecca; William, married Elizabeth Brown; James.

Thomas Harrison (son of John) and his wife Mary Henry, had family as follows: Luke, married Hannah Lodge; Sarah, married Martin Hoeg; Clementina, married Joseph Moore; Harriet, married William Coates; Thomas, married Clementina Stockton; Tillott, married Eunice Lockwood; Mary, married Gideon Trueman; Ruth, married Hugh Fullerton; Henry, first wife Phoebe Chipman, and second A. M. Randall.

William Harrison (son of John) and his wife, Jane Coates, had family as follows: Sarah, married Robert Oldfield; Thomas, married Elizabeth Shipley; Edward; William, married Mary Tait; John, married Jerusha Lewis; Ann, married David Keiver; Joseph, married Jane Ripley; James, married Mary Lewis; Robert, married Hannah Wood; Jane, married Nathan Hoeg; Luke; Brown, married Mary Ann Coates; Hannah, married David Long.

Luke Harrison (son of Thomas and Mary), was born August 10th, 1787, and died November 12th, 1865. He and his wife, Hannah Lodge, moved from Maccan River, N.S., to Dutch Valley, near Sussex, N.B., and had family as follows: William Henry, married three times, first wife was Sarah Slocomb, second Rebecca Slocomb, and third Lavina M. Knight; Charles Clement; Mary Ann, married J. Nelson Coates, of Smith's Creek, King's County, N.B.; Thomas Albert, married Isabel Stevenson, of St. Andrew's, N.B.; Joseph Lodge, married Charlotte Snider, of Dutch Valley, Sussex, N.B.

William Henry Harrison (son of Luke Harrison and Hannah Lodge), was born July 20th, 1813, at Sussex, N.B., and died May 2nd, 1901, at Sackville, N.B. He had no family by his first and second wives. He and his third wife, Lavina M. Knight, daughter of Rev. Richard Knight, D.D., of Devonshire, England, had family as follows: Richard Knight, married to Anne Graham, of Sussex, N.B., living at Colorado Springs, Colorado, U.S.A.; Hannah Lovell, dead; William Henry, of Sackville, N.B.; Charles Allison, dead; F. A. Lovell, of St. John, N.B.; Albert Thornton, of New York City; Mary Louisa, married to T. Dwight Pickard, of Sackville, N.B., living at Fairview, B.C.; Frank Allison, of Sackville, N.B., married to Flora Anderson.

John Harrison, of Rillington, Yorkshire, England, who settled at Maccan River, N.S., Canada, in 1774, was a relative of John Harrison, born at Foulby, in the Parish of Wragley, near Pontrefact, Yorkshire, May, 1693. John Harrison, of Foulby, was the inventor of the chronometer, for which he received from the British Government the sum of L 20,000. He died at his home in Red Lion Square, London, in 1776. The chronometer accepted by the Government from John Harrison was seen in July, 1901, at Guildhall, London.

The following letters were written by members of the Harrison family to friends in England.

William H. Harrison, a descendant of John Harrison, visited Yorkshire about the year 1854, and received the letters from friends there, bringing them back to Nova Scotia, where they were written so many years before. They are interesting as giving the experience of the emigrant in the new country. The first was written by Luke, a young man twenty years old, who had come to Nova Scotia with his father and had been in the country but three months. The second was written by John Harrison, a brother of Luke's, in 1803, after they had tested the country.

EXTRACTS FROM OLD LETTERS OF THE HARRISON FAMILY.

"TO MR. WILLIAM HARRISON, "Rillington, Yorkshire, "England. "June 30th, 1774.

"DEAR COUSIN,— "Hoping these lines will find you in good health, as we are at present, bless God for it. We have all gotten safe to Nova Scotia, but do not like it at all, and a great many besides us, and are coming back to England again, all that can get back. We do not like the country, not never shall. The mosquitos are a terrible plague in this country. You may think that mosquitos cannot hurt, but if you do you are mistaken, for they will swell you legs and hands so that some persons are both blind and lame for some days. They grow worse every year and they bite the English the worst. We have taken a farm of one Mr. Barron, for one year, or longer if we like. The rent is L 20 a year. We have 10 cows, 4 oxen, 20 sheep, one sow, and one breeding mare. He will take the rent in butter or cheese, or cattle. The country is very poor, and there is very little money about Cumberland. The money is not like our English money. An English guinea is L 1 3s. 4d. In Nova Scotia money a dollar is equal to 5 shillings, and a pistereen is a shilling. In haying time men have 3 shillings a day for mowing. The mosquitos will bite them very often so that they will throw down their scythes and run home, almost bitten to death, and there is a black fly worse than all the rest. One is tormented all the summer with mosquitos, and almost frozen to death in the winter. Last winter they had what was reckoned to be a fine winter, and the frost was not out of the ground on the 20th day of June, which I will affirm for truth. I shall let you know the affairs of the country another year, if God spare life and health. Dear cousin, remember me to my uncle and aunt and to all that ask after me.

"From your well wisher, "LUKE HARRISON.

"Direct your letters to John Harrison or Luke Harrison, at the River a Bare, nigh Fort Cumberland, Nova Scotia."

"TO MR. JOHN HARRISON, "Rillington, near Motton, "Yorkshire, England.

"Maccan River, N.S., "June 24th, 1810.

"DEAR COUSIN,—

"Long ago I have had it in agitation of writing to you and now an opportunity is just at hand, which I gladly now embrace, hoping these lines will find you and your family all in good health, as me and my family are the same, thanks be to him that ruleth over all. I am now going to give you a little sketch of our country, of Bonny Nova Scotia, and the advantages and disadvantages. I settled here on this river about 23 years ago, upon lands that had never been cultivated, all a wilderness. We cut down the wood of the land and burnt it off, and sowed it with wheat and rye, so that we have made out a very good living. Here we make our own sugar, our own soap and candles, and likewise our own clothing. We spin and weave our own linen and wool, and make the biggest part of it into garments within our own family. This, I suppose, you will think strange, but it is merely for want of settlers and more mechanics of different branches. There were twenty- five petitioned to the Government for new lands when I settled here, and we all drew 500 acres of land each. I bought 500 acres joining mine, which cost me about eighteen pounds, and my part of the grant cost eight pounds. I have lived on it ever since and make out a very good living. We milk ten cows, keep one yoke of oxen, three horses, betwixt twenty and thirty sheep. I do not doubt but that in the run of ten years more I shall be able to milk twenty cows. We generally kill every fall six or eight hogs. We use betwixt four hundred and five hundred pounds of sugar every year for tea and other necessaries. The disadvantage we have here is in the winters being so long. There is six months to fodder our cattle, and what is worse than all the rest, the snow falling so deep, sometimes four feet. The last three or four winters have been very moderate, which we think is owing to the country and woods being cleared more away. We have very much trouble with bears, as they destroy our sheep and cattle so much.

"JOHN HARRISON.

"N.B.—I have two sons, up young men. Pray send them each a good, industrious wife. Pray send out a ship-load of young women, for there is a great call for them that can card and spin. The wages are from five to six shillings a week."

CHAPTER X

THE FIRST SETTLERS OF CUMBERLAND.

IN the early part of the last century several emigrants from the Old Country found their way to Prospect Farm, with whom family friendships were formed and remained unbroken for many years. The Davis family is one of these.

Daniel Davis came from a small town near Bristol, England. He was a weaver by trade, but owing to the introduction of the power loom in Great Britain, which ruined the hand-loom industry, Mr. Davis came to America in the hope of finding some other means of gaining a livelihood. He with his wife and one child came to Prince Edward Island in 1812. They were greatly disappointed with the appearance of things on the island, and Mrs. Davis says she cried nearly all the time they stayed there. After a year on the island Mr. Davis moved to Point de Bute. Although he was a small man and not accustomed to farm work, he remained in Point de Bute for ten years and made a good living for his increasing family. At the end of that time he got a grant of good land in Little Shemogue, on what is now called the Davis Road. On this land Mr. Davis put up a log house and moved his family there. After undergoing most of the privations incidental to such an experience, success came, and with is a comfortable and happy old age. In his later years Mr. Davis made a trip to his old home in England, and received a substantial legacy that awaited him there. He had a family of ten children, five sons and five daughters. Henry, the second son, was a member of the family at Prospect for fourteen years, and came to be looked upon almost as a son. John settled in Leicester, N.S., and was a successful farmer, with a large family. One son is a Methodist minister in the Nova Scotia Conference, and another is stipendiary magistrate for the town of Amherst.

Henry Davis was a miller, and settled first in Amherst. One of his sons, T. T. Davis, is a professor in a western College. The other sons of Daniel Davis were farmers, two of whom remained at the old home in Shemogue, where some of their descendants still live.

John Woods was another of the early emigrants who found his way to Prospect. He was a Manxman. After a time he bought a farm at Tidnish, N.S., and subsequently moved to the Gulf Shore, Wallace. Mr. Woods visited Prospect Farm in the seventies, and was greatly delighted to see the old place again.

Samson Clark was also a member of the family for a time. He was a brother of the late Alexander Clark, D.D. When he left Prospect he located on a farm on what he called the "Roadside," back of Amherst, N.S., now Salem. Samson, although a strong man physically, and with plenty of brains, did not make life a success. He became blind in his later years, and never prospered financially. Politically Mr. Clark would stand for a countryman of his who, when asked soon after landing in America what his politics were, answered, "Is there a government here?" He was told that there was. "Then," said he, "I'm ag'in the government."

Isaac Vandegrift came from Halifax to Point de Bute. His mother was a widow. He married Miriam Smith, from Sackville, and the ceremony took place at the "Brick House," Prospect. Isaac settled at Hall's Hill, but afterward moved back to Point de Bute. He was an excellent ploughman, and was one of the drovers north when the Richibucto and Miramichi markets were supplied with beef from the Westmoreland marshes. He contracted consumption and died comparatively young. Mrs. Edward Jones, of Point de Bute, is the only one of his five children now living.

A family named Ireland came to Prospect early in the centry, and Mr. Trueman took some trouble in assisting Mr. Ireland to locate. These entries are found in the journal: "May, 1811—Robert goes to Amherst for Mr. Ireland's goods," and, later, Mr. Trueman "goes with Mr. Ireland and Amos Fowler to Westcock for advice." Mr. Ireland moved to King's County, where he farmed for a time. Later he went to Ontario. The late Hon. George Ryan, when at Ottawa, met some members of the Ireland family and renewed old acquaintanceship after a separation of forty years.

COLPITTS.

Extracts from the historical paper read at the re-union of the Colpitts family in Coverdale, Albert County, Sept. 6th, 1900:

"In the spring of 1783, immediately after the close of the Revolutionary War, there came to Halifax, from Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, a tall, stalwart Englishman with his wife and family of seven children. The name of the man was Robert Colpitts, as far as we know the only one of the name to come out from the Mother Country, and the progenitor of all on this side of the Atlantic who bear the name. What his occupation or position in society was before his emigration we can only conjecture. Strange to say, there does not exist a scrap of writing which throws any light on these questions, and tradition is almost equally at fault. Later in life Robert Colpitts was a captain of militia, and it is thought he had some connection with the army before his emigration. Whatever his occupation was he must have been possessed of some means, as among the articles brought from England were things which would be counted as luxuries rather than necessities for a new settler among the wilds of New Brunswick. For instance, among these articles were three large clocks.

"Tradition says that this was not his first visit to Canada. Before the outbreak of the American Revolution he had been over, it is believed, in connection with a survey of the Bay of Fundy. At this time he had made a small clearing on what is now the Charles Trites' farm, in Coverdale, and put up a small cabin on the place. He then returned to Newcastle-on-Tyne, and closed up his business with the expectation of returning with his family. In the meantime the war between England and her American colonies had broken out, and he could not reach Nova Scotia until the trouble was settled, which was not for seven years. For a part of this time the family had charge of a toll bridge near Newcastle. The following incident is declared to have actually occurred while they were keeping the toll bridge. A large man, riding a very small donkey, one day came up to the bridge and asked the amount of the toll. The charge was more than he felt inclined to pay, so he asked what would it be for a man with a load. Finding that it was considerably less he at once laid down the smaller sum, picked up the donkey in his arms, and walked over the bridge. From Halifax Mr. Colpitts and the two oldest boys made their way overland, walking the most of the way from there to Moncton, while the others came in a vessel soon afterwards. When they reached Coverdale the land he had improved had been pre-empted, and Mr. Colpitts had to push on. He settled at Little River, five miles from its mouth."

The writer, after giving a fuller account of the family, says: "It is, we freely confess, the history of a race of humble farmers, and such, for the most part, have been their descendants; no one of the name has yet occupied a prominent place in the public life of our country. But the name has always been an honorable one, and those who have borne it have been, with few exceptions, honest, God-fearing, God-honoring men and women."

Mr. James Colpitts, of Point de Bute, is a great-grandson of Mr. Robert Colpitts.

MONRO.

Alexander Monro was born in Banff, Scotland. His father, John Monro, and family came from Aberdeen to Miramichi, New Brunswick, in 1815. He remained in Miramichi three years and then moved to Bay Verte. The next move was to Mount Whatley, and, after a few years stay there, Mr. Monro purchased a wilderness lot on Bay Verte Road, to which they removed, and after years of strenuous labor made for themselves a comfortable home.

It was from Mr. Robert King, school master—referred to in another part of this book—that the son, Alexander Monro, received the inspiration and training that started him on the road to success in life. His biographer says: "When he was twenty-one years of age a Mr. Robert King came into the district to take charge of the school, and under his care young Monro studied in the winter evenings geometry, algebra and land surveying. Mr. King possessed a surveying compass, and gave him practical instruction in land surveying, leading him to decide to follow that business.

Mr. Monro obtained a recommendation from Dr. Smith, of Fort Cumberland, and others, and in the year 1837 went to Fredericton to obtain an appointment from the Hon. Thomas Baillie, then Surveyor-General of the Province. Mr. Baillie complimented him on his attainments, but refused to appoint him to the office. When Mr. Monro got back to St. John he had but two shillings in his pocket, and with this meagre sum he started on foot for home. Before he had gone far he found a job of masonry work and earned fifteen shillings. With this money he returned to St. John, and purchased Gibson's "Land Surveying" and some cakes for lunch, and set out again for Westmoreland. On the way he worked a day at digging potatoes, for which he received two shillings, and later on built a chimney and was paid two pounds.

The next year Mr. Monro received the appointment of Deputy Crown Land Surveyor. In 1848 he was made a Justice of the Peace, and was the surveyor to run the boundary line between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. He was the author of a number of works, one on Land Surveying, also one on the "History, Geography and Productions of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island." For a number of years he edited an educational monthly magazine called the PARISH SCHOOL ADVOCATE. His biographer adds: "Such is the life and labors of one of our foremost and most useful citizens, and if there is a moral to be read from it, it is this, that to make a man of cultured tastes, a student, a scholar and a publicist of acknowledged rank and value in the country, universities with their libraries and endowments are not absolutely necessary; social position, influential connection and wealth are not necessary. Without such adventitious aids, what is wanted is a native taste for research and inquiry, and a determination of character superior to environment."

PALMER—KNAPP.

The Palmers and Knapps were Loyalists. C. E. Knapp, a grandson of Loyalist Knapp, writes: "The largest part of Staten Island, New York, should have been the possession of the Palmers of Westmoreland. Their ancestor, John Palmer, who was by profession a lawyer, moved from New York to Staten Island. He had been appointed one of the first judges of the New York Court of Oyer and Terminer. He was also a member of the Governor's Council, and afterwards Sheriff. When the Revolutionary War broke out his son Gideon held the commission of captain in Delancy's Rangers, and when the war terminated he, in common with the other Loyalists, had to leave the country."

Together with his brother-in-arms, Titus Knapp, John Palmer found a new home at Old Fort Cumberland, where they commenced business as general traders. They purchased adjoining farms, and these still go by the name of the "Knapp and Palmer farms." Mr. Palmer afterwards moved to Dorchester Cape, induced to do so because it reminded him of his old home in New York. Palmer and Knapp must have found their loyalty expensive, as their confiscated property is now worth untold millions. In Mr. Knapp's case it was not so bad, as his property went to his half-brother, who, fortunately for him, was a Quaker and did not "fight."

The Palmers have taken a prominent place in the history of New Brunswick. Mr. Gideon Palmer, a son of Gideon (first), was one of the successful shipbuilders of Dorchester in the fifties, and Philip, another son, was for some years a member of the New Brunswick Legislature. The late Judge Palmer, of St. John, was a son of Philip Palmer.

Charles E. Knapp, barrister, of Dorchester, is clerk of the Probate Courty, and one of the oldest practising lawyers of Westmoreland. Mr. Titus Knapp represented the county for some time in the Legislature of New Brunswick, and for many years did a large trading business at Westmoreland Point.

HARPER.

Christopher Harper was born in a small village near Hull, in Yorkshire. He emigrated to Nova Scotia in 1774, bringing his family and his nephew, Thomas King, with him. He arrived at Fort Cumberland on a fine day in May, and his surprise was great the next morning to see the ground covered with snow. Mr. Harper bought a property to the south- east of the garrison lands, and moved his family into a house said to have been built by the Acadians; but this is very doubtful, as these people chose to burn their dwellings rather than let them fall into the hands of the English. Tradition says Mr. Harper brought stock, both horses and cattle, with him from Yorkshire.

In 1777 Mr. Harper's house and barn were burned by the Eddy rebels, and soon after the Loyalists came to Nova Scota he sold his property at the fort to his son-in-law, Gideon Palmer, and moved to Sackville, having purchased land near Morris's Mills. It is said he came into possession of this property through prosecuting one Ayer and others for setting fire to his buildings at Fort Cumberland. In 1809 he obtained a grant from the Government at Fredericton of the mill-pond, and some two hundred or three hundred acres of wilderness land in Sackville, including about forty acres of marsh on the east side of the Tantramar River, above Coles's Island.

Mr. Harper had three sons and four daughters. His son Christopher, who was a captain in the army in early life, left for Quebec, via Richibucto and Miramichi, and was not heard from after leaving Miramichi. John married Miss Thornton (whose father was a Loyalist), and after living at the mill for a time moved to Dorchester. William married Phoebe Haliday, from Cobequid, and built on the place where I. C. Harper, of Sackville, now lives; Catherine married Gideon Palmer; Annie married Major Richard Wilson, a north of Ireland man; Fannie married Thomas King, and Charlotte married Bedford Boultonhouse.

Christopher Harper owned the first two-wheeled chaise that was run in Westmoreland County. He was a magistrate and used to solemnize marriage, and sometimes officiated in the Church of England in the absence of the rector.

The Harpers of Sackville and Bay Verte are descendants of the two brothers, William and John.

ETTER—WETHERED.

The Etters and Wethereds were on the Isthmus very shortly after 1755. I find that Samuel Wethered was married to Dorothy Eager, Nov. 26th, 1761, by license from the Government. Dorothy Eager was a Scotch lass from Dumfries. Mrs. Atkinson, a grand-daughter, has several pieces of fancy needlework done by Mrs. Wethered. "Sarah Huston Wethered was born at Cumberland, in the Province of Nova Scotia, June 10th, 1763, at ten o'clock in the morning. Joshua Winslow Wethered was born at Cumberland, Nova Scotia, in September, 1764, at ten o'clock in the evening."

Peter Etter was a jeweller and silversmith, and kept a shop near Fort Cumberland. He married Letitia Patton, daughter of Mark Patton, and was brother-in-law to Colonel John Allan. Peter Etter was twice married, his second wife being Sarah Wethered. He was lost at sea in coming from Boston to Cumberland. His widow became the second wife of Amos Fowler, of Fowler's HIll. Peter Etter (second) married Elizabeth Wethered, and settled at Westmoreland, and had a family of nine children, Bradley, Peter, Joshua, Letitia, George, Maria, Samuel, James, and Margaret.

The Etters are large marsh owners on the Aulac, and the aboideau across that river takes its name—the Etter Aboideau—from Peter Etter, who was one of the principal promoters of that work.

I find Jonathan Eddy's name among the customers of jeweller Etter. Mr. Eddy's watch must have been like that of Artemus Ward's or he must have been agent for others, judging from the amount of money he annually paid for repairs.

The Etters were originally from Switzerland, and were engaged in making glass before coming to this country.

CAHILL.

John R. Cahill was born in London, England, in the year 1777. His father was a ship-owner, but decided to educate his son for the Church. During a college vacation young Cahill was sent as supercargo in one of his father's ships bound for Halifax. On the return voyage the vessel was wrecked on the coast of Nova Scotia. All on board, however, were rescued and brought back to Halifax. For reasons not now known, Mr. Cahill remained on this side of the Atlantic and engaged for a time in teaching school. He married Miss Lesdernier, a sister of Mrs. Richard John Uniacke, and settled in Sackville as a farmer. They had a family of eleven, and Mr. Cahill received regular remittances from his father's estate as long as he lived. Because of his superior education he was often called upon by his neighbors to assist in transacting business of various kinds. Mr. Cahill died in 1852. The late John E. Cahill, of Westmoreland Point, was a son, and Walter Cahill, stipendiary magistrate of Sackville, a grandson, of John R. Cahill.

SMITH.

There were two John Smiths who came from Yorkshire and settled at Chignecto in the decade between 1770 and 1780.

One settled in Fort Lawrence and married Miss Chapman. The Smiths of Fort Lawrence and Shinemicas are descendants of this family. William Smith of Albert County, who married Parmelia Trueman, was of this family.

The other John Smith settled near Fort Cumberland, but remained only a short time. He incurred the enmity of some of the outlaws in the neighborhood, and as a result had his buildings burned, in one of which a large quantity of goods was stored that he had brought to the country. This so discouraged him that he left the place and settled at Newport, N.S. David Smith, of Amherst, belongs to this family.

OULTON.

Charles Oulton, the first of the name to settle on the Isthmus, came to Nova Scotia with his mother in 1759. At this time Mrs. Oulton was a widow, but before she had been here long she married Capt. Sennacherib Martyn. Capt. Martyn had been with Winslow at the capture of Beausejour.

Young Oulton was seventeen years old when he landed at Halifax. Shortly after this he came to Cumberland, and his name is on the list of the first grantees of Cumberland Township, in 1763. He settled in Jolicure on the farm now in possession of Joseph D. Wells; here, no doubt, his grant was located.

Charles Oulton married a Miss Fillimore, and they had a family of twelve children, seven daughters and five sons. The children's names were: William, Charles, Thomas, George, Jane, Sally, Patience, Mary, Charity, Abigal, Betsy, and a twelfth, who died young.

William married a Miss Smith; Thomas a Miss Trenholm; George a Miss King; Charity a Mr. Williams, of Fredericton; Abigal a Mr. Tingley, of Albert County, N.B.; Mary a Mr. Frank Siddall; Patience a Mr. Smith; Jane also married a Mr. Smith; Sarah a Mr. Fields; Betsy a Mr. Bulmer. A daughter of Mrs. Williams married a Mr. Fisher, also of Fredericton, and they had five sons: Edwin, Henry, George, Peter, and the late Judge Fisher.

George, the youngest son, inherited the homestead in Jolicure, and was for many years one of the leading men in the parish. He married Miss King, of Westmoreland Point, by whom he had three sons: Thomas E., Cyrus, and Rufus. Squire Oulton, as George was usually called, was one of the most genial of men. In figure he was tall and straight. He had an open countenance, a quick step, a hearty laugh, and a pleasant "good morning" for everyone. He was just the kind of man to make friends. He enjoyed a good honest horse-race, and was always ready to bet a beaver hat on any test question that gave a chance of settlement in that way. An incident is told of him in connection with a trip made by his son Cyrus, which gives one a good idea of the man. It was customary before the days of railroads for the farmers and traders in Westmoreland to send teams loaded with produce as far north as Miramichi. These trips were generally made in the early winter, and butter, cheese, woolen cloth, socks, mittens, etc., found a ready market. The journey usually lasted ten days or more. Cyrus was sent by his father, Squire Oulton, on one of these journeys. A storm delayed the party, and more than the usual time was consumed before the return. When Cyrus returned he was not particularly prompt in reporting the success of the transaction to headquarters. At last his father asked him about the returns, and Cyrus said: "Well, to tell you the truth, father, I did not bring any money back with me. I met a number of good fellows and had to stand my share with the others, and the money is all gone." There was silence for a minute and then the Squire replied, "That is right, Cyrus, always be a man among men." That was the last of the affair, but it is porbably that Mr. Oulton chose some other agent to market the next load of produce.

In later years Cyrus used to enjoy telling the following story, based on one of his boyish experiences: "His father had been trying to buy a pari of cattle from Mr. Harper, in Sackville. They could not agree on the price, and Mr. Oulton had come away without purchasing. The next day he decided to send Cyrus over to get the oxen, with instructions to offer Mr. Harper twenty seven pounds for them, but if he would not take it, to give him twenty-eight. Cyrus started away on horseback, in great spirits,full of the importance of his mission. He rode as quickly as possible to Mr. Harper's, and as soon as he saw that gentleman delivered at once his full instructions, that his father wanted the cattle, and if he would not take twenty-seven pounds for them he would give him twenty-eight. Cyrus got the cattle, but not for twenty-seven pounds."

The Oulton nameis largely represented inJolicure at the present time, and most of those who bear it are energetic, industrious, and successful farmers. A few of the name have tried other professions and have succeeded. Geo. J. Oulton, Principal of the Moncton Schools, and one of the most capable teachers in the Province, is a Jolicure boy, and a descendant of Charles Oulton.

KEILLOR.

Thomas Keillor came to Nova Scotia from Skelton, Yorkshire, in 1774. His wife's maiden name was Mary Thompson. He settled near Fort Cumberland, on the farm now known as the "Fowler homestead."

Mr. Keillor had five children—three sons, John, Thomas and Thompson, and two daughters, Elizabeth and Ann. John married a Miss Weldon and settled in Dorchester, where he and his descendants occupied a prominent place for many years. The name became extinct in that parish in 1899 at the death of Mrs. Thomas Keillor.

Thomas married a Miss Trenholm and settled at Amherst Point. He had a number of sons. Several of the family moved to Ontario. Robert married a Miss Dobson and remained on the homestead. His descendants still own the farm at Amherst Point. Coates married a Miss Jones and settled at Upper Miramichi. One of Coates's sons moved to Upper Canada, and the name is still found there. Some of the descendants, but none of the name, now live in Point de Bute.

Thompson died when a young man from a severe cold caught while hauling wood from the lakes. Ann married Amos Fowler, and Elizabeth married William Trueman, as stated in another place.

The Keillors were men of integrity, with a good deal of combativeness in their make up, and not noted for polished address. The following story is told of one of the Keillor boys: One morning when taking a load of port to the fort, at the time the Eddy rebels were at Camp Hill, he was met by a young man on horseback. The young man, after eliciting from Mr. Keillor where he was taking the pork, ordered him to turn about and take it to the rebel camp. This Mr. Keillor refused to do point blank. In the parley and skirmish that followed Mr. Keillor managed to dehorse his man, bind him on the sled, and forthwith delivered him safely at the fort with his carcasses of pork. The young man proved to be Richard John Uniacke, who afterwards became one of the most celebrated of Nova Scotia's public men. In after years, when Mr. Uniacke had become Attorney-General of Nova Scotia, and able lawyer, and a good loyal subject, he was conducting a case in the Amherst Court-house. This same Mr. Keillor was called forward as a witness, and during the cross-examination, when things were probably getting a little uncomfortable for the witness, he ventured to say to Mr. Uniacke:

"I think we have met before, sir."

Mr. Uniacke replied rather haughtily, "You have the advantage of me, I believe."

"And it is not the first time I have had the advantage of you," replied Mr. Keillor.

"When was this?" asked Mr. Uniacke, in a tone that showed how fully he considered himself the master of the situation.

Mr. Keillor replied, "At the time of the rebellion, when I delivered you, a rebel and a prisoner, to the fort along with my pork."

It is said that the Attorney-General left the further conduct of the case to his subordinates.

Thomas, the brother who settled in Amherst, was once warned as a juryman to attend court, to be held in a building little better than a barn. When Mr. Keillor was chosen on a cause, and came forward to the desk to be sworn, he refused absolutely to take the oath. When remonstrated with, he said, "I will never consent to hold the King's Court in a barn." And this juryman, who was so zealous of the King's honor, was allowed to have his own way. The outcome of this was that soon after the county erected at Amherst a suitable building for a court-house.

WARD.

The name Ward was early on the Isthmus. Nehemiah was one of the first grantees of Cumberland. Jonathan Ward, the first to settle in Point de Bute, came from New England in 1760. It is said his coming to this country was occasioned by his falling in love with a young lady whose parents objected to his becoming their son-in-law. The lady, however, was willing to accept her lover without the parents' consent. An elopement was planned and carried out, the young couple coming to Cumberland to set up housekeeping. Mrs. Ward did not live very long after her marriage, and left a young daughter. This daughter was twice married, first to a Mr. Reynolds, and after his death to an Englishman named Merrill. From this union came the Merrills of Sackville, a name quite common in that parish seventy-five years ago, but now extinct.

Jonathan Ward married, as his second wife, Tabitha ——-, a young woman who accompanied his first wife when she left her home in New Haven. They settled in Upper Point de Bute, and lived to a great age, Mr. Ward being ninety-six at his death. Stephen, the only son, inherited the home place and married a Miss Folsom. The Folsoms were from New York, and one of them came to Prince Edward Island to attend to business for the firm. While there he married. Soon after this event Mr. Folsom seems to have been caught by the land craze that few men escaped at that date, and got a large grant of land in Antigonishe County, Nova Scotia. Before they got fairly settled in their new home, Mrs. Folsom died, leaving a daughter. Mr. Folsom soon after left his grant of land and with his little daughter came to Fort Cumberland. Leaving her with friends he went away and was never heard of again. It was supposed he was lost at sea.

The Wards were originally from Wales. Of Stephen Ward's family, Henry and William settled at Point de Bute, and Nathaniel at Wood Point, N.B.

DICKSON.

Major Thomas Dickson, the first of the name on the Isthmus, was one of the New England soldiers present at the taking of Fort Beausejour in 1755. The family were originally from the north of Ireland, and emigrated to the old colonies.

Major Dickson served under General Amherst, and his family had in their possession up to a few years ago a document in which General Amherst commissioned Major Dickson to do certain work that necessitated great risk and skill if it were to be successful.

Thomas Dickson's name is on the list of the first grantees of Cumberland Township, and he received a grant of a large block of land about a mile above Point de Bute Corner, on which he afterward settled. He married a Miss Wethered, and had a family of ten children—James, Dalton, Thomas, Charles, John, Robert, Nancy, Mary, Sarah, and Catherine. Mary married a Mr. Harper, Nancy a Mr. Gleanie, Sarah a brother of Col. John Allan, and after his death Thomas Roach, Esq., of Fort Lawrence; James married Susanna Dickson, and remained on the homestead. Of the other sons, Thomas Law settled in Amherst and represented the county for some years in the Provincial Legislature; Robert, Charles and John entered the British navy. John was shot in an engagement in the English Channel. Robert was drowned in Shelburne Harbor. His vessel was lying in the stream, and he, while in the town, laid a wager that he could swim to the ship. He attempted it, but lost his life in the effort. Charles left the navy and settled in Machias, where he left a large family.

Shortly before the capture of Quebec, Major Dickson was sent out from Fort Cumberland to disperse a band of Acadians who had been reported by one of their number as camping near the Jolicure Lakes with the object of raiding the settlers. The Major with his men started out in pursuit, the Frenchman acting as guide. The camp was found deserted, and the party started on the return home. When they reached the Le Coup stream, an affluent of the Aulac, they found the tide had risen so much that they were unable to proceed farther in that direction, so turning to the left, they followed the main stream to where there was a crossing. While preparing to ford the stream they were suddenly fired upon by the Acadians, who were in hiding behind the dyke. All the party were killed save Major Dickson and the Acadian guide. Both were made prisoners, and as soon as the woods was reached the Acadian was scalped and the Englishman was told that he "must walk alone."

Then starting north they made only necessary stops until they reached Three Rivers, in Quebec. Here the Major was handed over to the French officer in charge at that place, and was put under guard, but treated well, as had been the case on the journey from Nova Scotia. Possibly roasted muskrat would not be considered an appetizing diet, but the major found it kept away hunger, and that was no small consideration in a journey of five hundred miles without a commissariat department.

The prisoner had not been many days at Three Rivers when he received word that Quebec had been taken by the English, and he was again a free man. He soon made his way back to Fort Cumberland, and was present at the defence of the fort during the attack of the Eddy rebels and did good service on that day.

The Dicksons were men who thought for themselves. James, a son of the first James, was a teacher for a time, and in his later years did all the conveyancing in the neighborhood, such as the writing of deeds and wills. He was an omnivorous reader, and, like Silas Wegg, was inclined to "drop into poetry." Some of his efforts in this direction on local happening caught the ear and had the ring that stirred the emotions. Titus, the only grandson of the major, lives on the old farm, and though eighty-three years of age, is still vigorous in mind. The writer is indebted to him for some of the facts given in this sketch.

ATKINSON.

There were two Atkinson families that came to Nova Scotia about the year 1774, one from Middlesex, the other from Yorkshire.

The Middlesex family settled in Fort Lawrence. Capt. S. B. Atkinson, a descendant of this family, writes: "My great-grandfather was a man of considerable substance in the County of Middlesex, England, known as gentleman farmer, and dubbed "Esquire." The tradition is he married a Lord's daughter, whose title would be Lady ——-, and as her family would not recognize either her or her husband, they left the country in disgust."

Mr. Atkinson came to Nova Scotia alone in 1774, and prospected the province. It was a beautiful summer and autumn, and he was delighted with the country. After securing a grant of land in Fort Lawrence, in the old Township of Cumberland, he returned to England and made arrangements to move his family to his new domain the following spring. To accomplish this he chartered the good ship ARETHUSA, and put on board of her his family and farm tenants, all of his belongings, household goods, and farming utensils, and after his safe arrival in Nova Scotia, located on what is now known as the Torry Bent farm.

Capt. Atkinson, in his letter, gives some interesting information relative to the family after settling in this country. He says: "My grand-father's name was Robert. He was the sailor of the family. He served his apprenticeship to the sea out of England, and followed his father to America, sailing as master prior to 1800." His wife was Sarah, daughter of Obediah Ayer, generally known as Commodore Ayer, noted Yankee rebel, one of two brothers from Massachusetts.

Mr. Ayer held an officer's commission in Washington's army in 1776 and was also Commodore of a privateer out of Boston in 1812. In consideration of his service in the war of 1776, the United States Government gave him a grant of land in Ohio, at that time one of the territories. Some years ago his heirs undertook to look up the records, but found they had been burned in the Capitol during the War of 1812. "Only for that little incident," Capt. Atkinson says, "I might have owned the site where Cleveland now stands or otherwise—probably otherwise."

For services in 1812 Commodore Ayer was granted a pension, but died before any payments were made to him. His nearest connections, however, received two hundred dollars a year as long they lived (sic).

Capt. Robert Atkinson sailed his last voyage, from Kingston to Jamaica, in 1804, and died at that port of yellow fever. His widow returned to Sackville, leaving her son Edwin, their only child, with his grandfather in Fort Lawrence, where he remained until he was twenty-one years of age.

Mr. Atkinson had three sons besides Robert, who lived with him in Fort Lawrence. Thomas moved to Kent County, where his descendants still live. William and John remained in Fort Lawrence, and the Atkinsons there now are descended from these brothers. Capt. Stephen Atkinson, from whom most of the information about the family has been obtained, is a master mariner, and has commanded some fine ships in his day. He has now given up the sea and spends a part of his time in Sackville.

The Atkinson family from Yorkshire settled first at River Hebert, Cumberland County, N.S. Robert was the founder of the family. He did not remain in River Hebert for any length of time, but purchased a farm in Sackville, and moved his family there. This farm was afterwards sold by his son Christopher, and is now the site of the Mount Allison educational institutions.

Robert was married and had three children when he came to Nova Scotia. He was twice married, and was the father of fourteen children. Thomas, Christopher, Elizabeth, Sallie, Joseph, Robert, William, John and Stephen were the names of the first family. Several of the sons settled in Sackville. Christopher, after selling his property in Sackville, purchased a farm in Point de Bute, and moved to that place. He had a large family of boys. Robert (second) moved to Shediac. One brother went to the United States and joined the Latter-Day Saints. Joseph married Ann Campbell, the daughter of Lieutenant Campbell, a Waterloo soldier, and settled at Wood Point. They had ten children, six sons and four daughters. Isaac, Nelson, Hance, William and Joseph all became master mariners, and were fine navigators. Woe be to the sailor who fell into their hands and did not know his duty or refused to perform it!

The family still have in their possession their ancestor Campbell's sword and some other relics belonging to the old soldier.

The Atkinsons have always been a strong, vigorous and self-reliant family, and have made a good record in this new country.

LOWERISON.

The following information regarding the Lowerisons was secured chiefly from Robert Lowerison, of Sackville, a great-grandson of the first Richard Lowerison.

Richard Lowerison, the first to come to America, was born in Yorkshire, England, in the year 1741, and married Mary Grey in 1762. Ten years later Mr. Lowerison sailed from Liverpool, Eng., bound for Halifax, where he landed on the 1st of May. He settled on the Petitcodiac River, in Westmoreland County, N.B., but the frequent raids made by the Eddy rebels in that district caused him to purchase and remove to a farm adjoining the western bounds of the Garrison lands of Fort Cumberland. The buildings first erected by him have long since disappeared. The farm has been occupied by his son Thomas, by his grandson James, and at present by William Miner.

Six children survived Richard and Mary Grey Lowerison—Elizabeth, who married William Doncaster, and settled at Amherst Point; Anne, who married John Carter, and settled east of Fort Cumberland; Thomas, who married Hannah Carter, and occupied the homestead; Richard, who married Abigail Merrill, and after spending twelve years between the old home, Amherst Point, and Mapleton, moved to Frosty Hollow, Sackville, on September 18th, 1817, on the farm now occupied by his son, Thomas Lowerison, and his grandson, Bradford Carter; Joseph, the third son of Richard, married Mary Siddall and settled near Mount Whatley, about two miles from the homestead. Mary married James Carter, who for a time kept a public house in Dorchester, but afterwards moved to Amherst, Nova Scotia.

Richard Lowerison and his wife attended the Methodist church in Point de Bute, as may be seen in the deed given by William Chapman to John Wesley. He acted as precentor in the old stone "Meeting House." He died February 24th, 1825, and was buried in the Point de Bute Cemetery. Mary Grey Lowerison, born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, died September 16th, 1834, and lies beside her husband.

Mr. Lowerison must have had some means when he came to the country, for while living near Fort Cumberland he did an extensive business in sending beef cattle to Halifax. His partner for a time was a man named Rice. He seems first to have deceived Mr. Lowerison, and then robbed him by running away with the proceeds of three droves of cattle, leaving Mr. Lowerison accountable for the cattle, with no cash on hand to meet the bills. The worry from this affected his mind to such an extent that he never fully recovered. The Lowerison name, until quite recently, was pronounced as if spelled Lawrence. The family has not increased greatly in the new country. Although the sons had large families, there are very few grandchildren. Robert Lowerison, of Sackville, is the only living member of a large family. Captain Richard Lowerison, of Amherst, is a descendant. Captain Thomas, Joseph, and Siddall, grandsons of Richard, represent the name at Westmoreland Point.

The Lowerisons were always understood to be men of their word.

FILLIMORE.

John Fillimore came from New England to Fort Lawrence, N.S., in 1763 and soon after settled in Jolicure. He had a number of sons, two of whom, John and Spiller, settled at home—John on the homestead, and Spiller on an adjoining farm.

At the close of the Revolutionary War, Spiller sold his farm and returned to the United States. John married Jemima Tingley, of Sackville, and had a family of twelve children. W. C. Fillimore, of Westmoreland Point, and Lewis Fillimore, of Amherst, are grandsons of John.

The Fillimores came originally from Manchester, England, to Long Island, New York. Captain John, father of John, who came to Nova Scotia, was once commissioned by the State of Connecticut to clear the coast of pirates, who were causing a good deal of trouble at the time. So well did Captain Fillimore perform the duty that the town of Norwich presented him with a handsome cane as a mark of their appreciation of his services. This cane is still in possession of the family.

The Fillimores are a long-lived race of men, and have shown themselves well able to hold their own in the competition of life. The name has given a president to the United States.

MINER.

Sylvanus Miner, the first of the name on the Isthmus, was of New England stock. He and Robert King, "Schoolmaster King," as he was generally called, came from Windsor on foot to Mount Whatley, N.B., about 1810. Mr. Miner's father died when he was a boy, and his mother apprenticed her son to a blacksmith. His mother was a Miss Brownell, of Jolicure.

When young Miner had completed his apprenticeship he came to Jolicure by invitation to see his uncle, and afterwards settled at Mount Whatley. He was twice married. His first wife was a Miss Church, of Fort Lawrence; his second, Miss Styles, from Truro, N.S. The sons, James, William and Nathan, now represent the name at Mount Whatley. Mr. Miner was an upright man, and successful in his business of blacksmith and farmer.

DOBSON.

The Dobsons were among the first of Yorkshire emigrants to arrive in Nova Scotia. There were two brothers, George and Richard. George brought with him a wife and grown-up family. His daughter Margaret was married to William Wells before the family left England. Richard was a bachelor, and tradition says he had been a soldier. George purchased a farm in Upper Point de Bute. Neither of the brothers lived long in their new home. Richard died in February, 1773, and George in July of the same year. George's will is dated the 24th July, 1773, and is recorded the 24th November by John Huston. It is witnessed by Mark Patten and J. Allen.

George had four sons, George, David, Richard and John, and two unmarried daughters, Elizabeth and Mary. George and John settled at Point de Bute. Richard sold his share of the homestead to John in 1795, and moved to Cape Tormentine, where he secured a large tract of land and became one of the substantial men of the place. A large number of his descendants are in that locality at the present time. The Dobsons, of Cape Breton, N.S., are descendants of Richard. John sold his farm and moved to Sussex, King's Co., N.B. George Dobson, of Sussex, is a grandson of John. David went to Halifax. George remained on the homestead at Point de Bute, and the Dobsons of Jolicure are descendants of George by his son Abraham.

Mrs. Dobson, the widow of George (first) married a Mr. Falkinther. He did not live long, and Mrs. Falkinther, who was said to be a very fine looking woman, had one of her grand-daughters to live with her during the last years of her life. Her grandchildren called her "Grandmother Forkey."

"Old Abe," as Abraham was familiarly called, was a character in his day. He used to make annual and sometimes semi-annual trips to St. John to dispose of his butter and farm products, and was the kind of man to get all the enjoyment out of these journeys that was in them. It was said that he had large feet, and that early in life one of them was run over by a cart wheel, making it larger than the other. One day, while sitting in a St. John hotel, with the smaller foot forward, a man, noticing the size of it, said, "I will make a bet that that is the largest foot in the city." "Done," said Old Abe. The bet was made, when Mr. Dobson brought forward the other foot and won the wager.

Abraham was one of the best farmers in the township. He named his eldest son Isaac, and had Isaac name his eldest son Jacob. Perhaps the likeness to the old patriarch ended here. He had a large family of boys, to all of whom he gave farms. His youngest son, Robert, was drowned in the Missiquash Valley one December morning as he was skating to his farm on the Bay Verte Road.

The Dobsons were good men for a new country, and did not take life too seriously. Jacob, Frank, Alder, Alonzo and John Dobson and their families represent the name now in Jolicure. Dr. Gay Dobson, of Poughkeepsie, N.Y., U.S., is a descendant. John, a brother of Abraham Dobson, left no sons.

JONES.

William Jones came from Wales. He was one of the first settlers at Point de Bute Corner. He married Mary Dobson, a daughter of George Dobson. They had a large family. Ruth, their youngest daughter, married Stephen Goodwin and lived on the homestead. Stephen Goodwin came from St. John to Point de Bute with his mother, who was a widow. She subsequently became the second wife of Christopher Atkinson. By this marriage she had three sons, George, Abel and Busby, and one daughter, Nancy, who became the wife of John Fawcett, Esq., of Upper Sackville. J. H. Goodwin, of Point de Bute, is a son of Stephen Goodwin.

TINGLEY.

Palmer Tingley emigrated from Kingston-on-the-Thames to Malden, Mass., in 1666. Josiah Tingley, a descendant, came to Sackville, N.B., in 1763. William, a grandson of Josiah Tingley, married Elizabeth Horton and settled in Point de Bute in 1794. He bought land from Josiah B. Throop. The witnesses to the deed were Joseph and Ichabod Throop. Like most of the early settlers, Mr. Tingley raised a large family, and all his sons became farmers. Four of them, John, Harris, Caleb, and William, settled near their father. Josiah settled in Jolicure, Joshua at Shemogue, and Isaac at Point Midgie. There were four daughters. Ann married Joseph Irving, of Tidnish; Mary, Cyrus McCully, Amherst, N.S.; Helener, William McMorris, of Great Shemogue; and Margaret, Asa Read, also of Shemogue. There were eleven children in all, and their longevity will surely bear comparison with that of any family in Canada, and is well worth recording:

John Tingley, born 1794, died 1874, aged 80. Harris " " 1794, " 1875, " 80. Joshua " " 1797, " 1897, " 100. William " " 1799, " 1868, " 69. Ann " " 1801, " 1881, " 80. Mary " " 1803, " 1890, " 87. Josiah " " 1807, " 1888, " 81. Helener " " 1809, still living in 1902, aged 93. Isaac " " 1812, died 1891, aged 79. Margaret" " 1816, still living in 1902, aged 86. Caleb " " 1805, died 1880, aged 75.

The Tingleys are generally adherents of the Baptist Church. Robert, Obed, Harvey, William, Alfred and Err are grandsons of William Tingley and represent the name in Point de Bute and Jolicure.

SIDDALL.

Ralph Siddall came from Yorkshire to Nova Scotia in 1772, and soon after, in company with Richard Lowerison, settled at "The Bend," now the town of Moncton, N.B. The Eddy rebels proving too strong in that locality for the loyal Englishmen, they soon returned to the protection of Fort Cumberland, and eventually settled near the fort. Mr. Siddall had a family of five children—two sons, Ralph and Francis, and three daughters. The daughters married, respectively: Thomas Carter, ——- Cook, and James Deware. The Dewares of Jolicure belong to his family. Ralph (second) married ——- Ayer and had two sons, Edward and William and three daughters. William settled on Gray's Road, near Wallace. Edward remained on the homestead. One of the daughters married Joseph Lowerison, another Ephraim Rayworth; one remained single. Francis Siddall settled first on the farm now owned by James Colpitts, near Point de Bute Corner, and married Mary Oulton, by whom he had a family of five children, Ralph, Stephen, Charles, Susan and Experience. Susan was twice married—first to Mariner Teed, of Dorchester, N.B., second, to Hugh McLeod. The late John Teed, of Dorchester, was a son of Mariner and Susan Teed. Experience married William Copp, of Bay Verte Road. The Copps were from New England, and settled first in Jolicure. Hiram, Harvey and Silas Copp, of Sackville, Albert and George, of Bay Verte, are sons of William Copp.

Ralph Siddall (third) married Susan Oulton and remained on the homestead at Westmoreland Point, which he named "The Crow's Nest." Mrs. Siddall is now living, at the age of eighty-six. Charles married Louisa Chappell, of Bay Verte, and is still living, at the ripe age of ninety- two years. Godfrey and Bill, of Bay Verte, N.B., and Charles, of Sackville, are his sons. Stephen married a Miss Brown and had a large family. His youngest son, George, is the only one living in the vicinity of the old home. Stephen had a remarkable memory, and greatly enjoyed a good sermon. He followed the sea for a number of years. After settling down at home, near Fort Cumberland, he was appointed to an office in the Customs, which he held to his death. Few men could tell a story better than Capt. Stephen Siddall.

BROWNELL.

Rev. J. H. Brownell writes: "The present Brownell family are unable to tell definitely when their grandfather came to this country, but I find it recorded in 'A Biographical Sketch of the Loyalists,' by Lorenzo Sabine, in Vol. I, which I have by me, that in the year 1783 two brothers came from Vermont to New Brunswick. Joshua Brownell went to St. John, and Jeremiah came to Westmoreland, and settled in Jolicure. He married Annie Copp. They were the parents of nine children. Their names, etc., are as follows: Aaron married first, Vinie Dixon; they had one girl. His second wife was Margaret Weldon; they had two sons and five daughters. He settled in Dorchester. John married Eunice Polly; they had two sons and seven daughters. He settled in Jolicure. Jeremiah married Rebecca Dixon; they had seven sons and six daughters. He settled in Northport, N.S. Thomas never married, and lived in Jolicure. William married Annie Davis; they had five sons and five daughters. He settled in Northport, N.S. Sarah married Thomas Weldon. They lived in Jolicure for a time, and then moved away. When Weldon died Sarah came back and lived with Thomas. She had six children, one son and five daughters. Edward married Margaret Adams; they had thirteen children. He settled in Jolicure. Annie married George Church; they lived in Fort Lawrence, and had four sons and five daughters. Lovinia married Jesse Church, and lived in Point de Bute for a time, then moved to Amherst. They had five sons and seven daughters."

My information, up to the receipt of this letter, was very positive that Jeremiah Brownell came to Nova Scotia in 1763, with the Fillimores and others, landing at Fort Lawrence. The family were adherents of the Presbyterian Church, and took an active part in building and sustaining that church in Jolicure. The name has given two ministers to the denomination, Rev. J. H. Brownell, of Little Shemogue, N.B., and Rev. Hiram Brownell, of Northport, N.S.

KING.

Thomas King came from a small village near Hull, Yorkshire, with his uncle, Christopher Harper, in 1773. Before starting for America Mr. Harper hired his nephew, who was a blacksmith, to work for him for three years for forty pounds sterling. When Mr. Harper found wages were high in this country, he released his nephew from the bargain, and young King worked several years in the Government Armory at Fort Cumberland. He married his cousin, Miss Harper, and they were the parents of six children, one son and five daughters. The son, Thomas, married a Miss Chandler; Jane married George Oulton; Fanny Thomas Bowser; one remained single; of the remaining two, one married Otho Read, and the other Jesse Read. Thomas King (second) owned a large farm that joined the Garrison land. He had a family of two daughters and four sons, Jane, ——-, Watson, Edward, James and Samuel. None of the sons, and but one of the daughters married. Edward and Samuel occupy the old place, and are the only members of the family now living. The "King boys," as they were called, were well read and good conversationalists. James was a school-teacher in his early years, and had a local reputation as a mathematician.

RYAN. Daniel Ryan came from Ireland to Nova Scotia soon after the Expulsion, and settled near Point de Bute corner. He married a Miss Henry. They had a family of eight—Daniel, Henry, James, William, and four daughters. One daughter married Joseph Black, of Dorchester, N.B.; another married a Mr. McBride; another, William Trenholm, of Point de Bute. William settled in Little Shemogue; Henry moved to Hastings, Cumberland, N.S.; James married Christina Forster, of Fort Lawrence, and lived for a time on the old place. About 1813 he moved to Millstream, King's Co., N.B., where the family for many years occupied a prominent place in public affairs.

OGDEN.

The Ogdens were U. E. Loyalists. John (first) came from Long Island, New York, in 1790, and settled in Sackville, N.B., on the farm owned by the late Bloomer Ogden. An uncle of John Ogden spent the latter part of his life in prison rather than swear allegiance to the United States. John married Nancy Fawcett, a daughter of Mr. John Fawcett, Sackville, and had eight children—John, William, Henry, Thomas, Bloomer, Robert, Ann and Jane.

John (second) settled in Port Elgin. Edward Ogden, of Sackville, is a son of John. Amos and William of the same place are sons of Henry. The late Henry Ogden, of Jolicure, was connected with this family.

TOWNSEND.

John Townsend came from Prince Edward Island and settled in Upper Jolicure early in the last century. His descendants are living there now. The Townsends are of English descent.

ROBINSON.

The Robinsons were an English family that settled in Cornwallis, N.S., about 1780. Edmund Robinson, a son, removed to Parrsboro'. His wife was Miss Rand, a relative of the Rev. Silas Rand, the Micmac missionary. John Robinson of Point de Bute is a grandson of Edmund Robinson.

PHALEN.

John Phalen came early to this country. He was educated for Holy Orders, but never entered the Church as one of its ministers. He was married in Halifax, and taught school in Point de Bute for a number of years. His son, John C. Phalen, was a member of the home of Thomas Trueman, of Point de Bute. John married Priscilla Goodwin, of Bay Verte, and had a large family. He settled at Bay Verte. John Phalen, of Amherst, is son of John C. Phalen. The Phalens of Westmoreland and Cumberland Counties are descendants of John. One of the name is in the Methodist ministry.

WILLIAM DAVIDSON.

William Davidson came from Dumfries, Scotland, to this country in company with James Amos, in 1820. Mr. Amos landed at Charlottetown, but afterwards settled on the Murray Road, Botsford, and Mr. Davidson on the Bay Verte Road, alongside of John Monro. The Davidsons were a most intelligent family. The late Hugh Davidson of Tidnish was a member of this family and the Davidson brothers of Tidnish are sons of Hugh and William.

TURNER.

William Turner, who settled in Bay Verte Road, came from the United States about the year 1820 or 1825. The Turners of Bay Verte are among his lineal descendants. Rev. E. C. Turner, of the New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island Conference, belongs to this family.

ROACH.

Thomas Roach was born in 1768, in Cork, Ireland, where he spent his early years. He was educated for the priesthood, and could speak fluently in several languages. About the year 1790 he accompanied his father to Nova Scotia and settled in Fort Lawrence. The elder Mr. Roach did not remain long in Nova Scotia, but pushed on to New York. His son never heard from him after they parted at Halifax. Thomas Roach was very successful in business and for many years was one of the leading men in the Methodist Church on the Isthmus. He was elected a representative to the Provincial Parliament five times in succession, and served the people in that capacity from 1799 to 1826.

Mr. Roach was married four times. His family of four sons and three daughters was the fruit of his first marriage. Ruth, daughter of Charles Dixon, Sackville, was his first wife; his second, Mrs. Sarah Allen; third, Mary Dixon, of Onslow, and his fourth, Charlotte Wells. Mr. John Roach, of Nappan, and Dr. Roach, of Tatamagouche, are grandsons of Thomas Roach.

SILLIKER.

William Silliker was a U.E. Loyalist from Connecticut, and came to Bedeque, P.E. Island, in 1783, where he spent the last years of his life. His son, William C. Silliker, moved to Bay Verte in the early part of the last century. This son was a master mariner, and spent most of his life at sea. He married Amelia Chappell, and had a family of three children, two sons and one daughter. The Sillikers of Bay Verte are descended from Captain Silliker. Alderman Silliker of Amherst also belongs to this family.

HEWSON.

James Hoytte Hewson and his mother came to Nova Scotia in 1783 with a party of Loyalists, and settled in Wallace. His father, Richard Hewson, who was an officer in the British army, was killed in a negro insurrection in the south. Mrs. Hewson and her young son were sent north to live with friends, which explains how they came to be with the Loyalists. Mrs. Hewson's maiden name was Hoytte. They soon sold their property in Wallace and removed to Fort Cumberland, then one of the centres of trade in the new country. Here Mrs. Hewson opened a little store and also taught a school, and her son worked as clerk for Titus Knapp. Mrs. Hewson was successful in her trade venture, and in 1796 she and her son bought from Spiller Fillimore his farm on Jolicure Point, which has been known ever since as the Hewson farm. This property is still in possession of the family, and has been the home of four generations. James Hewson married Jerusha Freeman, of Amherst, and had six children—Richard married Seraphina Bent, of Fort Lawrence, and lived at River Philip, N.S.; James married Phebe Wry, and remained in Jolicure; William married Elizabeth Chandler, and inherited the homestead; Olive married George Darby, of Bedeque, P.E. Island; Jerusha married George Baxter, Land Surveyor, and a Loyalist, and lived in Amherst; Phebe married John Schurman, of River Philip, the grandfather of President Schurman of Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. John Hewson, of Jolicure, Dr. William and Watson, of Point de Bute, and Dr. Charles Hewson, of Amherst, are sons of William Hewson.

READ.

Several persons answering to the name of Read came to the Isthmus soon after the Expulsion. Thomas Read, who was one of the Yorkshire emigrants of 1774, settled on the River Hebert. In 1786 Eliphlet Read and Joseph Read were residents of Sackville. In 1788 Stephen Read was one of the Trustees of the Stone Church (Methodist) at Point de Bute. In 1800 an Eliphlet Read lived in Jolicure. He married a Miss Converse and had a large family. John Read, of Jolicure, and William Read,* of Amherst, are grandsons of this Eliphlet.

[FOOTNOTE: *Joseph Read, of Bay Verte, writes: William Read, from New England, came to Sackville about the year 1760. His sons were Benjamin, Joshua, Eliphalet, and William, the latter my grandfather. Grandsons: Eliphalet, William, James, Caleb, Harris, Asa, and John, the last mentioned being my father. END OF FOOTNOTE]

WRY.

John Wry emigrated from Yorkshire to Nova Scotia about 1780, and settled in Sackville. He bought from William Maxwell the farm on which the Brunswick House now stands and made his home there. The Maxwells were from New England, and had been in the country some years. John Wry married a Miss Maxwell. The late Christopher Wry of Jolicure was a son of John Wry. The Wrys of Sackville are descendants of John.

BOWSER.

Thomas Bowser was one of the Yorkshire emigration of 1774, and settled in Sackville. His son, Thomas, married Fanny King, and lived on Cole's Island. Arthur and Blair Bowser of Point de Bute and John and Bliss of Jolicure are grandsons of Thomas (second).

LOWTHER.

Tradition says that the Lowther name was brought to England by one Colonel Lowther, in 1688. This Colonel Lowther was one of the trusted soldiers that the Prince of Orange brought with him from Holland, and was afterwards allotted an estate in Devonshire. From there the family spread to other parts of England. William Lowther, who settled in Westmoreland, N.B., came from Yorkshire, in 1817. He was accompanied by three brothers and one sister. The three brothers and the sister settled in Cumberland County, N.S. William had a family of nine children. William (second), married Lucy Chapman and settled in Great Shemogue. George married Mary Pipes and settled at the Head of Amherst. Mary married Joseph Carter, of Point de Bute. Hannah married Edward Smith, of Amherst Head. Sarah Thomasina married Rufus Carter, of Point de Bute. Rufus first married Sarah Pipes; his second wife was Elizabeth Lowther. Jane married Richard Pipes, of Nappan. Titus married Phoebe Carter, and remained in Westmoreland. Catherine married William Kever, and went to Minnesota.

ALLAN.

Benjamin Allan was a Scotchman who came to Cumberland from the United States about the time of the Revolutionary War. There is evidence that he was with Wolfe at the taking of Quebec. If so, he was probably one of the disbanded British soldiers that found their way to Canada at the close of (sic) American War. He married a Miss Somers, of Petitcodiac, at the Bend, and finally settled at Cape Tormentine.

Mrs. Allan was a very large woman, of pure Dutch stock, with, it is said, a marked tendency to stand upon her rights. Tradition also says that the pugilistic tendencies of the family were inherited from the mother, as the father was a very quiet, meek-mannered man. It might be that domestic felicity was more likely to be attained by such a demeanor. The Allan family consisted of eight sons and three daughters —Ephraim, Jonas, James, Matthew, Liff, Dan, George, and Ben were the names of the boys. It is told of Matthew that once when he was "on a time," the press gang took him and his boon companion on board a man- of-war and induced them to enlist. When the young men came to themselves they were in great trouble, and one night, when the ship was lying near one of the West India Islands, they jumped overboard with the hope of reaching the shore by swimming. Allan succeeded, and after spending some days on the island in hiding, he found a vessel which brought him back to Halifax, from which place he soon found his way home, none the worse for his experience. His companion was never heard from. A great many of the name are now living at the Cape where their ancestor first settled.

CHAPPELL.

The Chappells were early in the country. There were two brothers, Eliphet and Jabez. Eliphet settled at Bay Verte, and had a family of four sons and five daughters. George and Bill, two of his sons, married sisters, Jane and Polly, daughters of William Wells, of Point de Bute. George's children were William, George, Joshua, Watson, Susanna, Peggy, Maria, Ann, Amelia, Almira and Jane. George married Betsy Freeze; Susanna, ——- Strange; Peggy, John Rawarth; Maria, Rufus Chappell; Amelia, Nelson Beckworth; Ann, William Fawcett; Almira, Rufus Oulten, M.D. Jane did not marry. Bill Chappell's sons were Bill, Rufus, James and Edwin. His daughters, Fanny (Mrs. Capt. Crane), Matilda (Mrs. Edward Wood), Caroline (Mrs. John Carey), Louisa (Mrs. Charles Siddall).

The Chappells were a prominent family in Bay Verte for many years, and have a good record there.

BETTS.

Three brothers by this name emigrated from England to New York shortly before the Revolutionary War. Two of the brothers fought in that war on the English side, and in 1783 came to Nova Scotia. Isaac settled at Wallace, Cumberland, and his brother settled on the Miramichi River, in New Brunswick, where the name is still found. George Betts of Point de Bute, is a son of Benjamin and a grandson of the brother who settled at Wallace.

IRVIN.

Joseph Irvin was another of the North of Ireland men that came to Old Cumberland early in the last century. He settled first on the north- west side of the Point de Bute ridge, where the road makes a slight angle to cross the marsh to Jolicure. Here he and his friend, Isaac Doherty, kept a store and built a vessel. The locality was called Irvin's Corner in the early days. Mr. Irvin married Ann Tingley, and soon after moved to Tidnish, where he spent the remainder of his life as a farmer. His family consisted of seven sons and three daughters. Three of his sons, Joseph, Edwin and James, now represent the name in Tidnish.

HAMILTON.

Robert Hamilton was born in Tyrone County, Ireland, and emigrated to New Brunswick in the year 1824, settling at Tidnish. He had a family of four children, Gustavus, Mary, Eliza and Eleanor. His son, Gustavus, married Eleanor Goodwin, and remained on the home farm, which is now owned by his son, Isaac G. Hamilton. Rev. C. W. Hamilton, of St. John, and Dr. Hamilton, of Montreal, are grandsons of Robert Hamilton. Robert Hamilton had a brother, Gustavus, who was a Methodist local preacher, and for many years was a valuable assistant to the regular minister at Point de Bute when that circuit included the present Bay Verte circuit.

FORMER RESIDENTS OF OLD CUMBERLAND, NONE OF WHOSE DESCENDANTS OF THE NAME LIVE THERE NOW.

BURNS.—John Burns was from Ireland. He came to New Brunswick in the early part of the last century, and settled at Mount Whatley. He married a Miss Harrison, and had a family of six children. He carried on a large and profitable mercantile business for a number of years. There are none of the name here at present.

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