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The Automobile Storage Battery - Its Care And Repair
by O. A. Witte
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A battery that is not receiving quite enough charge may not as a whole become "sulphated," but several cells might become considerably weaker than the others and become "sulphated," causing trouble in these particular cells. Such cells will not bubble freely, or possibly not at all, when the other cells are bubbling freely. Therefore, a few questions to the user will generally help in locating the low cells.

Cells that are in trouble, or which soon will be, can very easily be picked out by making a few tests on the battery. Therefore, on all inspections, regardless of the age of a battery, it is suggested that the following tests be made: Take a specific gravity reading of all cells and note if there are any cells much lower than the others. Amy cells having a specific gravity of 30 points lower than the average will generally be found to be in trouble, unless these cells happen to be low from having had spillage in shipment, replaced with water. (This condition, however, should not exist in future installations if the spillage is properly taken care of, as has been explained on page 482.)

Voltage Readings

After taking a specific gravity reading, a voltage reading of each cell should be taken. Voltage readings taken on open circuit are of no value, so while taking these readings the battery should be on discharge, having at least a discharge of 15 amperes. A good way to get this discharge is to hold the starting switch in and set mixing valve lever at lean point or wide open.

A low or defective cell will show a voltage reading .10 to .20 volts lower than the other cells on discharge, while a reversed cell will show a reading in the reversed direction when on discharge, especially on heavy discharge.

The voltage readings are a sure check if taken in connection with the specific gravity. When you have low specific gravity and low voltage on the same cells, it is a sure indication of low cells. These cells should be inspected for the probable cause of their being low. Shorting of the lugs at bottom of plates and moss bridging across at bottom of the elements, or possibly a split separator, will generally be the main trouble.

When any of these conditions exist, it is best to take the low cells back to your shop for repairs.

When there is absolutely no indication why the cells are low, they can be cut out of the battery on discharge and put in on charge, until they come up.

The following is a good example of readings taken on a battery with a 10-ampere discharge and having four low cells, 4, 8, 11 and 16. The battery had been giving poor service, due to insufficient charging:

Cell No. Specific Gravity Volts 1 1.200 1.98 2 1.180 1.95 3 1.205 1.98 4 1.150 1.75 5 1.190 1.95 6 1.195 1.98 7 1.200 1.98 8 1.130 1.70 9 1.200 1.95 10 1.205 1.98 11 1.100 1.40 12 1.190 1.95 13 1.180 1.95 14 1.195 1.98 15 1.190 1.95 16 0.000 zero or reversal

The main thing to consider in checking voltage readings is the variation from the average. The average voltage readings will vary, depending on the state of charge of the battery when the readings are taken.

REPAIRS

To repair, the following equipment is necessary:

1. Portable lead burning outfit. 2. A suitable blow torch. 3. Standard sealing nut wrench. 4. File (shoemaker's rasp). 5. Pair of pliers. 6. Putty knife. 7. Pair of tin snips. 8. Wooden blocks to support elements while being worked upon. 9. Good supply of battery parts consisting of: KXG-13 Glass jars KXG-13 Pilot jars KXG-13 Positive groups KXG-13 Negative groups KXG-13 Round rods KXG-13 Vent plugs Sealing nuts Rubber gaskets Wood separators KXG-13 Rubber covers KXG-7 Round rods Lead pins Carboy electrolyte (including retainer). KXG-7 Pilot jars KXG-7 Glass jars KXG-7 Positive groups KXG-7 Negative groups Outside negative plates KXG-7 Rubber covers Emergency repair straps

Disassembling a Cell

The glass jar battery covers are sealed to the jars by sealing compound, which may be softened very easily with a blow-torch.

When a blow-torch or an open flame is used for softening the sealing compound, the vent plug MUST be removed before applying a flame. It is also important to blow into the vent after the plug has been removed in order to expel any gas that may have collected in the space above the electrolyte in the cell.

If the gas is held in place by leaving the vent plug in, it is apt to explode when an open flame or intense heat is applied to the cover.,

Removing covers may be greatly facilitated by suspending the cell by the terminals, as shown in Fig. 305. Care should be taken to make this suspension so that the bottom of the jar will not be more than two inches above the table. A pad of excelsior should be placed under it to avoid breaking the glass jar when it drops.

[Fig. 305 Softening sealing compound, Delco-Light cell]

After the sealing compound has been sufficiently softened, the cover may be loosened by inserting a hot putty knife, as shown in Fig. 306, There is no danger of breaking the cover by this operation if the cover has been sufficiently warmed. After the jar of electrolyte has dropped, the element should be removed from the jar and carefully placed across the top of it, so that the solution upon the plates will drain back into the jar. (See Fig. 307.)

[Fig. 306 Removing Delco-Light cell cover]

[Fig. 307 Draining element, Delco-Light cell]

[Fig. 308 Removing cover of Delco-Light cell]

[Fig. 309 Removing lock pin, Delco-Light cell]

After element has drained, place on wooden blocks, as shown in Fig. 308, and remove cover. Clean the sealing compound from the cover and jar immediately with a putty knife. Turn element upside down with posts through holes in bench and remove lead pin and rubber bumper and withdraw, lock pin. (Fig. 309.) The separators may then be withdrawn from the group. (Fig. 310.)

[Fig. 310 Removing separatots, Delco-Light cell]

[Fig. 311 Assembling separators, Delco-Light cell]

Assembling

Place the positive and negative groups upside down with posts through holes in bench and slide in separators. The wood and rubber separators are inserted as follows: The rubber separator is placed against the grooved side of the wood separator, and the two are then slipped between the negative and positive plates with the rubber separator next to the positive plate. (See Fig. 311.)

Inserting Locking Pin

A rubber bumper is pinned on one end of the lock pin by means of a lead pin, and the lock pin is then slipped into place with the lock pin insulating washer placed between the outside negative plates and the wood separators. (See Fig. 312.)

A rubber bumper is then slipped over the other end of the lock pin and secured by a lead pin.

Place element on wooden blocks and fasten cover, as shown in Fig. 313.

[Fig. 313 Fastening cover, Delco-Light cell]

[Fig. 314 Preparing cover for sealing, Delco-Light cell]

Sealing Covers

Be sure all old sealing compound and traces of electrolyte are removed from the cover. Heat sealing compound until it can be handled like putty, roll out into a strip about 1/2 inch in diameter, place strip of compound around inside edge of cover (Fig. 314) and heat to melting point with blow-torch. The top of jar should also be heated to insure a tight seal. Compound can be melted in a suitable vessel and a 1/2 inch strip poured around cover.

When sealing compound and jar have been heated sufficiently, turn jar upside down (Fig. 315) and carefully place jar over element and press gently into compound. (Do not press hard.) Immediately place jar and element upright, and press cover firmly into place. (Press hard.) Finally, tighten sealing nuts. The cell is now ready for the electrolyte.

[Fig. 315 Sealing jar of Delco-Light cell]

Filling Cell with Electrolyte

Repaired cells should be filled with electrolyte of 1.200 specific gravity, or with water, as the case may require.

Standard Delco-Light electrolyte of 1.220 specific gravity may be purchased from the Delco Light distributor. The 1.220 electrolyte should be reduced to 1.200 by adding a very small amount of distilled water. This should be thoroughly mixed by pouring the solution from one battery jar into another. The 1.200 specific gravity electrolyte may then be added to the newly assembled cell until flush with the water line.

Charging

The completed KXG-13 cell should be placed on a 12-ampere charge and kept on charge until maximum gravity has been reached. A KXG-7 cell should be charged at a 6-ampere rate.

Adjusting Gravity of Electrolyte

If the maximum gravity is above 1.220, draw off some of the electrolyte and refill to water line with distilled water. The charge should then be continued for at least one hour to thoroughly mix the electrolyte before taking another hydrometer reading. It may be necessary to repeat this operation.

If the maximum gravity is below 1.220, pour off the electrolyte into a glass jar or a suitable receptacle, and then refill the cell with 1.220 electrolyte. Charge for one hour to thoroughly mix the solution before checking readings.

NOTE: Gravity readings in adjusting the electrolyte should always be taken in connection with thermometer readings, making necessary temperature corrections. This is particularly important in adjusting electrolyte in pilot cells.

HOW TO REPAIR DELCO-LIGHT CELLS

Treating Broken Cells

Whenever a shipment of batteries is received in which any of the jars have been broken, the first thing to do is to carefully remove the elements from the broken jars to prevent damage to the plates or separators. These elements should be placed in distilled water to prevent further drying. The plates will not be damaged in any way and can be restored to a healthy condition by charging in 1.200 specific gravity at a 12-ampere rate for the 13-plate cell or, 6-ampere rate for the 7-plate cell, until maximum gravity is reached. (See Charging and Adjustment of Electrolyte, explained on page 481.)

Treating Spilled Cells

If the spillage is more than one inch below the water level, it should be replaced by electrolyte of 1.200 specific gravity and charged to maximum gravity.

Treating Badly Sulphated Cells That Have Been in Service

When cells are removed from an installation to make repairs, they are usually badly sulphated, which means that considerable acid is in the plates.

In charging such cells, use distilled water in place of electrolyte, as this will allow the acid to come out of the plates more readily. The KXG-13 cells should be charged at about 12 amperes and the KXG-7 cells at 6 amperes. Cells badly sulphated when charged at the low rate will require from 50 to 100 hours to reach maximum gravity. Extreme cases will require even longer charging.

In case it is impossible to read the gravity after the cells have been on charge a sufficient length of time, pour out the solution and use 1.220 specific gravity.

The charge should then be continued further to insure that maximum gravity has been reached.

CAUTION: Should the temperature of the electrolyte approach 110 deg. F., the charging rate should be reduced or the charge stopped until the cell has cooled.

Treating Reversed Cells

A complete battery may be reversed if the battery is completely discharged and its voltage is not sufficient to overcome any residual magnetism the generator might have. Under such conditions the negative plates will begin to discolor brown and the positive turn gray. Such a case would be extremely rare.

The remedy is to first completely discharge the cells to get rid of the charge in the wrong direction. Then short-circuit them. (Connect a wire across the terminals.) Then charge them in the right direction at a low rate. (12 amperes for a KXG-13 cell, or 6 amperes for a KXG-7 cell.) Charge until the specific gravity reaches a maximum. If the battery is operated reversed for any length of time, the negatives will throw off their active material and become useless.

A single cell may become reversed by gradually slipping behind the rest of the cells in a set, due to insufficient charging, until it becomes so low that it will reverse on each discharge. This condition cannot be corrected by giving the regular charge, but it will be necessary to give an equalizing charge, continuing the charge until the cell is in normal condition. (Be sure to make temperature corrections when taking hydrometer readings.) If the cell appears to require an excessive amount of charge to restore it to condition, it should be removed and taken to the repair shop for a separate charge.

If the cell has been allowed to operate in a reversed condition to such an extent that the entire material of the negative plates has turned brown, both positive and negative groups should be discarded.

Removing Impurities

Impurities, such as iron, salt (chlorine) or oil, may accidentally get into a cell, due to careless handling of distilled water.

Iron is dissolved by sulphuric acid and the positive plates become affected, change color (dirty yellow) and wear rapidly. The cell becomes different from the rest in gravity, voltage and bubbling. The remedy is to discard the electrolyte as soon as possible, flush the plates and separators in several changes of water, thoroughly wash the jar, use new electrolyte and then proceed in same manner as explained for the treatment of badly sulphated cells, page 482.

Chlorine has an effect about as described for iron, and is evident by the odor of chlorine gas. The remedy is the same as for iron.

Oil in the electrolyte, if allowed to get into the pores of the plates, will fill them and lower the capacity very much. It affects negative plates much more than positives. Probably the only remedy in this case is new plates.

Impurities of any nature should be removed as quickly as possible.

Clearing High Resistance Short Circuits

A high resistance short is caused by the sediment falling from the plates and lodging between the positive and negative lugs. As a rule this condition will occur only when severe sulphation is present in the plates.

A cell in this condition can be repaired by removing the element and clearing the short circuit. The wood separators should then be withdrawn and replaced by new ones. Lock pin insulating washers. should be installed land the element reassembled in the jar and charged to maximum gravity.

Clearing Lug Shorts

Short-circuited lugs are caused by excessive sulphation. The outside negative bulges and the bottom lug bends over and touches the adjacent positive lug. This can be remedied by removing both outside negative plates and burning on new plates which have already been charged and inserting lock pin insulating washers.

Putting Repaired Cells Back in Service

When placing a new or repaired cell in a battery which is in service, connect in the cell at the beginning of a charge. This will insure that the new or repaired cell is started off in good condition, because this charge is of the nature of an initial charge to these cells.

Charging Outside Negative Plates

Individual negative plates are always received dry, which makes it necessary to charge them before using. The best way to charge such plates is as follows: Set up 7 loose negative plates in a KXG-13 jar together with a good positive group, using KXG separators to prevent the plates touching. Then stretch a piece of wire solder across the lugs at the top of the negative plates and solder the wire to the plates. Fig. 316. The jar may then be filled with 1200 specific gravity and the plates charged at a 12-ampere rate until maximum gravity is obtained. Never use negative plates unless they have been treated as described above. After the charge is completed, the negative plates may be placed in distilled water and kept until ready for use. Always be sure to give a charge to maximum gravity after burning on new negative plates to an element.

[Fig. 316 Preparing outside negatives for charging]

Pressing Negative Plates

After badly sulphated cells are recharged, it is sometimes advisable to remove the elements and, press the negative plates, as explained on page 351. Care should be taken to prevent the negative plates from drying out while making repairs, in order to avoid the long charge necessary for dried negative plates.

The battery should be charged to maximum gravity before attempting to press the plates.

It is not necessary and will do no good to press the positive plates.

In some cases the active material may be nearly all out of the outside negative plates and the inside negatives may be in good condition, in which case new charged plates should be burned on. (Fig. 322.)

Salvaging Replaced Cells

When it has been necessary to replace cells which have been in service, the elements can very often be saved and assembled again and used as replacement cells in batteries which are several years old. In no case should the cells be used as new cells.

The positive plates may be allowed to dry out, but the negatives should be kept in distilled water and not allowed to dry out in the least. They should not be kept this way indefinitely, but should be assembled and charged as soon as possible.

Do not attempt to repair groups or plates which have lost as much as half of the active material in wear, or which have the active material disintegrated and falling out. Such plates should not be used. This does not apply to small bits of active material knocked out mechanically and amounting to an extremely small percentage of the whole. Abnormal color indicates possible impurity, and such plates should be washed and used with caution. Badly cracked or broken plates should be replaced with new plates or plates from other groups.

Before new negative plates are used they should be fully charged. (See Charging Negative Plates, page 484.)

Always use new wood separators when assembling repaired cells.

When cells have been operated reversed in polarity to such an extent that the active material of the negative plates has turned brown, both positive and negative groups may have to be replaced.

Repairing Lead Parts

The portable carbon burning outfit used for battery repairs is operated from the battery itself, making it possible to make repairs at the user's residence without using a gas flame.

This outfit can be secured from the Delco-Light Company, Dayton, Ohio, and consists of a carbon holder with cable, clamp, and one-fourth inch carbon rods. Six cells are usually required to properly heat the carbon. If it is completely discharged an outside source must be used. For this purpose a six-volt automobile battery is suitable, or a tray of demonstrating batteries, one terminal being connected to the connection to be burned, the other to the cable of the burning tool. A little experience will soon demonstrate the number of cells necessary to give a satisfactory heat. The cable is connected by means of the clamp to a cell in the battery, the required number of cells away from the joint to be burned. Care should be taken that contact is made by the clamp, the lead being scraped clean before the connection is made. The carbon should be sharpened to a long point like a lead pencil and should project not more than 2 inches from the holder. (Fig. 317.)

[Fig. 317 Repairing broken post, Delco-Light cell]

After being used a short time, the carbon will not heat properly, due to a film of scale formed on the surface. This should be cleaned off with a file.

In case of lead burning, additional lead to make a flush joint should not be added until the metal of the pieces to be joined has melted. The carbon should be moved around to insure a solid joint at all points.

In case a post is broken off under the cover, proceed as follows: To make repairs take an old group and cut off the post about one-half way down. Saw off the post to be repaired to such a length that when the new post is burned on the length of the post will be approximately the same length as the original post.

Repairing Broken Posts.

Make a half circle mould out of a piece of tin or galvanized iron, as shown in Fig. 317. Burn solid the side of the post facing up, file it around and then turn the group over, place the form on the burned side and proceed to complete the burning operation.

Caution:

1. Always use clean lead.

2. Do not clean the lead and let it stand for any length of time before starting to burn. If it is allowed to stand it will oxidize and prevent a good burning operation.

3. Burn with an are and not with a red hot carbon.

Burning on Straps

Place the strap to be burned in a vise and split the end through the center and then bend the two halves over to form a foot, as shown in Fig. 318. Make a mould out of a piece of tin or galvanized iron and place this mould around the post to which this strap is to be burned. (Fig. 319.) Then proceed to burn the post and strap together.

[Fig. 318 Splitting end of strap, Delco-Light cell]

When a union is made between the strap and the post a small amount of new clean lead should be burned on the top of the foot to reinforce this point. Care should be taken not to get the mould too high, as this will cause trouble in getting the carbon down to the foot and the post.

[Fig. 319 Burning on negative strap, Delco-Light cell]

[Fig. 320 Auxiliary strap, Delco-Light cell]

[Fig. 321 Positioning auxiliary strap, Delco-Light cell]

How to Eliminate Burning on Straps by Use of an Auxiliary Strap

A very good way to repair broken straps without the burning operation is to use the auxiliary strap shown in Fig. 320. This strap is slipped over the post of the terminal or strap which is broken and the sealing nut is then clamped down on the strap, as shown in Fig. 321. These straps may be obtained from the Delco-Light Distributors or from the Delco-Light factory at Dayton, Ohio.

Burning on New Plates

[Fig. 322 Burning on outside negative plate, Delco-Light cell]

When it is necessary to burn on new plates, carefully clean with a file the lead on both the plate and the common strap to which all plates of the group are attached. Block up the plate with thin boards or wood separators until it is spaced the proper distance from the adjacent plate. Care should be taken to see that the side and bottom edge of the plate to be burned on is in line with the other plates of the group. Proceed to burn on the plate by drawing a small blaze or are and do not attempt to burn with just a glowing carbon. (Fig. 322.)

If only a glowing carbon is used the result will be a smeary mass and in the majority of cases will not hold, due to the fact that it is not welded but simply attached in one or two points.

The principle of lead burning is to weld or burn two parts into one solid mass and not merely attach one to the other.

Keeping Wood Separators In Stock

No wood separators should be used except those furnished by the Delco-Light Company. These should be kept in distilled water, to which has been added 1.220 electrolyte in the proportion of one part to ten parts of water. It is advisable whenever possible to use new separators when making repairs on a cell. Separators which have been in service are liable to be damaged by handling.

Freezing Temperature of Electrolyte

The freezing temperatures of electrolyte in the Delco-Light batteries depends upon the specific gravity of the battery. The Delco-Light battery fully charged, with a specific gravity of 1.220, should not freeze above a temperature of 30 degrees below zero. Since, however, the freezing point rises very rapidly with a decrease in specific gravity, special care should be taken to keep batteries charged when temperatures below zero are encountered. The following table shows freezing temperatures of several different gravities of electrolyte.

Specific Gravity Freezing Point ———————— ——————— 1.100 19 deg. F. above zero. 1.150 5 deg. F. above zero. 1.175 6 deg. F. below zero. 1.200 16 deg. F. below zero. 1.220 31 deg. F. below zero.

At the temperature given, the electrolyte does not freeze solid, but forms a slushy mass of crystals, which does not always result in jar breakage.

Care of Cells in Stock

Frequently a Dealer or Distributor will have several sets of new batteries in stock for five or six months. In this case, the cells should be given a freshening charge before putting into service. This charge should consist of charging the cells to maximum gravity.

Cells received broken in transit or cells sent in for repairs should be repaired and charged as soon as possible and put into service immediately. This eliminates the possibility of the cells standing idle over a long period in which they would need a freshening charge before they could be used.

However, if such cells must be kept in stock, they can be maintained in a healthy condition by keeping on charge at a one fifth ampere rate for 13-plate cells and one-tenth ampere rate for 7-plate cells.

Taking Batteries Out of Commission

If a battery is not to be used at all for a period not longer than about 9 months, it can be left idle if it is first treated as follows: Add sufficient water to bring the electrolyte up to the water line in all cells and then give an equalizing charge, continuing the charge until the specific gravity of each cell is at a maximum, five consecutive hourly readings showing no rise in gravity. As soon as this charge is completed, take out the battery fuse and open up one or two of the connections between cells so that no current can be taken from the battery. Have vent plugs in place to minimize evaporation.

If the battery is to be taken out of commission for a longer time than 9 months, the battery should be fully charged as above and the electrolyte poured off into suitable glass or porcelain receptacles. The plates should immediately be covered with water for a few hours to prevent the negatives heating, after which the separators should be removed, the water poured out of the jars, and the positive and negative groups placed back in the jar for storage. Examine the separators. If they are cracked or split they should be thrown away. If in good condition they should be stored for further use in a non-metallic receptacle and covered with water, to which has been added electrolyte of 1.220 specific gravity, in the proportion of one part electrolyte to ten of water by volume.

Putting Batteries Into Commission After Being Out of Service

When putting batteries into commission again, if the electrolyte has not been withdrawn, all that is necessary is to add water to the cells if needed, replace connections, and give an equalizing charge.

If the electrolyte has been withdrawn and battery disassembled, it should be reassembled, taking care not to use cracked, split or dried-out separators, and then the cells should be filled with the old electrolyte, which has been saved, provided no impurity has entered the electrolyte. After filling, allow the battery to stand for 12 hours and then charge, using 6 amperes for KXG-7 size and 12 amperes for the KXG-13 size. Charge at this rate until all cells start gassing freely or temperature rises to 110 deg. F. Then reduce the charging rate one-half, and continue at this rate until the specific gravity is at a maximum, five consecutive hourly readings showing no rise in gravity. At least 40 hours will be required for this charge. To obtain these low rates with the Delco-Light plant, lights or other current-consuming devices must be turned on while charging.

General Complaints from Users and How to Handle Them.

1. Pilot balls do not come up.

This condition may be caused by

(a) Battery discharged. (b) Weak electrolyte caused by spillage in shipment. (c) Defective ball.

Question the user to determine whether the ball will not come up if the pilot cell is bubbling freely. Weak electrolyte or a defective ball will require a service trip to determine the one which is responsible for the ball not rising. (See page 470.)

2. Lights dim-must charge daily.

This condition may be caused by

(a) Discharged battery. (b) Loose dirty connections in battery or line. (c) Low cells in battery.

The user should be questioned to determine whether the battery is being charged sufficiently. In case the user is positive the battery is charged, the next probable trouble would be that there were some loose or dirty connections in either plant or battery. Have the user check for loose connections. Should it be necessary to make an inspection trip, instruct the user to give battery an equalizing charge so the battery will be fully charged when the inspection is made.

Low cells can be checked by asking the user if all of the cells bubble freely when equalizing charge is given. In case user claims several cells fail to bubble, an inspection trip would be necessary to determine the trouble. (See page 470.)

3. Cells bubbling when on discharge.

This complaint would indicate a reversed cell. (See page 483.)

4. Cells overflowing on charge.

This would mean that the cells were filled too high above water lines.

5. Engine cranks slowly but does not fire.

This would indicate over-discharged battery. Explain to user how to start plant under this condition.

6. Plant will not crank.

This might be caused by

(a) Blown battery fuse. (b) Battery over-discharged. (c) Loose or broken connection on battery or switchboard.

OTHER EXIDE FARM LIGHTING BATTERIES

The Exide type is shown in Figure 296. The plates are held in position both by the cover and by soft rubber support pieces in the bottom of the jar. The support pieces are provided with holes in which projections on the bottom of the plates are inserted. The cover is of heavy moulded glass. The separators are of grooved wood in combination with a slotted rubber sheet (Fig. 297). The strap posts are threaded and are clamped to the cover by means of alloy nuts. The cover overlaps the top of the jar to which it is sealed with sealing compound. The method of sealing and unsealing is practically the same as in the Exide Delco-Light Type.

Batteries with Open Glass Jars

Batteries with open glass jars, in addition to the conducting lug, have two hanging lugs for each plate. The plates are hung from the jar walls by these hanging lugs, as shown in Figs. 323 and 324. The plate straps, instead of being horizontal are vertical and provided with a tail so that adjacent cells may be bolted together by bolt connectors through the end of the tail.

1. The Exide Cell is shown in Fig. 324. It has a grooved wood separator between each positive and negative plate. The separators are kept from floating up by a glass "hold-down" laid across the top. The separators are provided at the top with a pin which rests on the adjoining plates. The pins together with the plate glass hold-downs keep the separators in Position.

To remove an element it is simply necessary to unbolt the connectors, remove the glass cover and hold-down and lift wit the element.

2. The Chloride Accumulator cell is shown in Fig. 323. It differs from the Exide only in type of plates and separators. The positive plates are known as Manchester positives and have the active material in the form of corrugated buttons which are held in a thick grid, as shown in Fig. 325. The buttons are brown in color, the same as all positive active material.

The separators, instead of being grooved wood, am each a sheet of wood with six dowels pinned to it.

The element is removed the same as in the Exide type.

[Fig. 323 Exide chloride accumulator cell with open glass jar, and Fig. 324 Exide cell with open glass jar]

Batteries with Sealed Rubber Jars

1. The Exide cell is shown in Fig. 326. It is assembled similar to Exide starting and lighting batteries, except that the plates are considerably thicker, wood and rubber separators are used, and the terminal posts are shaped to provide for bolted instead of burned-on connection. The method of sealing and unsealing the cells is the same as in Exide starting and lighting batteries.

All instructions already given for glass for cells apply to rubber jar cells except for a few differences in assembling and disassembling.

Care should be taken to keep the water level at least 1/2 inch above plates at all times as the evaporation is very rapid in rubber jar cells.

The temperature should be watched on charging to prevent overheating. Never allow temperature to go above 110 deg. F.

Unlike the glass jar cells the sediment space in the rubber jar is not sufficient to take care of all the active material in the positive plates. On repairs, therefore, always clean out the sediment and prevent premature short circuits.

[Fig. 325 Manchester positive plates, and Fig. 326 Exide cell with sealed rubber jar]

WESTINGHOUSE FARM LIGHTING BATTERIES

Jars. Westinghouse Farm Lighting Battery jars are made of glass, with a 5/16 inch wall. The jars are pressed with the supporting ribs for the elements an integral part from a mass of molten glass. A heavy flange is pressed around the upper edge to strengthen the jar.

Top Construction. A sealed-in cover is used similar to that used in starting and lighting batteries. The opening around the post hole is sealed with compound.

Plates. Pasted plates are used. The positives are 1/4 inch thick, and the negatives 3/16 inch. Posts are 13/16 inch in diameter.

Separators. A combination of wood and perforated rubber sheets is used.

Opening and Setting-Up Westinghouse Farm Lighting Batteries

[Fig. 327 Westinghouse farm lighting cell]

It is preferable that the temperature never exceed 100 deg. Fahrenheit nor fall below 10 deg. in the place where the battery is set up. If the temperature is liable to drop below 10 degrees the battery should be kept in a fully charged condition.

1. Remove all excelsior and the other packing material from the top of the cells. Take cells out carefully and set on the floor. Do not drop or handle roughly. Be sure to remove the lead top connectors from each compartment.

2. Cells should be placed 1/4 inch apart. Also, cells should be placed alternately so that positive post of one cell is adjacent to negative post of the next cell. Positive post has "V" shape shoulder and the negative post has a square shoulder.

3. Grease all posts, straps and nuts with vaseline.

4. Connect positive posts of each cell to negative post of adjacent cell, using top connectors furnished. Top connectors are made so as to fit when connection is made between positive post of one cell and negative post of next cell. Use long connector between end cells of upper and lower shelves.

5. With all connections between cells in position, join the remaining positive post with a connection marked "Positive" leading from the electric generator. Do likewise with the remaining negative post.

6. If liquid level in any cell is 1 inch or more below the "Liquid Line" on side of glass jar, some liquid has been spilled and must be replaced. This should be done by an experienced person.

7. Immediately after installation operate electric generator and charge battery until gas bubbles rise freely through the liquid in all cells. A reading with the hydrometer syringe which is furnished with the battery should be taken, When the hydrometer float reads between 1.240 and 1.250, the battery is fully charged.

8. The time required to complete the charging operation mentioned above may vary from one to several hours, depending upon the length of time the battery has been in transit. During the charge the temperature of the cells should not be permitted to rise above 110 deg. Fahrenheit. If this condition occurs discontinue the charge or decrease the charge rate until cells have cooled off.

9. When charge is complete replace vent plugs.

The Relation Between Various Sizes of Westinghouse Farm Light Batteries and Work to be Done

The size of the battery furnished with complete farm lighting units vary greatly. Sometimes the battery size is varied with the size of the engine and generator, while again the same size of battery may be used for several sizes of engines and generators. In making replacements, while it is always necessary to retain the same number of cells, it is not necessary to retain the same size of cells.

Usually increasing the cell size increases the convenience to the owner and prolongs the life of the battery to an amount which warrants the higher cost.

With a larger battery, danger of injury through overcharging is lessened, the load on the battery is more easily carried and the engine and generator operate less frequently.

In order to give an idea of various battery capacities, below is a table showing the number of 32 volt, 25-watt lamps which may be lighted for various lengths of time from sixteen cells. The number of hours shows the length of time that the lamps will operate.

Table A

Type 3 Hours 5 Hours 8 Hours —— ———- ———- ———- G-7 22 Lamps 14 Lamps 10 Lamps G-9 28 Lamps 19 Lamps 13 Lamps G-11 32 Lamps 24 Lamps 15 Lamps G-13 41 Lamps 29 Lamps 19 Lamps G-15 47 Lamps 33 Lamps 22 Lamps G-17 54 Lamps 38 Lamps 25 Lamps

Note:—Based on 32-Volt 25-Watt Lamps.

For example—The table shows opposite G-7 that, with the battery fully charged, twenty-two lamps may be lighted for three hours, fourteen lamps for five hours and ten lamps for eight hours, by a sixteen cell G-7 battery, without operating the engine and generator.

Motors for operating various household and farm appliances are usually rated either in horsepower or watts. The following table will give a comparison between horse-power and watts as well as the number of 25-watt lamps to which these different sizes of motors and appliances correspond.

Table B

H.P. of Motor No. of Watts Corresponding No. of 25-Watt Lamps ——————- —————— —————————— 1/8 93 4 1/4 185 7 1/2 373 15 3/4 559 22 1 H.P. 746 30

From table B it will be seen, for example, that a one horsepower motor draws from the battery 373 watts or the same power as do fifteen 25-watt lamps. Then referring to table A, it will be found that a G-11 battery could operate 15 lamps or this motor alone for 8 hours.

Due to the fact that a motor or electric appliance may become overloaded and therefore actually use many more watts than the name plate indicates, it is not advisable to operate any motor of over 1/4 H. P. or even an appliance of over 186 watts on the G-13 or smaller sizes unless the engine and generator are running.

It is safe, however, to operate motors or other appliances up to 375 watts on the G-15 or G-17 batteries without operating the engine and generator.

WILLARD FARM LIGHTING BATTERIES

[Fig. 328 Willard Farm Lighting Cell]

The Willard Storage Battery Co. manufactures farm lighting batteries which use sealed glass jars, or sealed rubber jars. Those using the sealed glass jars include types PH and PA. The sealed rubber jar batteries include types EM, EEW, IPR, SMW, and SEW. Both types of batteries are shipped fully charged and filled with electrolyte, and also dry, without electrolyte. The following instructions cover the installation and preparation for service of these batteries.

Glass Jar Batteries. Fully Charged and Filled With Electrolyte

Each sixteen cell set of batteries is packed in two shipping crates.

One crate, which is stenciled "No. 1" contains:

* 8 Cells. * 18 Bolt Connectors. * 1 Hydrometer Syringe. * 1 Instruction Book.

The other crate which is stenciled "No. 2" contains: 8 Cells

(NOTE:—If the batteries are re-shipped by the manufacturer or distributor, care must be exercised to see that they are sent out in sets.)

Unpacking

Remove the boards from the tops of the shipping crates and the excelsior which is above the cells.

To straighten the long top connector, grasp the strap firmly with the left hand close to the pillar post and raise the outer end of the strap until it is in an upright position. Do not make a short bend near the pillar post. Lift the cells from the case by grasping the glass jars. Do not attempt to lift them by means of the top connectors.

Clean the outside of the cells by wiping with a damp cloth.

Inspection of Cells.

Inspect each cell to see if the level of the electrolyte is at the proper height. This is indicated on the jar by a line marked LIQUID LINE.

If the electrolyte is simply a little low and there is no evidence of any having been spilled (examine packing material for discoloration) add distilled or clean rain water to bring the level to the proper height.

If the liquid does not cover the plates and the packing material is discolored, it indicates that some or all of the electrolyte has been lost from the cell either on account of a cracked jar or overturning of the battery.

If only a small quantity of electrolyte is lost through spilling, the cell should be filled to the proper height with electrolyte of the same specific gravity as in the other cells. This cell should then be charged until the gravity has ceased rising. If all the electrolyte is lost write to the Willard Storage Battery Co., Cleveland, Ohio, for instructions.

Connecting the Cells

Each cell of the type PH battery is a complete unit, sealed in a glass jar. The cells are to be placed side by side on the battery rack so that the positive terminal of one cell (long connecting strap) can be connected to the negative terminal (short strap) of the adjacent cell.

Join the positive terminal of one cell to the negative terminal of the adjacent cell and continue this procedure until all the cells are connected together. This will leave one positive and one negative terminal of the battery to be connected respectively to the positive and negative wires from the switchboard. The bend in the top connector should be made about one inch above the pillar post to eliminate the danger of breakage at the post.

In tightening the bolts do not use excessive force, as there is liability of stripping the threads.

Give the battery a freshening charge before it is put in service. Type PH cells have a gravity of 1.250 when fully charged, and 1.185 when discharged.

Willard Glass Jar Batteries Shipped "Knock-Down."

Each sixteen cell set of Batteries consists of:

16 Glass Jars. 16 Positive Groups. 16 Negative Groups. 16 Covers. 16 Vent Plugs. 32 Lead Collars. 32 Lead Keys. 32 Soft Rubber Washers. 32 Hard Rubber Rods. 64 Hard Rubber Nuts. 18 Bolt Connectors. Wood Insulators (the quantity depends upon the size of the cells). Sealing Compound. Hydrometer. Instruction Books.

Electrolyte is not supplied with batteries shipped in a knockdown condition.

Examine all packing material carefully and check the parts with the above list.

Cleaning the Glass Jars

Wash the glass jars and wipe them dry.

Preparing the Covers

Wash the covers and scrub around the under edge to remove all dust. After they are thoroughly dry place them upside down on a bench.

Melt the sealing compound and pour it around the outer edge to make a fillet in the groove.

Assembling the Element and Separators

Place the plates of a positive group between the plates of a negative group and lay the element thus formed on its edge, as shown in Fig. 329.

[Fig. 329 Inserting Separators, Willard farm lighting cell]

[Fig. 330 and Fig. 331 Fastening cover to posts, Willard farm lighting cell]

Next insert a wood separator between each of the positive and negative plates.

Next insert the hard rubber rods through the holes in the lugs of the end negative plates, and screw on the nuts. Do not screw the nuts so tight as to make the plates bulge out at the center. The rod should project the same amount on each side of the element.

Place the element in a vertical position.

The cover can now be placed over the posts. Slip a rubber washer and a lead collar over each post. The two key holes in the lead collar are unequal in size. The collar must be placed over the post so that the end which measures 3/16 inch from the bottom of the holes to the end of the collar will be next to the rubber washer. Dip the lead key in water and then put it through the holes, having the straight edge of the key on the bottom side. This operation can easily be done by using a pair of tongs (see Figs. 330 and 331) to compress the washer. After the keys are driven tight they can be cut off with a pair of end cutters and then smoothed with a file.

Sealing Element Assembly in Jar

[Fig. 332 Sealing Element Assembly, Willard farm lighting cell]

Turn the element upside down and place over a block of wood so that the weight is supported by the cover. (See Fig. 332.)

Heat the sealing compound by means of a flame (a blow torch will answer the purpose), and place the jar over the element, as shown in Fig. 331. The jar should be firmly pressed down into the compound. With a hot putty knife, clean off any compound which has oozed out of the joint. The assembled cell can now be turned to an upright position.

In case it is necessary to remove a cover, heat a wide putty knife and run it around the edge between the cover and the glass jar. This will soften the compound so that the cover can be pried off.

If it is necessary to remove the cover from the posts, the keys must be driven out by pounding on the small end, as the keys are tapered-and the holes in the lead collars are unequal in size.



Filling with Electrolyte

Fill the cells with 1.260 specific gravity electrolyte at 70 deg. F. to the LIQUID LINE marked on the glass jars. (About I inch above the top edge of separators.) Allow the cells to stand 12 hours, and if the level of the electrolyte has lowered, add sufficient electrolyte to bring it to the proper height.

Initial Charge

Connect the positive terminal (long strap) of one cell to the negative terminal (short strap) of the adjacent cell and continue this procedure until all the cells are connected together. This will leave one positive and one negative terminal to be connected respectively to the positive and negative wires from the charging source.

The bends in the top terminal connectors should be made about one inch above the pillar posts to eliminate the danger of breakage at the post.

In tightening the bolts, do not use excessive force, as there is liability of stripping the threads.

After the cells have stood for 12 hours with electrolyte in the jars, they should be put on charge at the following rates:

Type Amperes —— ———- PH-7 4 PH-9 5 PH-11 6-1/4 PH-13 7-1/2 PH-15 9 PH-17 10

They should be left on charge continuously until the specific gravity of the electrolyte reaches a maximum and remains constant for six hours. At this point, each cell should be gassing freely and the voltage should read about 2.45 volts per cell, with the above current flowing.

Under normal conditions it will require approximately 80 hours to complete the initial charge. The final gravity will be approximately 1.250. If the gravity is above this value, remove a little electrolyte and add the same amount of distilled water.

If the gravity is too low, remove a little of the electrolyte and add the same amount of 1.400 specific gravity acid and leave on charge as before.

After either water or acid has been added, charge the cells three hours longer in order to thoroughly mix the solution, and if at the end of that time the gravity is between 1.245 and 1.255, the cells are ready for service.

It is very important that the initial charge be continued until the specific gravity reaches a maximum value, regardless of the length of time required. The battery must not be discharged until the initial charge has been completed.

If it is impossible to charge the battery continuously, the charge can be stopped over night, but must be resumed the next day.

It is preferable to charge the battery at the ampere rate given above, but if this cannot be done, the temperature must be carefully watched so that it does not exceed 110 deg. F.

Wilard Rubber Jar Batteries Shipped Completely Charged and Filled with Electrolyte

Immediately upon receipt of battery, remove the soft rubber nipples and unscrew the vent plugs.

The soft rubber nipples are to be discarded, as they are used only for protection during shipment. Inspect each cell to see whether the electrolyte is at the proper height.

If the electrolyte is simply a little low and there is no evidence of any having been spilled (examine packing material for discoloration), add distilled water to bring the level to the proper height.

If electrolyte does not cover the plates and the packing material is discolored, it indicates that some or all of the electrolyte has been lost from the cell, either on account of cracked jar or overturning of the battery.

If only a small quantity of electrolyte is lost through spilling, the cell should be filled to the proper height with electrolyte of the same specific gravity as in the other cells. This cell should then be charged until the gravity has ceased rising, If all the electrolyte is lost, write to the Willard Storage Battery Co., Cleveland, Ohio, for instructions.

Place batteries on rack and connect the positive terminal of one crate to the negative terminal of the next crate, using the jumpers furnished.

The main battery wires from the switch board should be soldered to the pigtail terminals, which can then be bolted to the battery terminals. Be sure to have the positive and negative battery terminals connected respectively to the positive and negative generator terminals of switchboard.

Before using the battery, it should be given a freshening charge at the rate given on page 510.

The specific gravity of the rubber jar batteries is 1.285-1.300 when fully charged, and 1.160 when discharged.

Willard Rubber Jar Batteries Shipped Dry (Export Batteries)

Batteries which have been prepared for export must be given the following treatment:

Upon receipt of battery by customer, the special soft rubber nipples, used on the batteries for shipping purposes only, should be removed and discarded.

Types SMW and SEW batteries should at once be filled to bottom of vent hole with 1.285 specific gravity electrolyte at 70 deg. F.

In mixing electrolyte, the acid should be poured into the water and allowed to cool below 90 deg. F. before being put into the cells. If electrolyte is shipped with the battery, it is of the proper gravity to put into the cells.

Immediately after the batteries are filled with electrolyte, they must be placed on charge at one half the normal charging rate given on page 510, and should be left on charge continuously until the specific gravity of the electrolyte stops rising. At this point, each cell should be gassing freely and the voltage should read at least 2.40 volts per cell with one-half the normal charging current flowing.

If during the charge the temperature of the electrolyte in any one cell exceeds 105 deg. F., the current must be reduced until the temperature is below 90 deg. F. This will necessitate a longer time to complete the charge, but must be strictly adhered to.

Under normal conditions it will require approximately 80 hours to complete the initial charge. The final gravity of the types SMW and SEW will be approximately 1.285. If the gravity is above this value, remove a little electrolyte and add same amount of distilled water while the battery is left charging (in order to thoroughly mix the solution), and after three hours, if the electrolyte is within the limits, the cell is ready for service. If the specific gravity is below these values, remove a little electrolyte and add same amount of 1.400 specific gravity electrolyte. Leave on charge as before. The acid should be poured into the water and allowed to cool below 90 deg. P. before being used. The batteries are then ready for service.

Installing Counter Electromotive Force Cells

Counter EMF cells, if used with a battery, are installed in the same manner as regular cells. They are connected positive to negative, the same as regular cells, but the negative terminal of the CEMF group is to be connected to the negative terminal of the regular cell group. The positive terminal of the counter CEMF group is then to be connected to the switchboard.

[Image: Table of charge and discharge rates for different types of batteries, Willard farm lighting batteries]

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Definitions and Descriptions of Terms and Parts ———————————————-

Acid. As used in this book refers to sulphuric acid (H2SO4), the active component of the electrolyte, or a mixture of sulphuric acid and water.

Active Material. The active portion of the battery plates; peroxide of lead on the positives and spongy metallic lead on the negatives.

Alloy. As used in battery practice, a homogeneous combination of lead and antimony.

Alternating Current. Electric current which does not flow in one direction only, like direct current, but rapidly reverses its direction or "alternates" in polarity so that it will not charge a battery.

Ampere. The unit of measure of the rate of flow of electric current.

Ampere Hour. The product resulting from multiplication of amperes flowing by time of flow in hours, e.g., a battery supplying 10 amperes for 8 hours gives 80 ampere hours. See note under "Volt?" for more complete explanation of current flow.

Battery. Two or more electrical cells, electrically connected so that combination furnishes current as a unit.

Battery Terminals. Devices attached to the positive post of one end cell and the negative of the other, by means of which the battery is connected to the car circuit.

Bridge (or Rib). Wedge-shaped vertical projection from bottom of rubber jar on which plates rest and by which they are supported.

Buckling. Warping or bending of the battery plates.

Burning. A term used to describe the operation of joining two pieces of lead by melting them at practically the same instant so they may run together as one continuous piece. Usually done with mixture of oxygen and hydrogen or acetylene gases, hydrogen and compressed air, or oxygen and illuminating gas.

Burning Strip. A convenient form of lead, in strips, for filling up the joint in making burned connections.

Cadmium. A metal used in about the shape of a pencil for obtaining voltage of positive or negative plates. It is dipped in the electrolyte but not allowed to come in contact with plates.

Capacity. The number of ampere hours a battery can supply at a given rate of current flow after being fully charged, e.g., a battery may be capable of supplying 10 amperes of current for 8 hours before it is exhausted. Its capacity is 80 ampere hours at the 8 hours rate of current flow. It is necessary to state the rate of flow, since same battery if discharged at 20 amperes would not last for 4 hours but for a shorter period, say 3 hours. Hence, its capacity at the 3 hour rate would be 3x2O=60 ampere hours.

Case. The containing box which holds the battery cells.

Cell. The battery unit, consisting of an element complete with electrolyte, in its jar with cover.

Charge. Passing direct current through a battery in the direction opposite to that of discharge, in order to put back the energy used on discharge.

Charge Rate. The proper rate of current to use in charging a battery from an outside source. It is expressed in amperes and varies for different sized cells.

Corrosion. The attack of metal parts by acid from the electrolyte; it is the result of lack of cleanliness.

Cover. The rubber cover which closes each individual cell; it is flanged for sealing compound to insure an effective seal.

Cycle. One charge and discharge.

Density. Specific gravity.

Developing. The first cycle or cycles of a new or rebuilt battery to bring about proper electrochemical conditions to give rated capacity.

Diffusion. Pertaining to movement of acid within the pores of plates. (See Equalization.)

Discharge. The flow of current from a battery through a circuit, opposite of "charge."

Dry. Term frequently applied to cell containing insufficient electrolyte. Also applied to certain conditions of shipment of batteries.

Electrolyte. The conducting fluid of electro-chemical devices; for lead-acid storage batteries it consists of about two parts of water to one of chemically pure sulphuric acid, by weight.

Element. Positive group, negative group and separators.

Equalization. The result of circulation and diffusion within the cell which accompanies charge and discharge. Difference in capacity at various rates is caused by the time required for this feature.

Equalizing. Term used to describe the making uniform of varying specific gravities in different cells of the same battery, by adding or removing water or electrolyte.

Evaporation. Loss of water from electrolyte from heat or charging.

Filling Plug. The plug which fits in and closes the orifice of the filling tube in the cell cover.

Finishing Rate. The current in amperes at which a battery may be charged for twenty-four hours or more. Also the charging rate used near the end of a charge when cells begin to gas.

Flooding. Overflowing through the filling tube.

Forming. Electro-chemical process of making pasted grid or other plate, types into storage battery plates. (Often confused with Developing.)

Foreign Material. Objectionable substances.

Freshening Charge. A charge given to a battery which has been standing idle, to keep it fully charged.

Gassing. The giving off of oxygen gas at positive plates and hydrogen at negatives, which begins when charge is something more than half completed-depending on the rate.

Generator System. An equipment including a generator for automatically recharging the battery, in contradistinction to a straight storage system where the battery has to be removed to be recharged.

Gravity. A contraction of the term "specific gravity," which means the density compared to water as a standard.

Grid. The metal framework of a plate, supporting the active material and provided with a lug for conducting the current and for attachment to the strap.

Group. A set of plates, either positive or negative, joined to a strap. Groups do not include separators.

Hold-Down. Device for keeping separators from floating or working up.

Hold-Down Clips. Brackets for the attachment of bolts for holding the battery securely in position on the car.

Hydrogen Flame. A very hot and clean flame of hydrogen gas and oxygen, acetylene, or compressed air used for making burned connections.

Hydrogen Generator. An apparatus for generating hydrogen gas for lead burning.

Hydrometer. An instrument for measuring the specific gravity of the electrolyte.

Hydrometer Syringe. A glass barrel enclosing a hydrometer and provided with a rubber bulb for drawing up electrolyte.

Jar. The hard rubber container holding the element and electrolyte.

Lead Burning. Making a joint by melting together the metal of the parts to be joined.

Lug. The extension from the top frame of each plate, connecting the plate to the strap.

Maximum Gravity. The highest specific gravity which the electrolyte will reach by continued charging, indicating that no acid remains in the plates.

Mud. (See Sediment.)

Negative. The terminal of a source of electrical energy as a cell, battery or generator through which current returns to complete circuit. Generally marked "Neg." or "-".

Ohm. The unit of electrical resistance. The smaller the wire conductor the greater is the resistance. Six hundred and sixty-five feet of No. 14 wire (size used in house lighting circuit) offers I ohm resistance to current flow.

Oil of Vitriol. Commercial name for concentrated sulphuric acid (1.835 specific gravity). This is never used in a battery and would quickly ruin it.

Over-Discharge. The carrying of discharge beyond proper cell voltage; shortens life if carried far enough and done frequently.

Paste. The mixture of lead oxide or spongy lead and other substances which is put into grids.

Plate. The combination of grid and paste properly "formed." Positive$ are reddish brown and negatives slate gray.

Polarity. An electrical condition. The positive terminal (or pole) of a cell or battery or electrical circuit is said to have positive polarity; the negative, negative polarity.

Positive. The terminal of a source of electrical energy as a cell, battery or generator from which the current flows. Generally marked "Pos." or "+".

Post. The portion of the strap extending through the cell cover, by means of which connection is made to the adjoining cell or to the car circuit.

Potential Difference. Abbreviated P. D. Found on test curves. Synonymous with voltage.

Rate. Number of amperes for charge or discharge. Also used to express time for either.

Rectifier. Apparatus for converting alternating current into direct current.

Resistance. Material (usually lamps or wire) of low conductivity inserted in a circuit to retard the flow of current. By varying the resistance, the amount of current can be regulated. Also the property of an electrical circuit whereby the flow of current is impeded. Resistance is measured in ohms. Analogous to the impediment offered by wall of a pipe to flow of water therein.

Rheostat. An electrical appliance used to raise or lower the resistance of a circuit and correspondingly to decrease or increase the current flowing.

Rib. (See Bridge.)

Ribbed. (See Separator.)

Reversal. Reversal of polarity of cell or battery, due to excessive discharge, or charging in the wrong direction.

Rubber Sheets. Thin, perforated hard rubber sheets used in combination with the wood separators in some types of batteries. They are placed between the grooved side of the wood separators and the positive plate.

Sealing. Making tight joints between jar and cover; usually with a black, thick, acid-proof compound.

Sediment. Loosened or worn out particles of active material fallen to the bottom of cells; frequently called "mud."

Sediment Space. That part of jar between bottom and top of bridge.

Separator. An insulator between plates of opposite polarity; usually of wood, rubber or combination of both. Separators are generally corrugated or ribbed to insure proper distance between plates and to avoid too great displacement of electrolyte.

Short Circuit. A metallic connection between the positive and negative plates within a cell. The plates may be in actual contact or material may lodge and bridge across. If the separators are in good condition, a short circuit is unlikely to occur.

Spacers. Wood strips used in some types to separate the cells in the case, and divided to provide a space for the tie bolts.

Specific Gravity. The density of the electrolyte compared to water as a standard. It indicates the strength and is measured by the hydrometer.

Spray. Fine particles of electrolyte carried up from the surface by gas bubbles. (See Gassing.)

Starting Rate. A specified current in amperes at which a discharged battery may be charged at the beginning of a charge. The starting rate is reduced to the finishing rate when the cells begin to gas. It is also reduced at any time during the charge if the temperature of the electrolyte rises to or above 110 deg. Fahrenheit.

Starvation. The result of giving insufficient charge in relation to the amount of discharge, resulting in poor service and injury to the battery.

Strap. The leaden casting to which the plates of a group are joined.

Sulphate. Common term for lead sulphate. (PbSO4.)

Sulphated. Term used to describe cells in an under-charged condition, from either over-discharging without corresponding long charges or from standing idle some time and being self discharged.

Sulphate Reading. A peculiarity of cell voltage when plates are considerably sulphated, where charging voltage shows abnormally high figures before dropping gradually to normal charging voltage.

Terminal. Part to which outside wires are connected.

Vent, Vent Plug or Vent-Cap. Hard or soft rubber part inserted in cover to retain atmospheric pressure within the cell, while preventing loss of electrolyte from spray. It allows gases formed in the cell to escape, prevents electrolyte from spilling, and keeps dirt out of the cell.

Volt. The commercial unit of pressure in an electric circuit. Voltage is measured by a voltmeter. Analogous to pressure or head of water flow through pipes. NOTE.—Just as increase of pressure causes more volume of water to flow through a given pipe so increase of voltage (by putting more cells in circuit) will cause more amperes of current to flow in same circuit. Decreasing size of pipes is increasing resistance and decreases flow of water, so also introduction of resistance in an electrical circuit decreases current flow with a given voltage or pressure.

Wall. Jar sides and ends.

Washing. Removal of sediment from cells after taking out elements; usually accompanied by rinsing of groups, replacement of wood separators and renewal of electrolyte.

Watt. The commercial unit of electrical power, and is the product of voltage of circuit by amperes flowing. One ampere flowing under pressure of one volt represents one watt of power.

Watt Hour. The unit of electrical work. It is the product of power expended by time of expenditure, e.g., 10 amperes flowing under 32 volts pressure for 8 hours gives 2560 watt hours.

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Index

A

Acetic acid from improperly treated separators 77 Acetylene and Compressed Air Lead-burning Outfit147 Acid Carboys 184 Acid. Handling and mixing 222 Acid. How lost while battery is on car 57 Acid. How to draw, from carboys 184 Acid should never be added to battery on car 57 Acid used instead of water 57 Active materials. Composition of 13 Active materials. Effect of quantity, porosity, and arrangement of, on capacity 42 Active materials. Resistance of 49 Age codes 242 Age of battery. Determining 242 Age of battery. Effect of, on capacity 47 Alcohol torch lead-burning outfit 148 Applying pastes to grids 11 Arc lead-burning outfit 148 Audion bulb for radio receiving sets 253

B

Battery box should be kept clean and dry 51 Battery carrier 173 Battery case (see Case). Battery steamer 158 Battery truck 173 Battery turntable 170 Bench charge 198 to 210 Bench charge. Arrangement of batteries for 200 Bench charge. Charging rates for 201 Bench charge. Conditions preventing batteries from charging 206 Bench charge. Conditions preventing gravity from rising 207 Bench charge. If battery becomes too hot 205 Bench charge. If battery will not hold a charge 208 Bench charge. If battery will not take half a charge 205 Bench charge. If current cannot be passed through battery 206 Bench charge. If electrolyte has a milky appearance 206 Bench charge. If gravity rises above 1.300 205 Bench charge. If gravity rises long before voltage does 205 Bench charge. If new battery will not charge 205 Bench charge. If one cell will not charge 205 Bench charge. If vinegar-like odor is detected 205 Bench charge. Leave vent-plugs in when charging 209 Bench charge. Level of electrolyte at end of 203 Bench charge. Painting case after 203 Bench charge. Specific gravity at end of 203 Bench charge. Specific gravity will not rise to 1.280 204 Bench charge. Suggestions for 209 Bench charge. Temperatures of batteries during 202 Bench charge. Time required for 203 Bench charge. Troubles arising during 204 Bench charge. Voltage at end of 203 Bench charge. When necessary 198 Bins for stock parts 158 Book-keeping records 302 (Omitted) "Bone-dry" batteries. Putting into service 229 Boxes for battery parts 183 Buckling 72 Buckling. Caused by charging at high rates 73 Buckling. Caused by continued operation in discharged condition 73 Buckling. Caused by defective grid alloy 73 Buckling. Caused by non-uniform current distribution 73 Buckling. Caused by overdischarge 73 Buckling does not necessarily cause trouble 73 Burning. (See Lead-Burning.) Burning-lead mould 164 Burning rack 162 Business methods 299 to 312 (Omitted)

C

Cadmium. What it is 176 Cadmium leads. Connection of, to voltmeter 179 Cadmium readings affected by improperly treated separators 181 Cadmium readings. Conditions necessary to obtain good negative-cadmium readings 210 Cadmium readings do not indicate capacity of a cell 175 Cadmium readings on short-circuited cells 180 Cadmium readings. Troubles shown by, on charge 206 Cadmium readings. When they should be taken 176 Cadmium test 174 Cadmium test. How made 175 Cadmium test on charging battery 181 Cadmium test on discharging battery 180 Cadmium test set. What it consists of 177 Cadmium test voltmeter 178 Calling for repair batteries 314 Capacity. Effect of age of battery on 47 and 89 Capacity. Effect of plate surface area on 42 Capacity. Effect of clogged separators on 88 Capacity. Effect of incorrect proportions of acid and acid in electrolyte on 88 Capacity. Effect of low level of electrolyte on 88 Capacity. Effect of operating conditions on 44 Capacity. Effect of quantity and strength of electrolyte on 42 Capacity. Effect of quantity, arrangement, and porosity of active materials on 42 Capacity. Effect of rate of discharge on 44 Capacity. Effect of reversal of plates on 89 Capacity. Effect of shedding on 88 Capacity. Effect of specific gravity on 43 Capacity. Effect of temperature on 46 Carbon-arc lead-burning outfit 148 Carboys 184 Care of battery on the car 51 to 68 Care of battery when not in service 67 Carrier for batteries 173 Case. Cleaning and painting, after repairs 372 Case manufacture 22 Case. Painting, after bench charge 203 Case. Repairing 360 Case. Troubles indicated by rotted 319 Case troubles 83 Cases. Equipment for work on 98 and 170 Casting plate grids 9 Cell connector mould 168 Cell connectors. Burning-on 213 Cell connectors. Equipment for work on 98 Cell connectors. How to remove 329 Changing pastes into active materials 12 Charge. (See Bench Charge.) Charge. Changes at negative plates during 30 and 39 Charge. Changes at positive plates during 30 and 40 Charge. Changes in acid density during 39 Charge. Changes in voltage during 38 Charge. Loss of, in an idle battery 89 Charge. Preliminary, in rebuilding batteries 349 Charge. Trickle 239 Charging bench133 to 139 Charging bench. Arrangement of batteries on 200 Charging bench. Temperature of batteries on 202 Charging bench. Working drawings of 134 to 139 Charging circuits. Drawings of 105 Charging connections. Making temporary 220 Charging. Constant potential 111 Charging equipment for farm lighting batteries 439 Charging equipment for starting batteries 100 Charging farm lighting batteries 455 Charging. Lamp-banks for 101 Charging. Motor-generators for 106 Charging rate. Adjusting 287 Charging rate. Checking 283 Charging rate. Governed by gassing 112 and 202 Charging rate. How and when to adjust 289 Charging rates for bench charge 112 and 201 Charging rates for new Exide batteries 226 Charging rates for new Philadelphia batteries 228 Charging rates for new Prest-O-Lite batteries 234 Charging rates on the car 283 Charging rebuilt batteries 373 Charging. Rheostats for 101 Chemical actions and electricity. Relations between 31 Chemical changes at the negatives during charge 30 Chemical changes at the positives during charge 30 Chemical changes at the negatives during discharge 29 Chemical changes at the positives during discharge 29 Chemical changes in the battery 27 to 31 Composition of jars 16 Composition of plate grids 9 Compound. Scraping, from covers and jars 334 Compressed air and hydrogen lead-burning outfit 147 Compressed air and illuminating gas lead-burning outfit 149 Condenser for making distilled water 160 Connections. Making temporary, for charging 220 Connectors. (See Cell Connectors.) Connector troubles 84 Constant-potential charging 111 Construction of plate grids 10 Convenient method of adding water 56 Corroded grids 77 Corroded grids. Caused by age 78 Corroded grids. Caused by high temperatures 78 Corroded grids. Caused by impurities 78 Corrosion 321 Covers. Eveready 17 Covers. Exide 19 and 21 Covers. Functions of 16 Covers. Gould 17 Covers. How to remove 331 Covers. Philadelphia diamond grid 16 Covers. Prest-O-Lite 18 and 19 Covers. Putting on the 365 Covers. Sealing 366 Covers. Single and double 16 Covers. Steaming 332 Covers. U.S.L. 18 and 20 Covers. Vesta 18 Covers. Westinghouse 417 Covers. Willard 19 Credit. Use and abuse of 301 (Omitted) Cutout. Checking action of 282? Cycling discharge tests 269

D

Dead cells. Causes of 87 Delco-Light batteries 466 Delco-Light batteries. Ampere-hour meter for 467 and 471 Delco-Light batteries. Burning-on new plates of 492 Delco-Light batteries. Burning-on new straps for 488 Delco-Light batteries. Care of cells of, in stock 493 Delco-Light batteries. Charging, after reassembling 481 Delco-Light batteries. Charging outside negatives of 484 Delco-Light batteries. Clearing high resistance shorts in 484 Delco-Light batteries. Clearing lug shorts in 484 Delco-Light batteries. Dis-assembling 474 Delco-Light batteries. Gauges and instruments for testing 466 Delco-Light batteries. General complaints from users of 495 Delco-Light batteries. Hydrometers for 468 Delco-Light batteries. Inspection trips 470 Delco-Light batteries. Pressing negatives of 485 Delco-Light batteries. Putting repaired cells into service 484 Delco-Light batteries. Re-assembling 477 Delco-Light batteries. Removing impurities from 483 Delco-Light batteries. Repairing broken posts of 487 Delco-Light batteries. Repairing lead parts of 486 Delco-Light batteries. Salvaging replaced cells of 486 Delco-Light batteries. Taking, out of commission 494 Delco-Light batteries. Treating broken cells of 482 Delco-Light batteries. Treating spilled cells of 482 Delco-Light batteries. Treating reversed cells of 483 Delco-Light batteries. Use of auxiliary straps with 492 Delco-Light batteries. When and how to charge 468 Discharge apparatus 270 Discharge. Changes at negative plates during 37 Discharge. Changes at positive plates during 37 Discharge. Changes in acid density during 35 Discharge. Chemical actions at negative plates during 29 Discharge. Chemical actions at positive plates during 29 Discharge. Effects of rates of, on capacity 44 Discharge. Voltage changes during 32 Discharge tests. Cycling 269 Discharge tests. Fifteen seconds 266 Discharge tests. Lighting ability 267 Discharge tests. Starting ability 267 Distilled water. Condenser for making 160 Dope electrolytes 59 and 199 Double covers. Sealing 366 Dry shipment of batteries 24 Dry storage 240 Dry storage batteries 265

E

Earthenware jars 184 Electrical system. Normal course of operation of 277 Electrical system. Testing the 276 Electrical system. Tests on, to be made by the repairman 279 Electrical system. Troubles in the 284 Electricity and chemical actions. Relation between 31 Electrolyte. Adjusting the 373 Electrolyte below tops of plates. Causes and results of 319 and 323 Electrolyte. Causes of milky appearance of 206 Electrolyte. Composition of 199 and 222 Electrolyte. Correct height of, above plates 55 Electrolyte. Effect of circulation of, on capacity 44 Electrolyte. Effect of low 67 Electrolyte. Effect of quantity and strength of, on capacity 42 Electrolyte. Freezing points of 67 Electrolyte. Leaking of, at top of cells 324 Electrolyte. Level of, at end of bench charge 203 Electrolyte. Resistance of 43 and 48 Electrolyte troubles. High gravity 85 Electrolyte troubles. High level 85 Electrolyte troubles. Low gravity 85 Electrolyte troubles. Low level 85 Electrolyte troubles. Milky appearance 85 Element. Tightening loose 363 Elements. Re-assembling 361 Equipment for discharge tests 270 Equipment for general work 98 Equipment for general work on connectors and terminals 98 Equipment for handling sealing compound 149 Equipment for lead-burning 97 Equipment for work on cases 98 and 170 Equipment needed in opening batteries 97 Equipment which is absolutely necessary 96 Eveready batteries. Claimed to be non-sulphating 401 Eveready batteries. Description of parts 404 Eveready batteries. Rebuilding 405 Examining and testing incoming batteries 317 Exide farm lighting batteries 466 to 498 Exide radio batteries 257 Exide starting batteries. Age code for 243 (Age code chart omitted) Exide starting batteries. Burning-on cell connectors of 382 Exide starting batteries. Capacities of 381 (Chart omitted) Exide starting batteries. Charging, after repairing 382 Exide starting batteries. Methods of holding jars of, in case 377 Exide starting batteries. Opening of 377 Exide starting batteries. Putting cells of, in case 382 Exide starting batteries. Putting jars of, in case 382 Exide starting batteries. Putting new, into service 225 Exide starting batteries. Re-assembling plates of 379 Exide starting batteries. Sealing single covers of 380 Exide starting batteries. Type numbers of 377 Exide starting batteries. Types of 375 Exide starting batteries. Work on plates, separators, jars, and cases of 379

F

Farm lighting batteries 435 to 510 Farm lighting batteries. Care of, in operation 453 Farm lighting batteries. Care of plant of, in operation 450 Farm lighting batteries. Charging 453? or (455) Farm lighting batteries. Charging equipment for 439 Farm lighting batteries. Determining condition of cells of 453 Farm lighting batteries. Difference between, and starting batteries 435 Farm lighting batteries. Discharge rules for 457 Farm lighting batteries. Exide 466 Farm lighting batteries. Initial charge of 448 Farm lighting batteries. Installation of plant 445 Farm lighting batteries. Instructing users of 449 Farm lighting batteries. Jars used in 436 Farm lighting batteries. Loads carried by 443 (Charts omitted) Farm lighting batteries. Location of plant 444 Farm lighting batteries. Overcharge of 455 Farm lighting batteries. Power consumed by appliances connected to 442 Farm lighting batteries. Prest-O-Lite 460 Farm lighting batteries. Selection of plant 440 Farm lighting batteries. Separators for 438 Farm lighting batteries. Size of plant required 442 Farm lighting batteries. Specific gravity of electrolyte of 438 Farm lighting batteries. Troubles with 458 Farm lighting batteries. When to charge 455 Farm lighting batteries. Wiring of plant for 444 Filling and testing service 291 Flames for lead-burning 211 Floor. Care of 188 Floor grating for shop 188 Floor of shop 186 Forming plates 11 Freezing points of electrolyte 67

G

Gassing causes shedding 74 Gassing. Charging rate governed by 112 and 202 Gassing. Definition of 31 Gassing. Excessive, causes milky appearance of electrolyte 86 Gassing of sulphated plates 40 and 75 Gassing on charge 37? and 202 Granulated negatives 78 Granulated negatives. Caused by age 78 Granulated negatives. Caused by heat 78 Gravity. (See Specific Gravity). Grids. Casting 9 Grids. Composition of 9 Grids. Corroded 77 Grids. Effect of age on 78 and 80 and 342? (344) Grids. Effect of defective grid alloy on 73 Grids. Effect of impurities on 77 and 78 and 80 and 342 Grids. Effect of overheating on 78 and 80 and 342? Grids. Resistance of 48 Grids. Trimming 10

H

Handling and mixing acid 222 Heating of negatives exposed to the air 78 High rate discharge testers 181 High rate discharge tests 266 and 267 and 374 Home-made batteries 25 Hydrogen and compressed air lead-burning outfit 147 Hydrogen and oxygen lead-burning outfit 146 Hydrometer. What it consists of 60 Hydrometer readings. Effect of temperature on 65 Hydrometer readings. How to take 61

I

Idle battery. Care of 67 Idle battery. How it becomes discharged 89 Idle battery. How it sulphates 70 Illuminating gas and compressed air lead-burning outfit 149 Impurities 76 Impurities which attack the plates 77 Impurities which cause self-discharge 76 Incoming batteries. Examining and testing 317 Incoming batteries. General inspection of 320 Incoming batteries. Operation tests on 320 Incoming batteries. When it is necessary to open 326 Incoming batteries. When it is necessary to remove from car 325 Incoming batteries. When it is unnecessary to open 325 Incoming batteries. When it is unnecessary to remove from car 324 Installing battery on the car 236 Internal resistance 48 to 50 Isolators 408 Inspection to determine height of electrolyte 55

J

Jars. Construction of 16 Jars. Filling with electrolyte 364 Jars for farm lighting batteries 436 Jars. Manufacture of 16 Jars. Materials used for 16 Jars. Removing defective 359 Jars. Testing, for leaks 356 Jars. Work on 356 Jar troubles caused by explosion in cell 83 Jar troubles caused by freezing 83 Jar troubles caused by improperly trimmed groups 83 Jar troubles caused by loose battery 82 Jar troubles caused by rough handling 82 Jar troubles caused by weights placed on top of battery 83

K

(No Entries)

L

Lead burning cell connectors 213 Lead burning. Classes of 211 Lead burning. Equipment for 97 and 143 Lead burning. General instructions for 210 to 220 Lead burning plates to straps 217 Lead burning terminals 213 Lead burning. Safety precautions for 213 Lead melting pots 220 Lead mould 164 Lead moulding instructions 220 Light for shop 187 and 190 Loose active material 75 Loose active material caused by buckling 76 Loose active material caused by overdischarge 75 Loss of capacity 88 Loss of charge in an idle battery 89 Lugs. Extending plate 219

M

Manufacture of batteries 9 to 26 Manufacture of batteries. Assembling and sealing 23 Manufacture of batteries. Auxiliary rubber separators 15 Manufacture of batteries. Cases 22 Manufacture of batteries. Casting the grid 9 Manufacture of batteries. Composition of the grid 9 Manufacture of batteries. Covers 16 Manufacture of batteries. Drying the pasted plates 12 Manufacture of batteries. Forming the plates 12 Manufacture of batteries. Home-made batteries 25 Manufacture of batteries. Jars 16 Manufacture of batteries. Materials used for separators 14 Manufacture of batteries. Mixing pastes 11 Manufacture of batteries. Paste formulas 11 Manufacture of batteries. Pasting plates 11 Manufacture of batteries. Philco slotted retainer 15 Manufacture of batteries. Post seal 16 Manufacture of batteries. Preparing batteries for dry shipment 24 Manufacture of batteries. Separators 14 Manufacture of batteries. Terminal connections 25 Manufacture of batteries. Treating separators 14 Manufacture of batteries. Trimming the grid 10 Manufacture of batteries. Vent plugs 22 Manufacture of batteries. Vesta impregnated mats 15 Mechanical rectifier 131 Melting pot for lead 220 Mercury-Arc rectifier 129 Milky electrolyte 206 Motor-generators 106 to 112 Motor-generators. Care of 110 Motor-generators. Operating charging circuits of 109 Motor-generators. Sizes for small and large shops 106 Motor-generators. Suggestions on 108 Moulding instructions 220 Moulding materials 220 Moulds. 164 to 170 Moulds for building up posts 165 Moulds for burning lead sticks 164 Moulds for cell connectors 168 Moulds for plate straps 167 and 169 Moulds for terminal screws 168

N

Negative plates. Changes at, during charge 39 Negative plates. Changes at, during discharge 37 Negatives. Bulged 79 Negatives. Granulated 78 Negatives. Heating of, when exposed to the air 78 Negatives with roughened surface 79 Negatives with softened active material 79 Negatives with hard active material 79 Negatives. Washing and pressing 351 New batteries. Putting, into service 224 Non-sulphating Eveready batteries 402

O

Open-circuits 86 Open-circuits. Caused by acid on soldered joints 86 Open-circuits. Caused by broken terminals 86 Open-circuits. Caused by poor lead burning 86 Opening batteries. Equipment needed in 97 Opening batteries. Heating sealing compound 332 Opening batteries. Instructions for 328 Opening batteries. Pulling elements out of jars 333 Opening batteries. Removing connectors and terminals 329 Opening batteries. Removing post-seal 331 Opening batteries. Scraping compound from covers 334 Opening batteries. When necessary 326 Opening batteries. When unnecessary 325 Operating conditions. Effect of, on capacity 44 Overdischarge causes sulphation 69 Oxides used for plate pastes 11 Oxygen and acetylene lead burning outfit 143 Oxygen and hydrogen lead burning outfit 146 Oxygen and illuminating gas lead burning outfit 146

P

Packing batteries for shipping 271 Painting case after bench charge 203 Paraffine dip pot 182 Paste formulas 11 Pastes. Applying to grids 11 Patent electrolytes 59 Philadelphia radio batteries 260 Philadelphia starting batteries. Age codes for 243 Philadelphia starting batteries. Old type post seal for 398 Philadelphia starting batteries. Putting new, into service 228 Philadelphia starting batteries. Rubber cases for 401 Philadelphia starting batteries. Rubber-Lockt seal 399 Philadelphia starting batteries. Separators for 402 Plante plates 27 Plante's work on the storage battery 27 Plate burning-rack 162 Plate lugs. Extending 219 Plate press 171 Plate strap mould 167 and 169 Plate surface area. Effect of, on capacity 42 Plate troubles 69 Plates. Burning, to straps 217 and 355 Plates charged in wrong direction 81 and 343 Plates. Examining, after opening battery 337 Plates. Sulphated 342 Plates. When old, may be used again 344 Plates. When to put in new 339 Positives. Buckled 80 and 341 Positives. Changes at, during charge 40 Positives. Changes at, during discharge 37 Positives. Frozen 80 and 339 Positives. Rotted, and disintegrated 80 and 341 Positives. Washing 354 Positives which have lost considerable active material 80 Positives with hard active material 81 Positives with soft active material. 80 Post builders 165 Post building instructions 218 Post seal 17 Post seal. Exide 19 Post seal. Philadelphia 399 Post seal. Prest-O-Lite 386 Post seal. Titan 434 Post seal. Universal 430 Post seal. U.S.L. 18 Post seal. Vesta 413 Post seal. Westinghouse 417 Post seal. Willard 424 to 428 Posts. Burning, to plates 217 Pots for melting lead 220 Pressing plates 171 Piest-O-Lite farm lighting batteries 460 Prest-O-Lite farm lighting batteries. Descriptions 460 Prest-O-Lite farm lighting batteries. Opening cells 464 Prest-O-Lite farm lighting batteries. Putting repaired cell into service 465 Prest-O-Lite farm lighting batteries. Rebuilding 464 Prest-O-Lite farm lighting batteries. Specific gravity of electrolyte 461 Prest-O-Lite radio batteries 262 Prest-O-Lite starting batteries. Age code for 244 (Omitted) Prest-O-Lite starting batteries. Peening instructions for 395 Prest-O-Lite starting batteries. Old style covers for 386 Prest-O-Lite starting batteries. Peened post seal for 386 Prest-O-Lite starting batteries. Peening posts of 391 and 394 Prest-O-Lite starting batteries. Peening press for 390 Prest-O-Lite starting batteries. Post locking outfit for 388 Prest-O-Lite starting batteries. Putting new into service 233 Prest-O-Lite starting batteries. Rebuilding posts of 393 Prest-O-Lite starting batteries. Removing covers from 392 Prest-O-Lite starting batteries. Tables of 396 (Omitted) Primary cell 5 Purchasing methods 299 (Omitted) Putting new batteries into service 224

Q

(No entries)

R

Radio audion bulb 253 Radio batteries 252 Radio batteries. Exide 257 Radio batteries. General features of 255 Radio batteries. Philadelphia 260 Radio batteries. Prest-O-Lite 262 Radio batteries. Universal 263 Radio batteries. U. S. L. 261 Radio batteries. Vesta 256 Radio batteries. Westinghouse 259 Radio batteries. Willard 257 Radio receiving sets. Types of 252 Rebuilding batteries 328 (to rest of chapter 15) Rebuilding batteries. Adjusting electrolyte 373 Rebuilding batteries. Burning-on cell connectors 371 Rebuilding batteries. Burning-on plates 355 Rebuilding batteries. Charging rebuilt batteries 373 Rebuilding batteries. Cleaning 329 Rebuilding batteries. Cleaning and painting the case 372 Rebuilding batteries. Determining repairs necessary 335 Rebuilding batteries. Eliminating short-circuits 348 Rebuilding batteries. Examining the plates 337 Rebuilding batteries. Filling jars with electrolyte 364 Rebuilding batteries. Heating sealing compound 332 Rebuilding batteries. High rate discharge test 374 Rebuilding batteries. Marking the repaired battery 372 Rebuilding batteries. Preliminary charge 349 Rebuilding batteries. Pressing negatives 351 Rebuilding batteries. Pulling plates out of jars 333 Rebuilding batteries. Putting elements in jars 362 Rebuilding batteries. Putting on the covers 365 Rebuilding batteries. Reassembling the elements 361 Rebuilding batteries. Removing connectors and terminals 329 Rebuilding batteries. Removing defective jars 359 Rebuilding batteries. Removing post seal 331 Rebuilding batteries. Repairing the case 360 Rebuilding batteries. Scraping compound from covers and jars 334 Rebuilding batteries. Sealing double covers 366 Rebuilding batteries. Sealing single covers 371 Rebuilding batteries. Testing jars 356 Rebuilding batteries. Tightening loose elements 363 Rebuilding batteries. Using 1.400 acid 364 Rebuilding batteries. Washing negatives 351 Rebuilding batteries. Washing positives 354 Rebuilding batteries. When old plates may be used again 344 Rebuilding batteries, When to put in new plates 339 Rebuilding batteries. Work on jars 356 Rectifier. Mechanical 131 Rectifier. Mercury are 129 Rectifier. Stahl 132 Rectifier. Tungar 113 Reinsulation 274 Relations between chemical actions and electricity 31 Rental batteries. General policy for 251 Rental batteries. Marking 249 and 296 Rental batteries. Record of 251 Rental batteries. Stock card for 297 (Omitted very simple chart) Rental batteries. Terminals for 248 Reversed plates 81 and 89 Reversed-series generator. Adjusting 290

S

S. A. E. ratings for batteries 45 Safety first rules 275 Safety precautions during lead-burning 213 Screw mould .... 168 Sealing around the posts 17 Sealing compound. Composition of 150 Sealing compound. Equipment for handling 149 Sealing compound. Heating with electricity 333 Sealing compound. Heating with gasoline torch 333 Sealing compound. Heating with hot water 332 Sealing compound. Heating with lead burning flame 333 Sealing compound. Heating with steam 332 Sealing compound. Instructions for heating properly 150 Sealing compound. Removing with hot putty knife 332 Secondary cell 5 Sediment. Effect of excessive 87 Separator cutter 171 Separator troubles 81 and 346 Separators for farm lighting batteries 438 Separators. Improperly treated, cause unsatisfactory negative-cadmium readings 181 Separators. Putting in new 274 Separators. Storing 273 Separators. Threaded rubber 430 Service records 293 Shedding 74 Shedding caused by charging only a portion of the plate 75 Shedding caused by charging sulphated plate at too high a rate 74 Shedding caused by excessive charging rate 74 Shedding caused by freezing 75 Shedding caused by overcharging 74 Shedding. Normal 74 Shedding. Result of 74 Shelving and racks 152 Shipping batteries 271 Shop equipment 95 Shop equipment for charging 100 Shop equipment for general work 98 Shop equipment for lead-burning 97 Shop equipment for opening batteries 97 Shop equipment for work on cases 98 Shop equipment for work on connectors and terminals 98 Shop equipment which is absolutely necessary 96 Shop floor 186 187? Shop layouts 187? 189 to 196 Shop light 190? 191 Short-circuits. Eliminating 348 Single covers. Scaling 371 Sink. Working drawings of 144 and 145 Specific gravity at end of bench charge 203 Specific gravity. Changes in, during charge 39 Specific gravity. Changes in, during discharge 35 Specific gravity. Definition of 60 Specific gravity. Effect of, on capacity 43 Specific gravity in farm lighting cells 438 Specific gravity. Limits of, during charge and discharge 43 Specific gravity rises above 1.300 205 Specific gravity rises long before voltage on charge 205 Specific gravity should be measured every two weeks 60 Specific gravity. What determines, of fully charged cell 438 Specific gravity. What different values of, indicate 60 Specific gravity. Why 1.280-1.300 indicates fully charged cell 43 Specific gravity will not rise to 1.280 204 Specific gravity readings. Effect of temperature on 65 Specific gravity readings. How to take 61 Specific gravity readings. If above 1.300 318 and 323 Specific gravity readings. If all above 1.200 318 Specific gravity readings. If below 1.150 in all cells 318 and 321? Specific gravity readings. If between 1.150 and 1.200 in all cells 318 and 321? Specific gravity readings. If unequal 318 and 322 Specific gravity readings. Troubles indicated by 63 Stahl rectifier 132 Starting ability discharge test 267 Steamer 158 Steps in the use of electricity on the automobile 1 Storage battery does not "store" electricity 6 Storage cell 5 Storing batteries dry 240 Storing batteries wet 239 Strap. Burning plates to 217 Strap mould 167 and 169 Sulphate. Effect of, on voltage during discharge 32 Sulphation. Caused by adding acid 72 Sulphation. Caused by battery standing idle 70 Sulphation. Caused by impurities 72 Sulphation. Caused by low electrolyte 71 Sulphation. Caused by overdischarge 69 Sulphation. Caused by overheating 72 Sulphation. Caused by starvation 71

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