The British Association's visit to Montreal, 1884: Letters
by Clara Rayleigh
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The fact that the British Association meets this year in Canada gives unusual interest to the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Philadelphia, from September 4 to 11. After the Montreal meeting those who feel inclined can make their way leisurely to Philadelphia where it is evident from the information before us, they will meet with a warm reception. On the Friday evening, September 5, after the address of the retiring president (Professor C. A. Young, of New Jersey) a general reception will be tendered by the citizens and ladies of Philadelphia to the members of the British and American Associations, and the ladies accompanying them. The British Association has been cordially invited, both by the American Association to take part in the proceedings, and by the local committee representing the citizens of Philadelphia, to accept the warm welcome which will be tendered them during the joint session. The local committee has, indeed, been divided into a number of subcommittees for the sole purpose of rendering the stay of their visitors agreeable It will, therefore, only be courteous on the part of Britons who intend to be present at the American meeting to comply with the committee's request, and send their names, together with the number of ladies and gentlemen in their parties, as early as possible, to Dr. Persifor Frazer, 201, South Fifth street, Philadelphia. During the week occupied by the session there will be a number of receptions, entertainments, and excursions, and a day will be set apart for the examination of the International Electrical Exhibition, to be held at Philadelphia under the auspices of the Franklin Institute, and commencing September 2. By an arrangement between the Canadian and United States Trunk lines, members of the British Association will be conveyed between Montreal and Philadelphia at specially low fares, while the hotel charges at the latter city during the meeting are not expected to exceed three dollars a day. We believe the number who have already promised to be at the Montreal meeting is about seven-hundred and fifty, so that with those who will go without promising, added to the many Canadian and United States scientists who are sure to be present, the meeting is likely to be in numbers more than an average one.

Letter No. 4.

September 17th, Toronto, The "Chestnuts."

My beloved Mother.—I forgot to mention your birthday when I last wrote, but you know how glad I am that you were born! And how much I prize every year that is added to your life; and now as this will find you at dear Mary's, please give her my fond love and best wishes for this day, and I shall drink her health to-day, and call upon my sons to do the same. I posted my last letter at Montreal on Thursday; Dick was quite ill that day, and after seeing him twice and shopping, I bid good-bye to Mr. Angus, who went to New York, and then Miss Angus drove me to see poor Mrs. Walter Brown, whose husband was dying at the Hospital. I sent my card in and she asked to see me. I did not know her much, but it was very touching, and I felt my heart quite drawn to the poor young woman, who came out with her husband on a pleasure trip, and now has to leave him buried in a far land. He got typhoid fever, and inflammation of the lungs, and was lying unconscious on a hospital bed, while she sobbed on my shoulder, and said "Oh what shall I do? what shall I do?" I asked her if she had any difficulty about money matters, but she said Captain Douglas Galton had called and kindly arranged everything for her with one of our kind hosts at Montreal. Her father was coming out to her as fast as he could, but could not be at New York till the 12th, and her poor husband died that night, and was buried yesterday. After this, which upset me much, I went to the Stephens' and met John and E—- and told them, and John went off also to see Mrs. Brown, for Mr. Brown had been a friend of his. The Stephens' house is very gorgeous, and full of beautiful satin-wood walls, and the staircase finely carved mahogany. Mr. Angus' house, too, has much beautiful carved wood about it, but the houses are kept so dark on account of the heat and flies, that one can hardly see well enough to appreciate these beauties. Excepting in this respect, and the amount of carved wood, the style is very like the houses of the middle class of well-to-do men in Scotland.

Friday.—I got up at six, and walked to see Dick, and found him better, and he arranged, if well enough, to follow us to Toronto; then we breakfasted and all the family were up to see us off, and we joined John and E—- at the station and arranged ourselves in the Directors' car (Canadian Pacific Railway), a drawing-room with beds (sofas), dining-room and table in centre, a little kitchen, private bedroom, and two lavatories. We had a very hot and dusty journey but were otherwise comfortable, and arrived at Ottawa about twelve. John and E—- went off to lunch with Lady Melgund at Rido, but as she did not know we were coming I was not invited, and so Hedley and I lunched in our car, and then drove to lionize the Claudiere Falls, where the Ottawa River falls about two hundred feet. The quantity of wood piled about is amazing (lumber they call it) and it chokes up and destroys the effect of the river, but it is not in itself ugly, for they arrange it so beautifully and the colouring is bright. Then we drove to the Government buildings, and there I was agreeably surprised by the beautiful view, not so grand as Quebec certainly, but very fine—the Ottawa, with headlands, well wooded, frequently breaking the line of the river, and the far reach of country with blue mountains in the background, and then the air so deliciously sweet and pure, and reviving. We returned there again in the afternoon, and sat reading till half-past seven, when we returned to our small house and John and E—-, and the conductor gave us a capital dinner—champagne and all sorts of good things, and we all enjoyed it. Then we chatted and played whist, and then to bed. Hedley and I in the drawing-room, and John and E—- in small room, the maids in dining-room. I can't say I slept well for they moved our car once, causing our conductor to storm at them for their impertinence, and the arrival and departure of various trains and fog signals, &c., were not calculated to favour one's slumbers! Hedley declares that a fog signal in the morning did not awake me, but he slept through all. About twelve, Dick arrived from Montreal, much better, and our car was fastened to the train and on we went to Toronto. We all tried to read, but oh! the shaking, and dust, and heat were overpowering; still it was interesting to see what appeared a primitive country with forests half burned, with stations at "cities" consisting of apparently two or three wooden houses in the wood—I say apparently, for Sir D. Macpherson told me there were splendid farms near the railway. Sometimes we saw a pretty lake with park-like scenery around, and we thought "here we could make a pretty country place." At ten o'clock Saturday night we arrived at Toronto, and Sir David Macpherson and his carriage were waiting for us, and it was so delightful to drive in an open carriage with a lovely moon shining and the sweet, cool air refreshing us, that we were very sorry the drive was so short. Lady M—- and her daughter, Miss M—-, only in their house, which seems like an English one in the style of arrangements—servants and conservatories, and greenhouses, &c., and my bedroom is furnished like a Scotch one, full of pretty quilts and muslin covers, and odds and ends. I was delighted to find myself between two very fine sheets, and slept like a top. Evelyn had a headache and did not get up or go to church. We drove to the nearest and had a nice service and fair sermon from a Mr. de Barr, son of a Canadian Judge; Dick, Miss, M—-, and I stayed to Holy Communion, and I was struck with the remarkable number of young people who remained. After luncheon I had a long talk with Sir David. He says we are quite wrong about free trade: as the world is, it should be fair trade, or England will continue to lose, as she is now losing, every year. The Canadians are obliged to have Protection on account of the United States, who would send their manufactured goods by English vessels and so ruin Canadian workshops. No country can grow and prosper which only produces the raw article of food, &c. Land alone cannot make a people rich or great; he thinks the Conservative party are not half, active or energetic enough, and we must have workmen orators stumping all over the country to reach their own class, or we shall lose all influence with those who will really be the ruling power. Here, he says, the Conservatives are two to one in the House of Commons; the Radicals here abuse their country, and try to hinder and injure all the enterprise which would enlarge its borders and bring emigrants to take possession, and do all they can to lower it in the estimation of outsiders, in hopes that if things come to smash they might have a chance of a reign of power. Doesn't this remind one of some people in our own country? Radicals are called "grits" here, and they say you can recognize a "grit" when you see him, for though they are not at all from one class or one industry, they have heads that might betoken a sojourn in a penitentiary!

Monday, September 8th.—We did not go anywhere last evening but strolled about the garden. Mr. Brand, son of the late Speaker, Mr. Morris, member of the Senate, and another man, dined. Mr. Morris was Governor of Manitoba. He said in the year 1870 Winnipeg was a little wild village. Now, when I asked him about buying a few things at Toronto for the Rocky Mountains expedition, he exclaimed "Oh! wait until you get to Winnipeg, you can get everything there!" He described a ball he had given to some royalties (I forget which) and how he had to scour the country for three hundred miles round to get provisions enough for the supper, in the year 1874. In my youth I remember reading of Winnipeg, Fort William and Lake Superior as the outposts of the Hudson Bay Company, and how travellers, trappers, &c., endured all manner of hardships, and crossed hikes with Indians carrying the canoes from lake to lake, and guiding them through endless swamps and rocky bills, until half-frozen and starved they arrived quite exhausted at these distant forts. Now we travel by rail in a private car, and Mr. Donald Smith has a country house near Winnipeg, to which he invited us, and all along there are "rising cities" which did not exist in any shape five years ago. When this Canadian Pacific Railway is finished to British Columbia, and the Atlantic and Pacific are united by it in one, our "Dominion" then ought to have a splendid future. I don't think I told you about Mr. Tan Horn's conversation with me at Montreal he said "we are a great deal too quiet in Canada; we don't puff ourselves enough or make enough of our advantages and our doings. Why, we live next door to fifty millions of liars and we must brag or we shall be talked out."

Monday, later.—I have just returned from a drive with Miss M—- and Hedley to Toronto, and I am surprised at its size and importance, and busy look and general air of English prosperity and neatness. Though Montreal is very pretty, the town is too French and idle-looking to be impressive—there are numbers of well-kept villas and gardens here. We are now going out to see a regatta on Lake Ontario and to the island. Lady M—- said last night, when making arrangements, "I think this will suit the young people," and I exclaimed "Don't put me among the old ones, please," so I am going. Sir D—- has gone to Ottawa on Ministerial business.

Letter No. 5.

September 12th, Niagara Falls.

On Tuesday we drove with John, and Dr. Wilson showed us over the University and some pretty sketches he had taken. We got berths on board the steamer from Owen Sound on Saturday. It is difficult to find out who manages these things, and we had telegrams going to two or three places before we could make certain of our berths. At four o'clock all sorts of people called, being Lady Macpherson's "at home" day, and many on me and E—-. I don't admire Canadian women especially! We had fourteen at dinner and a delightful old Irishman, Chief Justice Haggerty, took me in. The Lieutenant-Governor, Mr. Robinson, though only the Provincial Governor, is treated as the representative of the Queen, and goes before every one. Professor Godwin Smith and his wife were also of the party. He says (but I am sure he is prejudiced and that it is not true) that the Canadian Government is just as corrupt and that there is as much bribery as in the States. Mr. G. Smith differs in opinion with every one, for the Liberal side would not publish his letters in the papers, and so he sent them to the Conservatives, and he says they are far more impartial and just.

Wednesday, 10th.—We started here at one o'clock, first by steamer on Lake Ontario. It was refreshing after being nearly melted at Toronto, for there was a good breeze. The size of these inland seas strike one much. We arrived at Niagara about four, and found Mr. Plumb, John's quondam friend of eighteen years ago, waiting for us in waggonette, and we drove at once to his pretty house, surrounded by peach orchards and vines, an untidy but pretty garden. He asked after Leonard and Mary. Then we had tea, presided over by his pretty daughter of sixteen, and then the train by his orders stopped for us at his garden door, and, as he informed me, the last time it did so, was for the Prince of Wales! We arrived here, Clifton House, the Hotel, by a picturesque railway journey, and are opposite the American Falls, and the Horse Shoe Falls are on our right, nearly facing us. Like many other people, I am rather ashamed to confess I am not as much impressed and overwhelmed as I ought to be! Dick took a note from Mr. Plumb to his nephew, Mr. Macklem, and he arranged to call for us at three. In the morning we drove to the Rapids and Whirlpool, and went up and down all sorts of queer places in queerer elevators. The river looked beautiful, a blue-green colour, and the whirlpool is mysteriously curious, where poor Captain Webb disappeared! In the afternoon the Macklems took us to the American side on the fine Suspension Bridge, and then to Prospect Park, Goat Island, and different peeps and vistas of the Falls and Rapids. I think the immense breadth and volume of water, with the incessant rush and roar of the river, strike me more than the actual Falls. We saw some rapids between the islands "Weird Sisters," and finally drove to Mr. Macklem's place, surrounded by rapid streams of the Niagara and very pretty. There seems no end to this river, it has so many turns and arms and rapids. We had tea (by this time I was nearly dead), and three dear small boys appeared; one only two and half had a violin, and he imitated a person playing on it, and made the sounds with his voice in the most amusing clever way, and laughed so merrily when we shouted applause. Mr. Macklem drove us home, and after dinner we played whist in E—-'s nice bedroom. This morning I am not well! We have seen the maids off with the luggage by early rail and boat for Toronto and follow in afternoon.

Friday, continuing.—I was unable to see anything more of Niagara; the others crossed the ferry. We left at twenty minutes to five, and owing to the steamer being late on Lake Ontario we did not reach the Macpherson's till half-past nine. They waited dinner, and we rushed down, at least I did, just twelve minutes after my arrival, and also dressed! A Mr. Pattison, a very agreeable-looking man, who seems an authority on farming, and a Mr. and Mrs. Plumb (son of our Niagara friend), who was once at T—- P—-, but I had entirely forgotten him. Mr. Pattison spoke of the ignorant, idle, good-for-nothing young men sent out here to make a living by their worried relations, sometimes with scarcely a sixpence, in which case they starved but for the charity of himself and others, or if with any money they fell into bad hands and lost everything. So many are sent here that he has made a kind of home for the destitute.

Saturday Morning.—Sir David M—- returned from Ottawa, and we breakfasted together. We nearly missed the train at Toronto (not having Miss M—- to keep us in order; I call her Queen Christina, she is so masterful), but just managed to get ourselves and luggage in, and to see George Bunburg, whom I had made several attempts to see before, and who I hear is enterprising and likely to do well. We reached Owen Sound, and got into the steamer all right about three o'clock. Nice farms nearly all along the line.

Sunday, 14th September.—I slept pretty comfortably. We got into a narrow passage between Lakes Superior and Huron, which was pretty and curious, great numbers of islands and a very narrow path marked out for steamers, which, as we met several, made the risk of collision seem very imminent; they moved very slowly, and have established regular rules of the road, but cannot travel by night, or if a fog comes on. St. Mary le Soult is a pretty place, on one side American, where they have made a lock to avoid the rapids from Lake Huron to Lake Superior. We waited some time to get into the lock, and then found ourselves in the largest lake in the world, five hundred miles long by three hundred and fifty miles wide. Of course, it is like the sea, and while I am writing it is rough enough to make it difficult. No land is in sight. I have had a talk with an Archdeacon who lives near St. John's College, Winnipeg, and is reading "Natural Law;" it is really getting very rough and I must stop.

Tuesday, 16th.—I am writing in the train, and I am thankful to be alive in it. We arrived at Port Arthur at eight o'clock yesterday, 15th, but could hear nothing of our private car, and when the train arrived no car still to be seen. At last, after hunting about and asking, everyone, it turned up, and was very satisfactory. Two men were there to wait on us, and it was well provisioned, and we set off about an hour and-half late, but no one minds such a trifle in these parts. At first the line was fairly straight and smooth, but then the country became wonderfully wild, with rocky hills covered with stumpy trees and undergrowth of brilliant colouring, and wooded lakes without end. In and out we wound, sometimes over most light and primitive bridges, and over high embankments, often running along the margin of the lakes, consisting of loose sand, which frequently rolled down the sides as we went over them. It rained nearly all day, and towards night it poured and was pitch dark. I was just undressed, and congratulating myself that we had been standing still at a station, and so I had been able to do it comfortably, and just got into my sofa bed, with Dick and Hedley opposite me behind their curtains, when we set off, and in a few minutes I felt a violent concussion; so many jerks come in common course that I was not frightened, but we stopped, and then our head man came to the door and said with dignity, "I think it right to announce to you, my lady, that an accident has happened." "What is it?" "The engine went over a culvert bridge all right, but the baggage wagon next to it fell, down off the line, and as we were going slowly they put on the brake and no other carriage followed." "Can we go on to-night?" "Oh no, the roadway is broken up." This was a shock to my nerves, but at any rate we were safe for the night, and after running in and telling John and E—-, we soon all fell asleep. During the night they tacked on an engine, with its great lamp eye at the back of our car (we are the last carriage), and every few minutes this monster gave a tremendous snort, but nothing awoke Hedley, who slumbered peacefully through it all. We got up early, rushed off to the scene of the disaster, as did all the other passengers. It was marvellous that the engine went over that bridge, for really the rails were almost suspended in mid air, but fortunately for us it did, or we should have followed and telescoped, and probably been hurt or killed, the baggage wagon being suspended between the engine and cars, all on one side and down the bank close to the lake, the window broken through which the guard jumped out. We trembled for our luggage, which was all there. The lakes and gaily coloured hills that elsewhere I should admire, make our railroad so dangerous that we have to creep along, sometimes over long spidery wooden bridges, and again on most shaky and uncertain looking embankments, and round sharp corners; every now and then we stop for no apparent reason, and then all rush to the platform of our car to see what is the matter. Once a party of the railway officials got out and ran back; we thought some of our luggage had fallen out, but it seems one of the bridges over which we had just passed was rather shaky, and they went to investigate. If we had gone on last night we meant to be detached at Rat Portage, or Lake of the Woods, but now we go on to Winnipeg if, please God, we can get there.

Wednesday 17th.—Soon after writing yesterday, our steward came in with a solemn face and said: "I have unpleasant news to communicate; a wire has just come to forbid the train crossing the tressel bridge in front of us, so every one must walk, and the luggage be carried over." The railroad is only lately completed, and they have had no experience hitherto of the effect of heavy rains. Some of the bridges are only temporary ones, but no doubt it will be a good and safe line soon. When one considers the country it passes through, and the difficulties of all sorts that they have had to encounter, I think the Canadian Pacific Railway Company and engineers, &c., deserve great credit. "There is a train to meet us on the other aide of the bridge to take us on to Winnipeg;" upon which there was a general outcry. "Part with our comfortable car and provisions Forbid the thought!" "How long will it take to repair the bridge?" "I don't know at all; it may be days or a fortnight." After confabulating with the conductor of the train, we settled to remain this side of the bridge, and be shunted off till it was repaired, and tacked on to a train again for Winnipeg. We went as far as the bridge, and a curious scene was before us; the passengers for Rocky Mountains on the other side had been waiting there for hours, our train being delayed by the accident, and they proved to be some of our long lost friends of the British Association; we greeted each other with effusion; they rushed on our car, and spoke all at once about the glories of the Rockies and the dangers they had escaped, and the fun they had, &c. Some conducted me to the bridge to see what had happened there; considering that there was a great gap in the bridge, and the tressels were lying about anyhow, and a great iron crane hung suspended over the hole by one hook, and the engine lay on its side below, the wire message telling us it would not be safe to go over was rather ironical! All the luggage of the two trains was spread all over the rocks and bushes, and people running here and there, the silent lake so pretty and lovely in contrast. The men with the crane were coming to our assistance at Termillion Bay (where our culvert bridge gave way), and the engineer felt the tressels bending as the engine crossed, and was considering whether to jump off or stay; he decided to remain in the cab of the engine, as the jump was a very high one, and down they went to the bottom, but the men were only cut and bruised, and one broke his leg. This accounted for the delay in our getting assistance, and fortunately for us all, that our small accident happened when it did. As our friends from Winnipeg thankfully exclaimed, "if it had not been for your accident, which was happily so harmless, we should have gone over that bridge, and as our train was faster and heavier there would probably hare been a greater smash;" and we exclaimed, "but for our comparatively harmless accident, we should have gone over that bridge that night and come to great grief." Wasn't it a mercy we escaped? We had Professor Boyd Dawkins, Professor Shaw, Mr. de Hamel, Bishop of Ontario, Mr. Stephen Bourne, &c., on our car for some miles on our way back, and then we were shunted on a siding to wait as patiently as we could. At this Hawk something station we parted with our British Association friends, with many good wishes and waving of handkerchiefs, and were left shunted on the edge of a disagreeable embankment over the lake. After all this excitement we read, had dinner and played whist; then made our own beds, and all the 'boys' slept in the drawing room with me last night, and E—- had the state cabin to herself. It was very cold in the night, and I had to hunt up another rug. We breakfasted at half-past eight, and now the others are taking a walk while I write. I forgot to say Gibson and Roberts went on with our luggage, across the bridge (or rather, by its side), in the train which returned to Winnipeg, and there they will stay till we return from the Rockies. E—- and the boys are just off in the cab of an engine exploring to the broken bridge. It will he fun, perhaps, for them, but I find I have frights enough to endure in our necessary journeys. There is actually a cow at this station, so we had milk for porridge and tea; moreover, there is a piece of ploughed land, a rare sight in this wild stony watery country. The Canadian Pacific Railway have not had experience before this autumn of the effect of heavy rains on their roads, bridges, &c., and things have sometimes come to grief in consequence; some bridges are very good and not temporary.

Later.—Since writing the foregoing, John and E—- and Hedley went off on the cow-catcher of an engine for two or three miles excursion! Dick did not "paddle his own canoe," but the station master did for him on the lake here, and he nearly succeeded in catching a large trout! He and I wandered afterwards on the Rocky Hill, and picked enough blueberries for dinner, and I refreshed my eyes with some lovely-berried red-leaved little shrubs. Since luncheon a telegram came, telling us we might go over the bridge, and so off we went, and on arriving walked all about, some sketching the fallen engine, &c. We set off with Mr. Egan the manager, in his car in front of us, en route for Eat Portage, where I am finishing this journal up to this date, Wednesday, September 17th. It is lovely weather now, and this place is very pretty, and looks quite civilized after our wilderness kind of scenery. Mr. Egan is now going on to Winnipeg, and will post this for me. After our return from the Rockies to Winnipeg, we shall go to Chicago, Washington and Philadelphia, where write.

Letter No. 6.

September 21st, 1884.—I am beginning this in our car en route to the Rockies, in fact with their snow-covered summits well in sight. I posted a letter to you, No. 5, at Winnipeg, and also a newspaper for Mary. From Winnipeg the Canadian Pacific Railway is much more comfortable, for on the boundless flat of the prairies there is no need for many tressel bridges or crumbling embankments, and we went along without fear, excepting that in the neighbourhood of settled parts, we had to look out for cows. Once we stopped very suddenly (their brakes are so good in America), having near gone over one in the dark. They use sometimes a curious kind of sound from the engine, not unlike the moo of a cow in distress, and I saw it effectually drive some off the line. The maids met us at Winnipeg Station, and seemed anxious to go to the Rockies, so we settled they might, and they rushed back for their things, but they returned only in time to see our train off! On the whole we thought it was as well they had not come, for maids don't generally like this kind of life, and we did not need them. We changed cooks at Winnipeg against my wish, but the others were not satisfied with our first one, and we have certainly not changed for the better; he is a coloured man called David, and has been ill, or pretends to be, since yesterday, and another coloured man whom, we call Jonathan, comes in to help him.

Saturday.—We arrived at Moose Jaw after a very rocking journey, so bad that I could not sleep, and sat in a chair part of the night; at last, however, the cold and sleepiness overcame all fear, and I slept in my bed soundly. We saw lots of Indians in red and white blankets, ugly and uninteresting creatures. We made acquaintance with the Roman Catholic Archbishop, who has been travelling in the car next to ours. He is a French Canadian, but talked English well. He is very pleasant. He introduced me to two priests, one of whom had been working among the Indians thirty years. Afterwards he had a talk with John, and remarked upon my youthfulness to be his mother. Of course, I am always being taken for his wife, and they seem very much puzzled about it altogether.

Saturday night, the 20th.—We reached Calgary after a quieter night—quite an important city. A good many wooden houses, two or three churches (I think the congregations must be very small in each), and on Sunday morning all the inhabitants were out in their best, the men loafing and smoking about, and quite smart-looking young ladies showing their finery with great enjoyment, as they do at home. A mounted police officer drove a pair of good horses to meet some of his men, and there are cavalry barracks here for them. The train twice a week from Winnipeg is their only communication with the outer world, so when it arrives everyone, even from long distances, crowds the platform. We always take a walk at these resting places, but it is nervous work to go far, as the train starts without any notice, and they never keep to the time named.

Wednesday, September 25th.—After leaving Calgary, which I forgot to say is near a coal mine (Mr. de Winton, son of Sir Francis, has a ranch near), and is likely to be an important place some day, we went to Laggan, which is well into the mountains, and there we saw Professor George Ramsay, brother of Sir James, and he told us to get hold of the contractor, Mr. Ross, who would help us about going further on. The railway people, &c., all said to our great disgust that ladies would not be allowed to go down the steep incline to British Columbia; upon this we found out Mr. Boss, and he kindly consented to take us down the Pacific slope in his own car. At first the boys said I had better remain behind in our own car, but I felt that if there was a risk I would rather encounter it with them, and I wanted to see more of the country, so we prepared to start on Monday, but it poured, and Mr. Ross would not go till Tuesday. We took a small bag with night-gown, brush and comb, &c., and left the rest of our goods in charge of the odious, but I think honest, David, and started yesterday morning in Mr. Ross's car, in some respects a more convenient one than ours, for it has a writing table and a stove in the sitting room after an early breakfast at half-past seven. It was a glorious sunny day. We had two engines reversed, one before and one behind, and no end of brakes with safety 'switches,' every now and then to be turned on and to send us up hill if the engines ran away with us, and we crept down very slowly. It was very exciting, and the scenery magnificent, vistas of snowy mountains opening continually as we turned the corners, covered with brilliant yellow and red and purple foliage; and when we came to the foot of Mount Stephen (called after Mr. George Stephen, of Montreal), Mr. Ross said, "we ought to call one mountain Rayleigh." I exclaimed, "Oh, yes! There is a beautiful snow one which has been in sight all the way coming down, let that be Raleigh." And so it was agreed, and E—- and I sketched it.—Afterward Mr. Ross, said, "Rayleigh has quite a family after him," a curious succession of gradually decreasing tops, and we agreed that they should be his five brothers. At one place we went down to a bridge, very high over a river, and I thought, "it would be unpleasant if the engine runs away here," but curiously enough I was not at all nervous, for I felt so much care was taken, and it was a glorious day, and the scenery lifted one's soul above the small things of life here, and made one think of Him who created all these wonders, and yet became our human friend and sympathizer, and now lives to give us bye and bye even "greater things than these!" At last we got to the Flats all safe, and then John and Dick walked to the end of the "construction," about five miles. If one was prepared to ride and rough it exceedingly, one could reach the Pacific in ten days, but ladies could not undergo the hardships, and we would not be left alone. Mr. Ross informed us that we must return soon to Kicking Horse Lake and Laggan, as there would be no train later. However, we said that John was extremely anxious to see the working of the line at the end, and it would be a great pity for him not to have the time, and "could we stay the night?" He replied, "certainly." Hedley and E—- walked on at a great pace after the other two, beyond my powers, and I sauntered on quietly alone, only meeting a few men, belonging to the railway in most cases and working on the line, which is the only road which one can walk on comfortably here, and I got three miles, but then a horrid bridge stopped me, as I hate walking on planks far apart over a height without a helping hand. I have been all along struck with the far superior accent and good English of the working men in America (Canada especially); they have often very good features, too, and wear a well-shaped moustache, and meet one with a smile. They treat one as equals, but they are not at all rude, and are always willing to help. I spoke to some in my solitary walk, and only that they were hard at work hammering in nails, &c., I should have liked to "tell them a story." They all returned from end of "construction" on a truck train, Dick and E—- on an open car, and Hedley and John in the cab of the engine. We then dined; such a fat coloured man Mr. Ross has in his car! He could hardly squeeze through the narrow passages, but he managed to give us something to eat. Mr. Ross received a telegram later to say Mr. Angus, our host at Montreal, Mr. Donald Smith, both directors of the Canadian Pacific Railway, Mr. Cyrus Field, &c., &c., were at Calgarry, and wanted to come on, so all is arranged for them, and they are expected soon, and we hope to return with them this afternoon to Laggan, to our own car. Last evening E—- suddenly said, "I wish we could sleep in a tent?" Mr. Ross answered, "I can easily manage it for you," and accordingly two men of business (I think contractors for food, &c.), were turned out of their tent, and came to our car, and John and E—- slept in their small tent near the river. I don't think they will want to do it again, and I was better off in a nice room all to myself, where I could dress comfortably, but had not many appliances for that end. We all met at eight o'clock breakfast, and our black man (who looked more than ever like a large bolster, well filled and tied at the top for his head), cooked us an eatable beef-steak, and after this John and Mr. Ross's brother "Jack" rode off to penetrate as far as they could beyond "construction." I am a little nervous about his ride, for the road is a mere track, and very rough, however, wagons and mules do travel on it. E—- has made many pretty sketches; mine are scanty and perfectly horrid. I don't improve at all. The sun is trying to come out. We are on a siding, close to numbers of tents and mules and wagons, a sort of depot for provisions, clothes, &c. I have never seen a tipsy man or woman since I landed at Quebec! and in many parts of Canada alcohol cannot be bought, and the penalty is always severe for selling or giving it to an Indian. Further on I passed yesterday quite a "city" of tents; over one was printed "Hotel Fletcher," another, "Restaurant, meals at all hours," "Denver Hotel," "Laundry," "Saloon," &c. These are speculations, and are not connected with railway officials. Some of the men (one was taking a photograph of "the city,") have the American twang. Mr. Rosa is going off directly the directors arrive, far into the interior, on an exploring tour into the Selkirk range, &c. The line is "graded" about fifty miles further on, and the bridges and tunnels are making. They are working the other end from Port Moodie on the Pacific, and will meet by the spring of next year. What a pity the British Association's visit to Canada was not in 1885 instead of 1884? Some day are going to carry the line higher up, so as to avoid the steep incline down which we travelled so cautiously, but they are very anxious to get the line done somehow, and it is really wonderful at what a pace they go.

Calgarry, September 27th.—On Wednesday, 24th, after John had gone off riding, Dick and I waited about for the directors' car, which we expected that morning, but alas! though it arrived at eleven, they only stopped at the telegraph office a moment, took no notice of us, and went on to the end of "construction," returning in about an hour, (John got back much later, and we wondered why Mr. Ross advised him to go, as it obliged him to miss this car); they again only made a pause, during which Dick spoke to Mr. Angus, and E—- also had a few words with Mr. D. Smith, but she was too modest in urging our claims to be helped on up the incline and they went and left us in the lurch. I heard afterwards that the American part of the company were in a great hurry to get on, Mr. Angus Field having telegrams following him all along the line, but we should not have detained them, and they would only have had to drop us at Laggan, where our own car was waiting. So we had to wait another night, and all went to bed very grumpy!

Thursday, 25th.—After breakfast we walked some way, and then Hedley and I remained at the telegraph station (this is the only source of information in these parts), and the others went on. An hour or two later the freight train began to think of starting up the incline, and Hedley and I got into the cab of the engine. We soon came up with E—-, who joined us there. Some two or three miles further on John and Dick appeared, wildly gesticulating as they stood on the middle of the line to try and stop us, but the engineer declared we were now on too steep an incline, and on we went, much to our dismay, for this entailed thirty or forty miles walk for rheumatic John and not over-strong Dick. We reached the top all right, and found ourselves at "Kicking Horse Lake," and to our great relief up walked John and Dick. It seems they made a rush at the train as it passed, and John jumped on an open car all right—but Dick caught his foot in a sleeper and fell down, but had the presence of mind to pick himself up very quickly, and caught the last engine (we had one at each end) and jumped on the cow catcher! I shuddered to think what might have happened to Dick when he fell, but he only got a bruise on his knee and a severe injury to his trousers! We reached Laggan about half-past one, and found our cook still much of an invalid, with a real negro to assist him! I think the negroes are much more manly and altogether pleasanter than the half-breeds, who are mean, discontented, and impertinent when they dare. This negro was a capital servant, and had lived with his present master (to whom he was returning after the said master's absence in Europe) twelve years. We left Laggan at half-past nine, Friday 26th, and had glorious scenery, most of which we had previously passed in the dark. Rocky mountains with their snowy tops all about us, and the lovely yellow and red and purple colouring on their sides. E—- sketched vigorously and I smudged! We reached Calgarry about five, and found the Indians in great force, for they had received their treaty money quite lately, and were arrayed in gorgeous blankets of red and white and blue, and any number of gold and coloured beads! They are quiet enough, and don't look at all as if they would venture to scalp us, or make an oration like "Chincanchooke" with dignified eloquence; the expression of the elder ones is unpleasant, and you can see at once the results of even a little education by the brighter and happier countenances of the boys and girls. I took a lonely walk on the prairie, over which a strong cold wind was blowing. I saw several people riding in the distance. We left Calgarry on 27th, Saturday, by a train partly freight, and consequently it rocked and jumped, and crashed and crunched, and we could scarcely play whist, or hear each other speak, and when we went to bed sleep was banished, at least from my eyes. I watched the stars instead, and the brilliant morning star about three or four o'clock shining like a small moon, and then the sun rise over the prairie. We arrived at Winnipeg about six o'clock, on Monday, 29th; our nasty cook had no dinner provided for us, and though we had authority for remaining that night in the car to sleep, conflicting orders produced all kinds of unpleasantness, and we were shunted about and taken two or three miles off from the depot where alone we could get anything to eat. After making a great fuss we were taken back and had a good dinner at the restaurant, which we enjoyed after our monotonous fare in the car. Our maids, who had been a fortnight at the Hotel doing nothing but spending our money, met us and brought letters, &c. Dick heard from Augusta for the first time—her letters had not reached him.


Lord Rayleigh, the president of the British Association for the advancement of Science, Lady Rayleigh, Clara Lady Rayleigh, Hon. Hedley Strutt and Hon. Richard Strutt returned yesterday afternoon from the Rookies in a private car attached to the regular train.

A TIMES reporter boarded the car about nine o'clock last night, and had a pleasant chat with Lord Rayleigh and the members of the party. They went to within a few miles of the Columbia River, saw the rails being laid on the Canadian Pacific Railway and were very much pleased with the wonderful rapidity the work was being done. Lord Rayleigh said he thought the Rockies were one of the wonders of the world—next to the Canadian Pacific, chimed in Mr. Strutt and Clara Lady Rayleigh. The latter said the party were struck with the brightness, intelligence and kindness of the men along the Canadian Pacific Railway line. The kindness they had shown to them would never be forgotten. The party could scarcely believe that the towns along the railway had grown up to their present size within the past two or three years, as they did not think it possible in a new country like this. They were loud in their praises of the country, and predicted that thousands of emigrants would come from England to Manitoba as a result of the Association's visit here. The party put up at the Potter House to-day, and will leave for the east to-night—Winnipeg Daily Times, September 30th.

Letter No. 7

Washington, Sunday, 5th

I was obliged to leave off yesterday, and now proceed to take up the tale begun in the train to Chicago. I was telling you about our arrival at Winnipeg, &c. We returned to our car after dinner and found ourselves, during our first sleep, shunted off to a repairing shed, and presently I heard what seemed a shower of stones thrown all over the car. I could look out of a window sitting up in my bed, and on doing so, I saw two men violently throwing water over it from a hose, and some of it came into my bed, upon which I showed my lovely countenance with dishevelled hair and indignant expression, and called out: "Are you going to drown me in my bed?" and then I heard a man say—"La! there is a young lady at the window! don't disturb her!" however, just at dawn they were at it again, and at six o'clock began to move us into the shed. I jumped up and expostulated in my dressing gown on the platform (all the rest were in their beds) and insisted upon their asking for orders from headquarters; just then, fortunately, an early bird in the shape of a representative of the Press appeared, and I got John to talk to him, and he went off to the authorities, and we were shunted to the depot again, and so got our breakfast by ten o'clock; the reporters always think I am John's wife (E—- is generally out of the way), and I believe the last idea is, that John and I have a grown up family, of which E—- is one! It is rather fun to be interviewed, and John is now less shy about it, and consents to be pumped (in a measure). After breakfast we all drove in a horse-car up the main street, and were twice off the rails and sunk into a mud hole, and the boys had to help in lifting the omnibus out of it. They are slowly paving the streets, but there never was such a muddy lane calling itself a street anywhere before, I am sure; there are nice shops, however, and respectably dressed people walking or driving. We lunched and cleaned ourselves at Potter House, where the maids had been living during our absence in the Rockies, and it seems Mrs. Smith, the landlady, came from Lady Ward's, and knew the Claughtons, and lived, for years with the Miss Bakers at Boss, (these unexpected encounters make one realize how narrow the world is). The country is ugly about Winnipeg, and so after paying a visit to the Archdeacon, whom we met in going there some fortnight ago, and seeing his nice house and wife, we dined at the depot and left for Chicago, our coloured cook was walking and dawdling about apparently quite well, now that he had got rid of us. We had sleeping berths in the train—an unknown man slept in the one over mine, and I had to dress and undress behind the curtains of my own. We breakfasted at Barnsville Wednesday morning, and that evening stopped in pouring rain at Milwaukie; it is a finely situated town, but the station had been lately burnt down, and we were very cold and uncomfortable for two hours. Poking about to amuse themselves, the boys saw a large long deal box, directed Mrs. J. Stacey, and on a card attached, "This is to certify Mr. J. Stacey did not die of any infectious complaint." So he was waiting there to be sent on to her by next train, and we hope she got him safely.

Thursday, Two o'clock p.m., we reached Chicago. Minnieappolis, which we passed through, is likely to be a fine city. We went to the Grand Pacific Hotel and were separated by long corridors and staircases, and spent our time chiefly in trying to find one another amidst its vast solitudes. Of course one never sees a chambermaid, or any one, and the quantity of little dishes and fine sounding names which one is served with at meals does not make up for the other discomforts.

Friday, 3rd.—John had a letter to the pork-killing man, Mr. Armour, and he kindly sent two carriages for us, with an assistant, who was to lionize us about. We drove first to the Bank and got some money, and then through the best parts of the town, along the Michigan Boulevards, through which we had glimpses of the Lake, but everything here is sacrificed to the almighty dollar, and the railway engines poke themselves in everywhere, down the best streets, and destroying the prettiest landscapes, and making unearthly noises close to your bedroom, or puffing their steam out under your nose as you walk.

Chicago looks a more bustling, and a newer and a more railroad- dominated place than Glasgow, but like it in smoke and business aspect. As to the Boulevards, the houses are most of them new, and some in startling styles of architecture. Some in red, which are very good. One was nearly finished of white marble, quite a palace, with more ground than usual round it; but alas, for human hopes, the man who owns it and millions of dollars, has lately been pronounced mad, is in the care of a wife whom he lately married, and who does not care for him, and he will die before his marble palace is finished. There are no prettinesses, flowers, &c., about these fine houses, perhaps accounted for by the forty or fifty degrees below zero which they sometimes enjoy at Chicago. After six miles driving we got to the Piggery, &c., and the least said about that the better; it is certainly wonderful, but disgusting—the most interesting parts were the enormous yards containing cattle, all arranged comfortably, with hay and water, &c., and the tin-making business for the preserved meats (the tin all comes from England). Travelling for the last three or four weeks we have seen little hills of tin boxes perpetually along the line, as the people in the trains and stations, &c., seem to live almost entirely on tinned goods. After this we had a hasty luncheon, and I decided to accompany John and E—- here, and not wait for Dick who wanted to stay longer. We could not find our maids to tell them, and I had to pack a great deal myself, meaning to leave Gibson to follow with the rest, but they turned up at last, and we had a great scrimmage to get off in the "bus." John thought we might not have time to check our luggage, and so began to seek for tickets to give the maids, but he could not understand them so a kind American in the 'bus explained them, and after all we were in time, thanks again to the said American, who passed E—- and me to the train, assuring the railway people that he had seen our tickets, and he also got us into the sleeping car. When I was thanking him warmly, I added, "You must be amused to see such distracted English travellers?" "Well," he answered, "we are as bad in your country till we are used to it." After a great deal of shaking and going a great pace round many curves, which quite prevented us sleeping, we got here (Washington) yesterday at six o'clock. A man met us who was sent by an astronomer friend of John's, and brought us to this hotel, Wormley's. On our way in a spic and span omnibus we felt going down on one side, and found a wheel had come of. We jumped out, and a crowd collected, and finally we had to transfer our baggage and ourselves into another omnibus, and got through some handsome wide streets, with trees each side and good shops, to this hotel. Our first view of Washington was a lovely one, coming in with the Potomac river in front, and the fine Capitol, on a hill, backed by a glorious red sunset, which reflected all in the river; it looked like an Italian scene. This is said to be a "city of magnificent distances," being planned for future greatness, and very like Paris in conception. We found acquaintances here, and John went with, one to the Observatory. This morning we all went to the American Episcopal Church, St. John's, rather "high," but nothing really objectionable. This is the centenary of the consecration of the first American Bishop, Dr. Siebury, Bishop of Connecticut, who, after having implored our Bishops in London to consecrate him, went at last to Scotland, and "there in an upper room received Apostolic orders from the Scotch Bishops, then called non-jurors." We were all struck with the handsome features of both men and women in church. In company with a great many others, we remained to Holy Communion, and I don't think I ever enjoyed it more than among these brethren—strangers, and separated by the wide Atlantic from our English Church, but joined to us by "one Lord, one faith," &c. After luncheon John had a chat with a French scientist, and Mr. Rutherford and his handsome son, and General and Mrs. Strachy, and Professor Adams, the astronomer; many of these people are here in conclave about Greenwich time, &c. John and E—- are now gone driving about with his friend. It is very hot, and poor Hedley is quite knocked down, but we took a little walk.

Later.—After dinner a good many adjourned to the drawing-room, Captain and Mrs. Ray, the Strachys, Rutherfords, &c. We had a scientific experiment with the shadow of the moon. Mr. Ray told a curious story of a wasp. He saw it advance slowly to a great spider, which the wasp apparently completely mesmerised, and then the wasp carried him off to a little house he had made, and deposited the spider next an egg, then another egg, and again another spider, till there was a long row alternately, then the larvae awoke to life, and lived upon the spiders, who remained fat and well-liking, and apparently alive up to that point. Captain Ray says he believes Mr. Scott is right in saying that the American side will never be able to give us warning of storms which will be of any use, for not more than one in ten of their storms reach us; our storms come from the North and Mid-Atlantic. Captain Ray fills the same post here that Mr. Scott does in London, meteorological and weather prophet. Presently a nigger of fine appearance, with a companion, played the banjo and sung. It was really very pretty, and we stood at the porch listening, and numbers of white-robed figures appeared on the opposite side (the young women so arrayed walk about a good deal these hot nights), and a little crowd gathered round us. It is surprising how little music and amusement they seem to have.

Letter No 8.

Washington, Wormley's Hotel, Monday, 6th.

The weather has been "exceptionally" hot, they say, for the time of year, Hedley quite unable to do anything. John went up the Monument, five hundred feet, and I went with Gibson to see the Capitol. The dome looks pretty from a distance, but the whole thing strikes me as large, handsome, uninteresting and vulgar; we inspected the Congress Hall and Senate Chamber. The view from the terrace was fine. At four o'clock Hedley and I accompanied Mr. Strachy to Arlington Heights, where there is a large cemetery for soldiers. It was formerly the country home of General Robert Lee, the hero of the Confederate War. It was intensely melancholy to drive through the graves of eleven thousand and odd soldiers, all killed in the second battle of Bull's Run (I believe), two thousand of them unknown, and buried in one grave, mostly young volunteers who had just joined. Each white stone told the story of the bereaved families, and the destruction of so much happiness. The view of the Potomac and Washington is very fine, and one thought sorrowfully of the poor Lees who gave up their pretty home and all else, for the sake of Virginia, and in vain!

Tuesday, 7th.—John and E—- and I went to Mount Vernon, Washington's residence and tomb. H—- somehow missed us, which quite spoilt my day. The air in the steamer was delightful, and the Potomac is mildly pretty. We were left at Mount Vernon, and I was disgusted with the shabbiness and untidiness of the tomb of the great patriot; that even in his case such a want of sentiment and reverence should be shown does not speak well for his countrymen. I spoke of this to many people afterwards, and they say it is owing to his family, who would not allow the tomb to be moved. In the evening we dined with our Minister, Mr. West, at the Embassy. It is a fine house, and we enjoyed our evening. There were only Mr. Johnstone and Mr. Helier attached to the Legation, besides ourselves. Miss West now presides over her father's house, and is very attractive; brought up in a convent in Paris, and speaks English with a strong accent. Miss West has given me some letters of introduction to people at Newport. They showed us some curious beans, which jumped about in an odd way when held over the light a little while. It is said there is a worm inside, which is influenced by the warmth.

Wednesday.—We meant to leave to-day, but Dick turned up unexpectedly from Chicago, and we put off going to Philadelphia that we might start together. We went over the White House to-day, where the President lives, and saw the blue room in which he receives every one, rather ugly I thought it, and the bedroom in which President Garfield was ill, &c. In the afternoon John and E—- went to Baltimore, as he has scientific acquaintances there, and I don't know when we shall meet again.

Thursday.—Hedley has just returned from Dick's hotel, and says he does not go to Philadelphia to-day, so we start alone at two o'clock. Last night two violent showers of rain cleared the atmosphere, and it is quite cool and pleasant this morning. I heard from Mr. B—- from Baltimore, and he says he is going to be married on the 15th, and hopes we will go to pay them a visit on the 16th; however, as the time does not suit, and I don't know his intended wife, I have declined.

Friday, 10th, Hotel Lafayette, Philadelphia.

Last night I had the great pleasure of receiving four letters—one from you, and one from C—- and Mary, and Margaret. We left Dick behind at Washington, but he arrived last night; the journey was a pleasant one and the scenery pretty, especially Chesapeake Bay. I hear mosquitos swarm at Baltimore and so I am glad we did not go there. This is a very large hotel and I am on seventh floor, No. 750! Close to me is a fire escape, which I carefully investigated. We got cheated coming here from the station, and so did Dick, to our great triumph! The country coming here was more English and well populated than any we have seen. Going up in the lift who should I find there but Dr. Gladstone, one of our fellow passengers on the "Parisian;" we all laughed. Since I began this a very kind note has come by hand from Mr. Childs, of the Public Ledger, saying Mrs. C—- is at New York, but he will try to get her back on Saturday; he is coming to call at a quarter-past two, and offers us carriages to drive about.

Half-past One.—We have just come back from seeing the Roman Catholic Cathedral—not much worth seeing excepting a beautiful picture of our Lord as a Child among the doctors. We also saw the Academy of Arts, but there was nothing we cared for. I have had a kind note from Mrs. James Neilson, who hopes to see us at New Brunswick, en route for New York.

Sunday, 12th.—Mr. Childs came, a short, stout man, and very kind; he sent the carriage at three, and we drove in Fairmount Park, the largest park in the world, and really very pretty; saw conservatories and gardens with bright, but only foliage, plants—wonderful perillas, alternantheras, tresine, &c. It was a most lovely evening and we enjoyed the three hours' airing; it was perfectly clear and still, with sunshine and fresh balmy air. Yesterday (Saturday) directly after breakfast we went as by appointment to Mr. Childs' office; he has a beautifully fitted-up room, filled with all kinds of curiosities,—Tom Moore's harp, Washington's chair, Louis Napoleon's cup and saucer, splendid clocks of all kinds; one of them belonged to Lord Howe, which he had to leave behind him when he was "obliged to run away from the States in such a hurry!" Mr. Childs' seemed to think I must know all about this, but I am afraid I had quite forgotten that humiliation. This reminds me of a story I heard lately of an American lionizing an Englishman about; they came within sight of Bunker's Hill, and the American as delicately and modestly as he could announced: "That, sir, is Bunker's Hill," the Englishman put up his glass and looked, and then said: "And who was Bunker, and what did he do on his hill?" Imagine the American's indignation at this gross ignorance! To return to Mr. Childs' room; while there several ladies called, and among them Mrs. Bloomfield Moore; she talked well and we made friends, and she proposed to call for us and take us a drive, to which we agreed. After she had gone Mr. Childs told me she was a poetess and a millionaire, and was supposed to be engaged to Browning the poet. A man was then told off to escort us over the building, and a wonderful place it is. All the printing and editorial work and "job" work so beautifully arranged and everything in such perfect order. The Public Ledger prints about 80,000 a day, or rather night, and Mr. Childs is the proprietor. Almost all the American news comes to us from his office from a Mr. Cook, who telegraphs it to the Times. Mr. Cook told me that all the speeches at the opening of the British Association meeting at Montreal—Lord Lansdowne's, Sir William Thomson's, &c.,—were telegraphed to London before they were delivered, John's address had been left in London before he started. Mr. Cook got the substance of these speeches beforehand. After this we went to the Electric Exhibition going on here, and Dick tried an organ; then we had a drive with ——; she talked all the time and told me all about her husband and his will, and how astonished everyone was to find what immense confidence in her it proved; she knows Mrs. Capel Cure and Miss Western, and she has just bought a good house in London. She is much interested in Mr. Keally (the inventor of Keally's motor), and has supported him through all the incredulity and opposition he has met with; she believes he has discovered a new force, and has just made some experiments before ten or twelve people, in which without any apparent power of machinery he produced astonishing results, not electric and not compressed air, or, if the latter, he has found one a way of producing wonderful power without the usually necessary accompaniments. This is what I hear; he says it is a force in ether, which is a medium separating atoms, but he will not tell his secret till he has taken out his patents. Mr. Childs sent us some tickets for the opera here, and I gave Mrs. A. B—- one, and we all went, the music was pretty and singing good. Mr. Rosengarten, a friend of Mr. Childs, came into the box, and between one of the acts asked me if I would like to see some typical American political meetings? I said "Oh, yes;" so he carried me off, and the boys followed, to a splendid opera house, which was crammed to the galleries by a very respectable-looking, quiet audience, listening most attentively to the "Prohibition" candidate, who was shouting and apparently pleasing them much, but being behind him on the platform (they wanted me to go close to him but I would not), I could not hear the point of his jokes. Then we went to the Academy of Music, also a very large place, where a more rowdy lot were listening very quietly, however, to General Butler. Certainly no meetings of such size could take place in England with such entire absence of noise or policemen, of carriages, or cabs. We went to bed very tired having had so much to interest us all day. Mr. Childs, by the bye, has sent me a present of some china and a box full of lovely roses, which I shared with the sons and Mrs. A. B—-. I see I have not mentioned before that I received yours and Mary's letter of 28th September, which came very soon after my birthday. This morning we went to a Presbyterian Church by mistake, but it was very dull and we soon went out and went to another close by, which turned out to be Ritualistic, but at any rate the music, and better still, the sermon, was very good,—"What think ye of Christ?" It was all of Him, so no one could object, not even you! Hedley and I then rushed off to the Lincoln Institution for Training Indian Girls, where Mr. Rosengarten was to meet us. It is a very interesting and useful work (the boys are also under training but we did not see that part of the Institution) and the girls look so thriving and happy, and the teachers say they are above the average in intelligence; they sung a chant and hymn and gave me a photograph to take home. Mr. Rosengarten offered to take Hedley with him for a drive to see some of his relations, and so I have been alone since—reading, and writing to you.

Letter No. 9.

October 14th.—I sent my last letter to you on Sunday, and on Monday morning Mr. Childs called and brought me a note from Mrs. Childs saying she was very unwell and her doctor said she must be quiet, and would we defer our visit till Wednesday? I declined this at once, and Mr. Childs seemed very sorry, but when Dick joined us he said we were in no great hurry to leave Philadelphia and might as well stay, so I could only agree to remain till Thursday. He gave us seats at the Theatre to hear "May Blossom" (a pretty good play, which we all enjoyed), and he asked me if I wanted any books to read? I said "Yes, I should be very glad of some," thinking he would lend me a few of his own; well, a large parcel soon arrived with a lovely copy of Longfellow's Poems and my name in it, and lots of story books, all new. This morning (Tuesday) our future host at New Brunswick called, a nice-looking, lively man, and we go to them on Thursday—Mr. James Neilson. Yesterday afternoon we spent two hours at Mrs. A. B—-'s, and met Mr. Keally. He is a curious person, and looks full of fire, and I should say not an impostor, but I should not be surprised if he was mad! He talked away tremendously quickly, and used all kinds of new words invented to suit his discovery, and I got quite exhausted trying to understand him; all I could really make out was that he professed to have decomposed hydrogen, and evolved a lighter element from it, and that his new force has something to do with vibration; that he multiplies vibrations almost infinitely, and can distinguish divisions of tones in an unusual manner. Those who have seen his experiments lately, declare that no force with which scientists are acquainted could produce the same effects with the machinery used. "If it is a trick," he said, "at any rate it is a trick worth knowing—if a pint of water can send a train from this to New York, which it will do shortly." He employs several people to make his machinery, but when they have made it and used it successfully, they declare they don't know why or how it is done. I am trying to persuade John to stop here on Friday on his way from Baltimore and see one of his experiments. I have heard John say that he expected some great discovery would be made shortly, and in the chemical direction. Mr. Keally is a mechanist, and says he discovered this force by accident. It is curiously like the one in Bulwer's novel, which everyone was possessed of and could destroy anything in a moment. Mrs. A. B—- is going to take us a drive this afternoon. At present my letters to Newport have only produced an invitation to dine with Mrs. Belmont on Saturday, which we are unable to accept. Hedley enjoyed his Sunday outing with Mr. Rosengarten, and was introduced to heaps of people, and felt quite an important person. He is always much liked, and I am not surprised.

Wednesday, 15th.—At two o'clock we met Mr. Childs at the station, and went with him to Bryan Maur by rail, and then his carriage met us and took us to his farm and stables, &c., and then to his house; it is all very new and very tidy and pretty. He told his wife to buy any land she liked four years ago, and build anything she liked on it, and now he has paid the bills and handed her the deeds, and it is all her own. That's the way husbands do things in America! The wives and children have a good time here, and the working classes, too, have many privileges, or perhaps, I should say, that they share them with the richer and more educated people; everywhere, in the trains and trams and restaurants of stations and waiting rooms there is equality, and considering all things one does not suffer much by the mixture excepting that they "level down," and one misses the comforts and quiet of the English railroads. Some of the working men are remarkably fine and intelligent looking, and always quiet and well behaved. I do not observe any very great politeness to women, which I was led to expect was the prevailing habit in the United States, but I notice that the fathers are wonderfully gentle and helpful with the children. Mrs. Childs is a bright little woman, and sings well, which you would scarcely expect when hearing her voice in speaking. It is a pity that so many of the women have such unpleasant voices, and the men have generally nothing harsh in their tones. A captain of one of the Cunard steamers sat next me, and seeing my distress over a plateful of very large oysters, whispered, "you need not eat them." We had carefully abstained from luncheon, as dinner was at four o'clock, and this was the menu for dinner: soup, big oysters, boiled cod, then devilled crab (which I ate, and it was very good), then very tough stewed beef-steak, large blocks of ice-cream, and peaches, and that was all! So my dinner consisted of crab, and I was obliged to have something to eat on our return to the hotel. Mr. Childs is very rich, and gives away immensely. He showed me a valuable collection of autographs, &c., given him by Mrs. S. C. Hall, whose husband, now an old man I believe, he partly supports. We left at half-past eight, and this morning, Thursday, 16th, Mr. Childs called early with his picture, framed, as a present. Sir William and Lady Thomson, and probably John and E—-, are going to the Childs' on Saturday till Monday, and Mrs. B. M—-, who called, is very anxious that they should see the Keally experiments. I hear John and E—- are going to Boston. We are starting this afternoon for Woodlawn, New Brunswick, the Neilsons' place, and to-day I have, an invitation from Mrs. Pruyn of Albany. We are about to take our berths on board the Cunard steamer Oregon, which starts on 12th November. I had a great pleasure this morning in receiving from Clara a large photograph of you and Arthur Paley. It is very nice, and I am very glad she arranged so cleverly for you to be taken! You don't look quite so miserable and cross, as is your wont in general when being photographed. Clara and S—- were at a large evening party lately at Euston, where they met the Princess Frederica of Hanover, whom I have met several times at dear Katty Mande's, and she inquired about us from Clara.

Woodlawn, New Brunswick, October 20th.—We arrived here Thursday. Mrs. M—- called and kindly took me to the station, and presented me with some beautiful roses, which I brought here unpacked and gave to Mr. Neilson. Major R. S—- spoke to me again at the hotel about the Keally motor, and fervently repeated that after a thorough inspection of the machinery he is convinced that a new force is at work. Mr. Neilson and his carriage met us at the station. He is very lively and full of information, having travelled a great deal, and overflowing with "go." She is very handsome and nice, and nothing can be kinder than they are. It is a pretty cottage, close to his mother's house, and with some grounds round them.

Friday, 17th.—We took a long drive, Mr. Neilson driving at a rapid pace, and the river and foliage was pretty, but the scenery here is not remarkable, and the town of New Brunswick does not look rich, or flourishing. In the evening we went to his mother's, had tea, oysters and birds, and then a number of people came; Dr. and Mrs. Cook, Professor of Chemistry, and Mr. and Mrs. and Miss Warren, several Carpenters, who are cousins of the Neilsons, Admiral and Mrs. Admiral Boggs, Dr. and Mrs. Hart. He is a Dutch clergyman of the Dutch church here, and has been at John's laboratory at Cambridge, and talked about him and his work. I observe the gentlemen stand talking to each other a good deal as we do in England. Mrs. Neilson mere is a very nice old lady, with white hair, and something like you. She spoke about my brother Hedley, and tears came into her eyes as we talked; everyone here seems to have read his memoirs, and I enclose a scrap out of the New Brunswick paper, which will show you how he is remembered. Mrs. T. Neilson seems a capital housekeeper, and the cooking and everything seems so good and comfortable. Mr. Neilson owns most of the town, and is delighted when he can sell some of it, and the neighbours are nearly all his cousins. He says the municipal government of the town, &c., is at a dead lock. Nothing can be done to the roads, (which are disgraceful!) or the streets, which are dreadful everywhere nearly, that there is perpetual bribery and corruption, and all owing to universal suffrage, which makes the respectable people quite helpless! This is the view of all the people I stayed with or spoke to. On Saturday, 18th, we made a long excursion to Long Branch, going by train to Redbank, a pretty village, where we got a carriage and drove to Long Branch, a favourite watering place of this part of the country and New York; miles upon miles of the sea coast is covered with houses, small and large, in every variety of style, with no trees and quite flat, with a fine sea beyond the sands. It looked like a scene on a stage! We passed some very pretty bays and creeks, but though the day was bright, the wind blew a gale, and we could not sit about. We lunched at the railway station, with our driver sitting at the next table. It is so funny to find everyone at your elbow, whatever their position may be, but I must say they behave very well. We returned by train, and I managed to catch a chill, and have been in bed most of the morning. The day was so lovely that Mr. Neilson persuaded me to drive with him in his buggy, a very comfortable carriage like a tea cart, and I enjoyed the sweet Indian summer and the pretty foliage with peeps of the river. In the afternoon I went with Mr. Neilson to call on his mother and Mrs. Carpenter, both fine old ladies, and as I said before, old and young women are well taken care of here.

October 22nd.—Hotel Brunswick, Boston. We left the kind Neilsons yesterday, and as Dick and I were not well, we took drawing-room car seats, which, however, were extremely uncomfortable wicker chairs, which turned round on a pivot with the least movement and made one feel sick! So I sat on a hard bench usually occupied by conductors. This is a fine hotel, and John and E—- came to see me last night after I was in bed; they seem enjoying themselves and are gay, seeing lots of scientific folk at Baltimore and here at Cambridge. They intend starting home on the 1st. We are arranging for berths in the "Oregon," on the 12th, Last night I was surprised to get a letter from Liza, which had been sent to Evelyn, dated October 5th, telling me that No. 90, O—- G—- was let to Mr. Scott Holland till 8th December! I suppose some letter from Liza has been lost, for I have never heard a word of it before. The road yesterday was very pretty, crossing two or three rivers with beautiful colored foliage on their banks, and some fine towns. I enjoy scenery more and more as I get older, and feel more one with Nature, and Nature's God; the sense of the Eternal and Infinite deepens in my heart, and the grandeur of sky and mountain and river with God over all fills me with calm and peace. I am not at all well just now, and have to starve nearly. It is difficult at hotels to get the right kind of food when one is out of sorts.


To the Editor of the "Home News".—

It may be of some interest to your readers to know that we have at present in our midst some distinguished people. Not indeed because they happen to be people of high rank in their own country, but because they represent names standing preeminent in the fields of science on the one side of their house, and on the other a name cherished in every household as the very embodiment of Christian chivalry, that of a veritable soldier of the cross.

The Dowager Lady Rayleigh (mother of Lord Rayleigh, the President of the British Association), is at present the guest of Mr. and Mrs. James Neilson, at their residence, Woodlawn. She is accompanied by her two sons, the Honorables Richard and Hedley Stratt. The former is married to a daughter of Lord Bragbrook, a member of the Cornwallis family. The Dowager Baroness is a sister of Hedley Vicars, the soldier-missionary of the Crimea, a name as well known and honoured in the households of America as those of Great Britain.

The party came out to attend the Scientific Convention of Canada, and have since travelled largely through the great West. They express themselves enthusiastically as to our progress, material as well as intellectual.

We take the occasion to congratulate our English cousins upon the phenomenally fine season which they have selected, and trust that they may remain long enough to enjoy the loveliness of our American autumn and Indian summer.—The Brunswick Daily Home News, Thursday, October 16th, 1884.

LETTER No. 10.

October 25th, Newport, at "Madame Robertson's."

Hedley and I and Gibson came here on Thursday, just to see the place, of which I had heard so much, and to acknowledge the offered civilities of some of the people there. We left Dick at Boston not very well, and indeed, I have been quite a wretch lately. Wednesday morning, E—- brought Professor Pickering, and he asked us to join John and E—- at his Observatory, and at a party given afterwards by Mrs. Pickering, so at 3.30 we set off all in a tram, and Professor Pickering met us about a mile from the house, and a carriage took us to the Observatory, where we saw curious things, and above all, the crescent moon, through a powerful telescope, which, oddly enough, I had never seen before. Mrs. Pickering had a large gathering, and I was introduced to quantities of people, some very nice looking and English in tone and manner. In this part of America one would scarcely know that you were not living among the present generation of English transported across the Atlantic quite recently; the manners of the coloured servants are very objectionable, and the porters of the cars quite odious; they march up and down, even in the more select Pulman cars, slam the doors, awakening one out of a much needed doze, and throw themselves down on the chairs and pick their teeth! "Dressed in a little brief authority, they strut before High Heaven," and make one wish they had never been evolved but remained altogether apes. The waiters at hotels are often pleasant enough, but the dislike of the white Americans to domestic service has given a monopoly of this employment to the coloured people, (shared in many parts by the Irish), and they give themselves airs accordingly. Dr. Wendel Holmes, of literary celebrity, was at the Pickerings, and I had a short talk with him, but as every minute some new introduction came off, I could never have a pleasant chat with any one. Mrs. Horsford, who was giving a large evening party, asked us to go there, and the Pickerings wanted me to stay with them till the time arrived, but I was not equal to this exertion, and we three returned in trams, which ought to be called crams, for they are invariably in that condition. I was also asked to join John and E—- with a party going to a place called Beverly, but I decided to come here, as people were expecting us, and we arrived about ten minutes to three, and I found cards and notes, asking me to lunch and dine, and drive, and my landlady said the bell had been ringing all the morning, and the whole place was in excitement about our coming and its frequent delays! I got a carriage (it was too late to lunch out or drive), and left some cards and notes of explanation, and as we were leaving one at Mrs. Belmont's, she drove up in a well appointed drag, so we got out, and I found her a fair and light little person, very nice, and wonderfully young looking. She then drove us in her beautiful park phaton to Mrs. Bruen's, where there was an afternoon party for my benefit—such a charming old lady! I told her I had a mother of eighty-one, and she said "Oh I am more than that, but no one knows my age, and I don't think about it, but am ready when the call comes." I have heard since, she is past ninety! She is small and thin, full of life and interest in everything, and her brains as active as ever,—seems to have known every one of interest. I went there again to tea-dinner last evening, and we talked about everything and everybody under Heaven nearly! Her clever daughter and very pretty grand-daughter, Miss Perkins, have read widely, and our subjects of discussion were endless. Of course at the afternoon party there were numbers of people, and they told me they were quite delighted at my arrival, for the place was very dull now, and it was quite an excitement! Last evening a Professor Shields was at Mrs. Bruen's, and gave me his book on "Science and Faith." I have had three invitations to dine to-day, which, of course I had to decline. To go on with yesterday's journal, we lunched with a Mrs. Bell, and met there Miss Perkins and another nice young lady, and a queer specimen, a Mr. W—-, who travels about the Continent with eight children, and aggravated me by saying he was more at home in France than in England. We had several made up dishes, chiefly fish, but little I could eat! Three children came down afterwards and were made very much of, as usual; then Mrs. Belmont called for us in her barouche, and took us a delightful drive by the sea, but it was very cold, and as I had not brought my only warm wrap to Newport, I borrowed a seal skin jacket from Mrs. Bell; I find I have only brought one gown that I could have well done without, but I should be glad of two or three more things.

This place is something like Ryde, with numbers of villas, which in summer weather have beautiful lawns and gardens, and are filled with all the smart people from New York and Boston, &c.; in the season, they say it is wonderfully pretty and gay, and the few people remaining are so sorry I did not see Newport in all its glory, but I can guess what it would be, and I should dislike the kind of life they lead and the intense frivolity and absence of any kind of occupation, excepting dressing and flirtation! I think the cream had been left behind. This morning Professor Shields took us a drive to the two Beaches, two little bays with bathing sands, and then we drove to Miss Mason, who lives in a very pretty villa with her sister, and is very rich, and we all walked together to the Cliff, where there is a fashionable promenade, with rocks and sea on one side and green turf and the villas with their gardens all open on the other. If any one has a pretty house or place here it is all exposed to the public gaze, and even use, a great deal! We then drove to Mrs. Bruen's, where Hedley and I lunched. I am surprised to find how fresh the memory of my brother Hedley still remains in the minds of people, who I thought would have been too young to have heard of him at the time of his death, or too old to remember now what they had heard and read. Miss Mason and her friend spoke about him with such real feeling, and said they had been brought up on his "memoirs." Mrs. Bruen and her family, and Professor Shields and many others speak to me as if I was quite a friend, because of my relationship to Hedley! Isn't this curious after thirty years? They all asked about Lucy, and were so romantic as to be rather distressed that she had ever married; but I told them

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