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The American Housewife
Author: Anonymous
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247. Cherry and Blackberry Pie.

Cherries and blackberries for pies should be ripe. Bake them in deep pie plates, sweeten them with sugar, and put in cloves or cinnamon to the taste. Bake them about half an hour.

248. Grape Pie.

Grapes make the best pies when very tender and green. If not very small, they should be stewed and strained, to get out the seeds, before they are made into pies—sweeten them to the taste when stewed. They do not require any spice. If made into a pie without stewing, put to each layer of grapes a thick layer of sugar, and a table-spoonful of water.

249. Currant and Gooseberry Pie.

Currants and gooseberries are the best for pies when of a full growth, just before they begin to turn red—they are tolerably good when ripe. Currants mixed with ripe raspberries or mulberries, make very nice pies. Green currants and gooseberries for pies are not apt to be sweet enough without the sugar is scalded in before they are baked, as the juice of the currants is apt to run out while they are baking, and leave the fruit dry. Stew them on a moderate fire, with a tea-cup of water to a couple of quarts of currants—as soon as they begin to break, add the sugar, and let it scald in a few minutes. When baked without stewing, put to each layer of fruit a thick layer of sugar. There should be as much as a quarter of a pound of sugar to a pint of currants, to make them sufficiently sweet. Green currant pies are good sweetened with molasses and sugar mixed.

250. Prune Pie.

Prunes that are too dry to eat without stewing, can be made into good pies. Turn enough boiling water on the prunes to cover them, set them on a few coals, and let them remain till swelled out plump. If there is not water sufficient to make a nice syrup for the pies, add more, and season them with cinnamon or cloves. The juice and grated peel of a lemon gives them a fine flavor. Add sugar to the taste, and bake them in deep pie plates.

251. Pumpkin Pie.

Halve the pumpkin, take out the seeds—rinse the pumpkin, and cut it into small strips—stew them, over a moderate fire, in just sufficient water to prevent their burning, to the bottom of the pot. When stewed soft, turn off the water, and let the pumpkin steam, over a slow fire, for fifteen or twenty minutes, taking care that it does not burn. Take it from the fire, and strain it, when cool, through a sieve. If you wish to have the pies very rich, put to a quart of the stewed pumpkin two quarts of milk, and twelve eggs. If you like them plain, put to a quart of the pumpkin one quart of milk, and three eggs. The thicker the pie is of the pumpkin, the less will be the number of eggs required for them. One egg, with a table-spoonful of flour, will answer for a quart of the pumpkin, if very little milk is used. Sweeten the pumpkin with sugar, and very little molasses—the sugar and eggs should be beaten together. Ginger, the grated rind of a lemon, or nutmeg, is good spice for the pies. Pumpkin pies require a very hot oven. The rim of the pies is apt to get burnt before the inside is baked sufficiently. On this account, it is a good plan to heat the pumpkin scalding hot when prepared for pies, before turning it into the pie plates. The pies should be baked as soon as the plates are filled, or the under crust to the pies will be clammy. The more the number of eggs in the pies, the less time will be required to bake them. If you have pumpkins that have begun to decay, or those that are frozen, they can be kept several months, in cold weather, by cutting the good part up, stewing it till soft, then stirring it, and adding sugar and molasses, to make it very sweet. Make it strong of ginger, then scald the seasoning in well. Keep it in a stone jar, in a cool place—whenever you wish to use any of it for pies, take out the quantity you wish, and put milk and eggs to it.

252. Carrot Pie.

Scrape the skin off from the carrots, boil them soft, and strain them through a sieve. To a pint of the strained pulp put three pints of milk, six beaten eggs, two table-spoonsful of melted butter, the juice of half a lemon, and the grated rind of a whole one. Sweeten it to your taste, and bake it in deep pie plates without an upper crust.

253. Potato Pie.

Boil Carolina or mealy Irish potatoes, till very soft—when peeled, mash and strain them. To a quarter of a pound of potatoes, put a quart of milk, three table-spoonsful of melted butter, four beaten eggs, a wine glass of wine—add sugar and nutmeg to the taste.

254. Sweet Marlborough Pie.

Procure sweet mellow apples, pare and grate them. To a pint of the grated pulp put a pint of milk, a couple of eggs, two table-spoonsful of melted butter, the grated peel of a lemon, and half a wine glass of brandy. Sweeten it to the taste with nice brown sugar. The eggs should be beaten to a froth, then the sugar stirred into them, and mixed with the rest of the ingredients. A little stewed pumpkin, mixed with the apples, improves the pie. Bake the pie in deep plates, without an upper crust.

255. Marlborough Tarts.

Take tart juicy apples—quarter them, and stew them till soft enough to rub through a sieve. To twelve table-spoonsful of the strained apple, put twelve of sugar, the same quantity of wine, six table-spoonsful of melted butter, four beaten eggs, the juice and grated rind of a lemon, half a nutmeg, and half a pint of milk. Turn this, when the ingredients are well mixed together, into deep pie plates that are lined with pastry, and a rim of puff paste round the edge. Bake the tarts about half an hour.

256. Cocoanut Pie.

Cut off the brown part of the cocoanut—grate the white part, and mix it with milk, and set it on the fire, and let it boil slowly eight or ten minutes. To a pound of the grated cocoanut allow a quart of milk, eight eggs, four table-spoonsful of sifted white sugar, a glass of wine, a small cracker, pounded fine, two table-spoonsful of melted butter, and half a nutmeg. The eggs and sugar should be beaten together to a froth, then the wine stirred in. Put them into the milk and cocoanut, which should be first allowed to get quite cool—add the cracker and nutmeg—turn the whole into deep pie plates, with a lining and rim of puff paste. Bake them as soon as turned into the plates.

257. Small Puffs.

To make a dozen puffs, take a pound and a quarter of flour, a pound of butter, and one egg. Put them together according to the directions for puff pastry, No. 238. Divide it when made into three equal portions—roll one of them out half an inch thick, cut it into cakes with a tumbler—roll out the rest of the pastry, cut it into strips with a jagging iron, and lay the strips round those that are cut with a tumbler, so as to form a rim. Lay the puffs on buttered flat tins—bake them in a quick oven till a light brown, then fill them with any small preserved fruit you may happen to have.

258. A Plain Custard Pie.

Boil a quart of milk with half a dozen peach leaves, or the rind of a lemon. When they have flavored the milk, strain it, and set it where it will boil. Mix a table-spoonful of flour, smoothly, with a couple of table-spoonsful of milk, and stir it into the boiling milk. Let it boil a minute, stirring it constantly—take it from the fire, and when cool, put in three beaten eggs—sweeten it to the taste, turn it into deep pie plates, and bake the pies directly in a quick oven.

259. A Rich Baked Custard.

Beat seven eggs with three table-spoonsful of rolled sugar. When beaten to a froth, mix them with a quart of milk—flavor it with nutmeg. Turn it into cups, or else into deep pie plates, that have a lining and rim of pastry—bake them directly, in a quick oven. To ascertain when the custards are sufficiently baked, stick a clean broom splinter into them—if none of the custard adheres to the splinter, it is sufficiently baked.

260. Boiled Custards.

Put your milk on the fire, and let it boil up—then remove it from the fire, and let it cool. Beat for each quart of the milk, if liked rich, the yelks and half the whites of six eggs, with three table-spoonsful of rolled sugar—stir them into the milk when it is cool. If you wish to have your custards very plain, four eggs to a quart of the milk is sufficient. Season the custard with nutmeg or rosewater, and set it on a few coals, and stir it constantly until it thickens, and becomes scalding hot. Take it from the fire before it gets to boiling, and stir it a few minutes, then turn it into the cups. Beat the reserved whites of the eggs to a froth, and turn them on the top of the custards just before they are to be eaten.

261. Mottled Custards.

Stir into a quart of milk, while boiling, the beaten yelks of six eggs. Beat the whites of the eggs with three table-spoonsful of powdered white sugar, if the custards are liked very sweet—if not, a less quantity will answer. Stir in the whites of the eggs a minute after the yelks have set, so as to be thick. Season the custard with essence of lemon or rosewater—stir it till it becomes thick and lumpy, then turn it into cups.

262. Cream Custards.

Sweeten a pint of cream with powdered white sugar—set it on a few coals. When hot, stir in white wine until it curdles—add rosewater or essence of lemon to the taste, and turn it into cups. Another way of making them, which is very nice, is to mix a pint of cream with one of milk, five beaten eggs, a table-spoonful of flour, and three of sugar. Add nutmeg to the taste, and bake the custards in cups or pie plates, in a quick oven.

263. Almond Custards.

Blanch and pound fine, with a table-spoonful of rosewater, four ounces of almonds. Boil them four or five minutes in a quart of milk, with sufficient white sugar to sweeten the milk. Take it from the fire, and when lukewarm, stir in the beaten yelks of eight, and the whites of four eggs. Set the whole on the fire, and stir it constantly until it thickens—then take it up, stir it till partly cooled, and turn it into cups. If you wish to have the custards cool quick, set the cups into a pan of cold water—as fast as it gets warm, change it. Just before the custards are to be eaten, beat the reserved whites of the eggs to a froth, and cover the top of the custards with them.

264. Apple Custards.

Take half a dozen tart mellow apples—pare and quarter them, and take out the cores. Put them in a pan, with half a tea-cup of water—set them on a few coals. When they begin to grow soft, turn them into a pudding dish, sprinkle sugar on them. Beat eight eggs with rolled brown sugar—mix them with three pints of milk, grate in half a nutmeg, and turn the whole over the apples. Bake the custard between twenty and thirty minutes.

265. Directions for making Puddings.

A bag that is used for boiling puddings, should be made of thick cotton cloth. Before the pudding is turned in, the bag should be dipped into water, wrung out, and the inside of it floured. When the pudding is turned in, tie the bag tight, leaving plenty of room for the pudding to swell out in. Indian and flour puddings require a great deal of room. Put them in a pot of boiling water, with an old plate at the bottom of the pot, to keep the pudding bag from sticking to it. When the pudding has been in a few minutes, turn the bag over, or the pudding will settle, and be heavy. There should be water enough in the pot to cover the pudding, and it should not be allowed to stop boiling a minute—if so, the pudding will not be nice. A tea-kettle of boiling water should be kept on the fire, to turn in as the water boils away. When the pudding is done, dip the bag into cold water for a minute—the pudding will then come out easily. When puddings are baked, the fruit should not be put in till the pudding has begun to thicken, otherwise they will sink to the bottom of the pudding.

266. Hasty Pudding.

Wet sifted Indian meal with cold water, to make a thick batter. Stir it into a pot of boiling water gradually. Boil it an hour, then stir in sifted Indian meal, by the handful, till it becomes quite thick, and so that the pudding stick may be made to stand up in it. It should be stirred in very gradually, so that the pudding may not be lumpy. Add salt to the taste. Let it boil slowly, and stir it frequently, to keep it from burning on the inside of the pot. If you do not wish to fry the pudding, it will boil sufficiently in the course of an hour and a half. If it is to be fried, it will be necessary to boil it an hour longer; and a little flour stirred in, just before it is taken up, will make it fry better. It must get perfectly cold before it is fried. When you wish to fry it, cut it in slices half an inch thick, flour them, and fry them brown in a little lard.

267. Corn Puddings.

Grate sweet green corn—to three tea-cups of it, when grated, put two quarts of milk, eight eggs, a couple of tea-spoonsful of salt, half a tea-cup of melted butter, and a grated nutmeg. Bake the pudding an hour—serve it up with sauce.

268. Cracker Pudding.

Mix ten ounces of finely pounded crackers with a wine glass of wine, a little salt, and half a nutmeg, three or four table-spoonsful of sugar, two of melted butter. Beat eight eggs to a froth—mix them with three pints of milk, and turn them on to the rest of the ingredients. Let it remain till the crackers begin to soften, then bake it.

269. Boiled Indian Pudding.

Stir enough sifted Indian meal into a quart of boiling milk or water, to make a very stiff batter—then stir in a couple of table-spoonsful of flour, three of sugar or molasses, half a spoonful of ginger, or a couple of tea-spoonsful of cinnamon, and a couple of tea-spoonsful of salt. Two or three eggs improve the pudding, but are not essential—some people like a little chopped suet in them. The pudding will boil, so as to be very good, in the course of three hours, but it is better for being boiled five or six hours. Some cooks boil them eight or nine hours—when boiled so long, it is necessary to boil them several hours the day before they are to be eaten.

270. Baked Indian Pudding.

Boil a quart of milk, and turn it on to a pint of sifted Indian meal. Stir it in well, so as to scald the meal—then mix three table-spoonsful of wheat flour with a pint of milk. The milk should be stirred gradually into the flour, so as to have it mix free from lumps. Turn it on to the Indian meal—mix the whole well together. When the whole is just lukewarm, beat three eggs with three table-spoonsful of sugar—stir them into the pudding, together with two tea-spoonsful of salt, two of cinnamon, or a grated nutmeg, and a couple of table-spoonsful of melted butter, or suet chopped fine. Add, if you wish to have the pudding very rich, half a pound of raisins—they should not be put in till the pudding has baked five or six minutes. If raisins are put in, an additional half pint of milk will be required, as they absorb a great deal of milk. A very good Indian pudding may be made without eggs, if half a pint more of meal is used, and no flour. It takes three hours to bake an Indian pudding without eggs—if it has eggs in, it will bake in much less time.

271. Minute Pudding.

Put a pint and a half of milk on the fire. Mix five large table-spoonsful of either wheat or rye flour, smoothly, with half a pint of milk, a tea-spoonful of salt, and half of a grated nutmeg. When the milk boils, stir in the mixed flour and milk. Let the whole boil for one minute, stirring it constantly—take it from the fire, let it get lukewarm, then add three beaten eggs. Set it back on the fire, and stir it constantly until it thickens. Take it from the fire as soon as it boils.

272. Boiled Bread Pudding.

Take about three-quarters of a pound of bread, cut it into small pieces, and soak them soft in cold water—then drain off the water, mash the bread fine, and mix with it two table-spoonsful of flour, three eggs, a tea-spoonful of salt, a table-spoonful of melted butter, and cold milk sufficient to make it a thick batter. Mix the whole well together, then turn it into a floured pudding bag—tie it up, so as to leave room for the pudding to swell—boil it an hour and a half, without any intermission. Serve up the pudding with rich sauce.

273. A Plain Baked Bread Pudding.

Pound rusked bread fine—to five heaping table-spoonsful of it, put a quart of milk, three beaten eggs, three table-spoonsful of rolled sugar, a tea-spoonful of salt, half a nutmeg, and three table-spoonsful of melted butter. Bake it about an hour—it does not need any sauce.

274. Rich Bread Pudding.

Cut a pound loaf of bakers' bread into thin slices—spread butter on them as for eating—lay them in a pudding dish—sprinkle between each layer of bread seeded raisins, and citron, cut in small strips. Beat eight eggs with four table-spoonsful of rolled sugar—mix them with three pints of milk, half of a grated nutmeg. Turn the whole on to the bread, and let it remain until the bread has absorbed full half of the milk—then bake it about three-quarters of an hour.

275. Flour Pudding.

Into a pint and a half of sifted flour stir gradually, so that it may not be lumpy, a quart of milk. Beat seven eggs, and put in, together with a couple of table-spoonsful of melted butter, and a couple of tea-spoonsful of salt. Grate in half of a nutmeg—add, if you want the pudding very rich, half a pound of raisins. They should not be put into a baked pudding till it has been cooking long enough to thicken, so that the raisins will not sink to the bottom of it. A pudding made in this manner is good either baked or boiled. It takes two hours to boil, and an hour and a quarter to bake it. When boiled, the bag should not be more than two-thirds full, as flour puddings swell very much. It should be put into boiling water, and kept boiling constantly. If the water boils away, so as to leave any part of the bag uncovered, more boiling water should be added. When the pudding has boiled eight or nine minutes, the bag should be turned over, otherwise the pudding will be heavy. Flour puddings should be eaten as soon as cooked, as they fall directly. Serve them up with rich sauce.

276. Boiled Rice Pudding.

Put two tea-cups of rice into a quart of boiling water—add a couple of tea-spoonsful of salt, and let the rice boil till soft. Then take it from the fire, stir in a quart of cold milk, and half a pound of raisins; or omit the raisins, and substitute any other fruit that you may like. Beat a couple of eggs, and put in, together with half of a grated nutmeg. Set the whole on the fire, and let it boil till the fruit is soft. Serve it up with butter and sugar.

277. A Baked Rice Pudding, without eggs.

Pick over and wash two small tea-cups of rice, and put it into two quarts of milk. Melt a small tea-cup of butter, and put in, together with two of sugar, a grated nutmeg, and a couple of tea-spoonsful of salt, and bake the pudding about two hours. This pudding does not need any sauce, and is good either hot or cold. If you wish to have the pudding very rich, add, when it has been baking five or six minutes, half a pound of raisins.

278. Rice Pudding, with eggs.

Boil a quarter of a pound of unground rice in a quart of milk till soft, then stir in a quarter of a pound of butter—take it from the fire, put in a pint of cold milk, a couple of tea-spoonsful of salt, and a grated nutmeg. When it is lukewarm, beat four eggs with a quarter of a pound of sugar, and stir it into the pudding—add half a pound of raisins, and turn the whole into a buttered pudding dish, and bake it three-quarters of an hour.

279. Ground Rice Pudding.

Mix a pint and a half of ground rice, smooth, with a quart of milk—stir in a glass of wine, a quarter of a pound of melted butter, a tea-spoonful of salt, and spice to the taste. Beat eight eggs, and stir them in—turn the whole into a buttered pudding dish, and when it has baked a few minutes, add half a pound of raisins, or Zante currants.

280. Rice Snow Balls.

Pare small, tart apples, and take out the cores with a small knife—fill the cavity with a stick of cinnamon or mace. Put each one in a small floured bag, and fill the bags about half full of unground rice. Tie up the bags so as to leave a great deal of room for the rice to swell. Put them in a pot of water, with a table-spoonful of salt to a couple of quarts of water. The bags of rice should be boiled in a large proportion of water, as the rice absorbs it very much. Boil them about an hour and twenty minutes, then turn them out of the bags carefully into a dessert dish, and garnish them with marmalade cut in slices. Serve them up with butter and sugar.

281. Cream Pudding.

Beat six eggs to a froth—then mix with them three table-spoonsful of powdered white sugar, the grated rind of a lemon. Mix a pint of milk with a pint of flour, two tea-spoonsful of salt—then add the eggs and sugar. Just before it is baked, stir in a pint of thick cream. Bake it either in buttered cups or a pudding dish.

282. Custard Pudding.

Stir a quart of milk very gradually into half a pint of flour—mix it free from lumps, and put to it seven eggs, beaten with three table-spoonsful of sugar, a tea-spoonful of salt, and half of a grated nutmeg. Bake it three-quarters of an hour.

283. Rennet Pudding.

Put cleaned calf's rennet into white wine, in the proportion of a piece three inches square to a pint of wine. It will be fit for use in the course of seven or eight hours. Whenever you wish to make a pudding, put three table-spoonsful of the wine to a quart of sweet milk, and four table-spoonsful of powdered white sugar—flavor it with rosewater or essence of lemon. Stir it twenty minutes, then dish it out, and grate nutmeg over it. It should be eaten in the course of an hour after it is made, as it soon curdles.

284. Fruit Pudding.

Make good common pie crust—roll it out half an inch thick, and strew over it any one of the following kinds of fruit: Cherries, currants, gooseberries, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, or cranberries. A thick layer of marmalade spread on, is also very nice. Sprinkle over the fruit a little cinnamon or cloves, and sugar. If the pudding is made of gooseberries, currants, or cranberries, a great deal of sugar will be necessary. Roll the crust up carefully, join the ends so that the fruit will not drop out, and lay the pudding in a thick white towel, that has been previously dipped into water, and floured. Baste up the towel, and lay it carefully in a pot of boiling water, with a plate at the bottom of it. Boil it an hour, and serve it up with rich liquid sauce. For a baked fruit pudding, make a batter of wheat flour, or Indian meal, with milk and eggs. Mix the ingredients in the proportion of a pint of flour and six eggs to a quart of milk. Put to each quart of milk a pint of fruit, and sugar to the taste.

285. A Quaking Pudding.

Slice up three-quarters of a pound of bakers' bread. Beat eight eggs to a froth, stir in several large spoonsful of sugar, and mix it with a quart of milk, a grated nutmeg. Turn it on to the sliced bread—let the whole remain till the bread has soaked up most of the milk, then stir in a couple of table-spoonsful of flour, a tea-spoonful of salt, and turn it into a pudding bag, and boil it an hour. Serve it up with rich sauce.

286. Lemon Pudding.

Grate the rind of two fresh lemons, being careful not to grate any off the white part. Squeeze the juice out of the lemons, and strain it, to separate it from the seeds. Mix it with six large spoonsful of fine white sugar. Take a quart of milk, and mix it with the rind of the lemons, a couple of table-spoonsful of pounded crackers, and a table-spoonful of melted butter. Beat six eggs to a froth, and stir them into the milk. Stir in the lemon-juice and sugar last, and then turn the whole into a pudding dish that has a lining and rim of puff paste. Bake it from twenty-five to thirty minutes. It should not be eaten till it is cold.

287. Almond Pudding.

Turn boiling water on three-quarters of a pound of sweet almonds. Let them remain in it till the skins will slip off easily—rub the skins off with a dry cloth. When they are perfectly dry, pound them fine, with a table-spoonful of rosewater. Beat six eggs to a froth, then mix them with four table-spoonsful of powdered sugar—put them into a quart of milk, with three table-spoonsful of pounded crackers, a quarter of a pound of melted butter, four ounces of citron, and the pounded almonds. Line a pudding dish with pastry, put round it a rim of puff paste, turn in the pudding, and bake it about half an hour. The pudding should be eaten cold.

288. Tapioca Pudding.

To a quart of warm milk put eight table-spoonsful of tapioca. Let it soak till it softens, then stir it up, and put to it a couple of table-spoonsful of melted butter, four beaten eggs, and cinnamon or mace to the taste. Mix four table-spoonsful of white powdered sugar with a wine glass of wine, and stir it into the rest of the ingredients. Turn the whole into a pudding dish that has a lining of pastry, and bake it immediately.

289. Sago Pudding.

Rinse half a pound of sago in hot water, till it is thoroughly cleansed—then drain off the water, and boil the sago in a quart of milk, with a stick of cinnamon or mace. Stir it constantly, or it will burn. When soft, take it from the fire, take out the stick of cinnamon, and put in a quarter of a pound of butter. Mix a wine glass of wine with four large spoonsful of fine white sugar, and stir it into the sago—add, when cold, five beaten eggs, and bake the pudding in a deep dish, with a lining and rim of pastry. Strew over the pudding a quarter of a pound of Zante currants, and bake it directly, in a quick oven. It is the best when cold.

290. Orange Pudding.

Stir to a cream six ounces of white powdered sugar, with four of butter—then add a wine glass of wine, the juice and chopped peel of a couple of large fresh oranges. Beat eight eggs to a froth, the whites and yelks separately—mix them with a quart of milk, a couple of ounces citron, cut in small strips, and a couple of ounces of pounded crackers. Mix all the ingredients well together—line a pudding dish with pastry, put a rim of puff paste round the edge of the dish, and then turn in the pudding, and bake it in a quick oven about half an hour.

291. Bird's Nest, or Transparent Pudding.

Pare and halve tart mellow apples, scoop out the cores. Put a little flour and water in the hollow of each apple, so as to form a thick paste—then stick three or four Zante currants in each one. Butter and line a pudding dish with pastry, put on a rim of puff paste, and lay in the apples, with the hollow side up. Have just enough apples to cover the bottom of the dish, and stick citron, cut in very long narrow strips, round the apples. Stir to a cream half a pound each of butter and fine white sugar—beat the yelks and whites separately, of eight eggs, to a froth, and mix them with the butter and sugar. Flavor it with nutmeg, and set it on a few coals—stir it constantly till quite hot—take it from the fire, stir it till nearly cold, then turn it over the apples, and bake it directly.

292. English Plum Pudding.

Soak three-quarters of a pound of crackers in two quarts of milk—they should be broken in small pieces. When they have soaked soft, put in a quarter of a pound of melted butter, the same weight of rolled sugar, half a pint of wheat flour, a wine glass of wine, and a grated nutmeg. Beat ten eggs to a froth, and stir them into the milk. Add half a pound of seeded raisins, the same weight of Zante currants, and a quarter of a pound of citron, cut in small strips. Bake or boil it a couple of hours.

293. Plain Fritters.

Stir a quart of milk gradually into a quart of flour—put in a tea-spoonful of salt, and seven beaten eggs. Drop them by the large spoonful into hot lard, and fry them till a very light brown color. They are the lightest fried in a great deal of fat, but less greasy if fried in just fat enough to keep them from sticking to the frying pan. Serve them up with liquid pudding sauce.

294. Apple Fritters.

Take four or five tart, mellow apples, pare and cut them in slices, and soak them in sweetened lemon-juice. Make a batter of a quart of milk, a quart of flour, eight eggs—grate in the rind of two lemons, and the juice and apples. Drop the batter by the spoonful into hot lard, taking care to have a slice of apple in each fritter.

295. Cream Fritters.

Mix a pint and a half of wheat flour with a pint of milk—beat six eggs to a froth, and stir them into the flour—grate in half a nutmeg, then add a pint of cream, a couple of tea-spoonsful of salt. Stir the whole just long enough to have the cream get well mixed in, then fry the mixture in small cakes.

296. Oxford Dumplings.

Take eight ounces of biscuit that is pounded fine, and soak it in just sufficient milk to cover it. When soft, stir in three beaten eggs, a table-spoonful of flour, and a quarter of a pound of Zante currants. Grate in half a nutmeg, and do up the mixture into balls of the size of an egg—fry them till a light brown.

297. Apple Dumplings.

Pare tart, mellow apples—take out the cores with a small knife, and fill the holes with sugar. Make good pie crust—roll it out about two-thirds of an inch thick, cut it into pieces just large enough to enclose one apple. Lay the apples on them, and close the crust tight over them—tie them up in small pieces of thick cloth, that has been well floured—put the dumplings in a pot of boiling water, and boil them an hour without any intermission—if allowed to stop boiling, they will be heavy. Serve them up with pudding sauce, or butter and sugar.

298. Lemon Syrup.

Pare thin the rind of fresh lemons, squeeze out the juice, and to a pint of it, when strained, put a pound and three-quarters of sugar, and the rind of the lemons. Dissolve the sugar by a gentle heat, skim it clear, then let it simmer gently eight or ten minutes—strain it through a flannel bag. When cool, bottle, cork, and seal it tight, and keep it in a cool place.

299. Orange Syrup.

Squeeze out the juice of fresh oranges, and strain it. To a pint of the juice, put a pound and a half of sugar—set it on a moderate fire—when the sugar has dissolved, put in the peel of the oranges, and set the syrup where it will boil slowly for six or eight minutes—then strain it, till clear, through a flannel bag. The bag should not be squeezed while the syrup is passing through it, or it will not be clear. Bottle, cork, and seal it tight. This syrup is very nice to flavor puddings and pies.

300. Blackberry Syrup.

Procure nice, high vine blackberries, that are perfectly ripe—the low vine blackberries will not answer for syrup, as they do not possess the medicinal properties of the high vine blackberries. Set them on a moderate fire, and let them simmer till they break to pieces, then strain them through a flannel cloth—to each pint of juice put a pound of white sugar, half an ounce of cinnamon, powdered fine, a quarter of an ounce of finely powdered mace, and a couple of tea-spoonsful of powdered cloves. Boil the whole together fifteen minutes—strain it, and when cool, add to each pint of syrup a wine glass of French brandy. Bottle, cork, and seal it—keep it in a cool place. This, mixed with cold water, in the proportion of a wine glass of syrup to two-thirds of a tumbler of water, is an excellent remedy for the dysentery, and similar complaints. It is also a very pleasant summer beverage.

301. Elderberry Syrup.

Wash and strain the berries, which should be perfectly ripe. To a pint of juice, put a pint of molasses. Boil it twenty minutes, stirring it constantly, then take it from the fire—when cold, add to each quart four table-spoonsful of French brandy—bottle and cork it tight. This is an excellent remedy for a tight cough.

302. Molasses Syrup, for preserving.

Mix eight pounds of light sugar-house or New-Orleans molasses, eight pounds of water, one pound of powdered charcoal. Boil the whole together twenty minutes, then strain it through a flannel bag. When lukewarm, put in the beaten whites of a couple of eggs, and put it on the fire. As soon as it boils, take it from the fire, and skim it till clear—then put it on the fire, and let it boil till it becomes a thick syrup—strain it for use. This syrup does very well to preserve fruit in for common use.

303. To clarify Syrup for Sweetmeats.

Put your sugar into the preserving kettle, turn in the quantity of cold water that you think will be sufficient to cover the fruit that is to be preserved in it. Beat the whites of eggs to a froth, allowing one white of an egg to three pounds of sugar—mix the whites of the eggs with the sugar and water, set it on a slow fire, and let the sugar dissolve, then stir the whole up well together, and set it where it will boil. As soon as it boils up well, take it from the fire, let it remain for a minute, then take off the scum—set it back on the fire, and let it boil a minute, then take it off, and skim it again. This operation repeat till the syrup is clear—put in the fruit when the syrup is cold. The fruit should not be crowded while preserving, and if there is not syrup enough to cover the fruit, take it out of the syrup, and put in more water, and boil it with the syrup before putting back the fruit.

304. Directions for making Sweetmeats.

A pound of sugar to a pound of fruit, is sufficient to preserve most kinds of fruit. Some kinds of fruit require more, and some will do with less, than an equal weight of sugar. White sugar makes the most delicate sweetmeats—nice brown sugar answers very well for most kinds of fruit. The West India sugar-house syrup is better than sugar to preserve fruit, on account of its never fermenting. When brown sugar is used, clarify it, as in direction for clarifying syrup, No. 303, then put in the fruit. Nice white sugar does not need clarifying. All kinds of fire-proof ware will do to preserve in, excepting iron ware. The fruit should not be crowded while preserving, and should boil gently. The fruit should be turned out of the preserving kettles as soon as done, and set away in a cool place, otherwise they will not be nice. Keep the sweetmeats in stone or china jars, that have never been used for other purposes. Glass jars are the best for delicate sweetmeats, such as strawberries or cherries. Preserves should be covered tight, and kept in a cool place. A paper wet in brandy, and laid over the sweetmeats, has a tendency to keep them from fermenting. They should be looked to frequently, to see that they do not ferment. Whenever they do, the syrup should be turned from them, scalded, and turned back on them while hot.

305. To Preserve Quinces.

Quinces, if very ripe, are best preserved in the following manner: Pare and cut them in slices, an inch thick—take out the cores carefully, so as to have the slices in the form of a ring. Allow a pound of nice white sugar for each pound of the fruit—dissolve it in cold water, having a quart of the latter to a pound of sugar, then put in the sliced quinces, and let them soak in it ten or twelve hours. Put them in a preserving kettle, and put it on a moderate fire—cover them over, and let the quinces boil gently—there should be more than enough syrup to cover the quinces. When a broom splinter will go through them easily, take them from the fire, and turn them out. In the course of a week, turn the syrup from them, and boil it down, so that there will be just enough to cover the fruit. Quinces preserved in this manner retain their natural flavor better than when preserved in any other manner, but they must be very ripe to preserve in this way, otherwise they will not be tender. When not very ripe, pare and cut them either in rings or quarters, take out the cores, and boil the quinces in fair water, till they begin to grow tender—take them up, and strain the water in which they are boiled—put in either brown or white sugar—add a little cold water. When lukewarm, put in the whites of eggs, and clarify it—let it cool, then put in the quinces, and boil them slowly for half an hour. Keep them covered over while boiling, if you wish to have them of a light color. Turn them out into pots as soon as preserved, and set them away in a cool place. Look at them in the course of a week, to see if they have fermented—if so, turn the syrup from them, boil it, and turn it back while hot. The parings and cores of the quinces can be used for marmalade, with a few whole ones. Some people preserve the quinces with the cores in, but the syrup will not look clear. The following is a cheap method of preserving quinces, and answers very well for common use: Pare, halve, and take out the cores of the quinces, and boil the parings in new cider till soft. Strain the cider, and for five pounds of quinces put in a pound of brown sugar, a quart of molasses, the beaten white of an egg—clarify it, then put in the quinces. There should be rather more than enough cider to cover the quinces, as it wastes a good deal while the quinces are boiling. The peel of an orange, cut in small pieces, and boiled with them, gives the quinces a fine flavor.

306. Quince Marmalade.

Wash and quarter the quinces, without paring them—put them on the fire, with just water enough to stew them in. When soft, rub them through a sieve, and put to each pound of the strained quinces a pound of brown sugar. Set it on a few coals, and let it stew slowly, stirring it constantly. When it has stewed an hour, take a little of it out, let it get cold—if it then cuts smooth, it is sufficiently stewed.

307. Pears.

Make a syrup, allowing three-quarters of a pound of sugar to each pound of the pears. If brown sugar is used for the syrup, clarify it, then put in the pears, and boil them till soft. A few slips of ginger, or powdered ginger, tied up in bags, and boiled with the pears, gives them a fine flavor. Choke and vergouleuse are the best pears for preserving.

308. Pear Marmalade.

Boil the pears with the skins on. When soft, rub them through a sieve, and put to each pound of pulp three-quarters of a pound of brown sugar. Stew it over a slow fire till it becomes a thick jelly. It should be stirred constantly.

309. Peaches.

Take juicy peaches—pare them, allow for each pound of them, a pound of nice white sugar. Put just cold water enough to the sugar to saturate it. When dissolved, stir it up well, and put in the peaches, without crowding them, and boil them slowly about twenty minutes. A few peach meats, blanched and preserved with the peaches, are nice, and are quite ornamental to the peaches. These, as well as all other kinds of sweetmeats, should be turned out of the preserving kettle as soon as taken from the fire, and set away in a cool place. If allowed to remain near the fire, the syrup will not look clear. Cover them up tight—let them remain three or four days, then turn the syrup from them, scald it, and turn it back, while hot, on to the peaches.

310. Peach Jam.

Inferior peaches, and those that are not fully ripe, are best preserved in the following manner: Pare and halve them, and take out the stones—lay the peaches in a deep dish, and to each layer of peaches put a layer of brown sugar. Three-quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of the peaches, is sufficient. Let the peaches remain until the next day—then put them on a moderate fire, without any water, and let them stew slowly about twenty minutes. Peaches preserved in this way, are very nice for puffs.

311. To Preserve Peaches in Brandy.

Procure peaches that are mellow, but not dead ripe—draw a pin round the seam of the peaches, so as to pierce the skin—cover them with French brandy, and let them remain a week—then make a syrup, allowing three-quarters of a pound of brown sugar to a pound of the peaches. Clarify the syrup, then boil the peaches in it. When tender, take them out of the syrup, let it remain till cool, then mix it with the brandy, and turn the whole on to the peaches.

312. To Preserve Raspberries.

Strain equal quantities of ripe currants and raspberries, to make a syrup to preserve the raspberries in. Dissolve white sugar in the syrup, by a gentle heat, using a pound of sugar to each pound of syrup and raspberries. When the sugar has dissolved, set the syrup where it will boil about ten minutes, then put in the raspberries, and let them boil five minutes. In the course of four or five days, turn the syrup from the raspberries—boil it away, so that there will be just enough of it to cover the berries—turn it on them while hot. Keep them in wide-mouthed bottles, corked and sealed up tight. Preserved raspberries are very nice to flavor ice creams and blanc mange.

313. Cherries.

Procure cherries that are not quite dead ripe—allow for each pound of cherries a pound of white sugar. Make a rich syrup of the sugar—when it boils, put in the cherries, with the stems on—let them boil till transparent. Keep them in glass jars, or wide-mouthed bottles—cork and seal them tight. If you wish to preserve them without the stones, take those that are very ripe, take out the stones carefully, save the juice. Make a syrup of the juice, white sugar, and very little water, then put in the cherries, and boil them to a thick consistency.

314. Currants.

Take the currants when ripe and in their prime—let them remain on the stalks, picking off the bad ones. Make a syrup of sugar, and very little water, allowing a pound of sugar to each pound of currants. Clarify it, then put in the currants, and let them boil a few minutes. In the course of a few days turn the syrup from them, scald it, and turn it back, while hot, on to the currants. Preserved currants, mixed with water, is an excellent drink in fevers. Dried currants are also good for the same purpose, if made into a tea.

315. To Preserve Prunes.

Pour boiling water on the prunes, and set them where they will keep hot, with a lemon, cut in small pieces. When swelled out to nearly the original size, put to each pound of the prunes half a pound of brown sugar, a stick of cinnamon, or a tea-spoonful of powdered cloves, and if there is not sufficient water remaining to cover the prunes, add more, and stew them in the syrup a quarter of an hour. Add, when taken from the fire, a wine glass of wine to every three pounds of the prunes.

316. Cranberries.

For each peck of cranberries allow two pounds and a half of brown sugar, and half a pint of molasses. Make a syrup of the molasses, sugar, and a little water. When it boils, put in the cranberries, and let them boil till transparent. To make cranberry marmalade, boil the cranberries in just water enough to prevent their burning. Strain them when soft, and add to each pound a pound and a half of brown sugar. Stew it over a slow fire, stirring it constantly, till it becomes very thick jelly.

317. Crab Apples.

Make a syrup, allowing the same weight of sugar as apples. Let it get cool, then put in the apples, a few at once, so that they will not crowd, and break to pieces. Boil them till they begin to break, then take them out of the preserving kettle carefully. Boil the syrup in the course of three or four days, and turn it while hot on to the apples. This continue to do at intervals of two or three days, till the apples appear to be thoroughly preserved. If you wish to make a marmalade of the apples, boil them in just water enough to keep them from burning—strain them when soft, and put to them an equal weight of brown sugar—stew them over a slow fire, stirring them constantly. When of a thick consistency, take a little of it out, and set it where it will get cold. If it then cuts smooth and clear, take the whole from the fire, and turn it into deep dishes.

318. Barberries.

Take them when fully ripe, let them remain on the stems. Make a rich syrup, allowing the same weight of sugar as barberries. When clarified, set it where it will get lukewarm, then put in the barberries. Boil them till the syrup appears to have entered them. Barberries preserved with molasses, and a little orange peel and sugar, are very good for common use. Allow for each pound of barberries a quarter of a pound of sugar, half a pint of molasses, and the rind of half an orange. Make them into a syrup with a little water—boil it a quarter of an hour before putting in the barberries. Preserved barberries, mixed with cold water, make a very refreshing drink in fevers.

319. Tomatoes.

Take them when quite small and green—put them in cold clarified syrup, with an orange, cut in slices, to every two pounds of the tomatoes. Simmer them gently, on a slow fire, two or three hours. There should be equal weights of sugar and tomatoes, and more than sufficient water to cover the tomatoes, used for the syrup. Another method of preserving them, which is very nice, is to allow a couple of fresh lemons to three pounds of the tomatoes—pare thin the rind of the lemons, so as to get none of the white part, squeeze out the juice, mix them with cold water sufficient to cover the tomatoes, and put in a few peach leaves, and powdered ginger, tied up in bags. Boil the whole together gently, for three-quarters of an hour—then take up the tomatoes, strain the liquor, and put to it a pound and a half of white sugar, for each pound of tomatoes. Put in the tomatoes, and boil them gently, till the syrup appears to have entered them. In the course of a week turn the syrup from them, heat it scalding hot, and turn it on to the tomatoes. Tomatoes preserved in this manner appear like West Indian sweetmeats.

320. To Preserve Apples.

Apples for preserving should be tart and mellow—pare them, and take out the cores with a small knife. Allow for each pound three-quarters of a pound of sugar, a tea-spoonful of powdered ginger, tied in a bag, and sufficient water to cover the apples. Make the syrup, then take it from the fire, and put in the apples, when it is just lukewarm. Boil them till transparent, take them up—when partly cooled, put in a little essence of lemon. Turn the syrup from them in the course of a week, boil it, and turn it back on the apples while hot.

321. Cymbelines, or Mock Citron.

Cut into small pieces, and scrape the rind of cymbelines—put them into strong salt and water—let them remain in it three days, then in fair water a day, changing the water several times—soak them in alum water an hour—tie up oyster shells in a cloth, and boil them with the cymbelines. When the cymbelines are tender, take them up, and put them back into the alum water. Make the syrup for them, allowing a pound and a half of sugar to one of the cymbelines. When clarified, let it get cold—then rinse the cymbelines, and boil them three-quarters of an hour. When partly cooled, put in a little essence of lemon to flavor them. These are good eaten like any other sweetmeats, or used instead of citron for cake.

322. Watermelon Rinds.

Take the rind of a nice ripe watermelon—cut it into small strips, and boil them, till they begin to grow tender, in water, with saleratus and peach leaves in it, in the proportion of a tea-spoonful of saleratus and a dozen peach leaves to a couple of quarts of water. Take the rinds out of the water, and soak them in alum water an hour. Make a syrup, allowing the same weight of sugar as rinds. When clarified and cooled, rinse the rinds, and put them in the syrup, together with powdered ginger, tied up in a small bag. Boil them till they are quite soft—when partly cooled, add a little essence of lemon. Turn the syrup from them in the course of two or three days, take out the bags of ginger, and boil the syrup till there is just sufficient of it to cover the rinds, and turn it on them while hot.

323. Muskmelons.

Procure muskmelons that are perfectly green, and of a quick growth, and as late in the season as possible. If preserved while the weather is very hot, they are apt to ferment. Scrape off the skin of the rind, being careful not to scrape any of the green part. Cut them through the middle, and take out the seeds—then cut them in rings, an inch in thickness. Soak them in salt and water a day, then in fair water three or four hours, changing the water several times. Soak them in alum water an hour—rinse and put them in fair water, with a handful of peach leaves to four or five pounds of the melon, and a table-spoonful of ginger, tied up in small pieces of cloth. The peach leaves turn the melon a fine green color. Boil the melons till they begin to grow tender, then put them in alum water, together with the ginger. Make a syrup of white sugar, and put in the melons and ginger, (which should be previously rinsed.) Boil them in the syrup as long as you can, without their breaking to pieces. In the course of a week turn the syrup from them, scald it, and turn it on to the melons. Add sufficient essence of lemon to flavor it, just before turning it on to the melons. Keep them covered tight, in a cool place, with a paper wet in brandy on them.

324. Pine Apples.

Take those that are ripe, and perfectly fresh—pare off the rind, and cut the apples in slices an inch thick. Powder the same weight of white sugar as you have pine apples—lay the pine apples in a deep dish, and sprinkle part of the powdered sugar between each layer of apples. Reserve about half of the sugar. Let the apples remain till the succeeding day—then turn the syrup from them, and mix it with the reserved sugar, and half a pint of water, for three or four pounds of pine apple. Boil the syrup, take it from the fire, and when cool, put in the apples, simmer them gently till tender, let them remain in a deep dish for several days—they should be covered up tight, and kept in a cool place. Whenever there is any appearance of fermentation, turn the syrup from them, scald it, and turn it back hot on to the pine apples. Keep them in glass or china jars, covered tight, and in a cool place.

325. Pumpkin Chips.

Take what quantity you choose of a good sweet pumpkin, (the butter pumpkin makes the nicest sweetmeats.) Halve the pumpkin, take out the seeds, and cut it into chips of the size of a dollar. For each pound of the pumpkin to be preserved, allow a pound of fine white sugar, and a gill of lemon-juice. Put the chips in a deep dish, and sprinkle on each layer a layer of the sugar. Turn the lemon-juice over the whole. Let it remain a day—then boil the whole together, with half a pint of water to three pounds of the pumpkin, a table-spoonful of powdered ginger, tied up in bags, and the peel of the lemons, cut into small pieces. When the pumpkin becomes tender, turn the whole into a preserve pot. In the course of a week, turn the syrup from the pumpkin, boil it to a rich syrup, and turn it back hot.

326. Gages.

Allow equal weights of sugar and gages. Make a syrup of white sugar, and just water enough to cover the plums. Boil the plums slowly in the syrup ten minutes—turn them into a dish, and let them remain four or five days, then boil them again, till the syrup appears to have entered the plums. Put them in a china jar, and in the course of a week turn the syrup from them, scald it, and turn it over them hot.

327. Strawberries.

Procure Chili or field strawberries, and hull them. Take equal quantities of berries, and powdered white sugar—put a layer of each in a preserving pan, having a layer of strawberries at the bottom. Let them remain an hour, then put in a gill of cold water, to prevent their burning to the bottom of the pan. Set them on a very moderate fire—when the juice runs freely, increase the fire, until they boil briskly. Let them boil half an hour, then turn them into a dish—when lukewarm, put them in wide-mouthed bottles, or small glass jars, cork and seal them tight, and keep them in dry sand.

328. Raspberry and Blackberry Jam.

For each pound of berries, allow a pound of sugar. Put a layer of each alternately in a preserving dish. Let them remain half an hour—then boil them slowly, stirring them frequently, to keep them from burning. When they have boiled half an hour, take a little up in a cup, and set it in a dish of cold water—if it appears of the consistency of thick jelly, take the whole from the fire—if not, boil it till it becomes so.

329. Strawberry, Raspberry, and Blackberry Jelly.

Jellies of these fruits are all made in the following manner: Take the berries when ripe, and in their prime, mash them, and let them drain through a flannel bag, without squeezing it. To each pint of juice, put a pound of white sugar, and the beaten white of an egg to three pounds of the sugar. Set it on the fire—when it boils up well, take it from the fire, and skim it clear. Set it back on the fire—if any more scum rises, take it from the fire, and skim it off. Boil it till it becomes a jelly, which is ascertained by taking a little of it up into a tumbler of cold water. If it falls to the bottom in a solid mass, it is sufficiently boiled.

330. Cranberry, Grape, and Currant Jelly.

They are all made in the same manner. Take the fruit in its prime, wash and drain it till nearly dry, then put it in an earthen jar, or pot, and set the pot in a kettle of hot water. Set the kettle where the water will boil, taking care that none of it gets into the jar. When the fruit breaks, turn it into a flannel bag, and let it drain slowly through, into a deep dish, without squeezing. When the juice has all passed through the bag, put to each pint of it a pound and a half of white sugar. Put to each quart of the syrup the beaten white of an egg. Set the syrup where it will boil gently—as fast as any scum rises, take the syrup from the fire, and skim it clear. When the jelly has boiled fifteen or twenty minutes, try a little of it in a tumbler of cold water—if it sinks to the bottom of the tumbler in a solid lump, it is sufficiently boiled. Jellies are improved by being put in the sun for several days—care must be taken that the dew does not fall on them.

331. Quince Jelly.

Halve the quinces, and take out the cores. Boil the quinces till very soft, in clear water, mash them, and let them drain through a flannel bag, without squeezing them. Put to the quince liquor, when drained through the bag, white sugar, in the proportion of a pound to a pint of the liquor. Add the whites of eggs, and clarify it. When clear, boil it on a moderate fire, till it becomes a thick jelly. Fill glasses with the jelly, and cover them tight. The quince pulp that remains in the jelly-bag can be made into marmalade.

332. Apple Jelly.

Halve tart apples, and take out the cores. Boil them till very soft, in a large proportion of water—then let it pass through a jelly-bag, without squeezing them. Weigh the liquor, and to each pint of it put a pound of white sugar—then boil it slowly till it becomes a thick jelly, which is ascertained in the same manner as currant jelly. If you wish to have it of a red tinge, put in, when taken from the fire, a little cranberry or beet-juice. If you wish to have it a straw color, put in a little tincture of saffron. If green, use the expressed juice of spinach leaves. Let it pass through the jelly-bag again—when cool, turn it into glasses.

333. Lemon Jelly.

Put on a slow fire an ounce of white isinglass, pulled into small pieces, and rinsed, a pint of water, with the rind of six lemons. Stir it constantly till dissolved, then add a pint of lemon-juice, and sweeten it to the taste with nice white sugar. Boil the whole four or five minutes, then color it with tincture of saffron, and let it pass through a flannel bag, without squeezing it. Fill your jelly glasses with it when partly cooled.

334. Calf's Feet Jelly.

Take four feet, (that have been perfectly cleaned,) and boil them, in four quarts of water, till very soft, and the water is reduced to one quart. Take it from the fire, and let it remain till perfectly cold, then take off all the fat, and scrape off the dregs that adhere to the jelly. Put the jelly in a preserving kettle, set it on a slow fire—when it melts, take it from the fire, and mix with it half a pint of white wine, the juice and grated rind of a couple of fresh lemons, and a stick of cinnamon or mace. Wash and wipe dry six eggs—take the whites of them, and beat them to a froth—stir them into the jelly when it is cool—bruise the shells, and mix them with the jelly, then set it on a few coals. Sweeten it, when hot, to the taste—white sugar is the best, but brown answers very well. Let the whole boil slowly fifteen minutes, without stirring it—suspend a flannel bag on a nail, and let the jelly drain through it, into a deep dish or pitcher. If it is not clear the first time, let it pass through the bag till it becomes so. The bag should not be squeezed, otherwise the jelly will not look clear. When transparent, turn it into glasses, and set the glasses, if the weather is hot, into cold water, and keep them in a cool place. This kind of jelly will keep but a few days, in warm weather. A knuckle of veal, and sheep's feet, make a nice jelly, prepared in the same manner as calf's feet.

335. Hartshorn Jelly.

Boil four ounces of hartshorn shavings in a couple of quarts of water, till it becomes a thick jelly—then strain and put to it the juice and rind of a couple of lemons, a wine glass of white wine, and a stick of cinnamon. Wash four fresh eggs, wipe them dry, separate the whites from the yelks, beat the whites to a froth, bruise the shells, and mix them with the hartshorn—set the whole on a moderate fire—sweeten it to the taste when hot. Boil it till it becomes quite thick, then let it drain through a jelly-bag till clear.

336. Coffee.

Old Java and Mocha coffee are the best kinds. Coffee should be put in an iron pot, and dried over a moderate fire for several hours, before it is roasted. It should be put at such a distance from the fire, as to be in no danger of burning. When it has dried three or four hours, set the pot on a hot bed of coals, and stir it constantly, until sufficiently roasted, which is ascertained by biting one of the lightest colored kernels—if it is brittle, the whole is done. Turn it out of the pot immediately, into a box—cover it tight, to keep in the steam. A coffee-roaster is better than a pot to roast coffee in, as it preserves the fine aromatic flavor of the coffee, which in a great measure escapes with the steam of the coffee, when roasted in an open pot. To make good common coffee, allow a table-spoonful of it, when ground, to each pint of water. Turn on the water boiling hot, and boil the coffee in a tin pot, from twenty to twenty-five minutes—if boiled longer, it will not taste fresh and lively. Let it stand, after being taken from the fire, four or five minutes to settle, then turn it off carefully from the grounds, into a coffee-pot or urn. When the coffee is put on the fire to boil, a piece of fish-skin or isinglass, of the size of a nine-pence, should be put in, or else the white and shell of half an egg, to a couple of quarts of coffee. Many persons dislike to clear coffee with fish-skin, thinking that it imparts an unpleasant taste to coffee, but it will not, if properly prepared. The skin should be taken from mild codfish, that has not been soaked, as the skin loses its clearing properties by soaking. Rinse it in cold water, and dry it perfectly. When dried, cut it into pieces of the size of a nine-pence. If torn off, as it is wanted for use, too much is apt to be put in at once, and give the coffee a bad taste. A piece of the size of a twelve and a half cent piece, is sufficient to settle a couple of quarts of water. French coffee is made in a German filter, the water is turned on boiling hot, and one-third more coffee is necessary than when boiled in the common way. Where cream cannot be procured for coffee, the coffee will be much richer to boil it with a less proportion of water than the above rule, and weaken it with boiling hot milk, when served out in cups.

337. Tea.

Scald the tea-pot, and if the tea is a strong kind, a tea-spoonful for a pint of water is sufficient—if it is a weak kind, more will be required. Pour on just enough boiling water to cover the tea, and let it steep. Green tea should not steep more than five or six minutes before drinking—if steeped longer, it will not be lively. Black tea requires steeping ten or twelve minutes to extract the strength.

338. Chocolate.

Scrape the chocolate off fine, mix it smooth with water—if liked very rich, make the chocolate entirely of milk—if not, use half water. Boil water and milk together, then stir in the chocolate, previously mixed with water—stir it till it boils, then sweeten it to your taste, and take it up. If liked rich, grate in a little nutmeg. A table-spoonful of chocolate to a pint of water or milk, is about the right proportion.

339. Hop Beer.

Put to six ounces of hops five quarts of water, and boil them three hours—then strain off the liquor, and put to the hops four quarts more of water, a tea-cup full of ginger, and boil the hops three hours longer. Strain and mix it with the rest of the liquor, and stir in a couple of quarts of molasses. Take about half a pound of bread, and brown it very slowly—when very brown and dry, put it in the liquor, to enrich the beer. Rusked bread is the best for this purpose, but a loaf of bread cut in slices, and toasted till brittle, will do very well. When rusked bread is used, pound it fine, and brown it in a pot, as you would coffee, stirring it constantly. When the hop liquor cools, so as to be just lukewarm, add a pint of new yeast, that has no salt in it. Keep the beer covered in a temperate situation, till it has ceased fermenting, which is ascertained by the subsiding of the froth—turn it off carefully into a beer keg, or bottles. The beer should not be corked very tight, or it will burst the bottles. It should be kept in a cool place.

340. Beer of Essential Oils.

Mix a couple of quarts of boiling water with a pint and a half of molasses. Stir in five quarts of cold water, then add ten drops of the oil of sassafras, ten of spruce, fifteen of winter-green, and a tea-spoonful of essence of ginger. When just lukewarm, put in half a pint of fresh lively yeast. When fermented, bottle and cork it, and keep it in a cool place. It will be fit to drink in the course of two or three days.

341. Spring Beer.

Take a small bunch of all, or part of the following: Sweet fern, sarsaparilla, winter-green, sassafras, prince's pine, and spice wood. Boil them with two or three ounces of hops to three or four gallons of water, and two or three raw potatoes, pared and cut in slices. The strength of the roots and hops is obtained more thoroughly by boiling them in two waters—for, when the liquor is strongly saturated with the hops, it will rather bind up the roots than extract their juices. The roots should be boiled five or six hours—the liquor should then be strained, and a quart of molasses put to three gallons of the beer. If you wish to have the beer very rich, brown half a pound of bread, and put it into the liquor. If the liquor is too thick, dilute it with cold water. When just lukewarm, put in a pint of fresh lively yeast, that has no salt in it. The salt has a tendency to keep it from fermenting. Keep it in a temperate situation, covered over, but not so tight as to exclude the air entirely, or it will not work. When fermented, keep it in a tight keg, or bottle and cork it up.

342. Ginger Beer.

Boil gently, in a gallon of water, three table-spoonsful of cream of tartar, three of ginger, and a lemon cut in slices. When it has boiled half an hour, take it from the fire, strain and sweeten it to your taste—white sugar is the best, but brown sugar or molasses answers very well. Put to it, when lukewarm, half a pint of fresh yeast. Turn it off carefully, when fermented, bottle it, and keep it in a cool place. It will be fit to drink in the course of seven or eight days.

343. Instantaneous Beer.

Put to a pint and a half of water four tea-spoonsful of ginger, a table-spoonful of lemon-juice—sweeten it to the taste with syrup or white sugar, and turn it into a junk bottle. Have ready a cork to fit the bottle, a string of wire to tie it down, and a mallet to drive in the cork. Then put into the bottle a heaping tea-spoonful of the super-carbonate of soda, cork it immediately, tie it down, then shake the whole up well, cut the string, and the cork will fly out. Turn it out, and drink immediately.

344. Mixed Wine.

Take equal parts of ripe currants, grapes, raspberries, and English cherries. Bruise them, then mix cold water with them, in the proportion of four pounds of fruit to a gallon of water. Let the whole remain half a day. Stir the whole up well, then strain it—to each gallon of it put three pounds of sugar. Keep it in a temperate situation, where it will ferment slowly, three or four days—stir it up frequently. When fermented, add a ninth part of brandy to it, and stop it up tight—when it becomes clear, bottle it. In the course of a year it will be fit to drink.

345. Currant Wine.

Strain the currants, which should be perfectly ripe. To each quart of juice put a couple of quarts of water, and three pounds of sugar—stir the whole well together, and let it stand twenty-four hours, without stirring—then skim and set it in a cool place, where it will ferment slowly. Let it remain three or four days—if, at the end of that time, it has ceased fermenting, add one quart of French brandy to every fifteen gallons of the liquor, and close up the barrel tight. When it becomes clear, it is fit to bottle. This will be good in the course of six months, but it is much improved by being kept several years.

346. Grape Wine.

Bruise the grapes, which should be perfectly ripe. To each gallon of grapes put a gallon of water, and let the whole remain a week, without being stirred. At the end of that time, draw off the liquor carefully, and put to each gallon three pounds of lump sugar. Let it ferment in a temperate situation—when fermented, stop it up tight. In the course of six months it will be fit to bottle.

347. To mull Wine.

To a pint of water put a tea-spoonful of powdered cloves and cinnamon. Set it where it will boil—then separate the whites and yelks of three eggs, and beat the yelks with a large spoonful of powdered white sugar. As soon as the water boils, turn it on to the yelks and sugar—add a pint of wine, and turn the beaten whites of the eggs over the whole.

348. Quince Cordial.

Take ripe nice quinces, wipe off the fur, and grate them. Express the juices of the quince pulp through a strong cloth, and to each quart of it put two-thirds of a quart of French brandy, a pound and a half of white sugar, a hundred bitter almonds, or peach meats, a dozen cloves. Put it in a stone pot, cover it tight, and keep it a week in a warm place, then skim and bottle it, and let it remain a year before using it.

349. Peach Cordial.

Take ripe juicy peaches—wash and wipe them, to get off the down—gash them to the stone. Put to each peck of peaches a gallon of French brandy, and cover them up tight. Let the whole remain a couple of months, then drain the brandy free from the peaches—add sufficient cold water to render it of the strength of good white wine, and to every three gallons of it put four pounds of sugar. Stir it up well—let it remain a couple of days, stirring it up well each day, then turn it into a wine cask, and close it tight.

350. Smallage Cordial.

Take young sprouts of smallage—wash and drain them till perfectly dry. Cut them in small pieces, put them in a bottle, with seeded raisins, having an alternate layer of each. When the bottle is two-thirds full of the smallage, turn in French brandy, till the bottle is full. Let it remain three or four days, to have the smallage absorb the brandy—then put in as much more brandy as the bottle will hold. It will be fit for use in the course of eight or ten days. This is an excellent family medicine.

351. Currant Shrub.

To a pint of strained currant juice, put a pound of sugar. Boil the sugar and juice gently together, eight or ten minutes, then set it where it will cool. Add, when lukewarm, a wine glass of French brandy to every pint of syrup—bottle and cork it tight—keep it in a cool place.

352. Raspberry Shrub.

To three quarts of fresh, ripe raspberries, put one of good vinegar. Let it remain a day—then strain it, and put to each pint a pound of white sugar. Boil the whole together for half an hour, skim it clear. When cool, add a wine glass of French brandy to each pint of the shrub. A couple of table-spoonsful of this, mixed with a tumbler two-thirds full of water, is a wholesome and refreshing drink in fevers.

353. Lemon Shrub.

Procure nice fresh lemons—pare the rind off thin, then squeeze out the juice of the lemons, and strain it. To a pint of the juice put a pound of white sugar, broken into small pieces. Measure out for each pint of the syrup three table-spoonsful of French brandy, and soak the rind of the lemons in it. Let the whole remain a day, stirring up the lemon-juice and sugar frequently. The next day turn off the syrup, and mix it with the brandy and lemon rinds—put the whole in clean bottles, cork and seal them tight, and keep them in dry sand, in a cool place.

354. Sherbet.

Boil in three pints of water six or eight green stalks of rhubarb, a quarter of a pound of figs or raisins. When the whole has boiled between twenty-five and thirty minutes, strain it, and mix it with a tea-spoonful of rosewater, and lemon or orange syrup to the taste. Let it get cold before drinking it.

355. Noyeau.

To three pints of French brandy, put four ounces of bitter almonds, or peach meats, and a couple of ounces of sweet almonds—they should be bruised before they are mixed with the brandy. Add half an ounce each of powdered cinnamon and mace, a quarter of an ounce of cloves. Let the whole remain a fortnight, shaking it up well each day, then drain off the brandy into another bottle, and put to the almonds a quart of water. Let it stand three days, then turn back the brandy, and put in a pound and a half of white sugar. Let the whole remain a week, stirring it up frequently, then strain the liquor off, free from the dregs, into bottles for use.

356. Mead.

Put to a pound of honey three pints of warm water—stir it up well, and let it remain till the honey is held in complete solution—then turn it into a cask, leaving the bung out. Let it ferment in a temperate situation—bottle it as soon as fermented, cork it up very tight.

357. Essence of Lemon.

Turn gradually on to a drachm of the best oil of lemons a couple of ounces of strong rectified spirit. The best method of obtaining the essence of the lemon peel, is to rub all the yellow part of the peel off, with lumps of white sugar, and scrape off the surface of the sugar into a preserving pot, as fast as it becomes saturated with the oil of the lemon. The sugar should be pressed down tight, and covered very close. A little of this sugar gives a fine flavor to puddings, cakes, and pies. This mode of preserving the essence of the lemon is superior to the one in which spirit is used, as the fine aromatic flavor of the peel is procured without any alloy.

358. Essence of Ginger.

Take three ounces of fresh ginger—grate and put it into a quart of French brandy, together with the rind of a fresh lemon—none of the white part of the peel should be put in. Shake the whole up well every day, for eight or ten days—at the end of that time, it will be fit for use. A little of this, mixed with water, or put on a lump of sugar, answers all the purposes of ginger tea, and is much more palatable. It is also nice to flavor many kinds of sweetmeats.

359. Spice Brandy.

Put into a jar French brandy, and rose or peach leaves, in the proportion of a quart of the former to half a pint of the latter. Let them steep together, till the strength is obtained from the leaves—then turn off the brandy, squeeze the leaves dry, throw them away, and put fresh leaves to the brandy. Continue to go through the above process until the brandy is strongly impregnated with the leaves—then turn the brandy off clear, and bottle it—keep it corked tight. Lemon or orange peel, and peach meats, steeped in a bottle of brandy, give it a fine flavor. It takes the rind of three or four lemons, or a quarter of a pound of peach meats, to flavor a pint of brandy. When all the brandy is used, put in more, with a few fresh rinds. Spice brandy is very nice to season cakes, puddings, and mince pies.

360. Rosewater.

Gather fragrant, full-blown roses, on a dry day—pick off the leaves, and to each peck of them put a quart of water. Put the whole in a cold still, and set the still on a moderate fire—the slower they are distilled, the better will be the rosewater. Bottle the water as soon as distilled.

361. To extract the Essential Oil of Flowers.

Procure a quantity of fresh, fragrant leaves—both the stalk and the flower leaves will answer. Cord very thin layers of cotton, and dip them into fine Florence oil—put alternate layers of the cotton and leaves in a glass jar, or large tumbler. Sprinkle a very small quantity of fine salt on each layer of the flowers, cover the jar up tight, and place it in a south window, exposed to the heat of the sun. In the course of a fortnight a fragrant oil may be squeezed out of the cotton. Rose leaves, mignonette, and sweet-scented clover, make fine perfumes, managed in this way.

362. Perfume Bags.

Rose and sweet-scented clover leaves, dried in the shade, then mixed with powdered cloves, cinnamon, mace, and pressed in small bags, are very nice to keep in chests of linen, or drawers of clothes, to perfume them.

363. Cologne Water.

Turn a quart of alcohol gradually on to the following oils: a couple of drachms of the oil of rosemary, two of the oil of lemon, or orange-flower water, one drachm of lavender, ten drops of oil of cinnamon, ten of cloves, and a tea-spoonful of rosewater. Keep the whole stopped tight in a bottle—shake it up well. It will do to use as soon as made, but it is much improved by age.

364. Lavender Water.

Turn a pint of alcohol slowly on to an ounce and a half of the oil of lavender, two drachms of ambergris. Keep the lavender water in a tight-corked bottle—it should be shook up well when first put in.

365. Aromatic Vinegar.

Mix with a table-spoonful of vinegar enough powdered chalk to destroy the acidity. Let it settle—then turn off the vinegar from the chalk carefully, and dry it perfectly. Whenever you wish to purify an infected room, put in a few drops of sulphuric acid—the fumes arising from it will purify a room where there has been any infectious disorder. Care is necessary in using it, not to inhale the fumes, or to get any of the acid on your garments, as it will corrode whatever it touches.

366. Barley Water.

Boil a couple of ounces of barley, in two quarts of water, till soft—pearl barley is the best, but the common barley answers very well. When soft, strain and mix it with a little currant jelly, to give it a pleasant, acid taste. If the jelly is not liked, turn it, when boiled soft, on to a couple of ounces of figs or raisins, and boil it again, till reduced to one quart, then strain it for use.

367. Rice Gruel.

Put a large spoonful of unground rice into six gills of boiling water, with a stick of cinnamon or mace. Strain it when boiled soft, and add half a pint of new milk—put in a tea-spoonful of salt, and boil it a few minutes longer. If you wish to make the gruel of rice flour, mix a table-spoonful of it, smoothly, with three of cold water, and stir it into a quart of boiling water. Let it boil, five or six minutes, stirring it constantly. Season it with salt, a little butter, and add, if you like, nutmeg and white sugar to your taste.

368. Water Gruel.

Mix a couple of table-spoonsful of Indian meal with one of wheat flour, and sufficient cold water to make a thick batter. If the gruel is liked thick, stir it into a pint of boiling water—if liked thin, more water will be necessary. Season the gruel with salt, and let it boil six or eight minutes, stirring it frequently—then take it from the fire, put in a piece of butter, of the size of a walnut, and pepper to the taste. Turn it on toasted bread, cut in small pieces.

369. Caudle.

Make rice or water gruel, as above—then strain it, and add half a wine glass of ale, wine, or brandy. Sweeten it with loaf sugar, and grate in a little nutmeg.

370. Arrow Root Custards.

Boil a pint of milk, and stir into it, while boiling, a table-spoonful of arrow root, mixed smooth, with a little cold milk. Stir it in well, and let the whole boil three or four minutes—take it from the fire to cool—when so, stir in a couple of beaten eggs, sweeten it to the taste, and grate in a small piece of nutmeg. Set the whole where it will boil, stirring it constantly. As soon as it boils up, take it from the fire, and turn it into custard cups. The arrow root, prepared in the same manner as for the custards, omitting the sugar, spice, and eggs, is excellent food for invalids, and can be eaten when the custards are too rich for the stomach.

371. Wine Whey.

Stir into a pint of boiling milk a couple of glasses of wine. Let it boil a minute, then take it from the fire, and let it remain till the curd has settled—then turn off the whey, and sweeten it with white sugar.

372. Stomachic Tincture.

Bruise a couple of ounces of Peruvian bark, one of bitter dried orange peel. Steep them in a pint of proof spirit a fortnight, shaking up the bottle that contains it once or twice every day. Let it remain untouched for a couple of days, then decant the bitter into another bottle. A tea-spoonful of this, in a wine glass of water, is a fine tonic.

373. Thoroughwort Bitters.

Make a strong tea of the thoroughwort—strain it, and when cool, put to a couple of quarts of it half a pint of French brandy, the peel of two or three fresh oranges, cut into small bits, and half a dozen bunches of fennel, or smallage seed. The seed and orange peel should be crowded into a bottle, then the tea and brandy turned in. The bottle should be corked tight. The bitters will keep good almost any length of time, and is an excellent remedy for bilious complaints, and can often be taken when the thoroughwort tea will not sit on the stomach. A wine glass of these bitters to a tumbler of water is about the right proportion. It should have a little sugar added to it before drinking it.

374. Cough Tea.

Make a strong tea of everlasting—strain, and put to a quart of it two ounces of figs or raisins, two of liquorice, cut in bits. Boil them in the tea for twenty minutes, then take the tea from the fire, and add to it the juice of a lemon. This is an excellent remedy for a tight cough—it should be drank freely, being perfectly innocent. It is the most effectual when hot.

375. Beef Tea.

Broil a pound of fresh lean beef ten minutes—then cut it into small bits, turn a pint of boiling water on it, and let it steep in a warm place half an hour—then strain it, and season the tea with salt and pepper to the taste. This is a quick way of making the tea, but it is not so good, when the stomach will bear but a little liquid on it, as the following method: Cut the beef into small bits, which should be perfectly free from fat—fill a junk bottle with them, cork it up tight, and immerse it in a kettle of lukewarm water, and boil it four or five hours. This way is superior to the first, on account of obtaining the juices of the meat, unalloyed with water, a table-spoonful of it being as nourishing as a tea-cup full of the other.

376. Moss Jelly.

Steep Carragua, or Irish moss, in cold water a few minutes, to extract the bitter taste—then drain off the water, and to half an ounce of moss put a quart of fresh water, and a stick of cinnamon. Boil it till it becomes a thick jelly, then strain it, and season it to the taste with white wine and white sugar. This is very nourishing, and recommended highly for consumptive complaints.

377. Sago Jelly.

Rinse four ounces of sago thoroughly, then soak it in cold water half an hour—turn off the water, and put to it a pint and a half of fresh cold water. Let it soak in it half an hour, then set it where it will boil slowly, stirring it constantly—boil with it a stick of cinnamon. When of a thick consistency, add a glass of wine, and white sugar to the taste. Let it boil five minutes, then turn it into cups.

378. Tapioca Jelly.

Take four table-spoonsful of tapioca—rinse it thoroughly, then soak it five hours, in cold water enough to cover it. Set a pint of cold water on the fire—when it boils, mash and stir up the tapioca that is in water, and mix it with the boiling water. Let the whole simmer gently, with a stick of cinnamon or mace. When thick and clear, mix a couple of table-spoonsful of white sugar, with half a table-spoonful of lemon-juice, and half a glass of white wine—stir it into the jelly—if not sweet enough, add more sugar, and turn the jelly into cups.



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS RELATIVE TO HOUSEWIFERY.

379. To renew Old Bread and Cake.

Fill a bread steamer about half full of water, and lay the dry bread on it, and set it on the fire, where it will steam the bread from half to three-quarters of an hour; then wrap the bread in a towel, and let it remain till dry. In this way, bread that is old and dry may be made moist and good. Where a steamer cannot be procured, soak the bread in cold water till it has absorbed sufficient water to be moist inside—then put it in a bake pan, without any cover, and heat it very hot. If broken pieces of bread are put in the oven, five or six hours after baking, and rusked, they will keep good a long time. Sour heavy bread, treated in this manner, will make very decent cakes and puddings, provided there is enough saleratus used in making them to correct the acidity of the bread. Rich cake, that has wine or brandy in it, will remain good in cold weather several months, if it is kept in a cool, dry place. The day in which it is to be eaten, put it in a cake pan, and set it in a bake pan that has half a pint of water in it—set on the bake-pan cover, and let the cake bake till it is heated very hot. Let it get cold before cutting it.

380. To preserve Cheese from Insects.

Cover the cheese, while whole, with a paste made of wheat flour; then wrap a cloth round it, and cover it with the paste. Keep the cheese in a cool, dry place. Cheese that has skippers in it, if kept till cold weather, will be freed from them.

381. To pot Cheese.

Cheese that has begun to mould, can be kept from becoming any more so, by being treated in the following manner: Cut off the mouldy part, and if the cheese is dry, grate it—if not, pound it fine in a mortar, together with the crust. To each pound of it, when fine, put a table-spoonful of brandy—mix it in well with the cheese, then press it down tight, in a clean stone pot, and lay a paper wet in brandy on the top of it. Cover the pot up tight, and keep it in a cool, dry place. This is also a good way to treat dry pieces of cheese. Potted cheese is best when a year old. It will keep several years, without any danger of its breeding insects.

382. To pot Butter for winter use.

Mix a large spoonful of salt, a table-spoonful of powdered white-sugar, and one of saltpetre. Work this quantity into six pounds of fresh-made butter. Put the butter into a stone pot, that is thoroughly cleansed. When you have finished putting down your butter, cover it with a layer of salt, and let it remain covered until cold weather.

383. To make Salt Butter Fresh.

When butter has too much salt in it, put to each pound of it a quart of fresh milk, and churn it an hour; then treat it like fresh butter, working in the usual quantity of salt. A little white sugar worked in, improves it. This is said to be equal to fresh butter. Salt may be taken out of a small quantity of fresh butter, by working it over, in clear fresh water, changing the water a number of times.

384. To extract Rancidity from Butter.

Take a small quantity, that is wanted for immediate use. For a pound of the butter, dissolve a couple of tea-spoonsful of saleratus in a quart of boiling water, put in the butter, mix it well with the saleratus water, and let it remain till cold, then take it off carefully, and work a tea-spoonful of salt into it. Butter treated in this manner answers very well to use in cooking.

385. To preserve Cream for Sea Voyages.

Take rich, fresh cream, and mix it with half of its weight of white powdered sugar. When well mixed in, put it in bottles, and cork them tight. When used for tea or coffee, it will make them sufficiently sweet without any additional sugar.

386. Substitute for Cream in Coffee.

Beat the white of an egg to a froth—put to it a small lump of butter, and turn the coffee to it gradually, so that it may not curdle. It is difficult to distinguish the taste from fresh cream.

387. To keep Eggs several months.

It is a good plan to buy eggs for family use when cheap, and preserve them in the following manner: Mix half a pint of unslaked lime with the same quantity of salt, a couple of gallons of water. The water should be turned on boiling hot. When cold, put in the eggs, which should be perfectly fresh, and care should be taken not to crack any of them—if cracked, they will spoil directly. The eggs should be entirely covered with the lime-water, and kept in a stone pot, and the pot set in a cool place. If the above directions are strictly attended to, the eggs will keep good five months. The lime-water should not be so strong as to eat the shell, and all the eggs should be perfectly fresh when put in, as one bad one will spoil the whole.

388. To melt Fat for Shortening.

The fat of all kinds of meat, excepting that of ham and mutton, makes good shortening. Roast meat drippings, and the liquor in which meat is boiled, should stand until cold, to have the fat congeal, so that it can be taken off easily. When taken up, scrape off the sediment which adheres to the under side of the fat, cut the fat into small pieces, together with any scraps of fat from broiled meat that you may happen to have. Melt the fat slowly, then strain it, and let it remain till cold. When formed into a hard cake, take it up—if any sediment adheres to the under side, scrape it off. Melt the fat again—when partly cooled, sprinkle in salt, in the proportion of a tea-spoonful to a pound of the shortening. The dregs of the fat are good for soap grease. This shortening answers all the various purposes of lard very well, excepting in the hottest weather. The fat of cooked meat should not be suffered to remain more than a week in winter, and three days in summer, without being melted. Ham fat, if boiled in fresh water, and then clarified, answers very well to fry in. Mutton fat, if melted into hard cakes, will fetch a good price at the tallow-chandler's. The leaves, and thin pieces of pork, should be used for lard. Cut them in small bits, and melt them slowly; then strain them through a cullender, with a thick cloth laid in it. As soon as the fat cools and thickens, sprinkle in salt, in the proportion of a tea-cup full to twenty weight of the lard. Stir it in well, then set the pot that contains it in a cool place. Some people have an idea that the pork scraps must be on the fire until they become brown, in order to have the lard kept sweet the year round, but it is not necessary, if salt is mixed with it.

389. To keep Vegetables through the Winter.

Succulent vegetables are preserved best in a cool, shady place, that is damp. Turnips, Irish potatoes, and similar vegetables, should be protected from the air and frost by being buried up in sand, and in very severe cold weather covered over with a linen cloth. It is said that the dust of charcoal, sprinkled over potatoes, will keep them from sprouting. I have also heard it said, that Carolina potatoes may be kept a number of months, if treated in the following manner: Take those that are large, and perfectly free from decay—pack them in boxes of dry sand, and set the boxes in a place exposed to the influence of smoke, and inaccessible to frost.

390. To preserve Herbs.

All kinds of herbs should be gathered on a dry day, just before, or while in blossom. Tie them in bundles, and suspend them in a dry, airy place, with the blossoms downwards. When perfectly dry, wrap the medicinal ones in paper and keep them from the air. Pick off the leaves of those which are to be used in cooking, pound and sift them fine, and keep the powder in bottles, corked up tight.

391. To preserve various kinds of Fruit through the Winter.

Apples can be kept till June, by taking only those that are hard and sound, wiping them dry, then packing them in tight barrels, with a layer of bran to each layer of apples. Envelope the barrel in a linen cloth, to protect it from frost, and keep it in a cool place, but not so cold as to freeze the apples. It is said that mortar, laid over the top of a barrel of apples, is a good thing to preserve them, as it draws the air from them, which is the principal cause of their decaying. Care should be taken not to have it come in contact with the apples. To preserve oranges and lemons several months, take those that are perfectly fresh, and wrap each one in soft paper; put them in glass jars, or a very tight box, with white sand, that has been previously dried in an oven a few hours, after it has been baked in. The sand should be strewed thick over each one of the oranges, as they are laid in the jar, and the whole covered with a thick layer of it. Close the jar up tight, and keep it in a cool dry place, but not so cool as to freeze the fruit. To preserve grapes, gather them on a dry day, when they are not quite dead ripe, and pick those that are not fair off from the stems. Lay the bunches of grapes in a glass jar, and sprinkle around each of them a thick layer of dry bran, so that they will not touch each other. Have a thick layer of bran on the top, and cork and seal the jar very tight, so that the air may be entirely excluded. Whenever they are to be eaten, restore them to their freshness by cutting off a small piece from the end of the stalks, and immerse the stalks of each bunch in sweet wine for a few minutes. The stalks will imbibe the wine, and make the grapes fresh and juicy. Various kinds of fruit, taken when green, such as grapes, gooseberries, currants, and plums, can be kept through the winter, by being treated in the following manner: Fill junk bottles with them, and set them in an oven six or seven hours, after having baked in it. Let them remain till they begin to shrink, then take the fruit from one bottle to fill the others quite full. Cork and seal up the bottles. Whenever you wish to make pies of them, put the quantity you wish to use into a tin pan, turn on boiling water sufficient to cover them, and stew them in it till soft, then sweeten, and make them into pies. Ripe blackberries and whortleberries, to be kept long, should be dried perfectly in the sun, then tied up in bags that are thick enough to exclude the air. When used for pies, treat them in the same manner as the green fruit. Ripe currants, dried on the stalks, then picked off, and put in bags, will keep nice for pies during the winter. They also make a fine tea for persons that have a fever, particularly the hectic fever—it is also an excellent thing to counteract the effects of opium.

392. To keep Pickles and Sweetmeats.

Pickles should be kept in unglazed earthen jars, or wooden kegs. Sweetmeats keep best in glass jars; unglazed stone pots answer very well for common fruit. A paper wet in brandy, or proof spirit, and laid on the preserved fruit, tends to keep it from fermenting. Both pickles and sweetmeats should be watched, to see that they do not ferment, particularly when the weather is warm. Whenever they ferment, turn off the vinegar or syrup, scald and turn it back while hot. When pickles grow soft, it is owing to the vinegar being too weak. To strengthen it, heat it scalding hot, turn it back on the pickles, and when lukewarm, put in a little alum, and a brown paper, wet in molasses. If it does not grow sharp in the course of three weeks it is past recovery, and should be thrown away, and fresh vinegar turned on, scalding hot, to the pickles.

393. Cautions relative to the use of Brass and Copper Cooking Utensils.

Cleanliness has been aptly styled the cardinal virtue of cooks. Food is more healthy, as well as palatable, cooked in a cleanly manner. Many lives have been lost in consequence of carelessness in using brass, copper, and glazed earthen cooking utensils. The two first should be thoroughly cleansed with salt and hot vinegar before cooking in them, and no oily or acid substance, after being cooked, should be allowed to cool or remain in any of them.

394. Durable Ink for Marking Linen.

Dissolve a couple of drachms of lunar caustic, and half an ounce of gum arabic, in a gill of rain water. Dip whatever is to be marked in strong pearl-ash water. When perfectly dry, iron it very smooth; the pearl-ash water turns it a dark color, but washing will efface it. After marking the linen, put it near a fire, or in the sun, to dry. Red ink, for marking linen, is made by mixing and reducing to a fine powder half an ounce of vermilion, a drachm of the salt of steel, and linseed oil to render it of the consistency of black durable ink.

395. Black Ball.

Melt together, moderately, ten ounces of Bayberry tallow, five ounces of bees' wax, one ounce of mutton tallow. When melted, add lamp or ivory black to give it a good black color. Stir the whole well together, and add, when taken from the fire, half a glass of rum.

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