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The Booklover and His Books
by Harry Lyman Koopman
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The last instance is an example of the patient waiting as much as the ingenuity of the Imp of the Perverse, but in pure ingenuity he is without a rival in mere human inventiveness. It certainly was a resourceful Frenchman who translated "hit or miss" as "frappe ou mademoiselle," and it was inspired ignorance on the part of a student assistant in a college library who listed "Sur l'Administration de M. Necker, par Lui Meme" under "Meme, Lui," as if it were the name of the author of the book instead of being the French for "himself." But the Imp of the Perverse aims higher than this. He did not hesitate in an edition of the Bible published in London in 1631 to leave the not out of the one commandment from which its absence would be the most noticeable. This was much worse than leaving out the whole commandment, for it transformed a moral prohibition into an immoral command. The printer in this case was fined three hundred pounds, or five hundred dollars for each letter omitted. It is curious that the same omission was made in an edition of the Bible printed at Halle. A Vermont paper, in an obituary notice of a man who had originally come from Hull, Mass., was made by the types to state that "the body was taken to Hell, where the rest of the family are buried." In the first English Bible printed in Ireland, "Sin no more" appears as "Sin on more." It was, however, a deliberate joke of some Oxford students which changed the wording in the marriage service from "live" to "like," so that a couple married out of this book are required to live together only so long as they "both shall like." An orator who spoke of "our grand mother church" was made to say "our grandmother church." The public of Brown University was recently greatly amused by a local misprint. The president of the university is required by its ancient charter to be an "antipaedobaptist"; the types reproduced the word as "antipseudobaptist," a word which would be a very good Greek rendering of "hardshell." An express train at full speed having struck a cow, the report was made to say that it "cut her into calves." Sixty years ago the "London Globe" made the Registrar General say that the city was suffering from a high rate of morality. The ingenuity of our readers will supply the missing letter, as it also will the the true reading of the following passage which appeared in an English newspaper: "Sir Robert Peel has been out with a party of fiends shooting peasants." It was an easy but astonishing blunder made in German, in the substitution of "Maedchen" (girls) for "Maechten" (powers), according to which Bismarck was asserted to be "trying to keep up honest and straightforward relations with all the girls."

The Imp of the Perverse, when he descends upon the printing office, sometimes becomes the Imp of the Perverted. Here his achievements will not bear reproducing. Suffice it to say that in point of indecency he displays the same superhuman ingenuity as in his more innocent pranks. His indecencies are all, indeed, in print, but fortunately scattered, and it would be a groveling nature that should seek to collect them; yet the absence of this chapter from the world's book of humor means the omission of a comic strain that neither Aristophanes nor Rabelais has surpassed. Even as I write, a newspaper misprint assures me that typesetting machines are no protection against the Imp of the Perverted. Perhaps we may be pardoned the reproduction of one of the mildest of these naughtinesses. A French woman novelist had written: "To know truly what love is, we must go out of ourselves" (sortir de soi). The addition of a single letter transformed this eminently respectable sentiment into the feline confession: "To know truly what love is, we must go out nights" (sortir de soir).

Sometimes the Blunder Sprite deliberately pits himself against author, proof reader, and all their allies. The books printed by Aldus are famous for their correctness, yet a few errors crept into them, so much to the disgust of the great printer that he said he would gladly have given a gold crown for each one to be rid of them. The famous Oxford University Press is said to have posted up the first sheet of one of its Bibles, with the offer of a guinea for every misprint that could be found in it. None was found—until the book was printed. James Lenox, the American collector, prided himself on the correctness of his reprint of the autograph manuscript of "Washington's Farewell Address," which he had acquired. On showing the book to Henry Stevens, the bookseller, the latter, glancing at a page, inquired, "Why papar instead of paper?" Mr. Lenox was overwhelmed with mortification; but Stevens sent for a skillful bookbinder, who removed the objectionable a and with a camel's hair pencil substituted an e for it, so that the demon was conquered after all, but only through great trouble. How would it seem possible to reissue a printed book, copy it exactly, and yet make an atrocious blunder? The Type Spirit is equal to even this feat. The book was a mathematical one, full of formulae. It was not reproduced page for page, so it was perfectly easy for a signature mark to get printed and appear in the middle of a page mixed up with an equation, to the confusion of American mathematical scholarship. More tragic were the misprints in a work by the Italian poet, Guidi, which are said to have hastened his death. In an interesting volume by Henry B. Wheatley on "Literary Blunders," the Tricksy Puck of the Press has revenged himself on the author for his attacks by smuggling in a number of misprints, among them one that he must have inspired in the mind of the author, the spelling "Bride of Lammermuir," which has no warrant in Scott's novel itself. In the same book is a reference to Shakespeare that diligent search fails to verify. Thus no knowledge or skill avails against the Kobold of the Case. The most baffling device of the imp is to cause a new error in the process of correcting an old one. This residuary misprint is one against which there is no complete protection. When General Pillow returned from Mexico he was hailed by a Southern editor as a "battle-scarred veteran." The next day the veteran called upon him to demand an apology for the epithet actually printed, "battle-scared." What was the horror of the editor, on the following day, to see the expression reappear in his apology as "bottle-scarred"!

Occasionally, however, the mischief maker takes a notion to improve the copy set before him. The world will never know how often this has happened, for authors are just as willing to take credit for excellencies not their own as to lay on the printer the blame for their own oversights. In one of Artemus Ward's articles he had spoken of a starving prisoner as appealing for something to eat. The proof rendered it something to read. The humorist accepted the substitution as an additional absurdity. The French poet, Malherbe, once welcomed a misprint as an improvement on what he had written. There can be no doubt that, had there been no misprints in Shakespeare's quartos and folios, half the occupation of Shakespeare scholarship would have been lacking. Sometimes the original manuscript turns up—unfortunately not in Shakespeare's case—to confute some or all of the ingenious editors. A learned professor changed the word "unbodied" in Shelley's "Skylark" to "embodied," and some critics approved the change; but the poet's manuscript in the Harvard University Library makes the former reading clear beyond question. One might say that in these cases the Imp of the Perverse plants himself like a fatal microbe in the brain of the unfortunate editor. When that brilliant work, "The Principles of Success in Literature," by George Henry Lewes, appeared in the "Fortnightly Review," the expression "tilt stones from a cart" (used to describe careless writing) was printed with l as the first letter. When the chapters were reissued in America, the proofreader, warned by the presence of numerous other gross misprints, naturally corrected the meaningless "lilt" to the obvious and natural "tilt." This change at first escaped the attention of the American editor, who in the second edition insisted on restoring the original misprint and even defended his misjudgment in a note. It is worth adding that the Oxford English Dictionary takes the misprint as too obvious for comment and quotes the passage under "tilt."

The most daring feat of the typographic Angel of the Odd—to adopt another of Poe's expressions—is the creation of what Professor Skeat called "ghost words," that is, words that seem to exist but do not. A misprint in Scott's "Monastery" of "morse" for "nurse" was accepted without question by readers and gravely explained by scholars. Some of these words, of which there are scores, are due to the misreading of crabbed manuscripts, but not a few have originated in the printing office. It must be remembered that they make their way into the dictionaries. For another instance let the reader open Worcester's Dictionary to the word phantomnation. He will see it defined as "illusion" and referred to Pope. In Webster's Dictionary, however, he will learn its true character, as a ghost word formed by running together the two words phantom nation.

The printing of poetry involves all the possible mistakes liable to prose and, owing to the form of poetry, some new ones. Thus in Pickering's Aldine edition of Milton, two words of one line in "Samson Agonistes" are dropped down into the next, making the two lines of uneven length and very much hurting the emphasis. The three-volume reprint of this edition dutifully copies the misprint. In the Standard edition of Dr. Holmes's "Works" printed at the Riverside Press, in the unusual case of a poem in stanzas being broken up into a dialogue, the end of one speech, carried over to the following page, has been assigned to the next speaker, thus spoiling both the sense and the metre. The most extraordinary instance that has ever come under my eye occurs in a special edition of John Hay's "Poems," issued as a college prize volume and very elegantly printed at a well-known press. One poem has disappeared entirely except a single stanza, which has been attached to another poem with which it has no connection, not even agreeing with it in metre.

The list of errata, the printer's public confession of fault, is rather rare in modern books, but this is due as much to the indifference of the public as to better proofreading. When Edwin Arnold's "Light of Asia" took the reading world by storm, a New York reprint was issued, which we commend to anyone looking for classical examples of misprinted books. It averages perhaps a gross misprint to every page. Possibly extreme haste to beat the Boston edition in the market may have suggested dispensing with the proof reader. Of course a publisher who could so betray his customers would never offer them even the partial amends of a list of errata. Sometimes the errors are picked up while the book is still in press, and in that case the list of errata can be printed as an extension of the text; sometimes the best that can be done is to print it on a separate slip or sheet and either insert it in the book or supply it to purchasers. Both these things happened in the case of that early American book, Mather's "Magnalia." The loose list of errata was printed on the two inner pages of one fold the size of the book. In the two hundred years that have elapsed, most of these folded sheets have been lost, with the financial result that a copy of the book with them will bring twice as much as one without them, these two leaves weighing as much in the scales of commerce as the other four hundred. Sometimes a misprint establishes the priority of a copy, the error having been silently corrected while the sheets were going through the press, and thus adds to its value in the eyes of the collector. The extent of these ancient lists of errata staggers belief. Cardinal Bellarmin was obliged to issue an octavo volume of eighty-eight pages to correct the misprints in his published works, and there is on record a still huger list of errata, extending to one hundred and eleven quarto pages.

But we must not suppose that misprints began with the invention of printing. The name did, but not the thing named. In earlier times it was the copyist who made the mistakes and bore the blame. It is easy to see how in Greece and Rome, when one reader read aloud a book which perhaps a hundred copyists reproduced, a great number of errors might creep into the copies, and how many of these would result from confusion in hearing. Every copy was then an edition by itself and a possible source of error, calling therefore for its own proofreading. It is accordingly no wonder that the straightening out of classic texts is still going on. Had Chaucer, who wrote over a hundred years before printing was introduced into England, been able to read once for all the proof of his poems, he would not have had to write that feeling address to his copyist, or scrivener, with which we may fitly take leave of our subject.

Adam scryveyne, if ever it thee byfalle, Boece or Troylus for to wryten nuwe, Under thy long lokkes thowe most have the scalle, But affter my makyng thowe wryte more truwe; So offt a daye I mot thy werk renuwe, It to corect, and eke to rubbe and scrape, And al is thorugh thy necglygence and rape.



A SECRET OF PERSONAL POWER

Greater efficiency is the watchword of the hour. The pages of every technical and even educational magazine bristle with it. One is driven to wonder whether the principle does not require that in every printing office the word "efficiency" be stereotyped to save the cost of setting. We are told how one manager of a creamery saved annually the amount of his own salary to the company by having the dents in the supply cans pounded out and so getting more milk from the farmers. But though the lengths to which the insistence on efficiency is carried may sometimes provoke a smile, we have no inclination to disparage it; we realize that efficiency has far more than a mere money value to society; it is rather our purpose in the present paper to ask whether the efficiency man has ever thought to turn his searchlight in upon himself and discover whether he has not latent and unexpected powers that may be evoked to the great increase of his own efficiency.

We have nothing historically new to offer, though the principle we are to mention is practically unknown or at least unutilized. It is the great, controlling principle of Forethought, the application of which is far wider than thought itself, extending to all the functions of the soul and even affecting bodily energy and health. The action of Forethought is based on the fact that there is more to ourselves than we are aware of. We are not ordinarily conscious of our past lives, for instance, yet a supreme crisis, such as falling from a height, may make a man's whole past in an instant flash before him in review. Under sudden stress a man may develop powers of leadership or resolution that nobody could have foreseen and that he himself cannot account for. Our selves as we know them are, so to speak, only the top soil of our entire natures. Every conscious personality is like a farm in an oil district. It is underlain by an unrealized wealth that may never be brought to light. Some accident may reveal the treasure, but if the owner suspects its existence he may bore for it. To show how this boring may be done is one of the purposes of the present paper. But let us first assure ourselves further of the existence of this hidden fund of energy.

If in the early fifties of the last century a vote had been taken on the two men in America who ten years later would stand head and shoulders above their countrymen in position and recognized ability, it is probable that not one single vote would have been cast for a slouchy Missouri farmer or a shabby Illinois lawyer, certainly not for the former. Grant and Lincoln themselves would not have expected a vote. Yet their powers existed then, unrealized by their owners, and only needing the proper stimulus to bring them out. That stimulus was responsibility; and, great as their achievements were under this stimulus, neither man appears to have reached his limit; each apparently had still a fund of reserve power to be expended on yet greater occasions had they arisen. This is not to say that all men have an equal fund of unrecognized ability. The experiences of the great struggle out of which Lincoln and Grant came supreme are alone sufficient to show how unequal are men's endowments. A McClellan proves himself an unsurpassed organizer, but no fighter; a Burnside displays marked ability in leading fifteen or twenty thousand men, but beyond this number he fails disastrously. Neither Foresight nor any other device can create ability. A gallon can will hold only a gallon, no matter how carefully its sides are rounded. But in the case of any given man no one knows his capacity until he has had a chance to show it. His nature may hold only a pint, or, as with the men who have mastered great occasions with still unexhausted powers, it may seem like the horn which the god Thor tried to drain but could not, for its base was connected with the ocean itself. Not every man can hope to be called to a responsibility that shall bring out his latent powers; most of us, if we are ever to get the call, will first have to show the ability.

How can a man tap the unknown resources, be they great or small, of his unconscious self? The method here to be suggested has at least the merit of great simplicity. I have called it Forethought; it might perhaps as exactly be called Forewilling. The point is that this unconscious part of a man's nature is not out of his control; he can send word to it and direct it, even if he has to do so by a kind of wireless telegraphy. However mysterious this may sound, there is nothing mystical about it, neither is it something vague and indefinite, but a practice to be applied to actual cases in hand. Suppose a business man is trying to get an important contract, and is to have an interview on the morrow that will decide the question. Let him, before he falls asleep at night, go over the whole ground in his mind, set before himself clearly the thing to be done with the particular difficulties to be met, and let him will himself to meet those difficulties, to carry his case. Let him will that at that time he shall be cheerful and vigorous; and, having given these instructions to his unconscious self—which has perhaps been waiting years for just this chance to do its part in the common endeavor—let him dismiss the whole matter from his conscious thought and go to sleep. On awaking in the morning let him review the matter and again dismiss it from his mind until the occasion arrives. If he will do this faithfully, he may not succeed the first time in carrying his point, but he will certainly feel a great increase of power, and ultimately, if he persists in making his unconscious self an active partner in his life, he will find himself far more successful than he could have been while depending on a single side of his nature. The same principle will hold, of course, in a myriad cases; if we have to-morrow, or even at a later date, to plead a cause, to make an after-dinner speech, to write a report or an article, to learn a lesson, to entertain guests, to handle a difficult case of discipline, we have only to take this counsel of our pillow, to reenforce it with our first morning thought, and we shall find ourselves making a new record of success.

It is obvious that a principle so effective cannot be limited to the active or the intellectual life. If a man has a fault or a besetting weakness or sin, here is a way out of it. How long will a bad habit stand such an assault upon itself as the evening and morning practice of Forethought? One will actually feel the new force within him, like a gyroscopic stabilizer, holding him to his predetermined course. There is literally a world of hope for mankind in the application of this principle on its moral side. But the business of our article is with other applications and we must dismiss this, the greatest of all, with a mere mention.

If anyone questions whether this principle is true or not, the best answer will be to bid him test it. Though it be true universally, some people may not easily apply it, and some may not have the patience to subject themselves to such a discipline. But most will have no difficulty, and many will succeed well enough to inspire themselves to continue. Some, indeed, will say, and with perfect truth, that there is nothing new in this doctrine, that they have long known and applied it. The principle has doubtless been known for thousands of years, but it has certainly not been widely taken up by our race, which is curiously external in its notions of self-education and self-control. One American writer, the late Charles Godfrey Leland, a man of the most varied powers and accomplishments, has written in advocacy of it and gives us as his own experience that after the age of seventy he was able to do a greater amount of literary work, and with less fatigue, than ever before simply by calling in the aid of his unconscious self. If one were to read the lives and writings of eminent men with this principle of Forethought in mind, one would find numberless instances of its more or less unconscious practice. The best scholar in my own class, for instance, applied it to his studies. Does anyone suppose that the old Puritan's sweetening of his mind with a little Calvin before he went to bed was without its effect on his devotion to Calvinism? Erasmus, the wittiest of scholars, writing nearly four hundred years ago to his special friend, Christian of Lubeck, recommends the practice both of the evening instruction and the morning review as something that he himself has followed from his childhood; and we cannot doubt that in it he reveals one of the secrets of his world-wide influence. He says to his youthful friend: "A little before you go to sleep read something choice and worth remembering, and think it over until you fall asleep. When you awake in the morning make yourself give an account of it." Though this is clearly an application of the principle to study and the strengthening of the memory, experiment will show that the potency of Forethought is not limited to the memory or the intellect in general, but applies to man's entire nature and equally to the least and the greatest of its concerns.



FOOTNOTES:

[1] The substance of an address delivered Nov. 18, 1909, in the Boston Public Library, under the auspices of the Society of Printers.

[2] The address here summarized was printed at the Chiswick Press and published at Christmas, 1884. Mr. Stevens died early in 1886, leaving a posthumous book entitled "Recollections of Mr. James Lenox," which was printed in the same year at the Chiswick Press, and which is of great interest to booklovers, especially Americans.

[3] Mr. Edison's projected substitute for paper, sheets of nickel, 20,000 to the inch, may indicate the book material of the future, but at present it is only a startling possibility.

[4] The type in which this book is printed is a modern Bodoni, cut in Italy, and was chosen for its elegance rather than to illustrate the latest results in legibility of type design.

[5] See "Simplified Spelling in Writing and Printing; a Publisher's Point of View," by Henry Holt, LL.D., New York, 1906. About one half the expense falls within the domain of printing.



INDEX



INDEX

ABILITY, cannot be created, 164.

Accents, their help in reading poetry, 17, 18.

AEschylus, as characterized by Mrs. Browning, 67.

Aldine edition of the British Poets, by Pickering, 23, 24.

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey, his "Friar Jerome's Beautiful Book," 87, 88.

Aldus, Alduses and Elzevirs contrasted, 23; beauty in his work, 4; bindings of, 100; his characteristic book, 21; his example followed by the Elzevirs, 22; his italic type and its effect on the size and price of books, 20, 21; Pickering and other followers of, 23, 24; vexed by misprints, 156.

Alphabet, Chinese, picture writing, 80, 81; derivation from picture writing, 81; scientific and actual, 147; varieties in use, 146. See also Type.

American Journal of Psychology, contains Sanford's study on "The relative legibility of the small letters," 122.

Arnold, Edwin, misprints in his "Light of Asia," 159.

Art, art aspect of the book, 3, 49, 115; shares the prehistoric background of the book, 79, 80.

Artists not opposed to criticism, 62.

Assyrian clay tablet, 4.

Astor Library, size in 1875, 104.

Audubon, John James, his elephant-folio "Birds of America," 55.

Authors, reading by single authors and groups, 74-76; spoilers of books, 40.

Authorship, rules of, 44.

BABYLONIAN book, 82.

Back numbers, unimportant contemporary works become, 77.

"Background of the book," 79-86.

Bacon, Francis, Lord, quoted, 106, 112.

Baird, John Wallace, directs Clark University studies on legibility, 124.

Ballads, Old English, Hazlitt on, 142.

Balzac, Honore de, expanded his novels in proof, 15.

Balzac, Jean Louis Guez de, acknowledged his indebtedness to the Elzevirs, 22.

Bamboo, source of Chinese paper, 85.

Barlow, Joel, place of his "Columbiad" in modern printing, 10.

Bartlett, John, quoted, 128.

Baskerville, John, his smooth paper, 5.

Beauty, see Esthetics.

Beecher, Henry Ward, his "Norwood" in three volumes, 12; John Beattie Crozier on his sermons, 111.

Beethoven, his Ninth Symphony as a product of genius, 65.

Bellarmin, Cardinal, list of errata in his works, 160.

Best books, need of provision for daily reading, 107. See also Books.

Bible, Hazlitt on its poetry, 141; influence on Bunyan, on Calhoun, 110; misprints in, 154, 156; various folio editions, 19.

Bible of humanity, Socrates in, 68.

Bigness, in books, 35, 36, 45, 47.

Binder, a spoiler of books, 40, 42; what the librarian asks of him, 48.

Binding, as an element of the book, 6; "The clothing of a book," 97-101; of the book beautiful, 52-55; of the Chinese book, 88, 89; of the well-made book, 52; "Parchment bindings," 102, 103; unnecessary rebindings, 46.

Bion, as characterized by Mrs. Browning, 68.

Birch bark, used for book of India, 85.

Bismarck, misprint concerning, 155.

Blackmore, Richard Doddridge, tribute to Shakespeare, 110.

Blue and Gold editions, a favorite book size, 24-26.

Bodoni, Giambattista, his type commended, 58, 129, 130.

Book, "The background of the book," 79-86; "blown" books, 35; "The book beautiful," 49-62; "The book of to-day and the book of to-morrow," 33-37; Chinese, 84, 85, 87-91; "The clothing of a book," 97-101; a constructive critic of the, 38-43; elements of, 4-6; "Fitness in book design," 9-13; its structural contradiction, 52; materials, 92; of the future, 95, 96; on its physical side an art object, 3; pre-Columbian Mexican, 6; printed, a "substitute" for manuscript, 4; subject to laws of esthetics and economics, 115; tests of its utility, 115; well-made, not extremely costly, 7, not identical with beautiful, 52; worth writing three times, 44. See also Design; Size.

Book buyers, how to educate, 37; spoilers of books, 40, 42.

Booklovers, "Books and booklovers," 3-8; must first know books, 7; service in improvement of books, 48, 61, 62.

Book production, 105; elements added by printing, 14.

Books, as a librarian would like them, 44-48; "Books and booklovers," 3-8; the greatest, few, 66; intellectual riffraff, 9; learning to love, 7; "Lest we forget the few great books," 104-114; perishable, 34, 45, 46; progress in legibility of, 132, 133; small, commended by Dr. Johnson, 20; "The student and the library," 139-144; that are not books, 105, 106; world's annual publication of, 105.

Books of Hours, dainty volumes, 20.

Boston Athenaeum Library, size in 1875, 104.

Boston Public Library, Address in, 3, footnote; size in 1875, 104.

Brandes, Georg, his "Shakespeare: a critical study," 72.

Brass, used for book of India, 85.

British Poets, rival editions of, by Pickering and by Little and Brown, 23, 24.

Brown, Horatio Robert Forbes, on Aldus and his italic type, 20.

Brown, John Carter, patron of Henry Stevens, 38.

Brown University, misprint in quoting its charter, 154, 155.

Browne, Charles Farrar, adopts a misprint, 157.

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, her "Wine of Cyprus" quoted, 67, 68.

Buchanan, George, his Latin poems, commended by Dr. Johnson, 23; published by the Elzevirs, 23.

Bulk, in books, 92-96.

Bunyan, John, debt to the Bible, 110.

Burma, book of, see India.

Burns, Robert, Hazlitt on, 142.

Burnside, General Ambrose Everett, his limitations, 163, 164.

Burton, Sir Richard, his "Kasidah" in Mosher's tribute typography, 137.

Bury, Richard de, author of the "Philobiblon," 8.

Byron, Lord, hated Horace, 68.

CAESURA, indication of, in print, 18.

Calhoun, John Caldwell, reader of the Bible, 110.

Calligraphy, see Manuscript.

Calvin, John, as a Puritan's spiritual nightcap, 166.

Cambridge University, student groups in, 139.

Capital letters, legibility, 121, 122, 126; Roman in origin, 118; Roman, superior to black-letter in combination, 57; undersized, used by Aldus, 21.

Carlyle, Thomas, on Goethe, 110; rewrote his books in proof, 15.

Caslon type, commended, 58, 117.

Catchwords, usage of Aldus, 21.

Cattell, James McKeen, his investigations of legibility, 121, 122.

Cave men, pictures made by them, 79, 80.

Centaur type, commended, 132.

Century Dictionary, illustration of cerastes, 81; a triumph of typography, 16, 135.

Century types, commended, 127, 132.

Cervantes, "Don Quixote," character and meaning of, 70, 71, no final edition of, 11, on reading, 143, 144, translations of, 143, 144; his character, 70; later novelists indebted to, 143.

Chaucer, Geoffrey, complaint of his scribe's errors, 160, 161; Hazlitt on, 142; his spelling, 149.

Cheapness, see Cost.

Cheltenham type, commended, 132.

Cherokee syllabary, 146.

Children, increase of near sight among, 120; legibility of books for, 5, 117.

Chinese, alphabet, conventionalized picture writing, 80, 81; book, 84, 85, 87-91.

Chiswick Press, 38, footnote; Pickering's books printed at, 41.

Christian of Lubeck, letter of Erasmus to, quoted, 166.

Cicero, did not write for children, 68.

Clark University, studies on legibility, 124-127, 132.

Classroom, not equal to a good book, 140.

Clay tablet, and booklovers, 4; described, 82.

Clodd, Edward, on discovery of British prehistoric antiquities, 79.

Cloister Oldstyle type, commended, 132; a safe norm for poetry, 58.

Cloth, used in binding, 53.

"Clothing of a book," 97-101.

Codex, Roman, form adopted for parchment books, 84; original of modern book form, 19, 52, 90.

Collins, Wilkie, tribute to "Robinson Crusoe," 110.

Color, use of, 60.

Columbian type, first used in Barlow's "Columbiad," 10.

Columns, in wide pages, 47.

Community, value of reading to the, 28, 29.

Compactness and legibility, 117, 130, 131, 134, 135.

Compositor, a spoiler of books, 40, 41.

"Constructive critic of the book," 38-43.

Consumers, see Book buyers.

Contemporary writers, on reading their works, 76, 77.

Contrast of type, 16, 17.

Copperplate printing, in connection with typography, 60.

Cornell University Library, proof-sheets of the "Waverley Novels" in, 15.

Corrigenda, 152-161; lists of, 159, 160.

Cost, the book of to-morrow will be cheaper, 36; cheapened books, 45; of beautiful books little more than of unsightly, 39; relatively small, of well-made books, 7.

Cowper, William, Hazlitt on, 142.

Crabbe, George, a favorite edition of, 24.

Criticism, "A constructive critic of the book," 38-43; not opposed by artists, 62.

Crozier, John Beattie, on reading, 111, 112.

Culture cannot be vicarious, 140.

DANA, JOHN COTTON, his analysis of the elements of the book, 4.

Dante, his "Divine Comedy," character of, 69, 70, 144; "fly's-eye" edition of, 55; Hazlitt on, 141; privilege of reading, 64; Professor Torrey on reading, 109.

Decoration, in bindings, 6, 99-101; use of color in, 60.

Defoe, Daniel, tribute of Wilkie Collins to "Robinson Crusoe," 110.

Democratization of learning, by the cheap books of Aldus, 21.

De Morgan, William, quoted, 63, 72; value of his novels, 77.

De Quincey, Thomas, on possible amount of reading in a lifetime, 105.

Design, "Fitness in book design," 9-13; of type, 5, 117, 118.

Diagonal of page, 57.

Dickens, Charles, his works in illegible print, 130, on Oxford India paper, 94, on thick paper, 95; on reading him, 143.

Dickinson, Emily, quoted, 30, 31.

Didot, Ambrose Firmin, his "microscopic" type, 131.

Discovery of a great book, 108, 109.

Distinctions, to the eye, in manuscript and print, 16-18.

Don Quixote, see Cervantes.

Dordogne, France, its prehistoric pictures, 79, 80.

Dowden, Edward, his "Shakspere: his mind and art," 72.

Dryden, John, Hazlitt on, 142.

ECONOMICS, the book within the domain of, 115, 116.

Edges, treatment of, 61.

Edison, Thomas Alva, would substitute nickel for paper, 92, footnote.

Editions de luxe, disapproved by Henry Stevens, 39.

Education, in appreciation of beautiful books, 50; of book buyers, 37.

Efficiency, in modern life, 162; of the book, 115.

Egyptian, book, see Papyrus; hieroglyphics, picture writing, 81.

Elements of the book, 4-6.

Elimination, test of, applied to reading, 63, 64.

Eliot, Charles William, his Latin signature, 102, 103.

Elzevirs, compared with Aldines, 23, with Blue and Gold editions, 25; described, 21-23.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, his life and works, 75, 76; importance of his works, 112; John Beattie Crozier on, 112; quoted, 144.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, in its two sizes of type, 135.

English, alphabets, 117, 118; book publication in 1913, 105; books, criticised, 38-43; literature as affected by reformed spelling, 149; poets, Hazlitt's Lectures on, 141, 142; romancers, of the 18th century, 143; spelling, 145-151.

Engravings, see Illustrations.

Erasmus, Desiderius, letter to Christian of Lubeck, quoted, 166.

Errata, 152-161; lists of, 159, 160.

Errors of the press, 152-161.

Essays, in a favorite book size, 24.

Esthetics, beauty in typography, 136-138; "The book beautiful," 49-62; the book subject to the laws of, 115; harmony between beauty and use in type design, 132; in choice of type, 127, 131; involves sacrifice of utility, 116; its demands must be met in a favorite book, 24, met by the Little Classic editions, 26; of the book, 3, 9; printer's duty, to, 18; relation of thickness and thinness to, 23, 24; sacrificed to legibility, 117.

Etymology in spelling, 148.

Eumenes II, originates parchment, 83, 84.

Euripides, as characterized by Mrs. Browning, 68.

Everyman's Library, in a favorite book size, 24.

Eves, binders, their work, 100.

"Exceptions to the rule of legibility," 134-138, 130, 131.

Expression in typography, 9-13, 137, 138.

Eyes, see Sight.

F, the letter, origin and derivatives, 81.

Fairy Queen, see Spenser, Edmund.

"Favorite book sizes," 19-27.

Favorite literature, in appropriate typography, 137.

Fielding, Henry, a favorite edition of, 24; on reading him, 143; an unattractive edition of, 12.

Fields, Annie Adams, her "Beacon Biography" of Hawthorne, 75.

Finishing, see Binding.

Fitness, between illustrations and type, 6; in book design, 9-13; in typography, 137, 138.

Fitzgerald, Edward, at Cambridge University, 139.

Forethought, "A secret of personal power," 162-167.

Forewilling, "A secret of personal power," 162-167.

Format, see Size.

Forwarding, see Binding.

Franklin, Benjamin, quoted, 35, 123.

French, alphabet, 147; book publication in 1913, 105; type, faults of, 117, 120, 128.

Frowde, Henry, publishes "The Periodical" in form of a Chinese book, 88, 90.

GALILEO, acknowledged his indebtedness to the Elzevirs, 22.

Garfield, James Abram, recommends reading of fiction, 107.

Gems, in bindings, 6.

Genius, its bad spelling, 150, 151; its monuments in the various arts, 65.

German, book publication in 1913, 105; spelling reform, 147, 148, 150; tribute typography, 137; type, faults of, 117, 122, 128.

Ghost words, 158, 159.

Gilding, see Binding; Edges.

Gladstone, William Ewart, a literary blunder of, 152, 153.

Goethe, Carlyle on, 110; his greatness, 73; John Beattie Crozier on, 112; on Sir Walter Scott, 110.

Goffered edges, 61.

Goudy, Frederic W., his Kennerley type commended, 132.

Grace before reading, 77.

Grammar of book manufacture, 40, 42.

Grant, Ulysses Simpson, his coat of arms, 30; his greatness brought out by responsibility, 163.

Gray, Thomas, small bulk of his work, 69.

"Great books, Lest we forget the few," 104-114.

Greek literature, masterpieces of, 66-68.

Greeks, surpassed by moderns in knowledge, 30.

Green, John Richard, quoted, 50.

Grolier, Jean, bindings made for, 100.

Groups, reading authors by, 74, 75.

Guide, in reading, 140-142; none to love of books, 7.

Guidi, Carlo Alessandro, killed by misprints, 156.

HABIT, and forethought, 165.

Haggard, Rider, his "Mr. Meeson's Will," 86.

Hallam, Arthur Henry, at Cambridge University, 139.

Handwriting, see Manuscript.

Harte, Francis Bret, on reading his works, 143.

Harvard University, course in printing, 43; Library possesses manuscript of Shelley's "Skylark," 158; size of Library in 1875, 104.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, on reading him, 74, 75.

Hay, John, his reading in college, 139; a remarkable misprint in his "Poems," 159.

Hazlitt, William, as a guide in reading, 141, 142; Lamb and Stevenson on, 141.

Headlines, Henry D. Lloyd on, 132.

"Hibbert Journal," bulkiness of, 95.

Hieroglyphics, see Picture writing.

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, his life of Longfellow, 75.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, the Blue and Gold edition of his "Poems," 24, 25; his life of Emerson, 75; member of New England group of authors, 75; a misprint in his "Works," 159; quoted, 24, 80, 102, 106.

Holt, Henry, on simplified spelling, 147, footnote.

Homer, did not write for children, 68; Hazlitt on, 141; his works, 64, 66, 67; Keats's sonnet on, 108, 109; not out of date, 77; why his works are divided into books, 83.

Horace, hated by Byron, 68; his works, 69; in Bodoni's 1791 edition, 129, 130; more modern than the Puritans, 69, than Dante, 70.

Houghton, Mifflin and Company, publish books resembling Chinese, 87, 88.

Hours, books of, dainty volumes, 20.

House of Representatives Library, size in 1875, 104.

Hudson, Henry Norman, his edition of Shakespeare, 71, 72.

Huey, Edmund Burke, his "Psychology and pedagogy of reading," commended, 124.

Hull, Mass., as misprinted, 154.

Humanistic type, see New Humanistic.

Hunt, Leigh, his characterization of the "Divine Comedy," 70.

I, the letter, discussions regarding its dot, 61.

"Idler," a favorite edition of, 24.

Illumination, 51; indication of initials for, 21.

Illustration, as a feature of the book, 6; of the book beautiful, 60.

"Imitatio Christi," in Updike's specimen pages, 136.

Incunabula, relatively cheap, 49.

Indecency in misprints, 155, 156.

Indenting, as affecting the book beautiful, 59.

"Independent," compactly printed, 95.

India, book of, 85, 86.

Individual, value of reading to, 29-32.

Initials, colored, 60; spacing and mitering of, 59.

Ink, best for the eye, 116, 120; blue, for legibility, 5; an element of the book, 5; maker, a spoiler of books, 40, 42.

Interpretative typography, 9-13, 137, 138.

"Interpreter of meaning, Print as an," 14-18.

Invention, in book production, 33, 34.

Irving, Washington, book design in editions of his "Knickerbocker," 10, 11; unfortunate use of his "Sketch Book" as a school book, 68, 69.

Italic type, invention and use by Aldus, 20, 21.

Italy, annual book publication, 105.

JAPAN, annual book publication, 105.

Javal, Dr. Emile, his investigations of legibility, 120, 121, 123.

Jenson, Nicholas, beauty and grandeur in his work, 4; descendants of his types, 132; facsimile page of, frontispiece.

Johnson, Rossiter, his Little Classic editions described, 25, 26.

Johnson, Dr. Samuel, commends small books, 20, 22, 23; a favorite edition of his "Idler," 24; his "Prayers" in tribute typography, 136; on our knowledge of ancient Britain, 79.

Josephus, Flavius, book form inappropriate to, 50.

Justification, requirements of, 58, 59.

Justinian, facsimile page of his "Digestum novum," frontispiece.

KEATS, JOHN, folio inappropriate to, 50; inappropriate Forman edition of, 11; "On first looking into Chapman's Homer," 108, 109; small bulk of his work, 69.

Kelmscott Press, see Morris, William.

Kennerley type, commended, 132.

Kipling, Rudyard, on reading him, 143.

"Knickerbocker," Irving's, book design in editions of, 10, 11.

Knowledge, necessary to success in life, 30; obtainable in its fulness only through books, 30; progress possible only in, 29, 30.

Kuran, sources from which it was compiled, 86.

LAMB, CHARLES, on grace before reading, 77; on Hazlitt, 141.

Large-paper copies, condemned, 56, 131.

Latin literature, masterpieces of, 68, 69.

Leadership developed under stress, 163.

Leading, as affecting legibility, 120; as affecting spacing, 58, 59.

Leather, employment in binding, 52-54.

Le Gascon, binder, his work, 100.

Legend, of pictures, proper place of, 60.

Legibility, elements of the book as related to, 116-118; "Exceptions to the rule of legibility," 130, 131, 134-138; influence on, of paper, type, and ink, 5; "Types and eyes: The problem," 120-127, —— "Progress," 128-133.

Leland, Charles Godfrey, on forethought, 166.

Length of line, 117.

Lenox, James, mortified by a misprint, 156; patron of Henry Stevens, 38; "Recollections of," by Stevens, 38, footnote.

Le Sage, Alain Rene, his "Gil Blas," 143.

"Lest we forget the few great books," 104-114.

Letters, see Capital letters; Manuscript; Minuscules; Silent letters; Type.

Lewes, George Henry, a misprint in one of his works, 158.

Librarians, "Books as a librarian would like them," 44-48; a duty to their successors, 103; meeting of British, in 1882, 38.

Libraries, as affected by spelling reform, 150; development in the United States since 1875, 104; electrical batteries of power, 30; put to needless expense for big books, 36, for rebindings, 46; "The student and the library," 139-144.

Library Company of Philadelphia, size of library in 1875, 104.

Library hand, Bodoni's italic resembles, 130.

Library of Congress, size in 1875, 104.

Lightness, in books, deceptive, 93, 94.

Lincoln, Abraham, his greatness brought by responsibility, 163.

Lincoln cent, lettering on, 134.

Line, endings should not show too many hyphens, 59; normal length for legibility, 117.

Linnaeus, quoted, 33.

Linotype, gives a turned line, 153.

Literature, the book beautiful of service to, 62; its treasures, 63-78; print a contribution to, 15; type appropriate to, 136-138.

Little and Brown, publishers, their "British Poets" compared with Pickering's "Aldines," 24.

Little Classic editions, 20, 25, 26.

Littre, Emile, typography of his "Dictionnaire," 135.

Lloyd, Henry Demarest, on headlines, quoted, 132.

Locker-Lampson, Frederick, inappropriate edition of his "My Confidences," 12.

London Registrar General, misprint, 155.

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, book design appropriate to his "Works," 11; his "Michael Angelo," 87; his sonnets on Dante, 70; holiday edition of his "Skeleton in Armor," 137; "Life," appropriate edition of, 12; quoted, 68.

Lowell, James Russell, member of New England group of authors, 75.

MACAULAY, THOMAS BABINGTON, knew "Paradise Lost" by heart, 73.

McClellan, General George Brinton, his limitations, 163.

Malherbe, Francois, welcomes a misprint, 157.

Mammoth, picture of, a prehistoric book, 79.

Manuscript, chief difference from print, 14; distinctions in, 16; importance to bookmaking, 51; limitations of, 16; Ruskin on, 51; still used in private records, 15. See also Papyrus; Parchment.

Margin, size and proportions of, 56, 57.

Marriage service, misprint in, 154.

Material of the book, changed twice in two thousand years, 92.

Materials of writing, 86.

Mather, Cotton, list of errata in his "Magnalia," 160.

Mathews, William, as an author, 63; his memory of choice passages, 63; on reading ten pages a day, 108.

Maxim, Sir Hiram, quoted, 92.

"Meaning, Print as an interpreter of," 14-18.

Mearne, Samuel, binder, 100.

Memory, Erasmus on art of strengthening, 166, 167; value of a well-stored, 63.

"Men of the Time," famous misprint in, 153, 154.

Menage, Gilles, acknowledged his indebtedness to the Elzevirs, 22.

Mexican book, pre-Columbian, ornamented, 6; described, 85, 86; picture writing of, 81.

Michelangelo, his "Moses" as a product of genius, 65.

Milton, John, debt of Daniel Webster to, 110; gave metric hints by spelling, 18; Hazlitt on, 142; his greatness, 72, 73; his spelling, 149, 150; Lamb would say grace before reading, 77; a misprint in "Samson Agonistes," 159; on the deprivation caused by his blindness, 63, 64; a spelling reformer, 149.

Minuscules, legibility, 122-124, 126; of late origin, 118.

Misprints, "The perversities of type," 152-161.

Montaigne, "Journal of his travels," in three volumes, 12.

Morgan, Lloyd, cited, 87.

Morris, William, as printer, 33, 34; confesses faults of ignorance in book making, 50; his Kelmscott editions, "tribute typography," 137; on shape of dot of i, 61; on types, 5, 129, 130.

Mosher, Thomas Bird, his "tribute typography," 137.

Motteux, Peter Anthony, his translation of "Don Quixote," 144.

Moulton, Charles Wells, "Library of Literary Criticism," its attractive book design, 13.

NAMES, place of, in development of the alphabet, 81.

Near sight, 120, 130.

Necker, Jacques, student's blunder concerning, 154.

New England, its communities of readers, 28, 29; its group of authors, 75, 76.

New Humanistic type, commended, 138; special form of a, 123.

New York Mercantile Library, size in 1875, 104.

Newspapers, extraordinary development of speed and cheapness in, 14; legibility, 5, 117, 132, 133; opponents of spelling reform, 145; place in reading, 106.

Newton, Sir Isaac, quoted, 144.

Nickel, as a substitute for paper, 92, footnote.

Novels, in a favorite book size, 24; in illegible type, 130; on reading, 107; three-volume, 12; typical book of to-day, 35.

"Nuremberg Chronicle," a characteristic folio, 19.

OCULIST'S tests of legibility, 120.

Ormsby, John, his translation of "Don Quixote," 144.

Ornamentation, in bindings, 6, 53, 100, 101; in type, 121.

"Orthographic reform," 145-151.

Ossian, Hazlitt on, 141.

Owen, Robert, a famous misprint concerning, 153.

"Oxford Book of English Verse," thin-paper edition preferred, 95.

"Oxford English Dictionary," corrects a misprint, 158; its typography, 135.

Oxford India paper, 92, 94, 95; miniature editions on, 131, 132.

Oxford students cause a misprint in the marriage service, 154.

Oxford University Press, reward for misprints, 156.

PAGE, proportions of, 4, 42, 55-57.

Palm leaves, used for book of India, 85.

Pannartz and Sweynheym, grandeur in their work, 4.

Paper, best for the eye, 116, 120; buff tinted, for legibility, 5, 6; determines the expression of the book, 4, 5; introduced into Europe, 84; of the book beautiful, 54; of the Chinese book, 88-90; "Thick paper and thin," 92-96; three elements of, 5.

Papermaker, a spoiler of books, 40, 42.

Papyrus roll, and booklovers, 4; described, 82-84.

Parchment, origin, 83, 84; "Parchment bindings," 102, 103; parchment book and booklovers, 4.

Payne, Roger, binder, 100.

Peacock, Thomas Love, his novels in thick and thin paper, 94, 95.

Peel, Sir Robert, misprint concerning, 155.

Penmanship, see Manuscript.

Pergamum, origin of parchment in, 83, 84.

"Periodical, The," resembles a Chinese book, 88, 90.

"Personal power, A secret of," 162-167.

"Perversities of type," 152-161.

Philadelphia Mercantile Library, size in 1875, 104.

"Philobiblon," by Richard de Bury, significance of the title, 8.

Photogravures, in connection with type, 6.

Pickering, William, a disciple of Aldus, 23; his characteristic books, 23, 24, compared with Little and Brown's "British Poets," 24, their predecessors, contemporaries, and successors, 24; his "diamond classics" on large paper, 131, 132; method of book design, 41; publisher, 38.

Picture writing, 80, 81.

Pictures, earliest books were, 79-81. See also Illustrations.

Pillow, General Gideon Johnson, misprints concerning, 157.

Pindar, as characterized by Mrs. Browning, 68.

Plato, as characterized by Mrs. Browning, 68; contributor to Bible of humanity, 68; riches of, 68.

Pocket editions, 22, 23.

Poe, Edgar Allan, quoted, 28, 152, 158; small bulk of his poetry, 69.

Poetry, Hazlitt on, 141, 142; print as an interpreter of its meaning, 17, 18; type appropriate to, 137, 138.

Pope, Alexander, a ghost word referred to him, 158, 159; Hazlitt on, 142.

Possessions, distinguished from Property, 31, 32.

"Power, A secret of personal," 162-167.

Powers of leadership developed under stress, 163.

Pre-Columbian book, see Mexican.

Prehistoric background of the book, 79-81.

Press, errors of, 152-161.

Pressman, a spoiler of books, 40-42.

Presswork, requirements of, 58.

Prices, as affected by italic, 20, by the small books of the Elzevirs, 22; fancy, what they mean, 7; of choice books compared with those of other art objects, 49; of choice books not excessive, 7.

"Print as an interpreter of meaning," 14-18. See also Typography.

Printer, as affected by spelling reform, 150; a spoiler of books, 40, 41; what the librarian asks of him, 47, 48.

Printer's errors, 152-161.

Printing, added only speed and cheapness to book production, 14; distinctions to the eye in, 16-18; of Chinese books, 88; "Printing problems for science to solve," 115-119; would be benefited by contemporary calligraphy, 51. See also Typography.

Privilege of the reader, 63-78.

"Problems, Printing, for science to solve," 115-119.

Progress, possible only in the field of knowledge, 29, 30.

Proof, authors' additions in, 15.

Proofreader, requirements of, 58; a spoiler of books, 40, 41.

Property, distinguished from Possessions, 31, 32.

Proportions of the page, 4, 42, 55-57.

Prosody, see Poetry.

Public, value of reading to the, 28, 29.

Publication of books for 1913, 105.

Publisher, librarian's grievance against the, 45-47; a spoiler of books, 40, 41.

Punctuation, and legibility, 121; in poetry, 17-18.

Puritans, less modern than Horace, 69; a Puritan's devotion to Calvin, 166; Shakespeare best reading for, 72.

Putnam, George Haven, on the Elzevirs, 22.

RAPID reading, 14-17.

Rare books, relatively cheap, 49.

Readable print, see Legibility.

"Reader's high privilege," 63-78.

Reading, aid of print to, 14, 17; amount possible in a lifetime, 105; Erasmus on art of, 166; John Beattie Crozier on, 111, 112; "Lest we forget the few great books," 104-114; means intellectual effort, 74; of contemporaries, 76, 77; results of ten pages a day, 108; "The student and the library," 139-144; systematic, 74-76; true end and aim of, 78; value, to the public and to the individual, 28-32; when travelling, 22, 23.

Reading aloud, print as an aid to, 17, 18.

Rebindings, costly, unnecessary, 46.

Rebus, place in development of alphabet, 81.

Reference books, 135; effective typography of, 16, 17.

Reformed spelling, 145-151.

Registration, requirements of, 59.

Rembrandt, his drawing of the elephant, 80; his "School of Anatomy," as a product of genius, 65.

Reprinting of perishable records, 46.

Responsibility, a stimulus to greatness, 163.

"Respublicae Variae," published by the Elzevirs, described, 22, 23.

"Rhetoricorum ad C. Herennium Libri IIII," the Aldus edition of 1546 described, 21.

Roethlein, Barbara Elizabeth, on "The relative legibility of different faces of printing types," 124-127.

Rogers, Bruce, his Centaur type commended, 132.

Roll, see Papyrus.

Roman alphabet, see Alphabet.

Roman codex, see Codex.

Roman literature, masterpieces of, 68, 69.

Romance literatures, 144.

Romans, surpassed by moderns in knowledge, 30.

Royal octavo, pitfall of the book designer, 12, 13.

Ruskin, John, editions of his works contrasted, 13; on manuscript books, 51; on reading Sir Walter Scott, 109.

Russia, annual book publication, 105; illiterate communities of, 28, 29.

SANBORN, FRANKLIN BENJAMIN, his "Beacon Biography" of Longfellow, 75.

Sanford, Edmund Clark, on "The relative legibility of the small letters," 122-124.

Scaliger, Julius Caesar, his learning, 106.

Schiller, cited, 52.

School books, misfortune of treating classics as such, 68, 69; type in, 5, 117.

School children, increase of near sight among, 120.

School of typography, proposed by Henry Stevens, 40-43.

Science, "Printing problems for science to solve," 115-119.

Scott, Sir Walter, alterations in the proof-sheets of his "Waverley Novels," 15; a ghost word in his "Monastery," 158; Goethe on, 110; Ruskin on, 109.

"Secret of personal power," 162-167.

Sequoyah, his Cherokee syllabary, 146.

Serifs, necessary to prevent irradiation, 123; source of confusion in types, 123, 124.

Shakespeare, William, "Hamlet" preferred in youth, 111; Hazlitt on, 142; his "Apocrypha," on thin paper, 95; his character and greatness, 70-73; Lamb would say grace before reading, 77; "Lear" preferred in old age, 111; misprints in his works, 157; privilege of reading, 64, 71, 72; quoted, 9, 54; reading, 77; the spelling of his works, 149, 150; tribute of Blackmore to, 110.

Shelley, Percy Bysshe, an editor's error in his "Skylark," 157, 158; inappropriate Forman edition of, 11; read by young men, 111.

Shelton, Thomas, his translation of "Don Quixote," 144.

Sight, relation of the elements of the book to, 5, 6, 116-119; "Types and eyes: The problem," 120-127, —— "Progress," 128-133.

Sign language, 80.

Silent letters, cost to English world, 147.

Size, determines expression of the book, 4; "Favorite book sizes," 19-27; of books preferred by librarian, 47; of letters and legibility, 134, 135; question of an ideal size of type, 117; standardization of book sizes, 26, 27. See also Bigness; Thickness; Thinness.

Skeat, Walter William, on ghost words, 158.

Smirke, Robert, illustrator of Barlow's "Columbiad," 10.

Smollett, Tobias George, on reading him, 143.

Society of Printers, address under its auspices, 3, note.

Socrates, in a Bible of humanity, 68.

Sophocles, as characterized by Mrs. Browning, 67, 68.

Southey, Robert, a favorite edition of, 24.

Spacing, between words, 121; of letters in words, 120.

Spain, illiterate communities of, 28, 29.

Spanish, language, 144; spelling, 147.

Spectacles, a measure of civilization, 120.

Spedding, James, at Cambridge University, 139.

Spelling, Milton gave metric hints by, 18; "Orthographic reform," 145-151.

Spenser, Edmund, Hazlitt on, 142; his spelling, 149; Lamb would say grace before reading the "Fairy Queen," 77; Milton's spiritual kinship to, 72.

Standardization of book sizes, 26, 27.

Sterne, Laurence, a favorite edition of, 24.

Stevens, Henry, "A constructive critic of the book," 38-43; detects a misprint, 156; his "My English library," 39; his "Recollections of Mr. James Lenox," 38, footnote.

Stevenson, Robert Louis, on Hazlitt, 141.

Stoddard, Richard Henry, on Cervantes and Shakespeare, 70.

Storage of books, see Bigness, Thickness, Thinness.

Strassburg Cathedral, as a product of genius, 65.

"Student, The, and the Library," 139-144.

Study, art of, 166, 167.

Success, won by knowledge, 30.

Swedish spelling, 148.

Sweynheym and Pannartz, grandeur in their work, 4.

TASTE, see Esthetics.

Tauchnitz editions, compared with Little Classic editions, 26.

Tennyson, Alfred, and his brothers at Cambridge University, 139; inappropriate edition of his "Life," 11; a novel reader, 107.

Tests, of the utility of the book, 115; of type, 120-127.

Thackeray, William Makepeace, at Cambridge University, 139; on reading him, 143; quoted, 11; works in illegible print, 130.

Theocritus, as characterized by Mrs. Browning, 68.

Thickness, in books, esthetic effect of, 23, 25; "Thick paper and thin," 92-96.

Thinness, in books, esthetic effect of, 23; "Thick paper and thin," 92-96.

Thompson, Francis, indicated caesura by an asterisk, 18.

Thomson, James, Hazlitt on, 142.

Thoreau, Henry David, member of the New England group of authors, 75, 76.

Thou, Jacques Auguste de, binding made for, 100.

Title-page, problems of, 59.

Torrey, Joseph, on reading Dante, 109, 110.

Translations of "Don Quixote," 143, 144.

Tribute typography, 9-13, 136, 137.

Type, aims in its design, 5, 117, 118; Chinese, 80; contrast of, 16, 17; "Exceptions to the rule of legibility," 130, 131, 135-138; faults of German and French, 117; in relation to the book beautiful, 57-59, 61; page, 56, 57; "Perversities of type," 152-161; reform of, 118; "Types and eyes: The problem," 120-127, —— "Progress," 128-133. See also Italic; Page.

Typewriting, a form of print, 15.

Typography, primarily a reduction of cost, 115; school of, proposed by Henry Stevens, 40-43; tribute typography, 9-13, 136, 137; a triumph of, 16. See also Print.

UNITED STATES, annual book publication, 105; library development since 1875, 104.

Updike, Daniel Berkeley, his comic edition of Irving's "Knickerbocker," 10, 11; his specimen pages of the "Imitatio Christi," 136.

"VALUE of reading, to the public and to the individual," 28-32.

Values, two great classes, 31, 32.

Vergil, Dante's master, 69; did not write for children, 68; his Aeneid, 69; scanty punctuation in earliest manuscript of, 17.

Verse, see Poetry.

Vision, see Sight.

WARD, ARTEMUS, pseudonym, adopts a misprint, 157.

Webster, Daniel, debt to Milton, 110.

Webster, Noah, his "Collegiate Dictionary" on thin paper preferred, 95; his "Unabridged Dictionary" on large paper, 131.

Wendell, Barrett, on Barlow's "Columbiad," 10.

Wheatley, Henry Benjamin, on "Literary blunders," 156, 157.

Whitman, Walt, on the world's greatest books, 113, 114.

Whittier, John Greenleaf, member of New England group of authors, 75.

Whittingham, Charles, method of book design, 41; printer, 38.

"Who spoils our new English books?" by Henry Stevens, 38.

Wilberforce, Samuel, Bishop of Oxford, a famous misprint concerning, 153, 154.

Wordsworth, Dorothy, on favorite books, 3.

Wordsworth, William, a favorite edition of, 24; read by old men, 111.

World Almanac, commended, 130, 131.

Writing, see Authorship; Manuscript; Materials.

XENOPHON, contributor to a Bible of humanity, 68; did not write for children, 68.

Transcriber's Notes: Table of Contents: The chapter heading "The Value of Reading" is an abbreviation of the chapter heading on page 28. Left as is Page 31: Full stop added after "Was but a book" Page 62: techiness sic Page 86: Kuran and Kuran sic Page 108: Comma added after "daily" Page 157: Full stop added after "before him" Page 171: Ae in Aeschylus replaced with ae ligature to match text in book Page 178: Page numbers for "Exception to the rule of legibility" re-arranged into ascending order Page 183: ae in Respublicae Variae replaced with ae ligatures to match text in book Page 185: Page numbers for "Exception to the rule of legibility" re-arranged into ascending order Hyphenation has been standardised. One instance of ink-maker/ink maker retained.

THE END

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