The Battle of New Orleans
by Zachary F. Smith
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A graphic pen-picture of the chaotic and wretched condition of the English army after the crushing defeat of the eighth, and until its final return to the fleet, is given by Gleig in his "Narrative of the Campaigns." It will be read with all the more interest because it is the frank admission of a brave though prejudiced officer, giving an enemy's view of the great disaster that befell the British arms, in which he fully shared:

General Lambert prudently determined not to risk the safety of his army by another attempt upon works evidently so much beyond our strength. He considered that his chances of success were in every respect lessened by the late repulse. An extraordinary degree of confidence was given to the enemy, while our forces were greatly diminished in numbers. If again defeated, nothing could save our army from destruction; it could only now retreat in force. A retreat, therefore, was resolved upon while the measure appeared practicable, and toward that end all our future operations were directed.

One great obstacle existed; by what road were the troops to travel to regain the fleet? On landing, we had taken advantage of the bayou, and thus come within two miles of the cultivated country, in our barges. To return by the same route was impossible. In spite of our losses there were not enough boats to transport above one half of the army at one time. If we separated, the chances were that both divisions would be destroyed; for those embarked might be intercepted, and those left behind might be attacked by the whole American army. To obviate the difficulty, it required that we should build a passable road through the swamp, to Lake Borgne, some twenty miles away. The task was burthened with innumerable difficulties. There was no firm foundation on which to work, and no trees to assist in forming hurdles. All we could do was to bind together large quantities of swamp weeds and lay them across the quagmire. It was but the semblance of a road, without firmness and solidity.

To complete this road, bad as it was, occupied nine days, during which our army lay in camp, making no attempt to molest the enemy. The Americans, however, were not so inactive. A battery of six guns, mounted on the opposite bank, kept up a continued fire upon our men. The same mode of proceeding was adopted in front, and thus, night and day we were harassed by danger, against which there was no fortifying ourselves. Of the extreme unpleasantness of our situation, it is hardly possible to convey an adequate conception. We never closed our eyes in peace, for we were sure to be awaked before the lapse of many minutes, by the splash of a roundshot or shell in the mud beside us. Tents we had none, but lay some in open air, and some in huts of boards, or any material we could procure. From the moment of our landing, December 23d, not a man had undressed, except to bathe; many had worn the same shirt for weeks. Heavy rains now set in, with violent storms of thunder and lightning, and keen frosts at night. Thus we were wet all day, and nearly frozen at night. With our outposts there was constant skirmishing. Every day they were attacked by the Americans, and compelled to maintain their ground by dint of hard fighting. No one but those who belonged to this army can form a notion of the hardships it endured, and the fatigue it underwent.

Nor were these the only evils which tended to lessen our numbers. To our soldiers every inducement was held out by the enemy to desert. Printed papers, offering lands and money as the price of desertion, were thrown into the pickets, while individuals would persuade our sentinels to quit their stations. It could not be expected that bribes so tempting would always be refused. Many desertions began daily to take place, and ere long became so frequent, that the evil rose to be of a serious nature. In the course of a week, many men quitted their colors, and fled to the enemy.

Meanwhile, the wounded, except such as were too severely hurt to be removed, were embarked in the boats and sent off to the fleet. Next followed the baggage and stores, with the civil officers, commissaries, and purveyors; and last of all such of the light artillery as could be drawn without risk of discovery. But of the heavy artillery, no account was taken. It was determined to leave them behind, retaining their stations. By the 17th, no part of the forces was left in camp but the infantry. On the evening of the 18th, it also began the retreat. Trimming the fires, and arranging all in the order as if no change were to take place, regiment after regiment stole away, as soon as darkness concealed their motions, leaving the pickets to follow as a rear guard, with injunctions not to retire till daylight appeared. Profound silence was maintained; not a man opened his mouth, except to issue necessary orders in a whisper. Not a cough or any other noise was to be heard from the head to the rear of the column. Even the steps of the soldiers were planted with care, to prevent the slightest echo. Nor was this precaution unnecessary. In spite of every endeavor to the contrary, a rumor of our intention had reached the Americans; for we found them of late very watchful and prying.

While our route lay alongside the river, the march was agreeable enough, but as soon as we entered the marsh, all comfort was at an end. Our roadway, constructed of materials so slight, and resting on a foundation so infirm, was trodden to pieces by the first corps. Those who followed were compelled to flounder on the best way they could. By the time the rear of the column gained the morass, all trace of a way had disappeared. Not only were the reeds torn asunder and sunk by the pressure of those in front, but the bog itself was trodden into the consistency of mud. Every step sunk us to the knees, and sometimes higher. Near the ditches, we had the utmost difficulty in crossing at all. There being no light, except what the stars supplied, it was difficult to select our steps, or follow those who called to us that they were safe on the other side. At one of those ditches, I myself beheld an unfortunate wretch gradually sink until he totally disappeared. I saw him flounder, heard his cry for help, and ran forward with the intention of saving him; but before I had taken a second step, I myself sunk to my breast in the mire. How I kept from smothering is more than I can tell, for I felt no solid bottom under me, and sank slowly deeper and deeper, till the mud reached my arms. Instead of rescuing the poor soldier, I was forced to beg assistance for myself. A leathern canteen strap being thrown to me, I laid hold of it, and was dragged out, just as my fellow-sufferer was buried alive, and seen no more.

All night we continued our journey, toiling and struggling through this terrible quagmire; and in the morning reached the Fishermen's Huts, mentioned before as standing on the brink of Bayou Bienvenue, near Lake Borgne. The site is as complete a desert as the eye of man was ever pained by beholding. Not a tree or a bush grew near. As far as the eye could reach, an ocean of weeds covering and partially hiding the swamp presented itself, except on the side where a view of the Lake changed, without fertilizing, the prospect. Here we were ordered to halt; and perhaps I never rejoiced more sincerely at any order than at this. Wearied with my exertions, and oppressed with want of sleep, I threw myself on the chilly ground, without so much as pulling off my muddy garments; in an instant all my cares and troubles were forgotten. After many hours, I awoke from that sleep, cold and stiff, and creeping beside a miserable fire of weeds, devoured the last morsal of salt pork my wallet contained.

The whole army having come up, formed along the brink of the Lake; a line of outposts was planted, and the soldiers commanded to make themselves as comfortable as possible. But there was little comfort. Without tents or shelter of any kind, our bed was the morass, and our sole covering the clothes which had not quitted our backs for a month. Our fires, so necessary to a soldier's happiness, were composed solely of weeds, which blazed up and burned out like straw, imparting but little warmth. Above all, our provisions were expended, with no way to replenish in reach. Our sole dependence was the fleet, nearly one hundred miles away, at anchor. It was necessary to wait until our barges could make the trip there, and return. For two entire days, the only provisions issued to the troops were some crumbs of biscuit and a small allowance of rum. As for myself, being fond of hunting, I determined to fare better. I took a fire-lock and went in pursuit of wild ducks, of which there seemed plenty in the bog. I was fortunate enough to kill several, but they fell in the water, about twenty yards out. There was no other alternative. Pulling off my clothes, and breaking the thin ice, I waded out and got my game, and returned to shore, shivering like an aspen. As I neared the shore, my leg stuck fast in the mire, and in pulling it out my stocking came off, a loss that gave me great discomfort, until we went aboard the fleet. I request that I may not be sneered at when I record this loss of my stocking as one of the disastrous consequences of this ill-fated expedition.

As the boats returned, regiment after regiment set sail for the fleet. But, the wind being foul, many days elapsed before all could be got off. By the end of January, we were all once more on board our former ships. But our return was far from triumphant. We, who only seven weeks ago had set out in the surest confidence of glory, and I may add, of emolument, were brought back dispirited and dejected. Our ranks were woefully thinned, our chiefs slain, our clothing tattered and filthy, and our discipline in some degree injured. A gloomy silence reigned throughout the armament, except when it was broken by the voice of lamentation over fallen friends. The interior of each ship presented a scene well calculated to prove the misadventures of human hope and human prudence. On reaching the fleet, we found that a splendid regiment, the 40th Foot, of one thousand men, had just arrived to reinforce us, ignorant of the fatal issue of our attack. But the coming of thrice their number could not recover what was lost, or recall the fateful past. There was no welcome, nor rejoicing; so great was the despondency that no attention was given to the event. A sullen indifference as to what might happen next seemed to have succeeded all our wonted curiosity, and confidence of success in every undertaking.

On the 4th of February, the fleet weighed anchor and set sail, though detained by adverse winds near the shore of Cat Island until the 7th, when it put to sea. Our course, towards the east, led to the conjecture that we were steering towards Mobile. Nor was it long before we came in sight of the bay which bears that name.


So great and so repeated had been the reverses of the British arms, that an opportunity to retrieve lost prestige, even in a small degree, could not well be permitted to pass unimproved. The great flotilla of sixty vessels, with the fragments of the shattered army, which set sail with flags and pennants gayly flying in the breeze from Negril Bay, Jamaica, but a little over two months ago, was still a power upon the sea, at a safe distance from Jackson's triumphant army. The little outpost of a fort that guarded Mobile Bay, which had inflicted a heavy loss on, and beaten off, a squadron of the enemy's ships a few months before, lay in their path homeward, and it was determined to invest it, and to overwhelm it with numbers. On the sixth of February, the great armament appeared in sight of Dauphin Island. On the seventh, twenty-five ships anchored in a crescent position extending from the island toward Mobile Point, where stood the fort. On the morning of the eighth, the enemy landed five thousand troops opposite the line of ships at anchor, investing the fort by sea and land. The fortification was erected for defense mainly on the sea side, to render it formidable to ships attempting to enter the pass into Mobile Bay. On the land side was a sandy plain, rendering it incapable of defense against a superior force protected by extensive siege works. The enemy mounted a number of batteries behind parapets and epaulements, which directed their fire upon the weakest parts of the defense. The fort was gallantly defended by a garrison of three hundred and fifty men, under command of Colonel William Lawrence. Some losses were inflicted on the besiegers as they continued to push their works to within short musket-range of the fort. But the heavy cannonading and fire from small-arms encircled the besieged from every direction, and further defense became hopeless. Terms of surrender were agreed to on the eleventh, and on the twelfth the garrison marched out with the honors of war, yielding possession to the enemy.


The small victory at Mobile Bay was barren of any gain to the British cause; for, on the fourteenth, two days after the surrender, intelligence came from England to General Lambert that articles of peace had been signed by the plenipotentiaries of the belligerent nations, in session at Ghent. Gleig remarks, in his "Narrative": "With the reduction of this trifling work ended all hostilities in this quarter of America; for the army had scarcely reassembled, when intelligence arrived from England of peace. The news reached us on the fourteenth, and I shall not deny that it was received with much satisfaction."

On the nineteenth, General Jackson issued an address from headquarters, from which we reproduce as follows: "The flag-vessel, which was sent to the enemy's fleet at Mobile, has returned, and brings with it intelligence, extracted from a London paper, that on the twenty-fourth of December articles of peace were signed by the commissioners of the two nations."

Thus, on the day after the first landing of the British army on Louisiana soil, and after the first battle was fought at night, terms of peace were agreed on. It was fifteen days after that auspicious event until the battles on the eighth occurred, causing such disaster and loss of valuable lives to the English army and nation; and fifty-two days from the signing of articles until a message of the good news was received by the commander-in-chief of the British forces. There was no alternative but to await the slow passage of the ship across the wide Atlantic, with sails set to breeze and calm, and sometimes tossed and delayed by adverse storm. To-day, the news of such an event would be flashed over the great cables under the sea and the network of electric wires throughout the land, in the twinkling of an eye after its occurrence. Such an advantage at the time would have been worth to England the entire cost of the telegraph system of the world.


On the morning of the twenty-eighth of December, just as the British began their attack on the American line, General Jackson issued an order forcibly forbidding the meeting of the Legislature in session, and for taking possession of the legislative halls. The proceeding created great excitement in the civil and military circles of the city, especially among the members of the body and their immediate friends. The author is indebted to Mr. William Beer, of the Howard Library of New Orleans, for the loan of a copy of a rare little book entitled "Report of the Committee of Inquiry on the Military Measures Employed Against the Legislature of the State of Louisiana, the 28th of December, 1814." In the full report of the testimony taken by the committee, we have a history of the causes which led to this open rupture between the commander-in-chief and the General Assembly of Louisiana, and of its incidents and issues.

Since the landing of the British army on the twenty-third, there were afloat in nebulous form some rumors of disaffection toward the American military occupation of Louisiana, among an element of the population unfriendly to the sovereignty of the United States over the territory since its purchase from Napoleon. Up to the time of the military occupation under Jackson, this hostile feeling seemed to display its temper and policies mainly in matters of civil procedure. There was very naturally a jealous opposition on the part of many leading citizens, of French and Spanish descent, of whom the population west of the Mississippi was almost entirely made up, against the annexation of the territory east of that river as part of Louisiana, on equal terms of citizenship and co-sovereignty. This east territory, they felt, had been rudely seized and possessed by the United States, against the claim and protest of Spain. It was being settled by American people, who in time would help to Americanize the country, and to lessen the power and control of the former creole domination. The virtues of a patriotic love of their native countries yet lingered in the bosoms of these citizens—a patriotic love which, when finally transferred to the new government they were under, burned as brightly for the new sovereignty as for the old.

Captain Abner L. Duncan, aid to Jackson, testified before the committee as follows:

On the 28th, Colonel Declouet (of General Morgan's command) coming in haste from the city, joined this respondent and begged him to inform General Jackson that a plan was on foot among several members of the Legislature for the surrender of the country to the enemy. Colonel Declouet named in confidence to myself, to Generals Jackson and Morgan, and to Major Robinson, several members as persons determined on making the attempt. He added, that he heard one or more members say, that Jackson was carrying on a Russian war (alluding to the burning of Moscow), and that it was best to save private property by a timely surrender; that he, Colonel Declouet, had been invited to join in the measure. On this respondent making the communication to General Jackson, the order he received was: "Tell Governor Claiborne to prevent this, and to blow them up if they attempt it!"

Colonel Declouet told me the plan had been first disclosed to him by the Speaker of the House, Mr. Guichard. He said in presence of General Jackson and Mr. Daresac, that many other influential men were concerned in it, and that they had held several night or secret meetings on the subject. He gave the names of Mr. John Blanque and Mr. Marigny, and generally all those voting with Mr. Blanque in the House. He stated that, as an inducement offered to unite in the plan, he was informed by Mr. Guichard that General Jackson would burn and destroy everything before him sooner than surrender the country, and that the English would respect private property. I understood also, from some members of the House, Mr. Harper and Mr. Fickland among them, and in the Senate from General Morgan and Mr. Hireart, that an attempt would be made to dismember the State. I also understood from other members that they would consider it an act of violence; and would resist it by violence.

Colonel Declouet was the chief informant at headquarters; but rumors had been rife for several days of disloyal utterances and of mysterious proceedings, which caused uneasiness to the civil and military authorities, and especially to Governor Claiborne, who had made known his apprehensions of trouble from the disaffected element, warning General Jackson of the dangers possible from this quarter. The Legislature was to convene on the twenty-eighth; and it was intimated that the overture for a surrender might be resolved upon that day. Such a possible action, in the very crisis of battle, could be but an attempt to marplot the military plans of the commander-in-chief, and to marshal an enemy in the rear. The information brought in so abruptly on that morning by Colonel Declouet made a profound impression on the mind of General Jackson. The enemy had already opened the battle of the twenty-eighth of December, with the forward movement of his columns and under the heavy fire of his batteries.

In the excitement of the moment, Jackson gave the verbal order to his aid, Captain Duncan, to be delivered at once to Governor Claiborne for immediate execution. This order, as rendered by Captain Duncan, directed the Governor to summarily close the halls of the Legislature, and to place a guard at the doors to prevent a meeting of the body until further orders. Duncan testified that the General put in emphasis the words: "Tell Governor Claiborne to prevent this, and to blow them up if they attempt it!"

The order was executed. The Governor commissioned General J.B. Labitat, of the Louisiana troops, to enforce it; he placed a guard of soldiers at the doors of the building, and forbade entrance to the members on that day. Captain Duncan had put spurs to his horse and started on a lope to the city with the order. On the way he met Colonel Fortier, an aid to the Governor, who consented to promptly deliver the order, permitting Duncan to return. In the proceedings of the committee, Honorable Levi Wells, member of the House of Representatives from Rapides Parish, testified that on the twenty-eighth, under an order of General Jackson, an armed guard was placed at the doors of the legislative halls in the city of New Orleans, which was to hinder the members from assembling; "and even to fire on them, should they dare to persist in their design; and that the life of a representative of the people, and a member of the Body, was exposed to the greatest danger; that a sentinel, to hinder him from repairing to his post, presented his bayonet and threatened to run him through with it, unless he retired, adding to this outrage the most insulting tone."

Through the mediation of friendly counsel the views of both the civil and military chiefs were modified. The order was revoked within twenty-four hours, and the guards withdrawn; on the twenty-ninth, the Legislature was permitted to convene. In the conclusion, the committee exonerated Speaker Guichard and other members of the Legislature referred to as under suspicion, and severely censured Colonel Declouet and Captain Duncan as the indiscreet authors of all the trouble. The measures taken by General Jackson and Governor Claiborne were effectual; while the report of the committee was evidently drawn to modify and explain the imputed indiscretions of some of their fellow-members who had been compromised. The procedure did not include all the legislators; for some of these had volunteered their services, shouldered their muskets, and gone to the front of battle.

A feeling of keen resentment toward General Jackson and some officers involved in this affair was nursed long after by these legislators. After peace was assured and hostilities at an end, the Legislature voted a resolution of thanks for valiant services in defense of Louisiana to the officers and soldiers from the States of Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi, with the request to the Governor that he should convey the sense of this resolution in appropriate terms in a letter each to the officers in command of these troops, respectively. The resolution was as follows:

Resolved, That the thanks of the General Assembly be presented, in the name of the State, to our brave brother soldiers from Tennessee, Kentucky, and the Mississippi Territory, and their gallant leaders, Generals Coffee, Carroll, Thomas, Adair, and Colonel Hinds, for the brilliant share they have had in the defense of this country and the happy harmony they have maintained with the inhabitants and militia of the State.

MAGLOIRE GUICHARD, Speaker of the House of Representatives.

FULWAR SKIPWORTH, President of Senate.

Approved, February 2d, 1815.

WM. C. CLAIBORNE, Governor of State.

The great chieftain could well afford to pass the slight in silence, hailed as he was by the acclamations of the multitude—the deliverer of the country, and the hero of the nation!

A similar resolution of thanks was voted to the officers and troops of Louisiana, who had so patriotically sprung to arms on the invasion of the enemy, and who had so gallantly fought in the several battles of the campaign. In this resolution separate mention was made of each of the officers of the State troops and their several commands, reciting the meritorious services they had rendered, in terms of special praise, making exceptions of certain officers who had incurred the displeasure of some of the honorable legislators.

Under the first resolution, letters were addressed each to Generals Coffee and Carroll, of Tennessee, to Major Hinds, of Mississippi, and to Generals Thomas and Adair, of Kentucky. As these letters are of similar tenor, we quote only the correspondence with General Adair:

NEW ORLEANS, February 25th, 1815.

Sir: To a soldier who has done his duty in all the conflicts in which his country has been involved, from the War of Independence to the present moment, it must be matter of great exultation to notice the valor and firmness of the children of his old friends; to be convinced that they are the true descendants of the old stock. That the young men of your brigade should have looked up to you in the hour of battle, as their guide and their shield, is only a continuation of that confidence which their fathers had in a chief whose arm had so often, and so successfully, been raised against the foe. The enclosed Resolution of the General Assembly of Louisiana will show you the high sense which is entertained in this State of your services and of those of your brothers in arms. Be towards them the vehicle of our sentiments, and receive for yourself the assurances of my respect and best wishes.

WM. C.C. CLAIBORNE, Governor of Louisiana.

To General John Adair.

The response of General Adair:


Sir: I have the honor of acknowledging the receipt of Your Excellency's note, inclosing a Resolution of the Legislature of Louisiana, generously awarding the thanks of the State to the militia from her sister States, who aided in the late successful struggle to expel a powerful invading enemy from her shores.

To a proud American, citizen or soldier, the consciousness of having faithfully discharged his duty to his country must ever be his highest and most lasting consolation. But when to this is added the approbation, the gratitude of the wisest, the most respectable part of the community, with whom and under whose eye it has been his fortune to act, it will ever be esteemed, not only the highest reward for his services, but the most powerful incentive to his future good conduct.

Accept, sir, for the Legislature, my warmest acknowledgments for the honorable mention they have made of the corps to which I belong, and for yourself the esteem and respect so justly due from me, for your polite and highly interesting note of communication; and my best wishes for your health and happiness.



A member of the Legislature, Mr. Loillier, severely censured the commander-in-chief for continuing New Orleans and vicinity under martial law after the defeat and embarkation of the British army, and for his arbitrary course in sending a body of creole troops to a remote camp near Baton Rouge, in response to their petition for a discharge. Jackson ordered his arrest. Loillier applied to Judge Hall, of the United States District Court, for a writ of habeas corpus, which was promptly granted by the court. General Jackson summarily ordered the arrest of Judge Hall also; and that he and the assemblyman both be deported beyond the military lines, as persons liable to incite insubordination and mutiny within the martial jurisdiction. Intelligence of the treaty of peace at Ghent soon followed, and martial law once again yielded to civil authority.

Judge Hall, resenting what he deemed a great indignity upon the court, issued an order, summoning Jackson to appear before him to answer a grave charge of contempt. Jackson's attorney attempted to plead in his defense, but the judge silenced him, and set the hearing a week after. On the thirty-first of March, Jackson appeared in court in person, but refused to be interrogated. As his defense had been denied, he announced that he was there only to receive the sentence of the court. Judge Hall then imposed a fine of one thousand dollars, which sum the veteran offender drew from his pocket and handed in to the court.

These proceedings were attended with profound excitement throughout the city and community. The hero of the day had a determined following present in crowds at and near the court-room; and among these were the Baratarian contingent, with their leaders, and others as desperate as these. But the great commander had set the example of implicit obedience to the law, and no disrespect to the court was shown. But as the General sought to retire from the scene, the enthusiasm of the crowds overleaped all bounds of propriety. With shouts and roars of applause the devoted people lifted him in their arms and upon their shoulders, and bore him in triumph through the streets of the city to his headquarters, despite the chagrin and helpless protestations of the victim of their admiration. Tall and gaunt, and angular in person, with his long, spare limbs dangling helplessly about him, and rocked and swayed by the movement of the masses under him, the great warrior was never in all his life before in a position more awkward and undignified. The master of men and emergencies was unthroned for one time in life.

The money to pay the fine was proffered over and over again to reimburse him by ardent friends, but Jackson would listen to no terms of payment of the fine, except out of his own purse. He alone had committed the offense—if there was an offense—and he alone would assume to pay the penalty. It was not until 1844, one year before his death, that Congress passed an act to refund the principal and interest, which amounted then to twenty-seven hundred dollars. In advocacy of this bill Stephen A. Douglas, then Senator from Illinois, made his maiden speech upon the floor of the Senate of the United States.


There are evidences that the English Government had revived an old dream of conquest and expansion, by which she might once again establish dominion west of the Alleghany Mountains, by the capture of New Orleans, the key to the lower Mississippi Valley. It is a well-known fact in history that that government refused to recognize the legitimacy of the sale and transfer of the Territory of Louisiana by Napoleon to the United States. She had looked upon the transaction with a covetous and jealous eye, for she had nursed the hope some day of adding to her own vast possessions, by conquest or purchase, not only the domain of Louisiana, but that of Florida also. Had it not been that she was engrossed with her military and naval forces in the turbulent wars in Europe, during the ascendant period of Napoleon, the British Government would most probably have employed her armies and navies mainly in the accomplishment of these aims of territorial aggrandizement. Her invasion of the Northwest territory from Canada, at the opening of the War of 1812-15, which so disastrously ended with the destruction of the British fleet by Commodore Perry on Lake Erie, and the annihilation of the British army by General Harrison at the battle of the Thames, was but an entering wedge to her deep designs. After the fall of Napoleon and the pacification of Europe relieved her armies and navies of further service on that side of the ocean, she, in her pride and insolence, believed that she would be invincible in America. Her cherished dream might now at last be realized by the conquest and permanent possession of Louisiana. We have mentioned the significant fact that overtures for peaceful negotiations had been mutually arranged as early as January, 1814, and commissioners soon after appointed to meet at Ghent. When the capitulation at Paris and the exile of Napoleon to Elba occurred within a few brief months, repeated excuses for the delay of negotiations by the British envoys were made. The United States wanted peace on equitable terms, for she had nothing to gain by continuing the war. England dallied and delayed; meanwhile marshaling her military and naval forces for a final crushing blow on her American foe. When articles of peace were signed on the twenty-fourth of December, the British Government knew that information of the event would not reach the belligerents in the Gulf of Mexico until some time in February. But His Majesty, the King of England, and his councilors, confidently believed, as did the officers in command of the English army and navy in this expedition, that the victorious invaders would eat their Christmas dinner in the subjugated city of New Orleans, and there to stay.

Gleig, an educated officer with the army of invasion, who became the chief English historian of the campaign, in his "Narrative," has to say:

The primary cause of our defeat may be traced to a source more distant than I have mentioned; I mean to the disclosure of our designs to the enemy. How this occurred, I shall not take upon me to declare; though several rumors bearing at least the guise of probability have been circulated. The attack on New Orleans was professedly a secret expedition, so secret indeed that it was not communicated to the inferior officers and soldiers in the armament until immediately previous to our quitting Jamaica. To the Americans, however, it appears to have been long known before. And hence it was that, instead of taking them unawares, we found them fully prepared for our reception. That our failure is to be lamented no one will deny, since the conquest of New Orleans would have been, beyond all comparison, the most valuable acquisition that could be made to the British dominion throughout the whole Western hemisphere. In possession of that post, we should have kept the entire Southern trade of the United States in check, and furnished means of commerce to our own merchants, of incalculable value.

On the 29th of August, 1814, Colonel Edward Nichols, in command of the land forces quartered in the Spanish capital of Pensacola, issued a proclamation, from which we quote:

Natives of Louisiana! On you the first call is made to assist in liberating from a faithless, imbecile government, your paternal soil. Spaniards, Frenchmen, Italians, and British; whether settled, or residing for a time in Louisiana, on you also, I call to aid me in this just cause. The American usurpation in this country must be abolished, and the lawful owners of the soil put in possession. I am at the head of a large body of Indians, well armed, disciplined, and commanded by British officers, a good train of artillery with every requisite, seconded by the powerful aid of a numerous squadron of ships. Be assured, your property, your laws, the tranquility and peace of your country, will be guaranteed to you. Rest assured that these brave Indians only burn with an ardent desire of satisfaction for the wrongs they have suffered from the Americans, to join you in liberating the southern province from their yoke, and drive them into the limits formerly prescribed by my sovereign. The Indians have pledged themselves not to injure the persons or properties of any but enemies to their Spanish or English fathers. A flag, Spanish, French, or British, over any door, will be a certain protection.

Inhabitants of Kentucky! You have too long borne with grievous impositions. The whole brunt of the war has fallen on your brave sons; be imposed on no longer; but either range yourselves under the standard of your forefathers, or observe a strict neutrality. If you comply, whatever provisions you send down will be paid for in dollars, and the safety of the persons bringing it, as well as the free navigation of the Mississippi, will be guaranteed to you.

Men of Kentucky! Let me call to your minds the conduct of those factions which hurried you into this civil, unjust, and unnatural war, at a time when Great Britain was straining every nerve in defense of her own, and the liberties of the world. Europe is now happy and free, and now hastens justly to avenge an unprovoked insult. Accept of my offers; everything I have promised, I guarantee to you, on the sacred honor of a British officer.

We might repeat such evidences of the purposes and plans of the expedition to Louisiana. But we will close the subject with the impressions of General Jackson himself.

In a contribution to the Philadelphia Times, of the 1st of November, 1898, Colonel A.C. Buell is authority for the following:

"It was related to me," says Colonel Buell, "by the late Governor William Allen, of Ohio, when, as correspondent of the Missouri Republican, I visited the venerable statesman at his home near Chillicothe, in 1875. After an interview on the current political situation, Governor Allen became reminiscent. A scrap-book beats the best of memories in the world; so I will quote from my scrap-book the exact text of this reminiscence. The Governor said:

"'Shortly after Arkansas was admitted into the Union, in 1836, I, being a member of Congress, then called at the White House. General Jackson—he always preferred to be called General, rather than Mr. President—invited me to lunch with him. No sooner were we seated, than he said: Mr. Allen, let us take a little drink to the new star in the flag;—Arkansas! This ceremony being duly observed, the General continued: Allen, if there had been disaster, instead of victory, at New Orleans, there would never have been a State of Arkansas.

"'This, of course, interested me; and I asked: Why do you say that, General?

"'Then he answered that: If Pakenham had taken New Orleans, the British would have claimed and held the whole of Louisiana Purchase.

"'But, I said, you know, General Jackson, that the Treaty of Ghent, which had been signed fifteen days before the decisive battle, provided for the restoration of all territory, places and possessions, taken by either nation from the other, during the war, with certain unimportant exceptions.

"'Yes, of course, Jackson replied, but the minutes of the conference at Ghent, as kept by Mr. Gallatin, represent the British commissioners as declaring in exact words: "We do not admit Bonaparte's construction of the law of nations; we can not accept it in relation to any subject-matter before us."

"'At that moment, pursued General Jackson, none of our commissioners knew what the real meaning of those words was. When they were uttered the British commissioners knew that Pakenham's expedition had been decided on; our commissioners did not know it. Now, since I have been Chief Magistrate, I have learned, from diplomatic sources of the most unquestionable authority, that the British ministry did not intend the Treaty of Ghent to apply to the Louisiana Purchase at all. The whole corporation of them,—Pitt, the Duke of Portland, Grenville, Perceval, Lord Liverpool, and Castlereagh, denied in toto the legal right of Napoleon to sell Louisiana to us. They held, therefore, that we had no right to that Territory. So you see, Allen, that the words of Mr. Gouldburn, on behalf of the British commissioners, which I have quoted to you from Albert Gallatin's minutes of the conference, had a far deeper significance than our commissioners could penetrate. These words were meant to lay the foundation for a claim on the Louisiana Purchase, entirely external to the provisions of the Treaty of Ghent. And in that way, the British government was signing a treaty with one hand in front, whilst the other hand, behind its back, was dispatching Pakenham's army to seize the fairest of our possessions.

"'You can also see, my dear Allen, said the old General, waxing warmer, you can also see what an awful mess such a situation would have been, if the British programme had been carried out in full. But Providence willed otherwise. All the tangled web that the cunning of English diplomacy could weave around our unsuspecting commissioners at Ghent was torn to pieces, and soaked with British blood, in half an hour, at New Orleans, by the never-missing rifles of my Tennessee and Kentucky pioneers; and that ended it. British diplomacy could do wonders; but it could not provide against such a contingency as that. Now, Allen, you have the whole story; and know why Arkansas was saved to the Union.'"


During the war of 1812-15, the officials of the English Government, civil and military, distinguished themselves by their haughty arrogance and insulting tone of superiority toward the American people; and were, with revengeful malice, guilty of vandalism, spoliations, and cruelties, which were a disgrace to civilization, not to speak of the massacres and butcheries of thousands of women and children by the savage Indians, whom they employed and paid to commit these crimes. Andrew Jackson soon put an end to these English barbarisms wherever he commanded the American armies. An incident, illustrative of his summary methods of dealing with the insolence of his enemies in authority, occurred at Pensacola. The English fleet and army had come in and quartered there in the Spanish capital, with the approval and aid of the Spanish governor, though Spain was at peace with the United States. The British assured him that they would soon be in possession of Louisiana and the coast country, and would fully protect the Spaniard as an ally and friend. When Jackson marched his army to Pensacola, and sent in a message to the governor to expel the British soldiers from the city and order their fleet out of the harbor, the reply of the Spaniard was truckling to the English in tone and evasive and insolent toward the American officer in command. General Jackson replied in the following language:

Your Excellency has been candid enough to admit your having supplied the Indians with arms. In addition to this, I have learned that a British flag has been seen flying on one of your forts. All this is done while you are pretending to be neutral. You can not be surprised then; but on the contrary will provide a fort in your town for my soldiers and Indians, should I take it into my head to pay you a visit. In future, I beg you to withhold your insulting charges against my government, for one more inclined to listen to slander than I am; nor consider me any more as a diplomatic character, unless so proclaimed to you from the mouths of my cannon.

The old hero meant all he said; for he marched upon the town, forced a surrender, sent the British flying to their ships for safety, and compelled the fleet to put to sea.


No event in the modern history of her military operations brought a deeper disappointment and a keener sense of humiliation to the English Government, and to the nation, than did the disastrous failure of this expedition, fitted out in haughty pride for the invasion and conquest of Louisiana. The true story of the campaign and battles was in the main suppressed by the Tory press, in the interest of the reigning dynasty and to save the pride and prestige of a really great and imperial people. A coincidence occurred to aid in diverting the mind of the public from the contemplation of the deplorable event. On the 23d of February, 1815, news of the defeat at New Orleans reached London. On the same day arrived the intelligence of the escape of Napoleon from Elba, and of his landing on the shores of France. Public attention was diverted by the new sensation. The government press fostered the illusion, and the horrors of New Orleans were not so fully known or felt.

William Cobbett, the noted Liberal essayist and author, of England, wrote of the event: "And this was all the people of the duped nation ever heard of the matter. Bonaparte had landed from Elba, and the battle of Waterloo soon succeeded. Both the Government and the people were glad to forget all about this unmerciful beating in America. This battle of New Orleans broke the heart of European despotism. The man who won it did, in that one act, more for the good and the honor of the human race than ever was done by any other man."

The author, discussing the incidents and issues of this remarkable campaign, in the light of the vast superiority in both military and naval forces of the British over the Americans, their more thorough equipment, and their veteran discipline under the best-trained officers in the world, put the inquiry: "How can we account for the repeated reverses, and the final over-whelming defeat and expulsion from the country, of such a vast and formidable armament by an inferior body of raw recruits, suddenly improvised for defense from the militia of the country, and but poorly armed and equipped?" "Providence!" was the reply; nothing less than Providence could have baffled and beaten such a powerful foe, bent on conquest and spoliation for a wicked purpose, with a wicked spirit, and in a wicked cause. England's boastful pride and intolerant and cruel insolence toward her American kindred was humbled at last. The God of battle had once again in time punished a strong nation for its stubborn crimes, and given victory to the oppressed. Providence was with Jackson and his militia!


Pakenham died the death of the brave soldier, the heroic Briton, and the beloved commander. His wounds were mortal, and he was at once borne back to headquarters unconscious and dying. No last words came down to us through the grief-stricken aids who ministered to him in his last hour. The British accounts of his wounding and death-scenes are conflicting and unsatisfactory. Judge Walker, in his work, "Jackson and New Orleans," after much research, says that Pakenham was wounded first while attempting to rally the Forty-fourth Regiment, whose chief officer, Colonel Mullins, had failed to lead it to a second attack, after the first repulse by the Tennessee and Kentucky infantry. A musket-ball broke his right arm, and another killed his horse. His aid, Captain McDougall, assisted him to mount his own horse, a creole pony, and led him forward by the bridle-rein, the General's wounded arm hanging helpless at his side. Pakenham continued in front, and to encourage his men. As the Ninety-third Highlanders came up, he raised his hat in his left hand, waved it in the air with enthusiasm, and shouted:

"Hurrah! Hurrah! brave Highlanders!"

A discharge of grape-shot almost annihilated the group. One shot passed through the General's thigh, and at the same time through the body of the pony, and both went down, never to rise again. As the aid raised him once again in his arms, the chief received a third and fatal wound in the groin. He was borne back then, near to his headquarters, and placed under a large oak tree, where, beyond the surgeon's skill, he shortly breathed his last.


From English authorities we learn that there were in the English army, under Pakenham, regiments that had won laurels at Martinique, Badajoz, Salamanca, Vittoria, the Pyrenees, and Toulouse. The English chronicler, Cooke, says of some of these veterans, who touched, on their way to America from the coasts of France, the shore of Old England for a few days, that "scraps from our colors, or other little souvenirs, were craved for with outstretched hands, to find a resting place in the fair bosoms of the ladies of Devonshire."

Others again were but recently transported from the fiery ordeals of Corunna, Busaco, and Ciudad Rodrigo, says the same author. England never sent forth from her borders a braver or better-disciplined body of soldiers, as was proven in every trial of campaign and battle of the invasion of Louisiana. No other troops in the world could have behaved with more sturdy gallantry or fought with superior courage. Their defeat was destiny. Providence and General Jackson did it!


Andrew Jackson was born in the Waxhaw settlement on the 15th of March, 1767, so near the border of North and South Carolina as to leave it a question of contention as to which State may claim the honor of his nativity. His father, Andrew Jackson, came over from Carrickfergus, on the north coast of Ireland, in 1765. His mother was Elizabeth Hutchinson. The father died before the birth of Andrew. His birthplace was a rude log cabin of the border. His education was limited to the elementary studies of the country schools of his day. At the age of fourteen he entered the colonial army, and, young as he was, displayed the same spirit of patriotic courage and indomitable will that made him famous. Two elder brothers had entered the army before him, and both gave their lives a sacrifice to the cause of liberty. The mother died soon, of grief and the hardships of war. Young Andrew was taken prisoner, and roughly treated by his captors. He was nearly starved in prison at Camden. While thus confined, an English officer insolently ordered him one day to black his boots. Jackson indignantly refused, for which offense the brutal officer beat him over his head with his sword, inflicting injuries which caused suffering in after life. This incident is related to have greatly intensified Jackson's hatred of the English throughout his life. An orphan, and alone in the world, when the War of the Revolution was over he was apprenticed to learn the saddler's trade. At eighteen he began the study of law, in the office of McCoy, in Salisbury.

In 1788, Jackson was appointed public prosecutor for western North Carolina, now Tennessee. He removed and located at Nashville, and very soon was engaged in an active and remunerative practice. In 1796, he sat as a delegate in the convention at Knoxville, to frame a constitution for Tennessee, admitted into the Union as a State in that year. He was the first representative in Congress of the new State. But one year afterward, he was elected a senator of the United States Congress. In 1798, he resigned his seat in the Senate to accept an appointment as judge of the Supreme Court of his State, which office he held for six years. He engaged repeatedly in personal rencounters and duels, and in the latter received wounds that caused him great physical suffering during life.

Since 1801, he had been commander of the Tennessee militia. On the declaration of war against England, Jackson offered his services, with twenty-five hundred troops, to the Government for the defense of the country. He was ordered to Natchez with two thousand men to operate against any movement of the enemy on New Orleans. No enemy appearing on the coast, he was ordered by Secretary Armstrong, of the War Department, to disband his army. This foolish order Jackson disobeyed, and very properly led his men back to Tennessee before dismissing them. His famous campaign against the great Creek nation, in 1814, and his repeated victories over these savage allies of England, breaking their power and compelling peace; his Gulf Coast campaign and battles around New Orleans, crushing the British army and driving it from the country; his successful career as President of the United States, are well known in the history of our nation, and distinguish him as one of the ablest and most forceful characters our country has ever produced. He died at the Hermitage, full of honors and renown, on the 8th of June, 1845, having lived a patriot citizen, an able military chieftain, and a great leader in the civic affairs of State and nation.


Fortunate was it for Kentucky and for the nation that Isaac Shelby directed the military affairs of the Commonwealth during the period of the second war with England. This famous pioneer of the famous pioneers of Kentucky was born in Maryland, on the 11th of December, 1750, near Hagerstown. Early in life he was employed as a land surveyor. On the threatened invasion of Virginia by the federated army of the Northwest tribes under the celebrated chief, Cornstalk, he was lieutenant of a company in the command of his father, General Evan Shelby, and gained distinction for gallant services in the great victory won at Point Pleasant on the 10th of October, 1774, which forced the Indians to sue for peace. He visited Kentucky in 1775, with the vanguard of pioneer explorers, and marked the lands which afterward, in 1780, he returned and secured by entry and upon which he settled with his family after the Revolutionary War.

When he removed from Maryland, he settled near the borderline of Virginia and North Carolina, then not well defined. Believing his residence on Virginia soil, he was elected to the Virginia Legislature in 1779. But the survey of the boundary line determined him a citizen of North Carolina, and as such he was officially known after until his final removal to Kentucky. In the gloomiest period of the War for Independence, in the southern colonies, after the defeat at Camden and the surrender of Charleston, Shelby became famous as a border leader of what seemed the forlorn hope of the colonists, and for his frequent victories over the enemy. With Colonels Sevier and Clarke, he led his command to the attack and capture of a strong fort in the Cherokee country, which had, garrisoned by British, Tories, and Indians, greatly harassed the settlers in west North Carolina. Soon after, in August, 1780, he inflicted a loss of several hundred by an attack on the British at Musgrove's Mill, South Carolina, and escaped with little loss of his own men. But his greatest victory, and one of the most decisive of the war, was won at King's Mountain. Joining forces with Colonels Sevier and Campbell, a bold attack was planned and made on the notorious General Ferguson, encamped on King's Mountain. Without artillery, these frontiersmen, with their flint-lock rifles, boldly attacked Ferguson's veterans, advancing on the enemy up the mountain side, and keeping up the fight until Ferguson and nearly four hundred of his men were slain, and over seven hundred made prisoners.

After the close of the war, in the winter of 1782-3, General Shelby removed to Kentucky and settled in Lincoln County, where he remained through life at his elegant home and upon his ample estate, the model citizen and patriot. His civic and military fame preceded him, for many of his soldiers of the Revolution were his emigrant neighbors. When Kentucky took the initial steps toward Statehood in the Union, Shelby was a member of the convention of 1787-8, and also of the convention to frame the first constitution, of 1792. By unanimous consent, he became the first Governor of the Commonwealth, in 1792, and was inaugurated as Governor at Lexington on the first of June. On the sixth of June, in courtly style, the Governor appeared in person in presence of the legislators, in joint assembly, and read to the august body his first message, formally delivering to the Speakers of each House a copy in manuscript, and then retired in dignified state, when the Speakers each adjourned the members to their respective halls. This was in imitation of the custom of the British monarchs, followed by the colonial governors in America, and by Washington himself in his first inaugural ceremonies.

So much had Governor Shelby established himself in the esteem and confidence of the people, that with unanimity he was elected a second time to serve as Governor in the critical period of 1812, when a second war with England became a certainty. His indomitable and patriotic zeal counted no costs and reckoned at no sacrifice to punish the invaders and drive them from our soil during the three years of hostilities. In this time, under his several calls, over twenty thousand volunteers were sent to the Army of the Northwest under Harrison, from Kentucky. By these mainly, the shameful surrender of Hull, at Detroit, was retrieved, the victory of the Thames won, and the British and their Indian allies driven from the borders, from Detroit to Buffalo, for the remainder of the war. At the battle of the Thames, won by Kentuckians, Governor Shelby led the three thousand volunteers whom he had called out for this campaign, in person, though in his sixty-fourth year of age. On his return to the capital of his State, when a last requisition was made by the Secretary of War, in 1814, thousands of volunteers answered his call for troops to reinforce the army of General Jackson in the Southwest, of whom three regiments, of twenty-two hundred men, were accepted and sent to New Orleans. Governor Shelby notified the Government at Washington that, if ten thousand soldiers were needed to repel the enemy and drive him from our soil in the Southwest, Kentucky was ready to supply them on brief notice.

Peace once again reigned when his second term as Governor ended. He retired to his country home, where he spent the evening of his life, honored and esteemed by a grateful and devoted constituency of citizenship as few men were. He died at his home on the 26th of July, 1826, in the ripeness of years and of honors.


John Adair was born in Chester County, S.C., in 1759, and was the son of Baron William Adair, of Scotland, whose wife was a Moore. After remaining some years in South Carolina, Baron Adair returned to Scotland. The son became a soldier in the Revolutionary War when quite a youth, and served with gallantry in the colonial army. He was made prisoner, and was treated with repeated cruelties by the enemy. He was a member of the convention which ratified the Constitution of the United States. He removed to Kentucky in 1787, and settled in Mercer County. He took an active and prominent part in the Indian border wars, having been appointed major by General Wilkinson. He was in many frays with the savages, in one of which, after several repulses of a body of Indians largely outnumbering his own forces, he was defeated by Chief Little Turtle, though he brought off his men after inflicting more serious losses on the enemy than his own. This was near Fort St. Clair, in Ohio. In 1793, General Scott appointed him a lieutenant-colonel. He represented Mercer County in the Legislature several times, and was once Speaker of the House.

Adair's name became involved with Aaron Burr's in the military movements in Kentucky and the Southwest which have become known in history as "Burr's Conspiracy," as did the names of Andrew Jackson and other prominent men of this country, of unquestioned loyalty to our nation. Burr's designs, with all the lights thrown upon the question, have remained a mystery to this day. If he contemplated ultimate treason, he did not fully disclose it to many who were disposed to sympathize with and to lend aid to what they were persuaded was a legitimate expedition to wrest from Spanish rule territory in dispute, or which "manifest destiny" determined should come under the rule of the United States as against the aggressions of Spain or England. Burr undoubtedly misled many good and patriotic men, who abandoned his fortunes when the intimations of treasonable designs were charged against him, which brought him to trial.

In 1805, when John Breckinridge resigned his seat in the United States Senate to become attorney-general under Jefferson, Adair was elected to fill the unexpired term. He entered the military service again, and at the battle of Thames River acted as volunteer aid to Governor Shelby. For gallant conduct on this occasion he was made a brigadier-general in 1814. He took a leading part in recruiting the volunteer troops for the reinforcement of Jackson's army at New Orleans, and in their transportation down the river. General Thomas, in chief command of these, being prostrated with illness, the command fell upon General Adair. He displayed courage and military skill in the disposition of his troops, and especially in the final contest on the eighth of January, under difficulties that were seriously embarrassing.

In 1820, he was elected governor of Kentucky, and held this office when the great questions of relief, and Old Court and New Court, began to disturb the peace and tranquility of the Commonwealth. In 1831, he was elected a member of Congress, and in the national house served on the Committee on Military Affairs. He died on the 19th of May, 1840, and was buried in the State cemetery at Frankfort, where a monument, erected at the cost of the State, with proper inscription, stands over his grave. A fine oil portrait of him hangs on the wall of the capitol, at Frankfort.


Who commanded a regiment of Kentucky troops in the battle of New Orleans, was a native of Virginia, but immigrated to Kentucky in pioneer days and settled in Mercer County, about four miles east of Harrodsburg, on the turnpike road leading to Lexington. Though a man of ability, and much esteemed, he seems to have lived in the retirement of private life until the maturity of middle age. He early became a member of the Baptist church, in which he led a consistent and zealous life, taking a prominent part as a layman in the promotion of the interests of religion and of the denomination with whom he fraternized. His character and worth made him prominent among the brotherhood. He often represented his church as its messenger, and was usually called to preside as moderator over the associations within the jurisdictions of which he lived. His hospitality was of that warm and generous kind which was characteristic of pioneer days. His ample and comfortable country mansion, situated upon a much-frequented highway, came to be known far and wide as the "Wayfarer's Rest."

Under the call of Governor Shelby, in 1814, he enlisted a regiment of volunteers for the army of the Southwest from Mercer County and the counties adjacent, which was one of three regiments accepted for this service. The gallant and distinguished part taken at New Orleans, in the great battle of the eighth of January, by Colonel Slaughter and his regiment, has been set forth in the pages of this book. No troops engaged on the American side on that day did more fatal execution upon the enemy's rank and file than did these. Every man of the regiment was in rifle-range, and all did deadly work.

Though courteous and gentle in manner, Colonel Slaughter was possessed of invincible firmness and independence when occasion required or a sense of duty urged. An incident illustrates. General Jackson, who held him in high esteem, appointed him to preside over a court-martial. The decision did not meet with the favor of the chief, and he ordered a reconsideration and reversal of proceedings. Colonel Slaughter declined to comply, saying: "I know my duty, and have performed it." Jackson's esteem was not lessened by the manliness of the answer.

His gallantry at New Orleans brought the name of Colonel Slaughter prominently to political notice, and the next year, 1816, he was nominated and elected lieutenant-governor, on the ticket with George Madison for governor. Madison was not destined to wear the civic honors which an ardent constituency had woven to crown him. He died in October, a few months after the election. Slaughter succeeded him, and was duly installed as governor. An active opposition party made an open issue of the question as to whether the lieutenant-governor was eligible to become governor by succession, under the Constitution, or that a successor should be chosen at an election to be called by act of the Legislature. There had been no precedent to this date. The question was fiercely agitated, in and out of the legislative halls, during two years of the executive term, before a subsidence of partisan feeling ended the contest. Governor Slaughter held firmly to his convictions of constitutional right, came safely through the angry waves of opposition, and served out his term of four years with credit to himself and the Commonwealth. The question was settled by this precedent, no more to be raised, that, under the constitutional provisions then in force, the lieutenant-governor should succeed to the office of governor upon the "death, resignation, or refusal to qualify" of the governor-elect.

On the expiration of his term Governor Slaughter retired to his country home, and resumed his occupation as a farmer, leading a quiet and useful citizen life until the end. He died at his home in 1830, aged sixty-three years.


It is worthy of mention to the credit of Kentucky that, with a population of four hundred thousand, she furnished for the nation's defense, during the three years of war with England and the savages who allied with her, forty regiments of volunteer militia, besides a number of battalions and companies, over twenty-four thousand men in all, from 1812 to 1815. Excepting a small force of volunteers from the then Territory of Ohio, and a few regulars, her troops made up the entire body of the army of General Harrison in the Northwest campaign, ending with the decisive and crushing victory at the battle of Thames River, over the combined army of British under General Proctor, and Indians under Tecumseh. That battle was fought and won by the impetuous charges of the Kentuckians, under Colonel Richard M. Johnson, against the Indians, and his brother, Colonel James Johnson, against the British, before the forces in the rear, mainly Kentuckians also, could be brought into action. Before Commodore Perry met the English fleet on Lake Erie, he called for one hundred riflemen from Harrison's army to perch upon the masts and rigging of his ships, as sharpshooters, to pick off the seamen and gunners from the enemy's decks. One hundred Kentuckians volunteered in this perilous service, and others vied with them the honors of the place, though all were landsmen and strangers to the sea. The British commodore made a similar call on Proctor's men and Tecumseh's Indians, but none cared to confront the dangers of such a service. The fleets coming to close quarters, the deadly fire of the riflemen in the rigging helped to strew the decks of the enemy's ships with dead and wounded, and to silence the guns by shooting down the gunners.





WILLIAM MITCHUSSON, Lieut.-colonel. SAMUEL PARKER, Lieutenant-colonel. REUBEN HARRISON, Major. THOMPSON CRENSHAW, Major. JOSIAH RAMSEY, Adjutant. CHRISTOPHER G. HONTS, Quartermaster. WILLIAM PRINCE, Paymaster. JOHN C. PENTECOST, Surgeon. STEPHEN C. DORRIS, Surgeon's Mate. ISAAC CALDWELL, Sergeant-major. MOSES THOMPSON, Quartermaster-sergt. JOHNSON LOUGHLIN, Fife Major.




Brown, James, Baird, David, Bigsby, John, Biggs, David, Berry, John, Button, John, Button, Zacheus, Bardwell, James, Bass, Isaac, Creek, David, Chayson, David, Cowin, James, Cowen, John, Dobson, Thomas, Dry, John, Deal, Henry, Doke, William, Dowell, David, Emberton, John, Fraley, Nicholas, Garrett, Joseph, Grisane, Samuel, Gibson, John, Gressom, Thomas, Hobach, Mark, Highsmith, William, Horton, Daniel, Hamilton, Robert, Hoofman, Elam, Huckaboy, Joseph, Huckaboy, Nathan, James, Jacob, Jackson, Elijah, Johnson, Luther, Johnson, Robert, Kirby, John, Kirby, Leonard, Kirby, Isaiah, Lee, Mathias, Miller, Samuel, Morris, Miles, Meadows, Jesse, Noles, Robert, Nelson, William, Oliver, Dury, Pruett, Moses, Pinkerton, James, Rigsby, John, Ragland, Benjamin, Sayres, John, Stovall, Dury, Seagrave, John, Springer, John, Slaton, Ezekiel, Stamp, Charles, Thompson, John, Wetherspoon, James, Williams, Milam, Weatherspoon, Wiley, Welch, Thomas, Weatherspoon, Major, Wooten, Daniel, Wiley, John, Wildman, Burnell.




Arnet, William, Butler, Samuel, Barnes, John, Bramley, Daniel, Capps, Joshua, Crabtree, John F., Clements, John, Crabtree, James, Calender, Isaac, Cross, Joseph, Ducate, James, Dixon, Payne, Ezell, Harrison, Fickas, John, Fugudy, Benjamin, Gillum, William H., Gibson, John, Hawthorn, Robert, Holifield, William, Hardin, Ennis, Hardesty, Clemons, Hendrix, Thomas, Keatch, Ovid, Lambert, Joel, Lambert, William, Mayo, John, Martin, Daniel, Miller, William, McNamer, Philip, McGraw, John, McCoy, James, Pullom, John, Parrick, Thomas, Rolls, Abijah, Read, James R., Stephens, George, Smith, Matthew, Skillett, Thomas, Sutherland, Ransom, Scott, James W., Stephens, Jesse, Tarpin, William, Weathers, John, Wiggins, Joshua.




Bratton, George, Brown, Henry, Condra, William, Carter, William, Coal, Joseph, Calvert, John, Cunningham, Brackett C., Dawson, James, Dawson, Jonas, Dawson, John, Dawson, Johnson, Davis, Thomas, Evans, Richard, Ethell, James, Forkner, Martin, Fegert, Alexander, Franklin, Stephen, Galloway, William, Hay, James S., Heavener, John, Hammond, Thomas, Harris, Elijah, Hendrick, James, Holloway, Thomas, Harlan, George, Jenkins, Samuel, Johnson, Richard, Kown, William, Kown, Nathan, Kimble, William S., Kidwell, James, Kelsey, David, Lawrence, James H., Long, Abner, Marshall, James, Mannon, Thomas, Moge, Jacob, McClammon, James W., McClammon, John S., Miller, Philip, Mannon, William, McMurry, William, Newman, Jacob, Newman, William, Owensby, Nicholas, Pollard, Elijah, Paulk, Moses, Pitman, William, Roundtree, Turner, Roundtree, Kelly B., Srader, John, Stroude, Doran, Stagner, Jeremiah, Summons, George, Stone, John, Stroud, John, Templer, Jesse, Thompson, Edward, Wilkinson, James, Wood, Mark D., Wood, William, Wiley, Elijah, Whitlow, Henry.




Alexander, Thomas, Brown, William, Berry, Moses, Blair, Andrew, Bagman, James, Bloyd, John, Clark, Roderick, Clark, Joseph, Chapman, Job, Dishmore, James, Dishmore, William, Duff, Fielding, Denison, Zade, Dewesse, Elisha, Dunagan, Thomas, Emerson, William, Edgar, Josiah, Edgar, Johnson, Ellis, Hercules, Farley, Clay, Greathouse, Hiram, Garrison, David, Harris, John L., Huffman, Cornelius, Howell, Hudson, Handy, Jesse, Hardin, Thomas, Hoge, Edmund, Johnson, John, Jenkins, William, Lewis, Charles, Lyon, William, Logsdon, John, Merritt, John, McKinney, Charles W., Mitchell, James, Newell, John, Nunegard, William, Nation, Laban, O'Neal, Bennett, Owens, William, Pickett, John, Pulliam, John, Penick, James, Roundtree, Henry, Reed, William, Scott, Robert, Sutterfield, Eli, Scott, Joseph, Tribble, Harris, Thacker, Allen, Taylor, James, Taylor, Isaac, Williams, William, Wheeler, Bond, Young, Asa.




Anderson, Evan, Baker, Seth, Barnett, Samuel, Bridges, Thomas, Bridges, William, Barton, William, Bird, Jacob, Cammack, William, Carlew, Henry, Campbell, Lindsey, Carter, James, Carlew, John, Cannon, Israel, Carlew, Robert, Davidson, Alexander B., Dison, Bennett, Drennan, Samuel, Dunn, Alexander, Duff, James, Entricon, John, French, Joseph, Green, Levi, Gaskins, Thadeus, Green, James, Gilkey, John, George, Pallam, Hancock, John, Hughes, James, Heath, Riland, Hobart, Joseph, Jenkins, Arthur B., Jenkins, Whitenell W., Kenady, William, Long, William, Leech, Abner, Lamb, William, Leech, Zadock, Law, Samuel, Love, William, McNabb, John W., Miller, John, Moore, Edmund, Mercer, Drury, McClear, William, McElhana, William, Manas, John, Neily, John, Nowlin, John, Pickering, William, Patterson, Thomas, Philips, Samuel S., Quarles, Stores, Robison, Kinsey, Robison, William, Ritchey, Alexander, Ramage, Benjamin, Rhinhart, Samuel, Robison, Hugh, Strawmut, John, Strawmatt, William, Saxon, Lewis, Smith, Stephen, Stations, Moses, Trimm, Charles, Taylor, Solomon, Whitenell, John, Wadlington, James, Wells, Henry, Witherow, Samuel, Washington, Thomas C.




Anderson, James, Ashlook, Thomas, Agee, William, Allen, Samuel, Bedford, John C., Bunch, Israel, Banning, Clark, Burges, John, Belk, John, Belk, James, Craft, Gilbert, Cheetham, Hezekiah, Carpenter, James, Craft, George, Condrey, Elifus, Dohirty, Alexander, Eldridge, William, French, John, Gwinn, Joseph, Hicks, Richard, Helms, James, Hollett, Solomon, Jackman, Richard, Linsey, Henry, Lynn, James, Loller, James, Lynn, Charles, Lewis, John, Mitchell, William, Moody, John, Murry, John, Minst, Francis, McElvain, Samuel, Nell, Philip, Newman, Isaac, Ogden, David, Reynolds, Charles, Richardson, Shaderick, Reynolds, Amos, Rush, Samuel, Staton, Joseph, Stockton, Jesse, Thurman, William, Thurman, Littleberry, Tooly, William, Vann, John, Venable, Daniel, Wilburn, William, Winfrey, William, Young, Robert.




Atwell, Richard, Berry, Franklin, Butler, Nathan, Buckingham, Peter, Baker, William, Barrett, Thompson, Broner, William, Byes, Armstrong, Batron, Robert, Calhoun, John, Cunningham, James, Caldwell, Andrew, Duncan, James, Dobson, Joseph, Dobson, Robert, Faris, John, Gillingham, John, Gooch, William, Good, William, Hampton, Stephen, Harvey, John, Hays, Campbell, Hays, James I., Hays, Andrew E., Hunt, James, Hayes, James, Hogan, Nathan, Helton, Thomas, Hogan, John, Isaacs, Samuel, Janes, Berry, Lampton, Jesse, Lumpkin, Abraham, Lisle, Peter, Lile, Vincent, Lemons, Isaac, Montgomery, Robert M., Morr, William, Montgomery, Cyrus, Moseby, Micajah, McDaniel, William, McKinsley, William, Mathews, Samuel, McMillan, Joseph M., Morris, John, Ormes, Elly, jr., Ormes, Nathan, Ormes, Elly, Ormes, Nathan, Price, Robert, Riley, William, Russell, Joseph, Ray, John, Raffity, John, Smith, Isaac, Skaggs, Charles, Smith, Thomas, Smith, Samuel, Stearman, William, Tribble, Absalom, White, John D., Waggoner, Willis, White, John C., Wilson, Thomas, Woodard, Abraham, White, John, Wheeler, Charles.




Alexander, John, Aainsworth, Joseph, Baker, Thomas, Britt, Robert, Barnes, Thomas B., Byle, John H., Blakeley, Samuel, Boreland, Samuel, Coleran, Alexander, Coleman, Robert M., Cravins, Jesse, Dunn, Richard, Dinsmore, Jacob, Davis, Clem, Davis, Joseph, Darneal, Thomas, Edwards, Edward, Furguson, William, Filson, Jesse, George, James, Gare, Isaac, Gibson, Meredith, Grace, Henry, Hamby, James, Hunter, David, Hunter, William, Henderson, Ezekiel, Handy, Benjamin, Hardin, Samuel, Hardin, Benjamin, Inman, Thomas, Lancaster, Henry, Messick, George, Morris, Ely, Messimore, George, Malin, Thomas, Mitchell, William, Mesamore, Jacob, Nickson, William, Pyle, William, Pyle, David, Stutt, Nicholas, Shelton, Elijah, Shelton, William, Shelton, Abraham, Savage, William M., Shelton, Joseph, Shelton, Robert, Smith, Samuel, Smith, Cloud, Sullivan, Levi, Thompson, Lawson, Thompson, John, Threet, James, Thradford, Walker, Thomas, James, Tell, Joseph, Wingard, David.




Apling, Henry, Anderson, John, jr., Allen, Linsey, Anderson, John, Allison, McLean, Bishop, James, Barker, Samuel, Bone, Cornelius, Bonds, Lott, Carter, James, Craig, John, Combs, Jesse, Cob, Elijah, Craig, Robert, Crouch, Isaac, Claxton, Jeremiah, Dewitt, William, Donnald, James, Evans, James, Ferguson, John K., Foley, Mason, Fox, Nathan, Fowler, Jeremiah, Gany, Matthew, Gant, Thomas, Gamblin, John, Grayham, William, Hewlett, Thomas, Hines, John, Howard, Isaac, Hensley, Leftridge, Hewlett, Lemuel, Hubbard, Liner, Jains, Edward, Kern, George, Kennedy, George F., Lott, James, Lynn, Gasham, Lynn, Henry, Leece, Samuel, McGill, James, Moore, Thomas, Matthews, Jacob, McFerson, James, Martin, John, Macons, Peter, Nanny, Spencer, Norris, Thomas, Nixon, James, Penrod, George, Ripple, Michael, Row, Adam, Ripple, Jacob, Rhodes, Bradford, Sever, Michael, Sumner, Thomas, Sumner, William, Sunn, John F., Sanders, George, Voris, John, Wilcox, Elias, Williams, Noah, Wade, Hendley, Wilson, John, Williams, William, Yaunce, Lawrence.




Albert, Jacob, Allen, Andrew, Barrett, Enoch D., Brian, William, Barringer, Jonathan, Barnett, James, Brown, Richard, Burchfield, Thomas, Brown, William, Brown, Jimmy, Bailey, James, Clawson, John, Collins, Dixon, Coleman, Archibald, Clevenger, Asa, Caradine, David, Cooksey, Warren, Collins, Hollen, Carlisle, Mathew, Diamond, John, Diamond, James, Elam, John, Finley, Andrew, Ford, John, Farmer, Gray B., Glister, Thomas, Gist, William, Gidcomb, John, Gibson, Jordan, Gilky, Thomas, Henderson, Carnes D., Haney, Joseph, Hodge, Nathan, Hadden, William, Hunsucker, Samuel, Holley, William, Jameson, Andrew, Kown, Andrew, Kenedy, Neil, Kuykendall, Mark, Larkins, Joseph, Land, Lewis, Land, Moses, Morris, William, McFarland, William D., Moore, Jeremiah, Mann, John, Miller, John, Mitchell, Blake, Neebart, Alexander, Page, William, Porter, Oliver, Ralls, Robert, Rails, Green, Smith, Ezekiel, Sears, Abraham, Smith, Joseph, Smith, Asa, Steele, Moses, Thomas, John, Thomas, Thomas, Taylor, Peter, Tannehill, Benjamin, Williams, David, Wheeler, Seburn, Woods, William, Wilson, Benjamin, Wood, Peter.



GABRIEL SLAUGHTER, Lieutenant-colonel. LANTY ARMSTRONG, First Major. WILLIAM WAKEFIELD, Second Major. SAMUEL MACOUN, Lieutenant. WILLIAM RODES, Lieutenant. ROGER THOMPSON, Lieutenant. HORATIO GAITHER, Surgeon. ROBERT H.C. PEARSON, S. Mate. GEORGE C. BERRY, S. Mate. THOMAS CURRY, Sergeant-major. STROTHER H. GAINES, Quartermaster-sergeant. JOHN THOMPSON, Assistant Quarterm'r. THOMAS WITHER, Fife Major. ABNER DECKER, Drum Major.


GEORGE MCAFEE, Captain. WILLIAM BOHAN, Lieutenant. JOHN M. JORDAN, Ensign. JOHN LEWIS, Orderly Sergeant. JULIUS RUCKER, Sergeant. JAMES PIERSON, Sergeant. SAMUEL R. TROUER, Sergeant. JOHN COCHRAN, Sergeant. ANDERSON POWERS, Corporal. DANIEL BOHAN, Corporal. DANIEL HAY, Corporal. THOMAS ROBARDS, Corporal.


Adams, Alexander, Barnes, Zachariah, Brim, Landy, Brown, Thomas, Bunton, Samuel, Bradshaw, James L., Berns, Philip, Bryant, Daniel, Bradley, Jacob, Barclay, David, Cummings, Alexander, Curry, Thomas, Combs, Joseph, Cummings, Abraham, Coovert, Simon, Curry, James, Cooney, James, Cooney, Daniel, Davis, George, Dean, William, Dodson, George, Dunklin, William, Ellis, Daniel, Foreman, Jacob, Goodnight, Alexander, Green, William, Gilmore, Joseph, Gabbert, James, Harlow, Thomas, Haley, Edmund, Hulton, John, Horn, John, Horn, Philip, Hall, Barnet, Johnston, William, Jones, William, Jones, Thornton, Kirkham, Joseph, Knox, George C., Kirkpatrick, James, Lytle, Lewis, Lockhart, Levi, Lewis, Elijah, Lister, Cornelius, Lister, Stephen, McAfee, Samuel, McDonald, Clement, McCoy, Joseph, McMinny, William, Mullikin, John, Montfort, Jacob, Mitchel, Jacob, Napier, William, Poulter, Joseph, Pierson, Joseph, Philips, Aaron, Preston, George, Quigley, John, Ray, William, Rynierson, Jacob, Rains, Allen, Roberts, William, Ruby, Jacob, Robertson, Samuel, Roberts, James, Silyers, John, Short, James, Short, William, Shields, William, Sams, Russell, Sample, James, Short, Coleman, Sally, Rany S., Stone, Levi, Thomas, Thompson, Towner, Samuel, Thompson, George P., Toomy, Isaac, Thomas, Edmund G., Voris, John, Violet, Sinclair, Walker, John, Wilson, John H., Wells, John, sr., Wilson, Anthony, Wells, John, jr., Whitberry, Jacob, Weathers, Thomas, Yest, Jacob.




Barker, Thomas, Bebber, John, Beadle, Seaton, Barnet, James, Barnet, Jubille, Bowmer, William, Barns, Mathew, Burman, James, Bowen, William, Briant, Morgan, Collins, Andrew, Dishmon, James, Dick, Archibald, Dove, James, Evans, John, Elkins, Richard, Floyd, Thomas, Fitzpatrick, Samuel, Fitzpatrick, George, Gough, John, Gilmore, William, Griffin, John, Gregory, Samuel, Hargus, Thomas, Herrin, Joel, Hendrickson, Thomas, Hendrickson, Gibson, Hardister, William, Hargus, John, Harp, Westley, Harmons, Jesse, Hedrick, Jacob, jr., Hudson, Robert, Hudson, Manoah, Hedrick, Jacob, sr., Hanes, Ezekiah, Hunt, William, Hamilton, James, Humphries, David, Hunt, Samuel, Johnson, James, James, Daniel F., Jasper, Andrew, McAllister, John, Moody, Martin, McCarty, William, McCan, William, McKaughan, William, Neal, Isaac, Preston, William, Price, John, Reagan, William, Ridge, Robertson, Riley, William, Sneed, John, Stroud, Ansel, Tartar, Frederick, White, Edward, White, Elisha, Woolsey, Thomas, White, David, Weatherman, Simon, Wilson, Bird, Weddle, George, Weddle, John, Wright, Walter, White, John.


LEONARD P. HIGDON, Captain. DAVID HUSTON, Lieutenant. JOHN YOUNG, Ensign. SAMUEL HANDLEY, Orderly Sergeant. WILLIAM BAILEY, First Sergeant. BARTON HAWLEY, Second Sergeant. FRANCIS HAGAN, Third Sergeant. JAMES W. TYLER, Fourth Sergeant. ISAAC ANDERSON, Corporal. JAMES MCDANIEL, Corporal. HENRY HOLTZCLAW, Corporal. NATHANIEL HARRIS, Corporal.


Audd, Ambrose, Anderson, Samuel, Bredwell, Noah, Bowl, James, Burkhead, Isaac, Blanford, Francis, Baldwin, McKinsey, Bishop, Solomon, Brown, Frederick, Blann, James, Burkhead, Basil, Basey, Jesse, Bevin, Walter, Bean, Judson, Baldwin, Samuel, Brown, James, Connor, James, Clark, Zacheus, Cissel, James, Coffman, Michael, Calvert, Thomas, Cane, Michael, Clark, John, Clemens, Thomas, Connell, Hiram, Connolly, Basil, Cosby, Overton, Clark, Abner, DeMorgan, Reuben N., Drake, Jacob, Dunn, Simpson, Davis, Lemuel, David, Amos, Elliot, Greenbury, Foxworthy, George, Fox, William, Fowler, Thomas, Gibson, Henry, Hanon, Ezekiel, Harrison, Grove, Hansford, William, Hagerman, Tunis, Higdon, James, Hibbs, John, Hall, Philip, Knott, Henry, Lefler, John, Lent, William, Lane, Benjamin, McDaniel, Redman, McLaughlin, Jesse, Malon, Jacob, McDaniel, William, Miles, Francis, Magnill, Richard, McDaniel, John, Osborn, Samuel, Parrish, Francis, Popham, Hawkins, Popham, William, Paul, James, Polk, James, Rynearson, Peter, Roberts, George, Rozner, William, Smither, Joel, Smith, John, Turner, Joseph, Vinson, George, Witherton, John, Wise, John, Wise, Joseph, Watson, Joseph, Wilson, Benjamin.




Adams, Edward, Bettis, John, Bower, Francis, Bryant, William, Burnett, Nicholas, Berry, Labon S., Ball, Isaiah, Brook, John, Baldwin, Joseph, Burton, William, Bowman, Jacob, Breden, James, Coombs, John, Cox, Leroy, Cavenaugh, Philemon, Cash, William, Dudarar, Coonrod, Dudar, William, Dodson, Thomas, Davis, Nathan, Doolin, James, Davis, John, Dasswell, Jesse, Duncan, William, Embree, Elijah, Etone, Elijah, Ervin, Francis, Edwards, Peter, Forsythe, David, Goodnight, John, Gooch, Roland, Gibson, John, Gill, Angel, Hill, Zachariah, Hotzclaw, Benjamin, Hackley, James, Hair, John, Hutson, Lodrick, Harvey, James W., Haynes, James, Holmes, George, Hall, James, Jackson, William, Low, Thomas, Lavinder, John, Lawrence, Hugh, Lynn, James, Martin, William, McRoberts, Andrew, McMullen, John, McCrutcheon, William, McManny, Charles, Newcomb, Wilson, Nelly, Edward, Oalder, Jonathan, Pettit, Walker, Pence, John, Parsons, Obediah, Prewitt, David, Ray, Joseph, Renalds, Fountain, Roberts, James, Ross, Thomas J., Raybourne, John, Simpson, John, Sutton, Walker, Souder, Jefferson, Spratt, Thomas, Singleton, McIntire, Stephens, John, Singleton, Thomas, Tedrick, Jacob, Warden, William, Wade, Jeremiah, Wood, William, Warren, Burris.

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