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The American Housewife
Author: Anonymous
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396. Liquid Blacking.

Mix a quarter of a pound of ivory black, six gills of vinegar, a table-spoonful of sweet oil, two large spoonsful of molasses. Stir the whole well together, and it will then be fit for use.

397. Cement for the Mouths of Corked Bottles.

Melt together a quarter of a pound of sealing-wax, the same quantity of rosin, a couple of ounces of bees' wax. When it froths, stir it with a tallow candle. As soon as it melts, dip the mouths of the corked bottles into it. This is an excellent thing to exclude the air from such things as are injured by being exposed to it.

398. Cement for broken China, Glass, and Earthenware.

Rub the edge of the china or glass with the beaten white of an egg. Tie very finely powdered quick lime in a muslin bag, and sift it thick over the edges of the dishes that have been previously rubbed with the egg. Match and bind the pieces together, and let it remain bound several weeks. This is good cement for every kind of crockery but thick heavy glass and coarse earthenware; the former cannot be cemented with any thing; for the latter, white paint will answer. Paint and match the broken edges, bind them tight together, and let them remain until the paint becomes dry and hard. Milk is a good cement for crockery—the pieces should be matched, and bound together tight, then put in cold milk, and the milk set where it will boil for half an hour; then take it from the fire, and let the crockery remain till the milk is cold. Let the crockery remain bound for several weeks. The Chinese method of mending broken china, is to grind flint glass, on a painter's stone, till it is reduced to an impalpable powder: then beat it with the white of an egg, to a froth, and lay it on the edge of the broken pieces, match and bind them together firmly, and let them remain several weeks. It is said that no art will then be able to break it in the same place.

399. Japanese Cement, or Rice Glue.

Mix rice flour with cold water, to a smooth paste, and boil it gently. It answers all the purposes of wheat flour paste, while it is far superior in point of transparency and smoothness. This composition, made with so small a proportion of water as to have it of the consistence of plastic clay, may be used to form models, busts, basso-relievos, and similar articles. When made of it, they are susceptible of a very high polish. Poland starch is a nice cement for pasting layers of paper together, or any fancy articles.

400. Cement for Alabaster.

Take of white bees' wax one pound, of rosin a pound, and three quarters of alabaster. Melt the wax and rosin, then strew the alabaster over it lightly, (which should be previously reduced to a fine powder.) Stir the whole well together, then knead the mass in water, in order to incorporate the alabaster thoroughly with the rosin and wax. The alabaster, when mended, should be perfectly dry, and heated. The cement, when applied, should also be heated. Join the broken pieces, bind them, and let them remain a week. This composition, when properly managed, forms an extremely strong cement.

401. To clean Alabaster, or any other kinds of Marble.

Pound pumice stone to a fine powder, and mix it with verjuice. Let it remain several hours, then dip in a perfectly clean sponge, and rub the marble with it till clean. Rinse it off with clear fresh water, and rub it dry with a clean linen cloth.

402. Cement for Iron-ware.

Beat the whites of eggs to a froth, then stir into them enough quicklime to make a consistent paste, then add iron file dust, to make a thick paste. The quicklime should be reduced to a fine powder before mixing it with the eggs. Fill the cracks in iron-ware with this cement, and let them remain several weeks before using them.

403. To loosen the Stopples of Decanters and Smelling Bottles that are wedged in tight.

Dip the end of a feather in oil, and rub it round the stopple, close to the mouth of the bottle; then put the bottle about a couple of feet from the fire, having the mouth towards it. The heat will cause the oil to run down between the stopple and mouth of the bottle. When warm, strike the bottle gently on both sides, with any light wooden instrument that you may happen to have. If the stopple cannot be taken out with the hand at the end of this process, repeat it, and you will finally succeed by persevering in it, however firmly it may be wedged in.

404. Lip Salve.

Dissolve a small lump of white sugar in a table-spoonful of rosewater, (common water will do, but is not as good.) Mix it with a couple of large spoonsful of sweet oil, a piece of spermaceti, of the size of half a butternut. Simmer the whole well together eight or ten minutes, then turn it into a small box.

405. Cold Cream.

Take of the oil of almonds two ounces, of spermaceti half an ounce, and white wax half an ounce. Put them in a close vessel, and set the vessel in a skillet of boiling water. When melted, beat the ingredients with rosewater until cold. Keep it in a tight box, or wide-mouthed bottle, corked up close.

406. To prevent the formation of a Crust on Tea-Kettles.

Keep an oyster-shell in your tea-kettle, and it will prevent the formation of a crust on the inside of it, by attracting the stony particles to itself.

407. To remove Stains from Broadcloth.

Take an ounce of pipe clay that has been ground fine, and mix it with twelve drops of alcohol, and the same quantity of spirits of turpentine. Whenever you wish to remove any stains from cloth, moisten a little of this mixture with alcohol, and rub it on the spots. Let it remain till dry, then rub it off with a woollen cloth, and the spots will disappear.

408. To extract Paint from Cotton, Silk, and Woollen Goods.

Saturate the spot with spirits of turpentine, and let it remain several hours, then rub it between the hands. It will crumble away, without injuring either the color or texture of the article.

409. To remove Black Stains on Scarlet Woollen Goods.

Mix tartaric with water, to give it a pleasant acid taste, then saturate the black spots with it, taking care not to have it touch the clean part of the garment. Rinse the spots immediately, in fair water. Weak pearl-ash water is good to remove stains that are produced by acids.

410. To extract Grease from Silks, Paper, Woollen Goods, and Floors.

To remove grease spots from goods and paper, grate on them, very thick, French chalk, (common chalk will answer, but is not as good as the French chalk.) Cover the spots with brown paper, and set on a moderately warm iron, and let it remain till cold. Care must be taken not to have the iron so hot as to scorch or change the color of the cloth. If the grease does not appear to be out on removing the iron, grate on more chalk, heat the iron again, and put it on. Repeat the process till the grease is entirely out. Strong pearl-ash water, mixed with sand, and rubbed on grease spots in floors, is one of the most effective things that can be used to extract the grease.

411. To extract Stains from White Cotton Goods and Colored Silks.

Salts of ammonia, mixed with lime, will take out the stains of wine from silk. Spirits of turpentine, alcohol, and clear ammonia, are all good to remove stains on colored silks. Spots of common or durable ink can be removed by saturating them with lemon-juice, and rubbing on salt, then putting them where the sun will shine on them hot, for several hours. As fast as it dries, put on more lemon-juice and salt. When lemon juice cannot be obtained, citric acid is a good substitute. Iron mould may be removed in the same way. Mildew and most other stains can be removed by rubbing on soft soap and salt, and placing it where the sun will shine on it hot. Where soap and salt will not remove stains, lemon-juice and salt will generally answer. The above things will only remove stains in warm, clear weather, when the sun is hot. Sulphuric acid, diluted with water, is very effectual in removing fruit stains. Care should be taken not to have it so strong as to eat a hole in the garment, and as soon as the stain is out, it should be rinsed in pearl-ash water, and then in fair water. Colored cotton goods, that have common ink spilt on them, should be soaked in lukewarm sour milk.

412. Directions for Washing Calicoes.

Calico clothes, before they are put in water, should have the grease spots rubbed out, as they cannot be seen when the whole of the garment is wet. They should never be washed in very hot soap suds; that which is mildly warm will cleanse them quite as well, and will not extract the colors so much. Soft soap should never be used for calicoes, excepting for the various shades of yellow, which look the best washed with soft soap, and not rinsed in fair water. Other colors should be rinsed in fair water, and dried in the shade. When calicoes incline to fade, the colors can be set by washing them in lukewarm water, with beef's gall, in the proportion of a tea-cup full to four or five gallons of water. Rinse them in fair water—no soap is necessary, without the clothes are very dirty. If so, wash them in lukewarm suds, after they have been first rubbed out in beef's gall water. The beef's gall can be kept several months, by squeezing it out of the skin in which it is enclosed, adding salt to it, and bottled and corked tight. The water that potatoes has been boiled in is an excellent thing to wash black calicoes in. When there are many black garments to wash in a family, it is a good plan to save, during the week, all the water in which potatoes are boiled. The following method is said to set the colors of calicoes so that they will not fade by subsequent washing: Infuse three gills of salt in four quarts of boiling water; put in the calicoes, (which should be perfectly clean; if not so, the dirt will be set.) Let the calicoes remain in till the water is cold. I have never seen this tried, but I think it not improbable that it may be an excellent way to set the colors, as rinsing calicoes in cold salt and water serves to set the colors, particularly of black, blue, and green colors. A little vinegar in the rinsing water of pink, red, and green calicoes, is good to brighten the colors, and keep them from mixing. All kinds of calicoes but black, look better for starching, but black calicoes will not look clear if starched. On this account potato water is an excellent thing to wash them, if boiled down to a thick consistence, as it stiffens them without showing.

413. Directions for Cleaning Silk Goods.

When silk cushions, or silk coverings to furniture, become dingy, rub dry bran on it gently, with a woollen cloth, till clean. Remove grease spots and stains as in direction No. 410. Silk garments should have the spots extracted before being-washed—use hard soap for all colors but yellow, for which soft soap is the best. Put the soap into hot water, beat it till it is perfectly dissolved, then add sufficient cold water to make it just lukewarm. Put in the silks, and rub them in it till clean; take them out without wringing, and rinse them in fair lukewarm water. Rinse it in another water, and for bright yellows, crimsons, and maroons, add sulphuric acid enough to the water to give it an acid taste, before rinsing the garment in it. To restore the colors of the different shades of pink, put in the second rinsing water a little vinegar or lemon-juice. For scarlet, use a solution of tin; for blues, purples, and their shades, use pearl-ash; and for olive-greens, dissolve verdigris in the rinsing water—fawn and browns should be rinsed in pure water. Dip the silks up and down in the rinsing water: take them out of it without wringing, and dry them in the shade. Fold them up while damp: let them remain to have the dampness strike through all parts of them alike, then put them in a mangler—if you have not one, iron them on the wrong side, with an iron only just hot enough to smooth them. A little isinglass or gum arabic, dissolved in the rinsing water of gauze shawls and ribbons, is good to stiffen them. The water in which pared potatoes have been boiled, is an excellent thing to wash black silks in—it stiffens, and makes them glossy and black. Beef's gall and lukewarm water is also a nice thing to restore rusty silk, and soap-suds answers very well. They look better not to be rinsed in clear water, but they should be washed in two different waters.

414. Directions for Washing Woollens.

If you do not wish to have white flannels shrink when washed, make a good suds of hard soap, and wash the flannels in it, without rubbing any soap on them; rub them out in another suds, then wring them out of it, and put them in a clean tub, and turn on sufficient boiling water to cover them, and let them remain till the water is cold. A little indigo in the boiling water makes the flannels look nicer. If you wish to have your white flannels shrink, so as to have them thick, wash them in soft soap-suds, and rinse them in cold water. Colored woollens that incline to fade, should be washed with beef's gall and warm water before they are put into soap-suds. Colored pantaloons look very well washed with beef's gall and fair warm water, and pressed on the wrong side while damp.

415. Directions for Washing White Cotton Clothes.

Table-cloths, or any white clothes that have coffee or fruit stains on them, before being put into soap-suds, should have boiling water turned on them, and remain in it till the water is cold—the spots should be then rubbed out in it. If they are put into soap-suds with the stains in, they will be set by it, so that no subsequent washing will remove them. Table-cloths will be less likely to get stained up, if they are always rinsed in thin starch water, as it tends to keep coffee and fruit from sinking into the texture of the cloth. White clothes that are very dirty, will come clean easily if put into strong, cool suds and hung on the fire the night previous to the day in which they are to be washed. If they get to boiling, it will not do them any harm, provided the suds is cool when they are put in; if it is hot at first, it will set the dirt in. The following method of washing clothes is a saving of a great deal of labor: Soak the clothes in lukewarm soap-suds; if they are quite dirty, soak them over night. To every three pails of water put a pint of soft soap, and a table-spoonful of the salts of soda. Heat it till mildly warm, then put in the clothes without any rubbing, and boil them an hour. Drain the suds out of them as much as possible, as it is bad for the hands; then add water till cool enough for the hands. The dirt will be loose, so that they will require but a little rubbing. Rinse them thoroughly in clear water, then in indigo water. The soda can be procured cheap, by purchasing it in large quantities—soda is an excellent thing to soften hard water. The soda suds will not do to wash calicoes in. It is a good plan to save your suds, after washing, to water your garden, if you have one, or to harden cellars and yards, when sandy.

416. Starch.

To make good flour starch, mix flour gradually with cold water, so that it may be free from lumps. Stir in cold water till it will pour easily; then stir it into a pot of boiling water, and let it boil five or six minutes, stirring it frequently. A tallow or spermaceti candle, stirred round in the starch several times, will make it smoother—strain it through a thick cloth. Starch made in this manner will answer for both cotton and linen very well. Some people do not boil their starch, but merely turn boiling water on the mixed flour and water, but it does not make clothes look nice. Poland starch is made in the same manner as wheat starch. When rice is boiled in a pot without being tied up in a bag, the water in which it is boiled is as good as Poland starch for clear-starching muslins, if boiled to a thick consistency after it is turned off from the boiled rice, and then strained. Muslins, to look clear, should be starched, and clapped dry, while the starch is hot, then folded in a very damp cloth, and suffered to remain in it till they become quite damp, before ironing them. If muslins are sprinkled, they are apt to look spotted. Garments that are not worn, when laid by, should not be starched, as it rots them when not exposed to the air.

417. To clean Woollen and Silk Shawls.

Pare and grate raw, mealy potatoes, and put to each pint of the potato pulp a couple of quarts of cold water. Let it stand five hours, then strain the water through a sieve, and rub as much of the potato pulp through as possible—let the strained water stand to settle again—when very clear, turn the water off from the dregs carefully. Put a clean white cotton sheet on a perfectly clean table, lay on the shawl which you wish to clean, and pin it down tight. Dip a sponge, that has never been used, into the potato water, and rub the shawl with it till clean; then rinse the shawl in clear water, with a tea-cup of salt to a pailful of the water. Spread it on a clean, level place, where it will dry quick—if hung up to dry, the colors are apt to run, and make the shawl streaked. Fold it up while damp, and let it remain half an hour, then put it in a mangler—if you have not one, wrap it in a clean white cloth, and put it under a weight, and let it remain till dry. If there are any grease spots on the shawl, they should be extracted before the shawl is washed.

418. Directions for Carpets.

Carpets should be taken up and shook thoroughly, if in constant use, as often as three or four times in a year, as the dirt that collects underneath them wears them out very fast. Straw kept under carpets, will make them wear much longer, as the dirt will sift through, and keep it from grinding out. Carpets should be taken up as often as once a year, even if not much used, as there is danger of moths getting into them. If there is any appearance of moths in carpets when they are taken up, sprinkle tobacco or black pepper on the floor before the carpets are put down, and let it remain after they are laid down. When the dust is well shaken out of carpets, if there are any grease spots on them, grate on potter's clay very thick, cover them with a brown paper, and set on a warm iron. It will be necessary to repeat this process several times, to get out all the grease. If the carpets are so much soiled as to require cleaning all over, after the dirt has been shaken out, spread them on a clean floor, and rub on them, with a new broom, pared and grated raw potatoes. Let the carpets remain till perfectly dry, before walking on them.

419. To clean Light Kid Gloves.

Magnesia, moist bread, and India rubber, are all of them good to clean light kid gloves. They should be rubbed on the gloves thoroughly. If so much soiled that they cannot be cleaned, sew up the tops of the gloves, and rub them over with a sponge dipped in a decoction of saffron and water. The gloves will be yellow or brown, according to the strength of the decoction.

420. To restore rusty Italian Crape.

Heat skim milk and water—dissolve in half a pint of it a piece of glue an inch square, then take it from the fire. Rinse the crape out in vinegar to clean it; then, to stiffen it, put it in the mixed glue and milk. Wring it out, and clap it till dry, then smooth it out with a hot iron—a paper should be laid over it when it is ironed. Gin is an excellent thing to restore rusty crape—dip it in, and let it get saturated with it; then clap it till dry, and smooth it out with a moderately hot iron. Italian crape can be dyed to look as nice as that which is new.

421. To clean Mahogany and Marble Furniture.

No soap should ever be used for them—they should be washed in fair water, and rubbed with a clean, soft cloth, till dry. A little sweet oil, rubbed on occasionally, gives them a fine polish. The furniture should be rubbed over with a cloth dipped in oil, then rubbed over with a clean cloth till it appears dry and polished. White spots on varnished furniture may be removed by rubbing them with a warm flannel, dipped in spirits of turpentine. Ink spots may be removed by rubbing them with a woollen cloth, dipped in oil of vitriol and water mixed, being careful not to touch any part of the furniture that is not spotted. As soon as the ink is extracted, rinse the spot with pearl-ash water, and then with fair water. It is said that blotting paper alone will extract the ink, if rolled up tight, and rubbed hard on the spots. If it answers the purpose, it is altogether best to use it, as there is always danger attending the use of oil of vitriol, it being so powerful as to corrode whatever it may get dropped on, without its effects are destroyed by the use of an alkali.

422. To clean Stoves and Stone Hearths.

Varnished stoves should have several coats of varnish put on in summer, in order to have it get hard, before being used. They should be washed in warm water, without soap—a little oil rubbed on them occasionally, makes them look nice, and tends to keep the varnish from wearing off. Black lead and British Lustre are both of them good to black stoves which have never been varnished—if they have been, it will not answer. They should be mixed with cold water, to form a paste, then rubbed on the stoves, and remain till quite dry—they should then be rubbed with a dry, stiff, and flat brush, till clean and polished. If you wish to preserve the color of free-stone hearths, wash them in water, without any soap; then rub on them, while damp, free-stone, that has been reduced to a powder—let it remain till dry, then rub it off. If the hearths are stained, rub them hard with a piece of free-stone. If you wish to have your hearth look dark, rub it over with hot soft soap, alone, or diluted with water. For brick hearths, use redding, mixed with thin hot starch and milk.

423. To extract Ink from Floors.

Ink spots on floors can be removed by scouring them with sand wet in oil of vitriol, and water, mixed. Rinse them, when the ink is extracted, with strong pearl-ash water.

424. To remove Paint and Putty from Window Glass.

Put sufficient pearl-ash into hot water, to make it very strong of it; then saturate the paint which is daubed on the glass with it. Let it remain till nearly dry, then rub it off hard, with a woollen cloth. Pearl-ash water is also good to remove putty before it is dried on the glass. If it dries on, whiting is good to remove it.

425. To cleanse Feather Beds and Mattresses.

When feather beds become soiled or heavy, they may be made clean and light by being treated in the following manner: Rub them over with a stiff brush, dipped in hot soap-suds. When clean, lay them on a shed, or any other clean place, where the rain will fall on them. When thoroughly soaked, let them dry in a hot sun for six or seven successive days, shaking them up well, and turning them over each day. They should be covered over with a thick cloth during the night; if exposed to the night air, they will become damp, and mildew. This way of washing the bed ticking and feathers, makes them very fresh and light, and is much easier than the old-fashioned way of emptying the beds, and washing the feathers separately, while it answers quite as well. Care must be taken to dry the bed perfectly, before sleeping on it. Hair mattresses that have become hard and dirty, can be made nearly as good as new by ripping them, washing the ticking, and picking the hair free from bunches, and keeping it in a dry, airy place, several days. Whenever the ticking gets dry, fill it lightly with the hair, and tack it together.

426. To cleanse Vials and Pie Plates.

Bottles and vials that have had medicine in them, may be cleansed by putting ashes in each one, and immersing them in a pot of cold water, then heating the water gradually, until it boils. When they have boiled in it an hour, take it from the fire, and let them remain in it till cold; then wash them in soap-suds, and rinse them in fair water till clear. Pie plates that have been used much for baking, are apt to impart an unpleasant taste to the pies, which is owing to the lard and butter of the crust soaking into them, and becoming rancid. It may be removed by putting them in a brass kettle, with ashes and cool water, and boiling them in it an hour.

427. To temper Earthen-ware.

Earthen-ware that is used to bake in, will be less liable to crack from the heat if put, before they are used, into a vessel, with sufficient cold water to cover them, then heated in it gradually, till the water boils. When the vessel is taken from the fire, the ware should remain in until cold.

428. To temper New Ovens and Iron-ware.

New ovens, before they are baked in, should have a fire kept up in them half a day. As soon as the wood is removed, put up the lid of the oven. It should not be used for baking until it has been heated the second time. If not treated in this manner, it will never retain the heat well. New flat irons should be heated half a day before they are used, in order to retain heat well. Iron cooking utensils, when new, will be less liable to crack if heated gradually five or six hours, and then cooled slowly, before being used to cook in. Cold water should never be turned into hot iron utensils, as it will crack them by cooling the surface too suddenly.

429. To polish Brass, Britannia, and Silver Utensils.

Rotten stone, mixed with a little spirit, is the best thing to clean brass with: rotten stone and oil does very well. They should be polished with dry rotten stone, and a dry cloth. Hot vinegar and milk makes brass look nice—it should be rinsed off, wiped dry, and rubbed over with chalk, to kill the acid, and give the brass a polish. Brass looks very nice cleaned in this manner, and will keep clean a long time, provided all the acid is killed—if not, they will turn very soon. When brass utensils are not in use, they should be thoroughly cleaned with rotten stone and oil, and wrapped up tight to exclude the air. Whiting or chalk is good to polish silver. If the silver is spotted, wet the chalk, (which should be powdered,) rub it on the silver, and let it remain until dry; then rub it off with a clean dry cloth. When chalk will not remove spots, hot ashes will. Britannia-ware should be rubbed with a flannel rag dipped in sweet or linseed oil, if spotted, then washed in soap-suds, and wiped dry. To give it a polish, rub it over with dry powdered chalk or whiting, using a clean dry rag.

430. To remove or keep Rust from Cutlery.

Bristol brick is good to remove rust, and give a polish to steel utensils. It should be powdered fine, and rubbed on dry, with a woollen cloth. Knives should be rubbed on a board, with a thick leather covered over it, and fastened down tight. The brick should be dry, and powdered fine, and the knives should not be wet after cleaning, but merely wiped, with a dry clean cloth. To make the handles smooth, wipe them with a cloth that is a little damp, being careful not to touch the blades, as it will tarnish them. Knives look very nice cleaned in this manner, and the edge will keep sharp. Ivory-handled knives should never have the handles put into hot water, as it will turn them yellow. If, through misuse, they turn yellow, rub them with sand paper. When Bristol brick will not remove rust from steel, rub the spots with sand paper or emery, or else rub on sweet oil, and let it remain a day; then rub it off with powdered quicklime. To keep steel utensils (that are not in constant use) from contracting rust, clean them thoroughly with Bristol brick, wipe them on a perfectly dry cloth, and rub them over with sweet oil, and cover them with brown paper, so as to exclude the air. Knives and forks should be wrapped up in brown paper, each one by itself.

431. Preservatives against the ravages of Moths.

Moths are very apt to eat woollen and fur garments early in the summer. To keep them from the garments, take them late in the spring, when not worn, and put them in a chest, with considerable camphor gum. Cedar chips, or tobacco leaves, are also good for this purpose. When moths get into garments, the best thing to destroy them is to hang the garments in a closet, and make a strong smoke of tobacco leaves under them. In order to do it, have a pan of live coals in the closet, and sprinkle on the tobacco leaves.

432. To destroy Cockroaches, Ants, and other household Vermin.

Hellebore, rubbed over with molasses, and put round the places that cockroaches frequent, is a very effectual poison for them. Arsenic, spread on bread and butter, and placed round rat or mouse holes, will soon put a stop to their ravages. Quicksilver and the white of an egg, beat together, and laid with a feather round the crevices of the bedsteads and the sacking, is very effectual in destroying bugs in them. To kill flies, when so numerous as to be troublesome, keep cobalt, wet with spirit, in a large shallow plate. The spirit will attract the flies, and the cobalt will kill them very soon. Black pepper is said to be good to destroy them—it should be mixed, so as to be very strong, with a little cream and sugar. Great care is necessary in using the above poisons, where there are any children, as they are so apt to eat any thing that comes in their way, and these poisons will prove as fatal to them as to vermin, (excepting the pepper.) The flour of sulphur is said to be good to drive ants away, if sprinkled round the places that they frequent. Sage is also good. Weak brine will kill worms in gravel walks, if kept moist with it a week in the spring, and three or four days in the fall.



COMMON SIMPLE DYES.

433. To Dye Black.

Allow a pound of logwood to each pound of goods that are to be dyed. Soak it over night in soft water, then boil it an hour, and strain the water in which it is boiled. For each pound of logwood, dissolve an ounce of blue vitriol in lukewarm water sufficient to wet the goods. Dip the goods in—when saturated with it, turn the whole into the logwood dye. If the goods are cotton, set the vessel on the fire, and let the goods boil ten or fifteen minutes, stirring them constantly to prevent their spotting. Silk and woollen goods should not be boiled in the dye-stuff, but it should be kept at a scalding heat for twenty minutes. Drain the goods without wringing, and hang them in a dry, shady place, where they will have the air. When dry, set the color by, put them into scalding hot water, that has salt in it, in the proportion of a tea-cup full to three gallons of the water. Let the goods remain in it till cold; then hang them where they will dry; (they should not be wrung.) Boiling hot suds is the best thing to set the color of black silk—let it remain in it till cold. Soaking black-dyed goods in sour milk, is also good to set the color.

434. Green and Blue Dye, for Silks and Woollens.

For green dye, take a pound of oil of vitriol, and turn it upon half an ounce of Spanish indigo, that has been reduced to a fine powder. Stir them well together, then add a lump of pearl ash, of the size of a pea—as soon as the fermentation ceases, bottle it—the dye will be fit for use the next day. Chemic blue is made in the same manner, only using half the quantity of vitriol. For woollen goods, the East indigo will answer as well as the Spanish, and comes much lower. This dye will not answer for cotton goods, as the vitriol rots the threads. Wash the articles that are to be dyed till perfectly clean, and free from color. If you cannot extract the color by rubbing it in hot suds, boil it out—rinse it in soft water, till entirely free from soap, as the soap will ruin the dye. To dye a pale color, put to each quart of soft warm water that is to be used for the dye, ten drops of the above composition—if you wish a deep color, more will be necessary. Put in the articles without crowding, and let them remain in it till of a good color—the dye-stuff should be kept warm—take the articles out without wringing, drain as much of the dye out of them as possible, then hang them to dry in a shady, airy place. They should be dyed when the weather is dry—if not dried quick, they will not look nice. When perfectly dry, wash them in lukewarm suds, to keep the vitriol from injuring the texture of the cloth. If you wish for a lively bright green, mix a little of the above composition with yellow dye.

435. Yellow Dyes.

To dye a buff color, boil equal parts of arnotto and common potash, in soft clear water. When dissolved, take it from the fire; when cool, put in the goods, which should previously be washed free from spots, and color; set them on a moderate fire, where they will keep hot, till the goods are of the shade you wish. To dye salmon and orange color, tie arnotto in a bag, and soak it in warm soft soap suds, till it becomes soft, so that you can squeeze enough of it through the bag to make the suds a deep yellow—put in the articles, which should be clean, and free from color; boil them till of the shade you wish. There should be enough of the dye to cover the goods—stir them while boiling, to keep them from spotting. This dye will make a salmon or orange color, according to the strength of it, and the time the goods remain in. Drain them out of the dye, and dry them quick, in the shade—when dry, wash them in soft soap suds. Goods dyed in this manner should never be rinsed in clear water. Peach leaves, fustic, and saffron, all make a good straw or lemon color, according to the strength of the dye. They should be steeped in soft fair water, in an earthen or tin vessel, and then strained, and the dye set with alum, and a little gum arabic dissolved in the dye, if you wish to stiffen the article. When the dye-stuff is strained, steep the articles in it.

436. Red Dyes.

Madder makes a good durable red, but not a brilliant color. To make a dye of it, allow for half a pound of it three ounces of alum, and one of cream of tartar, and six gallons of water. This proportion of ingredients will make sufficient dye for six or seven pounds of goods. Heat half of the water scalding hot, in a clean brass kettle, then put in the alum and cream of tartar, and let it dissolve. When the water boils, stir the alum and tartar up in it, put in the goods, and let them boil a couple of hours; then rinse them in fair water—empty the kettle, and put in three gallons of water, and the madder; rub it fine in the water, then put in the goods, and set them where they will keep scalding hot for an hour, without boiling—stir them constantly. When they have been scalding an hour, increase the fire till they boil. Let them boil five minutes; then drain them out of the dye, and rinse them, without wringing, in fair water, and hang them in the shade, where they will dry. To dye a fine crimson, take for each pound of goods two and a half ounces of alum, an ounce and a half of white tartar—put them in a brass kettle, with sufficient fair water to cover your goods; set it where it will boil briskly for several minutes; then put in the goods, which should be washed clean, and rinsed in fair water. When the goods have boiled half an hour, take them out, without wringing, and hang it where it will cool all over alike, without drying; empty out the alum and tartar water, put fresh water in the kettle, and for each pound of goods to be dyed, put in an ounce of cochineal, powdered fine. Set the kettle on the fire, and let the water boil fifteen or twenty minutes; then put in sufficient cold water to make it lukewarm, put in the goods, and boil them an hour and a quarter—take them out without wringing, and dry them in a shady place. The blossoms of the Balm of Gilead, steeped with fair water in a vessel, then strained, will dye silk a pretty red color. The silk should be washed clean, and free from color, then rinsed in fair water, and boiled in the strained dye, with a small piece of alum. To dye a fine delicate pink, use a carmine saucer—the directions for dyeing come with the saucers. It is too expensive a dye for bulky goods, but for faded fancy shawls and ribbons, it is quite worth the while to use it, as it gives a beautiful shade of pink.

437. Slate-Colored Dye.

To make a good dark slate color, boil sugar-loaf paper with vinegar, in an iron utensil—put in alum to set the color. Tea grounds, set with copperas, makes a good slate color. To produce a light slate color, boil white maple bark in clear water, with a little alum—the bark should be boiled in a brass utensil. The dye for slate color should be strained before the goods are put into it. They should be boiled in it, and then hung where they will drain and dry.

438. Soap from Scraps.

Dissolve eighteen pounds of potash in three pailsful of water; then add to it twenty-five pounds of grease, and boil it over a slow fire for a couple of hours. Turn it into a barrel, and fill it up with water.

439. Cold Soap.

Heat twenty-six pounds of strained grease. When melted, mix it with four pailsful of lye, made of twenty pounds of white potash. Let the whole stand in the sun, stirring it frequently. In the course of a week, fill the barrel with weak lye. This method of making soap is much easier than to make a lye of your ashes, while it is as cheap, if you sell your ashes to the soap-boiler.

440. Hard Soap.

Dissolve twenty weight of white potash in three pailsful of water. Heat twenty pounds of strained grease, then mix it with the dissolved potash, and boil them together till the whole becomes a thick jelly, which is ascertained by taking a little of it out to get cold. Take it from the fire, stir in cold water till it grows thin, then put to each pailful of soap a pint of blown salt—stir it in well. The succeeding day, separate it from the lye, and heat it over a slow fire. Let it boil a quarter of an hour, then take it from the fire. If you wish to have it a yellow color, put in a little palm oil, and turn it out into wooden vessels. When cold, separate it again from the lye, and cut, it in bars—let them remain in the sun several days to dry.

441. Windsor and Castile Soap.

To make the celebrated Windsor soap, nothing more is necessary than to slice the best white soap as thin as possible, and melt it over a slow fire. Take it from the fire when melted, and when it is just lukewarm, add enough of the oil of caraway to scent it. If any other fragrant oil is liked better, if may be substituted. Turn it into moulds, and let it remain in a dry situation for five or six days. To make Castile soap, boil common soft soap in lamp oil three hours and a half.

442. Bayberry, or Myrtle Soap.

Dissolve two pounds and a quarter of white potash in five quarts of water, then mix it with ten pounds of myrtle wax, or bayberry tallow. Boil the whole over a slow fire, till it turns to soap, then add a tea-cup of cold water—let it boil ten minutes longer—at the end of that time turn it into tin moulds, or pans, and let them remain a week or ten days to dry, then turn them out of the moulds. If you wish to have the soap scented, stir into it any essential oil that has an agreeable smell, just before you turn it into the moulds. This kind of soap is excellent for shaving, and chapped hands—it is also good for eruptions on the face. It will be fit for use in the course of three or four weeks after it is made, but it is better for being kept ten or twelve months.



THE WHOLE ART OF CARVING.

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

The carving knife should be light, of middling size, and of a fine edge. Strength is less required than skill in the manner of using it; and to facilitate this, the butcher should be directed to divide the joints of the bones of all carcass joints of mutton, lamb, and veal, (such as neck, breast, and loin,) which then may easily be cut into thin slices, attached to the bones. If the whole of the meat belonging to each bone should be too thick, a small slice may be taken off between every two bones.

The more fleshy joints (as fillets of veal, leg or saddle of mutton, and beef,) are to be helped in thin slices, neatly cut, and smooth. Observe to let the knife pass down to the bone in the mutton and beef joints.

The dish should not be too far off the carver, as it gives an awkward appearance, and makes the task more difficult. Attention is to be paid to help every one to a part of such articles as are considered best.

In helping fish, take care not to break the flakes, which in cod and very fresh salmon are large, and contribute much to the beauty of its appearance. A fish knife not being sharp, divides it best. Help a part of the roe, milt, or liver, to each person. The heads of carp, part of those of cod and salmon, sounds of cod, and fins of turbot, are likewise esteemed niceties, and are to be attended to accordingly.

In cutting up any wild fowl, duck, goose, or turkey, for a large party, if you cut the slices down from pinion to pinion, without making wings, there will be more handsome pieces.

1. Sirloin of Beef.

This may be begun at either end, or by cutting in the middle. It is usual to inquire whether the outside or inside is preferred. For the outside, the slice should be cut down to the bones, and the same with every following helping. Slice the inside likewise, and give with each piece some of the soft fat. The inside, done in the following manner, is excellent: Have ready some shalot vinegar, boiling hot; mince the meat large, and a good deal of the fat; sprinkle it with salt, and pour the vinegar and the gravy on it. Help with a spoon as quick as possible, on hot plates.

2. Aitch or Edgebone of Beef.



Cut off a slice, an inch thick, all the length from a to b, and then help. The soft fat, which resembles marrow, lies at the back of the bone, below d—the firm fat must be cut in horizontal slices at the edge of the meat, c. The skewer used in keeping the meat together while boiling, is shown at a, which should be drawn out before served up; or, if necessary to leave it in, place instead one of silver.

3. Shoulder of Mutton.



This is a very good joint, and by many preferred to the leg; for, if properly roasted, it abounds in gravy, and produces many nice bits. The figure annexed represents it as laid in the dish, with its back uppermost. It should first be cut in the hollow part, in the direction a, b, and the knife passed deep to the bone. The best part of the fat lies on the outer edge, and it is to be cut out in thin slices, in the direction f. If many are at the table, and the hollow part cut in the line a, b, is eaten, some very good and delicate slices may be cut out on each side the ridge of the blade bone, in the direction c, d. The line between these two dotted lines is that in the direction of which the edge or ridge of the blade bone lies, and cannot be cut across. It is necessary to wind writing paper around the shank, as in the leg, provided you wish to handle it. The lower side of the shoulder has two cuts abounding in gravy. The part in the direction i, k, is lean; the other, g, h, is very fat.



4. Knuckle of Veal.



A knuckle of veal cuts in neat slices only in one direction, viz.: from a to b. The line d, c, divides two bones, which it is necessary to separate in order to get at the best marrowy fat portion—also cut asunder the knuckle bones.

5. Roasted Breast of Veal.



Cut to the left on the first line d, c; then cross from c to the most distant a. The lines a, d, a, d, &c., represent the directions in which the brisket, or gristly part should be divided; d, c, show the course of the ribs, and e is the sweetbread.

6. A Spare Rib.



Cut out first a slice from the fleshy portion, following the line a, b. This will give a due proportion of fat and lean. After this part is taken away, the bone lying in the direction d, b, c, should be separated, breaking it off at the joint, c.

7. Saddle of Mutton.



Cut long thin slices from the tail to the end, viz.: from a to b, beginning close to the back bone. If a large joint, the slice may be divided. Cut some fat from the sides.

8. Pig.



The cook usually divides the body before it is sent to the table, and garnishes the dish with the jaws and ears. The first thing is to separate the shoulder from the carcass on one side, and then the leg, according to the direction given by the dotted line a, b, c. The ribs are then to be divided into about two helpings, and an ear or jaw presented with them, and plenty of sauce. The joints may either be divided into two each, or pieces may be cut from them. The ribs are reckoned the finest part, but some people prefer the neck, and between the shoulders.

9. Half a Calf's Head, boiled.



Be careful and get a young one, as they look much handsomer served up, and besides are more tender. First cut in the direction c, b. The throat bread is considered the choicest part; it lies in the fleshy portion, near the termination of the jaw-bone, and the line c, d, shows the direction to cut into it. On the under part of the lower jaw there is some very nice meat; and about the ear, g, some fat rather gristly, but highly esteemed. The part near the neck is very inferior. Sometimes the bone in the line f, e, is cut off, but this is a coarse part. The sweet tooth is quite a delicacy—it lies back of all the rest, and, in a young calf, is easily extracted with the knife. Many like the eye, which you must cut out with the point of your knife, and divide in two. Under the head is the palate, which is reckoned a nicety.

10. Leg of Mutton.



A leg of wether mutton, (which is best flavored) may be known at the market by a round lump of fat at the edge of the broadest part, a little above the letter a. The best part is midway between the knuckle and farther end. Begin to help there, by cutting thin slices to b. If the outside is not fat enough, help some from the side at the broad end, in slices from e to f. This part is most juicy, but many prefer the knuckle, which, in fine mutton, will be very tender, though dry. There are very fine slices in the back of the leg—turn it up, and cut the broad end, not in the direction you did the other side, but lengthwise. To cut out the cramp bone, take hold of the shank (which should be previously wound round with half a sheet of fool's-cap paper) with your left hand, and cut down to the thigh bone at g, then pass the knife under the cramp bone, in the direction g, d.

11. Ham.



Ham may be cut three ways; the common method is to begin in the middle, by long slices from b to c, from the centre, through the thick fat. This brings to the prime at first, which is likewise accomplished by cutting a small round hole on the top of the ham, as at a, and with a sharp knife enlarging that, by cutting successive thin circles—this preserves the gravy, and keeps the meat moist. The last, and most saving way, is to begin at the hock end, (which many are most fond of,) and proceed onward. Ham that is used for pies, &c., should be cut from the under side.

12. Fore Quarter of Lamb.



Separate the shoulder from the breast and ribs, by passing the knife under, in the direction of a, b, c, and d. Be careful to keep it towards you horizontally, to prevent cutting the meat too much off the bones. If grass lamb, the shoulder being large, put it into a another dish. Squeeze the juice of half a Seville orange or lemon on the other part, and sprinkle a little salt and pepper; then separate the gristly part from the ribs, in the line e, c, and help either from that or from the ribs, as may be chosen.

13. Haunch of Venison.



First cut it down to the bone, in the line d, c, a, then turn the dish with the end a towards you; put in the point of the knife at c, and cut it down as deep as you can in the direction c, b. Thus cut, you may take out as many slices as you please, on the right or left. As the fat lies deeper on the left, between b and a, to those who are fond of fat, as most venison eaters are, the best flavored and fattest slices will be found on the left of the line c, b, supposing the end a turned towards you. Slices of venison should not be cut too thick nor too thin, and plenty of gravy given with them.

14. Round of Beef.

This is cut in the same way as a fillet of veal. It should be kept even all over. When helping the fat, be careful not to hack it, but cut it smooth. A deep slice should be taken off before you begin to help, as directed in the edge-bone.

15. Brisket of Beef.

This must be cut lengthwise, quite down to the bone, after separating the outside or first slice, which must be cut pretty thick.

16. Leg of Pork.

This joint is sent to the table, whether boiled or roasted, as a leg of mutton, roasted and cut up in the same manner. The close firm flesh about the knuckle is by many reckoned best.

17. Haunch of Mutton.

This is formed by the leg and part of the loin, cut so as to resemble a haunch of venison, and is to be helped at table in the same manner.

18. Goose.



Turn the neck end of the goose towards you, and cut the whole breast in slices on each side of the bird, but only remove them as you help each person, unless the company is so large as to require the legs likewise. Turn the goose on one side, and then take off the leg by putting the fork into the small end of the leg bone, pressing it close to the body; and, having passed the knife in the line e, d, turn the leg back, and, if a young bird, it will easily separate.

To take off the wing, put your fork into the small end of the pinion, and press it close to the body; then put in the knife at c, and divide the joint, taking it down in the direction c, d. Nothing but practice will enable people to hit the joint exactly at the first trial. When the leg and wing of one side are done, go on to the other; cut off the apron in the line, f, e, g, then take off the merry-thought in the line o, i. The neck bones are next to be separated as in a fowl, and all other parts divided the same.

19. A Fowl.



A boiled fowl's legs are bent inwards, but before it is served, the skewers are to be removed. Lay the fowl on your plate, and place the joints as cut off on the dish. Take the wing off, in the direction of a to b, in the annexed engraving, only dividing the joint with your knife; and then, with your fork, lift up the pinion, and draw the wings towards the legs, and the muscles will separate in a more complete form than if cut. Slip the knife between the leg and body, and cut to the bone; then, with the fork, turn the leg back, and, if the bird is not old, the joint will give way. When the four quarters are thus removed, take off the merry-thought from a, and the neck bones, these last by putting in the knife at c, and pressing it under the long broad part of the bone, in the line c, b; then lift it up, and break it off from the part that sticks to the breast. The next thing is to divide the breast from the carcass, by cutting through the tender ribs, close to the breast, quite down to the end of the fowl; lay the back up, put your knife into the bone, half way from the neck to the rump, and on raising the lower part, it will readily separate. Turn the neck towards you, and very neatly take off the two sidesmen, and the whole will be done. As each part is taken off it should be turned neatly on the dish, and care should be taken that what is left should go properly from the table. The breast and wings are looked upon as the best parts, but the legs are most juicy in young fowls. After all, more advantage will be gained by observing those who carve well, and a little practice, than by any written directions whatever.

20. Partridge.

This bird is cut up in the same way as a fowl. The best parts are the wings, breast, and merry-thought; but the bird being small, the two latter are not often divided. The wing is considered the best, and the tip is reckoned the most delicate morsel of the whole.

21. Pigeons.

Pigeons are considered very fine eating. It is usual to cut them in half, either from top to bottom, or across. The lower part is generally thought best.

22. Turkey.

Fix your fork firmly in the lower part of the breast, so as to have full command of the turkey. Slice down on each side of the centre of the breast, two or three lines lengthwise with the body; then take off the leg on one side, holding the knife in a sloping direction, the point turned towards the end of the body. This done, cut off the wing on the same side, in a line nearly parallel with the length of the turkey. When you have thus separated the wings and legs, take off from the breast bone the parts you before sliced down. Be very attentive, in separating the wing, not to cut too near the neck, or you will find yourself interrupted by the neck bone, from which the wing must be taken.

23. Cod's Head.



Fish in general requires very little carving, the fleshy parts being those principally esteemed. A cod's head and shoulders, when in season, and properly boiled, is a very genteel and handsome dish. When cut, it should be done with a fish trowel; the parts about the back-bone, or the shoulders, are by far the firmest and best. Take off a piece quite down to the bone, in the direction a, b, c, d, putting in the spoon at a, c, and with each slice of the fish give a piece of the round, which lies underneath the back-bone, and lines it, the meat of which is thin, and a little darker colored than the body of the fish itself. This may be got by passing a spoon under it, in the direction d, f. About the head are many delicate parts, and a great deal of the jelly kind. The jelly part lies about the jaw-bone, and the firm parts within the head. Some are fond of the palate, and others the tongue, which likewise may be got by putting a spoon into the mouth.



Transcriber's Note

The following typographical errors were corrected:

Page Error 5 PICKLES changed to PICKLES. 7 COMMON DRINKS changed to COMMON DRINKS. 8 washing Calicoes changed to Washing Calicoes 12 scum tha changed to scum that 19 them fry until a a light changed to then fry until a light 19 its blistering changed to its blistering. 27 boiled Poultry changed to Boiled Poultry 28 sweet marjorum changed to sweet marjoram 36 Black Fish changed to Black Fish. 37 baking fish, No. 74. changed to baking fish, No. 76. 46 118. Directions changed to 119. Directions 59 Green Corn Cake changed to Green Corn Cake. 125 freed from them changed to freed from them. 126 through the Winter changed to through the Winter. 128 boil it gently changed to boil it gently. 130 in indigo water changed to in indigo water. 131 Marble Furniture changed to Marble Furniture. 134 into the moulds changed to into the moulds. 142 A Fowl changed to A Fowl.

The following words had inconsistent spelling and hyphenation:

Butter-milk / Buttermilk Earthen-ware / Earthenware edge-bone / edgebone Iron-ware / Ironware pearl-ash / pearl ash pepper-corns / peppercorns potato / potatoe Potato / Potatoe rose-water / rosewater quick lime / quicklime salt-petre / saltpetre sweet bread / sweetbread table-spoonful / table spoonful table-spoonsful / table spoonsful tea-cup / tea cup tea-spoonful / tea spoonful tea-spoonsful / tea spoonsful three-quarters / three quarters tomatoes / tomatos turkies / turkeys

THE END

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