The Art of the Exposition
by Eugen Neuhaus
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On the opposite side the westward trend of War, Commerce, Conquest, Imagination, and Religion from all corners of the earth is typified.

Mr. Simmons in all his work employs a very unusual technique of broken columns, without losing a certain desirable simplicity of surface. His allegorical theme on the north side will linger in the minds of the people as one of the best of the Exposition decorations, particularly for its graceful drawing.

It seems hardly possible to do adequate justice to the very unusual genius of Frank Brangwyn, who charms thousands of Exposition visitors with his eight panels, representing the Four Elements, in the Court of Abundance. Brangwyn's pictures have one great advantage over all of the others, which lies in their accessible location, well controlled by daylight. All the other decorations seem to me to be situated too high above the ground. Brangwyn's have no such disadvantage to contend with. How much more important, for instance, Mathews' lunette would look, placed somewhere nearer the level of the eye.

Brangwyn's canvases are a veritable riot of color, full of animation and life. They are almost dynamic. There seems to be something going on in all of them, all the time, and one hardly knows whether it is the composition, the color, or the subject, or all three, which gives them this very pronounced feeling of animation. He knows how to approach the extreme possibilities in pictorial decoration without losing sight of certain elements of repose. Seen from a distance, their effect at first is somewhat startling, owing to their new note, not reminiscent in the very least of the work of any other living - or past - painter. On closer examination they disclose a great wealth of form, very skillfully treated. There is every indication that it gave the artist the utmost pleasure to paint them. This spirit of personal enjoyment, which all of them convey in a remarkably sustained fashion, is contagious, and disarms all criticism. They are primarily great paintings in a technical sense. Added to that quality is a passionate love of pure color, juxtaposed with fine feeling for complementary colors of great intensity.

Brangwyn's glass window technique, of separation into many primary and secondary colors by many broad contrasts of neutral browns and grays, is very effective in bringing a feeling of harmony in all of his paintings, no matter how intense their individual color notes may be.

His pictures are not intellectual in the least, and all of the people in his pictures are animals, more or less, and merely interested in having a square meal and being permitted to enjoy life in general, to the fullest extent.

The quality of enjoyment that runs through all of Brangwyn's work is extremely useful in the general atmosphere of Mullgardt's court. In the northwest corner, Nature is represented, in all the fecundity of the earth. Only in our wildest dreams, and only in the advertisements of California farm lands and orchards, do such grapes, pumpkins, pears, and apples exist.

The picture to the left shows the grape-treaders, in the old-fashioned and unhygienic practice of crushing grapes by dancing on them in enormous vats. Others are seen gathering and delivering more grapes. As in the other picture, showing the harvest of fruit, more people are shown. Brangwyn never hesitates to use great numbers of people, which seem to give him no trouble whatever in their modeling and characterization.

Following on to the right, "Fire," represented as the primitive fire and as industrial fire, in two pictures, continues the scheme. That group of squatting woodmen carefully nursing a little fire is almost comical, with their extended cheeks, and one can almost feel the effort of their lungs in the strained anatomy of their backs. There does not seem to be anything too difficult for Brangwyn. "Industrial Fire" is interesting from the decorative note of many pieces of pottery in the foreground. They seem to have come from the kiln which muscular men are attending.

"Water" is unusually graceful and delicate in its vertical arrangement of trees and the curve of the fountain stream, coming from the side of a hill. Women, children, and men have congregated, taking their turn in filling all sorts of vessels, some carried on their heads, some in their arms. Brangwyn's clever treatment of zological and botanical detail is well shown in flowers in the foreground, such as foxglove and freesia, and the graceful forms of a pair of pinkish flamingoes. In the other panel of the same subject, a group of men on the shore are hauling in their nets.

The last of the four, "Air," represents this element in two totally different ways; the one on the left gives the more tender, gentle movement of this element, in the suggestion of the scent of the bowmen screened by trees, moving toward their prospective prey, while the other very bold composition is of a windmill turned away from the destructive power of an impending windstorm. In the foreground people are rushed along by gusts of wind, while children, unaware of the impending storm, are flying kites.

The masterful and varied treatment of these eight canvases show Brangwyn as the great painter he is known to be. We should rejoice to have such excellent examples of his brush permanently with us.

While not exactly belonging to the number of official decorations, Edward Trumbull's wall paintings in the unique Pennsylvania building are of great interest. Thoroughly dignified in their composition, they are most descriptive in their subject-matter. The "Pennsylvania Industries" are on the west side and "Penn's Treaty with the Indians" on the other. It is evident that Trumbull is a disciple of Brangwyn, though a personal note is not lacking in his work.

The tea-room of the California building harbors some mural decorations by Miss Florence Lundborg which the male part of the population can enjoy only by special invitation. I regret that they are not placed somewhere where the casual Exposition stroller can see them, because they are deserving of more attention than they are apt to receive. Miss Lundborg's artistic contributions have for many years been along the lines of decorations and in this big, well-composed figural scheme she discloses again a very fine, sympathetic understanding of the problems of a wall decoration. The color scheme is very refreshing and gives life to a large hall which has been endowed with unusual distinction by Miss Lundborg's art. A number of decorative floral medallions complete a scheme which is characterized throughout by dignity and sympathy.

The Illumination Conclusion

While a daytime investigation of the Exposition no doubt has its rewards, the full meaning of the Exposition reveals itself at night. Never before has an Exposition been illuminated in the unique fashion of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition.

Former exposition lighting consisted of a lavish display of lighting fixtures, and of unavoidable millions of glaring bulbs, the number of which nobody was permitted to forget. The offensive glare of the direct light had to be eliminated to preserve that feeling of tonality, of restfulness, so impressive in daytime. In other words, the sources of all lights at night have been concealed, or so concentrated that they could be far removed, so as not directly to offend the eye. The effect is very much like the flood of light of a full-moon summer night.

In speaking of the rich mellowness of the lighting effect, one feels again compelled to speak of the travertine stucco as the artistic foundation of not only the architecture, sculpture, painting, and landscape garden effects, but also of the illuminating effects designed by Mr. W. D'A. Ryan, and executed by Mr. Guy L. Bayley. Without the mellow walls and rich orange sculptural details, no such picture of tonal beauty could have been produced.

It is difficult to single out, among the many suggestive pictures, the most alluring one, but I may safely say that the first half hour after the close of day, as enjoyed around the lagoon, with the Fine Arts Building in the background, reflected in the waters, will linger forever in the minds of all who are privileged to see it.

Such blues I have seen only in pictures by Maxfield Parrish. Combined with the rich gold of the colonnade, they are almost supernatural. The whole effect, as reflected in the placid surface of the lagoon, occasionally broken here and there by a slowly moving waterfowl, or the protruding mouth of a carp, is inspiring, and must awaken an aesthetic response in the soul of the most ordinary mortal. Very quickly, however, does this colorful picture change, and the very intense blue of the early evening sky rapidly changes into a colorless black.

The Palace of Fine Arts, above all others, offers many wonderful bits of enchantment at night. It seems to have been thought out not only for its daytime effect but for the night as well.

Of the inner courts, those with larger and smaller bodies of water are most effective at night. The Court of the Four Seasons, with its placid, shrub-encircled pool, is doubly interesting at night. The four wall-fountains add much to the outdoor feeling that this court possesses, by reason of the suggestive murmur of the waters, descending in gentle splashes from bowl to bowl.

The most striking court, in its mysteriousness, is Mullgardt's Court of Abundance, particularly so on a foggy night. Large volumes of vapor are lazily rising from huge bowls and torches, below, and in the tower, suggesting the early days of the cosmic All, cooling off from the turbulent period of its creation. The fogs sweeping from the bay add more mystery, and with the gorgeous perfume of the hyacinth carpet in the garden spaces, the effect is almost narcotic. The whole court, under these conditions, seems heavy with the atmosphere of abundance, of physical well-being, of slumbering natural powers.

At the same time, it is truly religious in its effect of turning the mind away from the ordinary world into the realm of the mystic and the supernatural. I never realized what our San Francisco fogs could produce in artistic effects until I visited Mullgardt's court on a foggy night. The effect of the fog is absolutely ennobling.

So many things like these, possibly not originally thought of, have added, together with the illumination, rare charm to the Exposition. Great masses of pigeons, attracted by the light thrown upon the two great groups of the Nations of the West and of the East, give an unusually inspiring touch to the Exposition at night. The spectacle of these graceful birds encircling rhythmically the great sculptural piles, apparently enjoying the bath of light, will never be forgotten. These pigeons seem to have decided to live in the Exposition; they are there always, and apparently glad to play their part in the Exposition ensemble.

The lesson of the Exposition will be far reaching in its many demonstrations of the commercial value of artistic assets. The whole Exposition is really a city-planning exposition of the first order. Any city-builder, by the respectful use of the great fundamental principles of balance, harmony, and unity, cannot help but do on a large scale what the Exposition presents in a more condensed fashion. I admit that we have made tremendous strides in the remodeling of many of our large cities, particularly in the East, but we are still constantly starting new cities in the old planless way.

Our only practical and lasting effort in San Francisco along the lines of civic progress has been made in the civic center, where a far-reaching plan has been adopted and partly put into existence, and in some of our very charming newer restricted residence districts in the western end of the city, like St. Francis Wood, or in Northbrae and Claremont, in Berkeley, and elsewhere around the bay.

There is no doubt that we must better capitalize our own artistic assets, which we often allow to lie idle before we ever utilize them properly. The water front, Telegraph hill, the ocean shore, Sutro Heights, and Lincoln Park are all waiting to be developed in such a way as the Exposition suggests. The talk of cost is idle twaddle. If the Exposition, as an artistic investment, pays - and I see no reason whatever why it should not pay for itself - then we cannot do anything better than to invest our money wisely in other artistic improvements of a permanent character.

San Francisco is known all the world over for its unique location, rivaled only by that of Marseilles, and we have now the responsibility to use this natural asset, for which many envy us. The Exposition will start an avalanche of improvements along artistic lines which will be given increasing momentum by the development of long periods of prosperity.

The most urgent need, no, doubt, is the establishment of a municipal art gallery in the civic center, the only ideal place for it, where the workingman from the Mission and the merchant from west of Van Ness avenue will find it equally convenient of access. If a smaller number of citizens could raise the money for a municipal opera house, there should be no trouble in getting funds for a building devoted to a far more extensive public benefit, like an art gallery. People generally will want to know why it is that certain things can be given to them for one year, so successfully, and why it should not be possible to have them with us permanently. The inspiring lesson of beauty, expressed so simply and intelligently, will sink deep into the minds of the great masses, to be reborn in an endless stream of aesthetic expression in the spiritual and physical improvement of the people.

We, out here in the West, have been measuring the tide of human progress in biological terms. We have almost forgotten the days of our great calamity, and still speak of them in that typical expression of apprehension of the "earthquake babies." Let us think now of the future and its bright prospects, inaugurated so auspiciously for the benefit of our Exposition generation.


Guide to Sculpture

South Gardens:

Fountain of Energy (center) - A. Stirling Caller Directly opposite the main entrance, the most conspicuously placed fountain in the grounds. The four major figures in the bowl represent the Pacific, the Atlantic, and the two Arctic oceans. The minor eight figures suggest the marine character of the fountain. The reclining figures on the sphere typify the two hemispheres. The youth on horseback represents energy and strength.

The Mermaid (fountains in long pools) - Arthur Putnam The same figure is used twice, near the Horticultural Palace on the west and Festival Hall on the east.

Equestrian Statue, "Cortez" - Charles Niehaus Guarding the Tower of Jewels. This statue represents the great Spanish conqueror. As one faces the tower, this figure is on the left.

Equestrian Statue of "Pizarro" - Charles Cary Rumsey Similar in type and feeling to the preceding statue on the right, in front of the Tower of Jewels.

Horticultural Building:

Frieze at Base of the Spires - Eugene Louis Boutier Loose arrangement of standing female figures surrounding the bases of the spires on all sides of the Horticultural Palace, with no other meaning than that of decoration.

Pairs of Caryatides - John Bateman Architectural vertical members supporting the pergola around the Horticultural Palace. Used also on the Young Women's Christian Association and the Press buildings, near the main entrance.

Tower of Jewels:

Statues of "Priest," "Soldier," "Philosopher," and "Adventurer" - John Flanagan Four figures suggestive of the forces which influenced the destinies of our country. Very big in scale - about twice life size. They are standing on a row of columns below the cornice on the tower and are repeated on all four sides.

The Armored Horseman (Terrace of the Tower) - F. M. L. Tonetti A decorative equestrian statue on the lower terrace of the tower above the preceding figures - repeated sixteen times.

Tower Colonnades:

Fountain of Youth (east end) - Edith Woodman Burroughs Snugly placed inside the abutting walls, east of the Tower of Jewels. Naive in character and simple in treatment, without any further symbolical meaning than that suggested by the name. Motif in side panels, "Ship of Life."

Fountain of El Dorado (west end) - Mrs. Harry Payne Whitney In position similar to the preceding, west of the Tower of Jewels. A triptych of dramatic expression, naturalistically treated.

Festival Hall:

Figure crowning the minor Domes - Sherry E. Fry A standing finial figure, on the minor domes, of graceful pose.

Two groups in front of the Pylons - Sherry E. Fry Practically conceived as wall fountains, they are composed of the figure of a girl, suggesting the joy of life, emphasized by young Pan, with a lizard, at the base on the left, and a seated young girl on the right.

Cartouche over the entrance (figures only) - Sherry E. Fry An architectural unit over the big arch of the main central dome, outside the building, for decorative effect.

Reclining figures on Pylons - Sherry E. Fry A male and a female figure, reclining, crowning the architectural units projecting into the South Gardens. Suggestive of life and pleasure.

Court of Palms:

Equestrian statue, "The End of the Trail" - James Earl Fraser At the entrance of the Court of Palms, off the main avenue opposite the Horticultural Palace. Symbolical figure, representing the destinies of the vanishing red race; to be considered in connection with the "Pioneer" at the entrance of the Court of Flowers.

The Fairy (Italian Towers - Palms and Flowers) - Carl Grupp A figural termination of the four towers guarding the entrances to the Courts of Palms and of Flowers.

Caryatides - John Bateman and Mr. Calder Winged half-figure in the attic-space, repeated all around the court.

Spandrels - Albert Weinert Reclining decorative figures composed into the triangular spaces over all the doorways in the corridor.

Court of Flowers:

Equestrian statue, "The Pioneer" - Solon Borglum At the entrance of this court. Representing the white man and his victorious civilization. (To be studied with "The End of the Trail.")

Lions (at the entrances) - Albert Laessle Very conventional architectural decorative animal forms at the entrance inside the Court of Flowers - used six times.

The Fairy (above the Italian Towers) - Carl Gruppe [See Fairy under Court of Palms by the same artist.]

Central Fountain, "Beauty and the Beast" - Edgar Walter Decorative fountain inside the court, with crowning figure of a young woman, reposing on a fabulous beast.

Flower Girls (in niches) - A. Stirling Calder Repeated figures, conventionally treated, of young women, decorated profusely with flower garlands, in the attic space.

Court of Abundance:

Groups on the altar in the main tower - Chester Beach These groups constitute the historical composition in the tower on the north side of the court. Beginning with the lower one, they represent the primitive ages, the middle ages, and modern times.

Group at column bases and finials - Leo Lentelli Decorative figures. Used four times at the base of the shaft near the tower. A single finial figure of a girl with a bow is used on top of the same column.

Fountain of the Earth (central pool) - Robert I. Aitken An architectural composition telling the story of human life in its many phases. The outstretched arms on the south side represent destiny giving and taking life.

Figures on top of the Arcade - Albert Weinert Primitive men, with the pelican and deer; the mother with a child is repeated all around the court.

Aquatic Life (north extension) - Sherry B. Fry A figure which might represent Neptune's daughter. This figure stands north of the tower in the open space toward the Marina below, between the Palaces of Transportation and Mines.

Court of the Universe:

The Nations of the East; The Nations of the West - A. Stirling Calder, Leo Lentelli, and Frederick C. R. Roth, collaborators. Colossal groups on top of the two great arches, representing, in many types, Western and Eastern civilization.

Statues on columns (eastern and western arches) - Leo Lentelli Winged statues standing on top of columns on the inside as well as the outside of the two great arches.

Spandrels, Pegasus - Frederick G. R. Roth Triangular compositions spanning the arches, repeated on both sides.

Medallion - B. Bufano Circular decorations of male figures on the left side of the arch without any meaning other than architectural effect.

Medallion - A. Stirling Calder Same as above, of female figures, on the right side of the arches.

The Stars (colonnades) - A. Stirling Calder Very conventional standing figure, with hands united above the head, forming a star with radiated head-dress, placed on the balustrades of buildings adjoining the court and in the avenue leading north from the court.

Frieze on corner pavilions, "Signs of the Zodiac" - Hermon A. MacNeil Decorative friezes on four sides of the four corner pavilions, of mythological character.

Two fountains, "The Rising Sun" and "The Setting Sun" - Adolph A. Weinman Two columns rising from fountain bowls and crowned by winged figures, of a woman, representing the Setting Sun, on the left, and of a winged male figure, the Rising Sun, on the right.

Four reclining figures, "The Elements" - Robert I. Aitken At the head of the stairs leading into the sunken garden; on the left, near the Music Pavilion, "Fire;" on the right, "Water;" on the left, near the tower, "Air;" on the right, "Earth."

Two Groups - Paul Manship Near the arches at the head of the steps, two figural groups. One is of female figures, suggesting pleasure; the other, music and art.

Western Plaza, in Front of Machinery Palace:

Monument, "Genius of Creation" - Daniel Chester French Group of allegorical figures, suggestive of the development of the human race.

Court of the Four Seasons:

Four groups representing "The Seasons" - Furio Piccirilli In niches. Southeast corner, "Winter;" northeast corner, "Fall;" southwest corner, "Spring;" northwest corner, "Summer."

The Harvest (above the half dome) - Albert Jaegers Seated figure with a horn of plenty and other agricultural emblems.

Rain and Sunshine (figures on columns) - Albert Jaegers Standing female figures on columns on either side of the half dome. Sunshine, holding a palm branch, is on the left, and Rain, holding up a shell, on the right.

Groups, "Feast of Sacrifice," on the pylons in the forecourt - Albert Jaegers The two groups on top of the building, in which huge bulls predominate, led by a young woman and a young man; very decorative.

Fountain, "Ceres" - Evelyn Beatrice Longman Situated halfway between the Court of the Four Seasons and the Marina, in an avenue leading north; architectural in character.

Spandrels (arcade) - August Jaegers Reclining female figures above the arches at the west and east entrance of the Court of the Four Seasons.

Attic figures - August Jaegers Standing decorative figures of architectonic feeling, in the attic above the preceding figures.

Varied Industries Palace:

Tympanum group in the doorway - Ralph Stackpole Groups of men and women in the lunette of the ornate doorway on the south side.

Secondary group, doorway - Ralph Stackpole Groups above the preceding one, showing Age transferring his burden to Youth.

Figure for niches, doorway (man with the pick) - Ralph Stackpole A repeated figure of a miner, of relatively small scale, on the consoles in the doorway.

Figure for keystone in doorway - Ralph Stackpole A small seated figure of a laborer, on the headstone.

Figure for niches, on the east faade of this Palace and of the Palace of Mines - Albert Weinert Standing figure in niches above doors, also used in avenue leading into the Court of Abundance from the east.

West Wall of the Palaces (facing Fine Arts):

Motifs for wall niches ("Triumph of the Field" and "Abundance") - Charles R. Harley Seated male and female figures surrounded by a great wealth of emblematic forms. The male represents "Triumph of the Field;" the female, "Abundance."

Figures on columns (flanking the half domes): Philosophy and Physical Vigor - Ralph Stackpole A colossal figure of a youth, on top of free-standing columns on the west wall of the main buildings.

Palace of Fine Arts:

Standing figure, inside of the rotunda on top of columns - Herbert Adams

Figures in the attic of the rotunda - Ulric H. Ellerhusen Standing females and males between architectural friezes immediately below the cupola of the dome.

Frieze on the altar - Bruno Louis Zimm Figural frieze at the base of the rotunda facing the Laguna can only be seen from a great distance across the water.

Relief panels for the rotunda - Bruno Louis Zimm Eight panels on the outside, of strictly architectural character, representing a procession, showing the development and influence of art.

Friezes around the base on the ground - Ulric H. Ellerhusen Figures with garlands, used everywhere at the base of the building.

Figures on the flower boxes - Ulric H. Ellerhusen Standing figures, looking inward, representing introspection.

Kneeling figure on the altar - Ralph Stackpole The shrine of worship. That delicate small figure seen best from across the laguna in front of the rotunda.

North Faade, Main Group of Exhibit Palaces:

Figure for central niches, "Conquistador" - Allen Newman A Spanish soldier, with helmet and sword and a large mantle.

Figure for side niches, "The Pirate" - Allen Newman A coarsely shaped man, in small niches on the north side of the main buildings near the preceding one.

Column of Progress:

Bas-relief (four sides of the pedestal) - Isidore Konti Four allegorical friezes depicting man's striving for achievement.

Finial group, "The Adventurous Bowman," frieze and decoration - Hermon A. MacNeil The group on top of the column suggests man's supreme effort in life, the supporting frieze is "The Toilers."

Palace of Machinery:

Figures on columns (four "Powers") - Haig Patigian Repeated large scale figures of men, representing the industries exhibited within the building.

Friezes for columns, vestibule - Haig Patigian Decorative architectural figure compositions of similar subjects.

Spandrels (two pairs) - Haig Patigian Reclining figures filling out the triangular spaces above the doors in the vestibule reflecting the purpose of the building.

Palace of Education:

Repeated figure within the Half Dome, of Thought - Albert Weinert Standing figure of a maiden with a scroll inside the portal, repeated eight times.

Palace of Food Products:

Repeated figure within the Half Dome, "Physical Vigor" - Earl Cummings Similar to that above, inside the Portal of Vigor, showing a standing young man, with an oak wreath.

Friezes and figures in niches, main south entrance (portals of the Manufacturers and Liberal Arts Palaces) - Mahonri Young Figures representing domestic life and industries like foundry work, smithing, spinning, and sculpture. Figures in the niches: woman with spindles and men with hammers.

Tympanum panels (north and south entrances of the Palace of Education) - Gustave Gerlach Decorative panels above the doors outside of the building showing maternal instruction.

Panels inlaid in the walls over the minor entrances Pupils of the School of Sculpture of the Society of Beaux Arts Architects and National Sculpture Society. Decorative panels of school life and of science.

Figure, "Victory," on the gables of the palaces - Louis Ulrich A winged figure used on top of all the palaces.

Mural Decorations

Court of Abundance:

Earth - Frank Brangwyn Northwest corner of the corridor, two panels: grape-crushers on the left and fruit-pickers on the right.

Fire - Frank Brangwyn Two panels in the northeast corner of the corridor. Primitive Fire on the left and Industrial Fire on the right.

Water - Frank Brangwyn Two panels in the southeast corner of the corridor. Fountain motive on the left and fishermen hauling nets on the right.

Air - Frank Brangwyn Two panels in the southwest corner of the corridor. In the left panel, the scent of hunters carried toward their prospective prey. A windmill on the right.

Court of the Four Seasons:

Spring - H. Milton Bancroft Two murals above the doorway in the colonnade (southwest corner). To the left, Spring; to the right, Seedtime.

Summer - H. Milton Bancroft Two murals similar to those in the northwest corner of the court. Fruition on the right; Summer on the left.

Autumn - H. Milton Bancroft In the northeast corner of the court, two panels: Autumn on the right; Harvest on the left.

Winter - H. Milton Bancroft Similar in location to the preceding, in southeast corner. Two murals, Festivity on the right; Winter on the left.

Man Receiving Instruction in Nature's Laws - H. Milton Bancroft One upright panel, in the half dome on the right.

Art Crowned by Time - H. Milton Bancroft On the left opposite the preceding.

Eastern Arch, Court of the Universe:

Hope and Attendants: (On the north wall) - Edward Simmons

Historical types: (On the south wall) - Edward Simmons Representing Greece, Italy, Spain, England and France, on the south wall.

Tower of Jewels:

The Atlantic and Pacific (in the center); The Discovery (on the left;) The Purchase (on the right) - William de Leftwich Dodge Gateway of All Nations (in the center); Labor Crowned (on the left); Achievement (on the right) - William de Leftwich Dodge Six panels inspired by the construction of the Panama Canal. The first group is on the west wall, the second on the east.

Western Arch, Court of the Universe:

The Westward March of Civilization, in two panels by - Frank V. DuMond Beginning in the north panel and continued in the opposite one.

Court of Palms:

Fruits and Flowers - Childe Hassam Painting in a lunette over the entrance into the Palace of Education.

The Pursuit of Pleasure - Charles Holloway A painting of the same shape as the preceding, over the entrance into the Palace of Liberal Arts.

The Victorious Spirit - Arthur Mathews In the lunette over the doorway into the Court of the Four Seasons.

Rotunda, Palace of the Fine Arts:

The Four Golds of California (Golden Metal, Wheat, Citrus Fruits, and Poppies) - Robert Reid In the ceiling inside the rotunda.

Art, born of flame, expresses its ideals to the world through music, poetry, architecture, painting, and sculpture - Robert Reid In the same location.

Birth of European Art. Birth of Oriental Art - Robert Reid Belonging to the preceding group of eight pictures by the same artist.

Pennsylvania Building:

Decorative Paintings - Edward Trumbull In the east and west walls of the center court of the building, showing Penn's Treaty with the Indians on the right and Pennsylvania Industries on the left.

Biographical Notes

Adams, Herbert (Sculptor) New York. Born in West Concord, Vermont 1858. Studied in Paris. Figures on columns inside of Rotunda, Palace of Fine Arts.

Aitken, Robert I. (Sculptor) New York. Born in San Francisco, California, 1878. Studied in Mark Hopkins Institute, San Francisco, and Paris. The Four Elements, in Court of the Universe, and Fountain of Earth in Court of Abundance.

Bacon, Henry (Architect) New York. Born in Watseka Illinois, 1866. Studied at the University of Illinois and in Europe. Court of the Four Seasons.

Bakewell and Brown (Architects). John Bakewell, Jr. San Francisco. Born in Topeka, Kansas 1872. Studied at the Beaux Arts Paris. Arthur Brown, Jr. San Francisco. Born in Oakland, California, 1874. Studied in the University of California and at the Beaux Arts in Paris. Horticultural Palace.

Bateman, John (Sculptor) New York. Born in Cedarville New Jersey 1877. Studied in the School of Industrial Art. Philadelphia and in Paris. Caryatides outside of Horticultural Building.

Bayley, Guy L. (Electrical Engineer) San Francisco. Born in Vacaville, California, 1875. Studied at University of California. Chief of Electric and Mechanical Department.

Beach, Chester (Sculptor) New York. Born in San Francisco, California, 1881. Studied in Paris, New York and Rome. Groups on tower on Court of Abundance.

Bennett, Edward (Architect) Chicago. Preliminary Plans of Exposition.

Bitter, Karl (Sculptor). Born in Vienna, Austria, 1867. Died April 10, 1915, New York. Studied at Vienna Academy of Fine Arts. Chief of Sculpture.

Bliss and Faville (Architects) Walter D. Bliss, San Francisco. Born in Nevada, 1868. Studied in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and abroad. William B. Faville, San Francisco. Born 1866. Studied in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Main Buildings forming center unit of eight Palaces.

Boberg, Ferdinand (Architect) Stockholm. Born in Falun, Sweden, 1860. Swedish Building.

Borglum, Solon H. (Sculptor) New York. Born in Ogden, Utah, 1868. Studied in Art Academy of Cincinnati, and in Paris. The Pioneer.

Bourgeois, Jean Louis (Architect) Born in Autun, France, 1876. Died February 26, 1915, in France. Collaborated with Bakewell and Brown in Horticultural Building design.

Boutier, Eugene Louis (Sculptor) Frieze at Base of Spires on Horticultural Building.

Brangwyn, Frank (Painter) London. Born in Bruges, Belgium, 1867. Mural paintings of the Four Elements in the Court of Abundance.

Bufano, B. (Sculptor) New York. Medallions on the arches in Court of the Universe.

Burditt, Thomas H. (Architect) San Francisco. Born in Nellore, India, 1886. California State Building.

Burroughs, Mrs. Edith Woodman (Sculptor) Flushing, Long Island. Born in Riverdale-on-Hudson 1871. Studied in Art Students League of few York and in Paris. Fountain of Youth.

Calder, A. Stirling (Sculptor) New York. Born in Philadelphia 1870. Studied in Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and in Paris. Acting Chief of Sculpture. Fountain of Energy; The Star in Court of the Universe; Flower Girl in Court of Flowers; Nations of the East; Nations of the West, in collaboration with F. Roth and Leo Lentelli.

Carrere and Hastings (Architects) John M. Carrere, deceased. Thomas Hastings, New York. Born New York, 1860. Studied in Beaux Arts, Paris. Tower of Jewels.

Cummings, M. Earl (Sculptor) San Francisco. Born in Salt Lake City, Utah, 1876. Studied in San Francisco and Paris. Repeated figure in Portal of Vigor. Palace of Food Products.

Denneville, Paul E. (Architectural Sculptor) New York. Born in Ancy France, 1873. Studied Cooper Institute New York, and abroad. Travertine finish of buildings.

Dodge, William De Leftwich (Mural Painter) New York. Born in Liberty, Virginia, 1867. Studied in Munich and Paris. Two Murals in Tower of Jewels.

Dumond, Frank V. (Painter) New York. Born in Rochester New York, 1865. Studied in Paris. Two Murals in arch of Setting Sun.

Ellerhusen, Ulric H. (Sculptor) New York. Figures in attic of Rotunda and repeated frieze at base of Fine Arts Building.

Farquhar, Robert David (Architect) Los Angeles. Born in Brookline. Massachusetts, 1872. Studied at Harvard and at Beaux Arts, Paris. Festival Hall.

Flanagan, John (Sculptor) New York. Born in Newark, New Jersey, 1865. Studied in Boston, New York and Paris. Figures on Tower of Jewels.

Fraser, James Earl (Sculptor) New York. Born in Winona. Minnesota, 1876. Studied in Paris. The End of the Trail.

French, Daniel Chester (Sculptor) New York. Born in Exeter, New Hampshire, 1850. Studied in Boston, New York and Florence. Genius of Creation.

Fry, Sherry E. (Sculptor) New York. Born in Creston, Iowa 1879. Studied in Art Institute, Chicago, and in Paris. Figural decorations on Festival Hall.

Garnett, Porter (Writer) Berkeley. Born in San Francisco, California, 1871. Selection of inscriptions on monuments and arches.

Gerlach. Gustave (Sculptor) Weehawken, New Jersey. Tympanum panels north and south entrances Palace of Education.

Gruppe, Carl (Sculptor) New York. Fairy figure on Italian towers.

Guerin, Jules (Painter) New York. Born in St. Louis Missouri, 1866. Studied in America and abroad. Director of color and decoration. Color scheme.

Harley, Charles R. (Sculptor) New York. Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1864. Studied in Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and in Paris. "The Triumph of the Field" and "Abundance," on west facade of main buildings.

Hassam, Childe (Painter) New York. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, 1859. Studied in Paris. Lunette, Fruits and Flowers, in Court of Palms.

Holloway, Charles (Painter). Lunette, The Pursuit of Pleasure, in Court of Palms.

Hornbostel, Henry (Architect) New York. Born in Brooklyn New York, 1867. Studied in New York and Paris. Pennsylvania State Building.

Howard, John Galen (Architect) Berkeley. Born in Chelmsford Massachusetts, 1864. Studied in Boston and Beaux Arts, Paris. Exposition Auditorium in the Civic Center in collaboration with Frederick Meyer and John Reid, Jr.

Jaegers, Albert (Sculptor) New York. Born in Elberfeld, Germany, 1867. Studied abroad. Figures of Harvest Rain and Sunshine, and Bulls in Court of Four Seasons.

Jaegers, August (Sculptor) New York. Born in Barmen, Germany, 1878. Studied in Paris. Spandrels and attic figures in Court of Four Seasons.

Kelham, George W. (Architect) San Francisco. Born in Manchester, Massachusetts, 1871. Studied at Harvard. Director of Architecture. Courts of Palms and Flowers.

Konti, Isidore (Sculptor) New York. Born in Vienna, Austria, 1862. Studied in Imperial Academy, Vienna. Frieze at base of Column of Progress.

Laessle, Albert (Sculptor) Philadelphia. Born in Philadelphia Pennsylvania, 1877. Studied in Philadelphia. Lions in Court of Flowers.

Lentelli, Leo (Sculptor) New York. Born in Bologna, Italy, 1879. Figures on decorative shafts in Court of Abundance; Nations of the East and Nations of the West in collaboration with Stirling Calder and Frederick Roth.

Longman, Miss Evelyn Beatrice (Sculptor) New York. Born in Winchester, Ohio, 1874. Studied in Chicago and New York. Fountain of Ceres.

Lundborg, Florence (Painter) San Francisco. Born in San Francisco. Studied in San Francisco and in Paris. Mural decorations in Tea Room of the California Building.

McKim, Mead and White (Architects) New York. Living members of the firm: William R. Mead. Born in Battleboro, Vermont 1846. Studied at Amherst and in Europe. W. Symmes Richardson. W. Mitchell Kendall. Court of the Universe.

McLaren, John (Landscape Engineer) San Francisco. Born in Scotland. Horticultural effects.

MacNeil, Hermon A. (Sculptor) New York. Born in Everett, Massachusetts, 1866. Studied in Boston and Paris. Adventurous Bowman and frieze of Toilers on Column of Progress.

Manship, Paul (Sculptor) New York. Groups in Court of Universe.

Markwart, Arthur (Engineer) San Francisco. Born in Illinois, 1880. Studied at University of California. Assistant Chief of Construction. Structural design of Machinery Palace.

Mathews, Arthur F. (Painter) San Francisco. Born in Wisconsin, 1860. Studied in Paris. Lunette, the Victorious Spirit, in Court of Palms.

Maybeck, Bernard R. (Architect) San Francisco. Born in New York, 1862. Studied in Beaux Arts, Paris. Palace of Fine Arts.

Meyer, Frederick (Architect) San Francisco. Born in San Francisco, California, 1875. Studied in America. Exposition Auditorium in Civic Center in collaboration with John Galen Howard and John Reid, Jr.

Mullgardt, Louis Christian (Architect) San Francisco. Born in Washington, Missouri, 1866. Studied at Harvard. Court of the Ages, also named Court of Abundance.

Nahl, Perham W. (Painter) Berkeley. Born in San Francisco, California, 1869. Studied in Hopkins Institute, San Francisco, and in Europe. Exposition Poster, "The Thirteenth Labor of Hercules."

Newman, Allen G. (Sculptor) New York. Born in New York, 1875. Pupil of J. Q. A. Ward. Conquistador and Pirate on north facade main buildings.

Niehaus, Charles H. (Sculptor) New Rochelle, New York. Born in Cincinnati, Ohio, 1855. Studied in Cincinnati and Munich. Cortez.

Patigian, Haig (Sculptor) San Francisco. Born in Armenia 1876. Studied in Paris. Decorations of Machinery Hall.

Piccirilli, Furio (Sculptor) New York. Born in Massa, Italy, 1866. Pupil of Accademia San Luca, Rome. Groups of Four Seasons in Court of the Four Seasons.

Polk, Willis (Architect) San Francisco. Preliminary plans of Exposition.

Putnam, Arthur (Sculptor) San Francisco. Born in New Orleans, 1874. Mermaid in South Gardens.

Reid, John, Jr. (Architect) San Francisco. Born in San Francisco 1880. Studied in the University of California and the Beaux Arts, Paris. Exposition Auditorium in Civic Center in collaboration with John Galen Howard and Frederick Meyer.

Reid, Robert (Painter) New York. Born in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, 1862. Studied in Boston, New York, and Paris. Decorations in Rotunda of Fine Arts Palace.

Rosse, Hermann (Designer and decorator) Palo Alto. Born in The Hague, Holland, 1887. Studied at The Hague, at Delft, Holland, and South Kensington, London. Decorative color scheme and mural painting in Netherlands Building.

Roth, Frederick G. R. (Sculptor) Englewood New Jersey. Born in Brooklyn, New York, 1872. Studied in Vienna, Nations of the East and Nations of the West in collaboration with Stirling Calder and Leo Lentelli.

Rumsey, Charles Cary (Sculptor) New York. Pizarro.

Ryan, Walter. D'Arcy (Electrical Engineer) San Francisco. Born in Kentville, Nova Scotia, 1870. Educated in Canada. Chief of Illumination. Lighting scheme.

Simmons, Edward (Mural Painter) New York. Born in Concord, Massachusetts 1852. Studied in Paris. Murals in Arch of the Rising Sun.

Stackpole, Ralph W. (Sculptor) San Francisco. Born in Oregon, 1885. Studied in Paris. Kneeling figure in front of Fine Arts rotunda. Figures on columns flanking Portal of Thought and Portal of Vigor. Figures in doorway of Palace of Varied Industries.

Tonetti, F. M. L. (Sculptor) New York. Born in Paris, France, in 1863. Studied in Paris. Armored horseman on Tower of Jewels.

Trumbull, Edward (Painter) Pittsburgh. Born in Stonington, Connecticut, in 1884. Mural decorations, Penn's Treaty and Pittsburgh Industries, in Pennsylvania Building.

Ulrich, Louis (Sculptor) New York. Winged Victory on gables of all palaces.

Walter, Edgar (Sculptor) San Francisco. Born in San Francisco, in 1877. Studied in Paris. Fountain of Beauty and the Beast in Court of Flowers.

Weinert, Albert (Sculptor) New York. Born in Leipzig, Germany, in 1863. Studied in Leipzig and Brussels. Spandrels in Court of Palms; Decorative finial figure, in Court of Abundance repeated figure in Portal of Thought, etc.

Weinman, Adolph A. (Sculptor) New York. Born in Karlsruhe, Germany in 1870. Studied in Art Students League, New York. Rising and Setting Sun.

Ward and Blohme (Architects) Clarence R. Ward San Francisco. Born in Niles Michigan, in 1976. Studied in America. J. H. Blohme, San Francisco. Born in San Francisco in 1878. Studied in America. Machinery Palace.

Whitney, Mrs. Harry Payne (Sculptor) New York. Fountain of El Dorado

Young, Mahonri (Sculptor) New York. Born in Salt Lake City Utah, in 1877. Studied in New York and Paris. Frieze over main portals Manufacturers and Liberal Arts Palaces.

Zimm, Bruno Louis (Sculptor) New York. Frieze, Rotunda, Fine Arts Building.

The Art of the Exposition, by Eugen Neuhaus, published by Paul Elder and Company, San Francisco, was printed at their Tomoye Press, under the direction of John Swart, in May and reprinted in June and again in August Nineteen Hundred and Fiftee


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